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Why Use Newspapers?

Finding a specific newspaper, finding articles if you have a citation, finding articles on a topic, finding article full text.

  • Newspapers in the Library Collection
  • Newspaper Websites

Newspaper articles can provide a useful source of information, serving as a primary source of information about historical and current events. Some of the benefits of using newspaper articles as primary sources include:

  • seeing how people viewed an event when it happened;
  • providing multiple points of view about an issue, including a comparison of the United States and international views;
  • permitting researchers to trace the historical development of subjects over time;
  • examining issues in the context of their time (by seeing how stories about an issue relate to other stories, or by examining the type of coverage provided);
  • giving a snapshot of a time period detailing how people lived, and what they purchased, etc. which is helpful for writers, playwrights, historians, etc.

Because newspapers also contain commentaries or retrospective articles about events, they can also serve as a secondary source. (Modified from Why Use Newspapers? - OhioState University)

To find a specific newspaper, try the following:

1. On the library home page in the search box click the Journals tab. Type the newspaper title.

journals search box

The search will return results for titles starting with the words you typed. If you want to search for the exact tile or are not sure of the the complete title, use the E-Journals Search (link below the box). From the drop-down menu you can select "Title contains all words" if you are not sure in what order the words appear in the title or "Title equals" (the latter would be useful for short titles like "Time" or "Times").

can you use newspaper articles in a research paper

2. For titles not available online, click "Print Journals" under the search box for journal searches. This will take you to the library catalog. Click on the "Title" tab. Do a catalog TITLE search for the newspaper title. It is useful to limit your search to Periodicals/Serials.

catalog title search filteres to periodicals

Results list may include several entries for different versions of the title and various formats (print, microfilm, and electronic). If you are confused, ask a librarian for help. For your convenience, information about popular newspapers in our collection is provided in this guide.

Library records may include information about current print holdings and microforms, as well as links to online content. Please note that the catalog does NOT have links to ALL newspapers available online, use the e-journals search for this.

recrod screen for a newspaper title

First, determine if the issue of the newspaper is available online.

Method 1 . Search for the article title in quotation marks (and author's name, if the title is common) in the red search box on the home page (under the "Articles" tab).

search box with the Articles tab selected

A successful search will include a link to the article full text.

Summon result screen for a newspaper article

Method 2. Use the E-Journals search to see if the issue you need is available online. This method is more comprehensive, because it will find ALL of library electronic subscriptions. It also helps when a link in Method 1 does not work.

e-journal serch box with a newspaper title entered

In the results list find a database that covers the period when the article of interest was published.

search results for a newspaper title with links to databases

You can click "Look up Article" or go to the database. Most databases will allow you to browse to the volume and issue or search for the article.

If the article is not available online or you need to see the article as it was published with original graphics, do a catalog search for the newspaper title in the library catalog as described above . Important note: search for the newspaper title, NOT the article title.

  • Start with searching Summon . After you enter your search terms and get results, you will be able to refine you search by Content - Newspapers . You may also select a date range for the articles.

Summon search results filtered to newspapers and limited by date

  • Search one of the general newspaper databases . You should also be able to filter your results to newspaper content and specify dates.
  • Many subject guides provide information on newspapers in the discipline.
  • Ask your subject librarian for assistance.

Please note that newspaper databases come in different formats.

Digital archive databases provide scanned reproductions of original newspaper pages (the full-text and any accompanying graphics).

Full-text databases provide the complete text of newspaper articles (but not accompanying graphics).

Index only databases provide citations (references) to newspaper articles. You can use these to identify the publication date and page number details for specific articles.

Therefore you may still need to use digital or traditional microfilms to view the articles you found using an online database.

If you working with newspapers not available online, you may need to use an index, which may be available in print or on a microfilm. Ask for help at the desk or via an online form .

Remember that if we don't have access to an article you can request it through interlibrary loan (ILLiad) .

(Modified from Newspapers & news services: Finding newspaper articles on a topic - University of Wollongong)

  • Next: Newspapers in the Library Collection >>
  • Last Updated: Mar 11, 2024 11:25 AM
  • URL: https://guides.libraries.uc.edu/newspapers

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Newspaper Article References

This page contains reference examples for newspaper articles, including the following:

  • Newspaper article
  • Comment on an online newspaper article

1. Newspaper article

Carey, B. (2019, March 22). Can we get better at forgetting? The New York Times . https://www.nytimes.com/2019/03/22/health/memory-forgetting-psychology.html

Harlan, C. (2013, April 2). North Korea vows to restart shuttered nuclear reactor that can make bomb-grade plutonium. The Washington Post , A1, A4.

Stobbe, M. (2020, January 8). Cancer death rate in U.S. sees largest one-year drop ever. Chicago Tribune .

  • Parenthetical citations : (Carey, 2019; Harlan, 2013; Stobbe, 2020)
  • Narrative citations : Carey (2019), Harlan (2013), and Stobbe (2020)
  • In the source element of the reference, provide at minimum the title of the newspaper in italic title case.
  • If the newspaper article is from an online newspaper that has a URL that will resolve for readers (as in the Carey example), include the URL of the article at the end of the reference. If volume, issue, and/or page numbers for the article are missing, omit these elements from the reference.
  • If you used a print version of the newspaper article (as in the Harlan example), provide the page or pages of the article after the newspaper title. Do not include the abbreviations “p.” or “pp.” before the page(s).
  • If the newspaper article is from an academic research database, provide the title of the newspaper and any volume, issue, and/or page numbers that are available for the article. Do not include database information in the reference. If the article does not have volume, issue, or page numbers available, the reference in this case ends with the title of the newspaper (as in the Stobbe example).
  • If the article is from a news website (e.g., CNN, HuffPost)—one that does not have an associated daily or weekly newspaper—use the format for a webpage on a news website instead.

2. Comment on an online newspaper article

sidneyf. (2020, October 7). Oh, I don’t know; perhaps the common-sense conclusion that packing people together — for hours — like sardines — may be an [Comment on the article “When will it be safe to travel again?”]. The Washington Post . https://wapo.st/3757UlS

  • Parenthetical citation : sidneyf (2020)
  • Narrative citation : sidneyf (2020)
  • Credit the person who left the comment as the author using the format that appears with the comment (i.e., a real name or a username). The example shows a username.
  • Provide the comment title or up to the first 20 words of the comment; then write “Comment on the article” and the title of the article on which the comment appeared (in quotation marks and sentence case, enclosed within square brackets).
  • Link to the comment itself if possible. Either the full URL or a short URL is acceptable. The example shows a URL that the writer has shortened with the bitly URL shortening service.
  • If the comment belongs to an article from a news website (e.g., CNN, HuffPost)—one that does not have an associated daily or weekly newspaper—use the format for a comment on a webpage on a news website.

Newspaper article references are covered in the seventh edition APA Style manuals in the Publication Manual Section 10.1 and the Concise Guide Section 10.1

can you use newspaper articles in a research paper

Reference management. Clean and simple.

Is a newspaper article a primary source?

can you use newspaper articles in a research paper

Newspaper articles as primary sources

When is a newspaper article a primary source, how to cite a newspaper article, frequently asked questions about newspaper articles as primary source, related articles.

Yes, a newspaper article is generally a primary source. However, this is only true for newspaper articles that are used for historical research. This is because newspaper articles, written about a specific event immediately after its occurrence, can be viewed as primary sources. However, it is important to ask a number of questions about the article itself before you decide to include it in your research as a primary source. Read on below to learn what these questions are, and why it is important to ask them.

➡️  What is a primary source?

➡️  What is a secondary source?

Newspaper articles are great starting points for research, and can sometimes be invaluable vaults of information, but when you want to use a newspaper article in your paper, you need to know why. Many people assume that newspaper articles are always primary sources, but it's important to ask yourself some questions about the article before you include it in your research.

  • Who wrote the article? An expert, a journalist, an eyewitness to an event?
  • Why was the article written? In response to a current event, to spread news, to share an opinion?
  • When was the article published? Was the article published before or after the event it discusses?

This very much depends on the answers to the questions above. These answers are the basis of your decision on whether or not the content is original, an analysis, or an opinion . If you come to the conclusion that the content is original, then, yes, the article qualifies as a primary source. If the article is a feature about a new innovation in technology or a current trend, then it is a secondary source. The same goes for interviews since they will likely have been edited.

➡️  What is the difference between primary and secondary sources?

➡️  Is an interview a primary source?

Articles written and included in daily newspapers, before the internet, were the latest and most up-to-date reports of events. Often, there was a morning and an evening edition of a daily, and as such, these are often regarded as primary sources.

Tip: Always remember that a newspaper is put together by an editor, and the editor can cut and paste articles in a particular order and in a particular way to fit the editorial style they are looking for.

The citation style used will determine the exact citation format. This is how you would cite a newspaper article from the New York Times print version in APA:

Belluck, P. (2018, July 26). Promising Alzheimer’s drug attacks brain changes and symptoms. New York Times , A1.

Instead of worrying about the correct format of your citation in any given citation style, you can use a reference manager like Paperpile to generate your citation automatically and correctly for you.

Collect your sources and keep them tidily organized in your Paperpile library. Switch between thousands of citation styles and cite your references directly in Google Docs, Microsoft Word, and LaTeX:

If the article's content is original and/or a first-hand account of 9/11, then it is a primary source. If the article describes 9/11 as a past event, then it's a secondary source.

Yes, in most cases. A New York Times article is a primary source only when the content is original or a first-hand account of an event. If the article describes past events or an interview, then it's a secondary source.

Yes, in most cases. A Wall Street Journal article is a primary source only when the content is original or a first-hand account of an event. If the article describes past events or an interview, then it's a secondary source.

Yes, in most cases. A Washington Post article is a primary source only when the content is original or a first-hand account of an event. If the article describes past events or an interview, then it's a secondary source.

Some newspaper articles are secondary sources. If the article describes past events or an interview, then it's a secondary source.

can you use newspaper articles in a research paper

  • How it works

Published by Nicolas at January 18th, 2024 , Revised On March 7, 2024

Can Literature Review Include Newspaper Articles

A cornerstone of academic research, the literature review lays the foundation for any scholarly endeavour. It maps the existing knowledge landscape, identifying key themes, debates, and gaps. But when it comes to source selection, students often find it confusing as to which sources to add and which ones not to add. One such query is, “Can literature review include newspaper articles?”

Table of Contents

The answer, like many things in academia, is detailed. While purists might argue for exclusive reliance on peer-reviewed journals, dismissing newspapers as brief and lacking in scholarly rigour, others champion their potential to inject real-world context and public discourse into the academic conversation.

Let’s explore the pros and cons, and then it would be easy for you to answer, “Can literature review include newspaper articles?”

Pros Of Including Newspaper Articles In Literature Review

Some of the advantages of adding newspaper articles to a preliminary literature review are explained below.

Timeliness And Relevance

Newspaper articles are known for their rapid reporting of current events. In certain fields, particularly those related to current affairs, politics, and social issues, including newspaper articles in a literature review can provide up-to-date and relevant information. 

This timeliness can enhance the comprehensiveness of the review and ensure that it reflects the most recent developments in the field.

Diverse Perspectives

Newspapers offer a platform for a wide range of perspectives and opinions. Including articles from various newspapers can expose research papers to diverse viewpoints on a given topic, enriching the literature review with a more comprehensive understanding of the subject matter. 

This diversity can be particularly beneficial when exploring the social and cultural dimensions of a topic.

Primary Source For Certain Topics

In some cases, newspapers serve as primary sources for historical events or cultural phenomena. Including newspaper articles from specific time periods can provide unique insights into the public sentiment, reactions, and perceptions of events as they unfolded. This primary source material can add depth and authenticity to the literature review.

Multimodal Content

Newspapers often incorporate multimedia elements such as photographs, infographics, and firsthand accounts. These elements can offer a more holistic understanding of the events or issues being discussed. Including such multimodal content in a literature review can make it more engaging and visually informative for readers.

Cons Of Including Newspaper Articles

While the benefits might answer your question “Can literature review include newspapers?” positively, there are some cons to it. 

Lack Of Peer Review

One of the primary criticisms of including newspaper articles in meta-synthesis literature reviews is the absence of peer review. Unlike scholarly journals, newspapers are not subjected to rigorous academic scrutiny. This raises concerns about the reliability and accuracy of information presented in these articles.

Bias And Sensationalism

Newspapers are known for their editorial stance and potential for bias. Including biased or sensationalized articles may compromise the literature review’s objectivity. Research papers need to critically assess the credibility of the news sources and be cautious about incorporating information that may be skewed or incomplete.

Depth Of Analysis

While newspaper articles can provide a snapshot of current events, they may lack the depth of analysis found in academic publications. Including shallow or superficial information in a literature review may undermine its scholarly rigour and fail to contribute significantly to the understanding of the topic.

Limited Generalizability

Newspaper articles often focus on specific events or localized issues. Depending solely on such sources may limit the generalizability of the literature review. Researchers need to consider whether the findings from newspaper articles can be applied more broadly to the research question at hand.

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Finding The Sweet Spot

So, should you include newspaper articles in your literature review? The answer, as we’ve established, is a qualified yes. It all depends on your specific research question, the availability of relevant academic sources, and your ability to critically evaluate the newspaper content.

Here are some tips for navigating this tightrope:

  • Prioritize Peer-Reviewed Sources: Always aim for academic journals and other scholarly publications as the backbone of your review. Use newspaper articles as supplementary sources to provide context, support, or illustrate real-world applications.
  • Choose Carefully: Be discerning about the newspapers you select. Opt for reputable publications with a strong track record of journalistic integrity and fact-checking. Avoid tabloids and sensationalized media outlets.
  • Critical Evaluation: Apply the same critical lens you would use for any academic source. Question the author’s expertise, bias, and methodology. Analyze the evidence presented and consider potential alternative perspectives.
  • Transparency is Key: Clearly differentiate between academic and non-academic sources in your review. Cite newspaper articles explicitly and provide full bibliographic information.

Remember, your literature review should demonstrate your ability to engage with a diverse range of sources critically. Including newspaper articles strategically can showcase your awareness of the broader societal context and add a layer of richness to your analysis.

How To Include A Newspaper Article In Literature Review

Citing newspaper articles in a literature review requires adherence to a specific citation style. The choice of citation style often depends on the academic discipline or the preferences of the journal or institution to which you are submitting your work. Here are some examples of citing newspaper articles in two widely used citation styles: American Psychological Association (APA) and Modern Language Association (MLA) .

In APA style, the general format for citing newspaper articles in the reference list is as follows:

Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Title of the article. Title of the Newspaper, page range. URL or DOI (if available)

Khanh, J. A. (Year, Month Day). Global warming effects on marine life. New York Times, A1.

If the article is retrieved online:

Khanh, J. A. (Year, Month Day). Global warming effects on marine life. New York Times. URL

In MLA style, the format for citing newspaper articles is as follows:

Author(s). “Title of Article.” Title of Newspaper, Day Month Year, page range.

Smith, John. “Global warming effects on marine life.” New York Times, 12 May 2023, A1.

If the article is retrieved online, include the URL:

Author(s). “Title of Article.” Title of Newspaper, Day Month Year, page range. URL

Smith, John. “Global warming effects on marine life.” New York Times, 12 May 2023, A1. URL

Newspaper Citation Tips

  • Include as much information as possible: Provide the author’s name, article title, newspaper name, publication date, and page range. For online articles, include the URL or DOI.
  • Italicize newspaper names: Both in APA and MLA styles, italicize the title of the newspaper.
  • Check for DOI or URL: If the article is available online, include the DOI (Digital Object Identifier) or the direct URL. This is particularly important for APA style.
  • Use hanging indentation: In the reference list, use hanging indentation (the first line of each reference is flush left, and subsequent lines are indented).
  • Be consistent: Follow the citation style consistently throughout your literature review.

Frequently Asked Questions

Can literature review include newspaper articles.

Yes, literature reviews can include newspaper articles to provide timely and diverse perspectives. However, caution is needed due to the lack of peer review and potential bias, impacting the review’s scholarly rigour.

Can you use newspaper articles in a literature review?

Yes, newspaper articles can be used in a literature review for their timeliness and diverse perspectives. However, their lack of peer review and potential bias require careful evaluation to maintain scholarly integrity.

What should not be included in a literature review?

A literature review should exclude personal opinions, unsubstantiated claims, and irrelevant details. Avoid including outdated sources, biased information, or studies lacking methodological rigour. Focus on relevant, credible, and recent research to maintain the review’s scholarly value.

Can you use articles in a literature review?

Yes, articles, especially scholarly peer-reviewed ones, are crucial in literature reviews. They provide in-depth analyses, research findings, and theoretical frameworks that contribute to the understanding of the chosen topic, enhancing the review’s academic credibility.

Are newspapers considered literature?

No, newspapers are not typically considered literature in the academic sense. While they contain valuable information, literature traditionally refers to written works of artistic and intellectual value, such as novels, poems, and essays.

What type of articles are literature review?

Literature review articles are scholarly works that summarize, analyze, and synthesize existing research on a specific topic. They critically evaluate the available literature, identify gaps, and contribute to the understanding of a particular subject within academic disciplines.

How many articles should a literature review have?

The number of articles in a literature review varies based on the scope, depth, and purpose of the review. Generally, it includes a sufficient number of relevant and high-quality sources to comprehensively cover the chosen topic, often ranging from dozens to hundreds of articles.

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Evaluation of Sources - A How to Guide: Newspaper

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What is a newspaper?

A newspaper is a regularly published collection of articles that intends to inform the audience of current events of interest to a broad readership. Most newspapers are published daily, although some may be published weekly.  Some newspapers are considered local papers intended to be read by people in a certain location, and some are more regional, national or international in audience.  Examples include: The Florida Times Union, The Miami Herald, The New York Times, The Times (London), and many more.  

Analyzing Newspaper Articles

News articles are typically written in the so-called inverted pyramid style, most important information at the beginning of the article and increasingly less important details toward the end of the article. If structured this way, an article can be edited from the bottom up to make room for additional news items that might have since broken. The aim of most news articles is to answer six questions about the happenings about which they report:

newspaper images

When to use a newspaper article

While newspaper articles are not typically the first choices for inclusion in academic research papers for their analytical content, they do provide first‐hand accounts of events that have historical significance and are excellent examples of primary sources.

Of course, articles from newspapers might also serve other purposes in academic research. One prime example would be as support for a paper analyzing editorial styles of various national newspapers or news syndicates. A researcher might also be able to assess the leaning of the newspaper by reading the editorial page. Is the paper conservative? Is the paper liberal? Or is the paper more middle‐of‐the‐road? Having a sense of the inclination of the paper's editorial staff might be useful in assessing how a particular situation is analyzed in an editorial. A researcher relying on editorial commentary on a particular situation would want to be aware of any inherent bias in the commentary as a means for gauging the accuracy of the allegations made in the editorial.

Some examples of research that might easily depend on articles from newspapers include:

  • Contemporary reporting of the Bay of Pigs invasion in Cuba in 1961.
  • Contemporary accounts of the sinking of the Battleship Maine in Havana harbor in 1898.
  • The capture and killing of Libya's Gadhafi in October 2011.
  • Public sentiment toward the 2003 invasion of Iraq by the United States.
  • Conservative and liberal analyses of NATO's intervention in Bosnia in 1995.
  • Changes in cigarette advertisements in national newspapers of the United States from the early 1900s up to today.
  • Excerpts of Lincoln's November 19, 1863, Gettysburg address published at the time of its delivery with editorial commentary of the time.

There are many other potential topics for which newspaper articles can serve as valuable sources and certainly scientific and technological breakthroughs will be reported in newspapers. Of more importance to a researcher keeping track of advances in science and technology would be announcements of where the breakthroughs were made and by whom. Finding the scientific literature surrounding the breakthrough would be the next step for the academic researcher.

Where and How to Find Newspapwer Articles

Most Libraries now provide access to articles from newspapers via online databases. A couple of the most commonly available systems that can provide worldwide access to newspapers are ProQuest 's US Newsstream and EBSCOhost's Newspaper Source Plus. A number of databases that provide access to magazine and journal articles also include newspapers in their coverage. For example, Academic OneFile , in addition to having articles from a wide variety of magazines and journals, also provides access to the full text of numerous newspapers. Most of these online systems are limited in the dates covered, frequently providing access from the late 1990s forward.

Google is busily scanning newspapers and making them searchable and viewable over the open Internet. A researcher can go to news.google.com to access news articles available through Google. While it features currently  available content online, once a researcher does a search of the news for a historical topic, Google will provide date ranges to which the search can be limited, in many cases helping the researcher locate copies of articles as early as the 19th century. For example, a quick search on U.S. President William McKinley results in articles as far back as 1869, the year that he was elected president.

Taft College has two databases dedicated to newspaper articles:

  • US Newsstream US Newsstream provides current coverage from major national newspapers including: The New York Times (1980-present), The Wall Street Journal (1984-present), Washington Post (1987-present), Los Angeles Times (1985-present), The Christian Science Monitor (1988-present), The Atlanta Journal Constitution (2001-present), The Boston Globe (1980-present) and many regional publications from across the United States.
  • Newspaper Source Plus Newspaper Source Plus includes more than 860 full-text newspapers, providing more than 35 million full-text articles. In addition, the database features more than 857,000 television and radio news transcripts.

What to keep track of to adequately cite a newspaper article

  • Article headline
  • Article byline
  • Newspaper name (and place of publication if it has a common title)
  • Date of the newspaper
  • Page and column of the article
  • Where the article was retrieved (in print, from a database, online, etc.)
  • When the article was retrieved (this is especially important if the article was found on the open Internet)

See examples of an how an article looks in a database below:

can you use newspaper articles in a research paper

For help citing newspaper articles see the links below:

Chicago/Turabian

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  • Writing Tips

Harvard Referencing – How to Cite a Newspaper Article

2-minute read

  • 27th July 2016

Newspapers and magazines aren’t the most common sources in academic writing . Nevertheless, you may need to cite a magazine or newspaper article when writing about something that has been in the media (or when analysing the media itself). As such, we’re looking at how to cite a newspaper article or magazine in Harvard referencing.

In-Text Citations

As with most source types, Harvard referencing uses a standard author–date format for in-text citations of magazines and newspapers.

The important thing here is to check whether the article has a named author. If it does, use the author’s name in your citation alongside the year of publication. If it’s a print version of the article and you’re quoting it directly, you should also provide relevant page numbers:

Leicester’s season was ‘hailed as a sporting miracle’ (Wagg, 2016, p. 20).

If the article has no named author, simply use the newspaper/magazine’s name instead:

A Yorkshire terrier called Eddie was reunited with his owners after being missing for five years, despite living only half a mile away (The Guardian, 2016).

As you can see, we’ve picked the most hard-hitting news story we could find to use as an example in this post.

The only other things that take five years to travel half a mile are British trains.

Reference List

If you’ve cited a print version of a magazine or newspaper article, the information required in the reference list is as follows (if no author is named, as above, use the magazine/newspaper title):

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Surname, Initial(s). (Year) ‘Title of Article’, Title of Newspaper/Magazine , issue number (if applicable), day and/or month of publication, page number(s).

The Wagg article in the example above would therefore appear as:

Wagg, S. (2016) ‘Under No Illusions’, When Saturday Comes , 352, June, pp. 20-21.

For online articles, the format is similar but with a URL and date of access given in place of page numbers:

Surname, Initial(s). (Year) ‘Title of Article’, Title of Newspaper/Magazine , issue number (if applicable), day and/or month of publication [Online]. Available at URL [Accessed date].

The Guardian article above would therefore appear in the reference list as:

The Guardian (2016) ‘Missing dog found half a mile from owners’ home after five years’, The Guardian , 20 May [Online]. Available at http://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2016/may/20/missing-dog-found-five-years-yorkshire-terrier-eddie-microchip [Accessed 24 June 2016].

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Home / Guides / Citation Guides / APA Format / How to Cite a Newspaper Article in APA

How to Cite a Newspaper Article in APA

Newspapers can be an excellent source of information, as they are published daily and can illustrate emerging events in specific communities. This guide covers how to cite a newspaper according to APA 7.

Newspaper: A daily or weekly publication that contains news; often featuring articles on political events, crime, business, art, entertainment, society, and sports.

Guide Overview

This guide includes the following sections:

How to cite a newspaper article in print

How to cite a newspaper article found online, how to cite a newspaper article with two authors, how to cite a newspaper article with three or more authors, what you need, troubleshooting.

Reference Page
Structure

Author last name, F.M. (Year, Month Date of Publication). Article title. , p./pp. xx-xx.

Example

Bowman, L. (1990, March 7). Bills target Lake Erie mussels. , p. A4.

In-text citation structures:

(Author last name, Year published)

Author last name (Year published)

In-text citation examples

(Bowman, 1990)

Bowman (1990)

View Screenshot

Note:  If the article is printed on discontinuous pages, list all of the page numbers/ranges and separate them with a comma. (e.g., pp. C2, C4, C7-9.)

Reference Page
Structure

Author last name, F.M. (Year, Month Date of Publication). Article title. . URL

Example

Kaplan, K. (2013, October 22). Flu shots may reduce risk of heart attacks, strokes and even death. . https://www.latimes.com

In-text citation structure:

In-text citation examples:.

(Kaplan, 2013)

Kaplan (2013)

When you use a bibliography tool like EasyBib to help you with your citations, make sure you are citing a newspaper article – not a website!

Reference Page
Structure

Author last name, F.M., & Author last name, F. M. (Year, Month Date of Publication). Article title. . URL

Example

Hermann, P., & Brice-Saddler, M. (2022, February 21). Bowser’s crime fighting effort is shifting its structure. https://www.washingtonpost.com/dc-md-va/2022/02/21/crime-shootings-prevention-washington/

(Hermann & Brice-Saddler, 2022)

Hermann and Brice-Saddler (2022)

Reference Page
Structure

Author last name, F.M., Author last name, F. M., & Author last name, F. M. (Year, Month Date of Publication). Article title. . URL

Example

Dixon, R., Sonne, P., and Nakashima, E. (2022, February 21). White House stops short of announcing full sanctions. https://www.washingtonpost.com/national-security/2022/02/21/ukraine-russia-putin-biden/

(Dixon et al., 2022)

Dixon et al. (2022)

Updated November 3, 2020.

APA Formatting Guide

APA Formatting

  • Annotated Bibliography
  • Block Quotes
  • et al Usage
  • In-text Citations
  • Multiple Authors
  • Paraphrasing
  • Page Numbers
  • Parenthetical Citations
  • Reference Page
  • Sample Paper
  • APA 7 Updates
  • View APA Guide

Citation Examples

  • Book Chapter
  • Journal Article
  • Magazine Article
  • Newspaper Article
  • Website (no author)
  • View all APA Examples

can you use newspaper articles in a research paper

To cite a newspaper article in APA format, you should have the following information:

  • (Year, Month day).
  • Article title (in sentence case).
  • Newspaper Name.

Solution #1: What to include in the citation information

  • You do not need to include retrieval information (e.g., date of access) in APA citations for electronic resources.
  • If you found a newspaper article through an online database (e.g., EBSCO’s Academic Search Complete), you do not need to include that information in the citation, either.
  • If a URL runs across multiple lines of text in the citation, break the URL off before punctuation (e.g., periods, forward slashes) – except https://.

Solution #2: Online newspaper article vs. Online news site article

If you’re citing an online article, first determine if you are citing an article from a newspaper OR an article from a news site. APA style has a slightly different format for each.

  • YES –> Cite it as a newspaper article.
  • NO –> Cite it as a web page or a news site article .
  • NO –> Cite it as a web page or news site article .

The rest of this guide gives reference structures and examples for newspaper articles.

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To cite a newspaper in APA style, you need to have basic information including the author name, article title, newspaper title, date of publication, and page numbers. The templates for in-text citation and reference list entry of a newspaper and examples are given below:

In-text citation template and example:

Author Surname (Publication Year, Page Number)

Canton (2021, p. A1)

Parenthetical:

(Author Surname, Publication Year, Page Number)

(Canton, 2021, p. A1)

Reference list entry template and example:

Surname, F. M. (Date of publication). Title of the article. Title of the Newspaper , Page numbers.

Canton. N. (2021, August 5). Covid-19: India to be removed from UK ‘Red’ travel list on August 8. The Times of India , A1.

Give the exact date of publication of the news in Year, Month Day format. The newspaper title is italicized. The title of the articles is set in sentence case; however, capitalize the first word after a colon.

To cite an online newspaper in APA style, you need to have basic information including the author name, article title, newspaper title, date of publication, and URL. The templates for in-text citations and a reference list entry of an online newspaper and examples are given below:

Author Surname (Year)

Belluck (2021)

(Author Surname, Year)

(Belluck, 2021)

Surname, F. M. (Date of publication). Title of the article. Title of the Newspaper . URL

Belluck, P. (2021, August 8). ‘This is really scary’: Kids struggle with long covid. The New York Times . https://www.nytimes.com/2021/08/08/health/long-covid-kids.html?searchResultPosition=3

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How to Cite Newspaper Articles in APA

Last Updated: June 13, 2019

This article was co-authored by wikiHow staff writer, Jennifer Mueller, JD . Jennifer Mueller is a wikiHow Content Creator. She specializes in reviewing, fact-checking, and evaluating wikiHow's content to ensure thoroughness and accuracy. Jennifer holds a JD from Indiana University Maurer School of Law in 2006. This article has been viewed 14,498 times.

You may want to use newspaper articles as references for information you include in a research paper. Newspaper articles can be especially helpful if you're writing about events that have happened too recently for there to be books or scholarly articles devoted to the topic. When you paraphrase or quote from the article, a citation tells your readers that the information came from somewhere else. The American Psychological Association (APA) has a specific format for you to use both in your reference list and in your in-text citation.

Reference List Entry

Step 1 Start your entry with the name of the author.

  • Example: Lovegood, L.

Step 2 Provide the date the article was published in parentheses.

  • Example: Lovegood, L. (2019, January 23).

Step 3 Add the full title of the article in sentence case.

  • Example: Lovegood, L. (2019, January 23). Something wicked this way comes.

Step 4 Include the name of the newspaper in italics.

  • Print example: Lovegood, L. (2019, January 23). Something wicked this way comes. The Daily Prophet ,
  • Online example: Lovegood, L. (2019, January 23). Something wicked this way comes. The Daily Prophet .

Step 5 Add the page numbers where the article appears for print articles.

  • Example: Lovegood, L. (2019, January 23). Something wicked this way comes. The Daily Prophet , pp. A1, A3.

APA Reference List Format: Print Newspaper

Author, A. (Year, Month Day). Title of article in sentence case. Name of Newspaper , pp. ##-##.

Step 6 Close with the URL or name of the database if appropriate.

  • Database example: Lovegood, L. (2019, January 23). Something wicked this way comes. The Daily Prophet . Retrieved from Wizarding World Dailies.
  • URL example: Lovegood, L. (2019, January 23). Something wicked this way comes. The Daily Prophet . Retrieved from http://www.thedailyprophet.org/2019/wicked

APA Reference List Format: Online Newspaper

Author, A. (Year, Month Day). Title of article in sentence case. Name of Newspaper . Retrieved from URL.

In-Text Citation

Step 1 Start your parenthetical citation with the author's last name.

  • Example: (Lovegood,

Step 2 Include the year of publication.

  • Example: (Lovegood, 2019).

APA In-Text Citation Format

(Author, Year).

Step 3 Add the page number for direct quotes, if available.

  • Example: (Lovegood, 2019, A1).

Step 4 Incorporate the citation in your text rather than using a parenthetical.

  • For example, you might write "In 2019, Lovegood described the rise of dark wizards in palpably fearful tones."
  • If you include the author's name in your text, but not the year the article was published, place the year of publication in parentheses immediately after the author's name. For example, you might write "Lovegood (2019) describes the rise of dark wizards in palpably fearful tones."

Expert Q&A

  • If the article has no named author, list the title in place of the author's name in your reference list entry, with the date following the title in parentheses. For your parenthetical in-text citation, place the title of the article in quotation marks using headline-style capitalization. Place a comma inside the closing quotation marks, then add the date of publication. [11] X Research source Thanks Helpful 0 Not Helpful 0

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  • ↑ https://www.apastyle.org/learn/faqs/cite-newspaper
  • ↑ http://columbiacollege-ca.libguides.com/apa/newspapers
  • ↑ https://aus.libguides.com/apa/apa-newspaper-web

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2-Types of Sources

8. News as a Source

News sources can provide insights that scholarly sources may not or that will take a long time to get into scholarly sources. For instance, news sources are excellent for finding out people’s actions, reactions, opinions, and prevailing attitudes around the time of an event—as well as to find reports of what happened at the event itself.

decorative

Whether news sources are good for your assignment depends on what your research question is. (You’ll find other relevant information in Chapter 3, What Sources to Use When .)

News is a strange term, because even when the information is old, it’s still news. Some sources are great for breaking news, some are great for aggregated (or compiled) news, and others are great for historical news.

While news was transmitted for centuries only in newspapers, news is now transmitted in all formats: via radio, television, and the Internet, in addition to print. Even most newspapers have Internet sites today. At the time of this writing, the Student Government Association at Ohio State University provides an online subscription to The New Yok Times for all students, faculty, and staff at the university.

News must be brief because much of it gets reported only moments after an event happens. News reports occur early in the Information Lifecycle. See the Information Lifecycle video earlier in this chapter for more information.

When Are News Sources Helpful?

  • You want to keep up with what is going on in the world today.
  • You need breaking news or historical perspectives on a topic (what people were saying at the time).
  • You need to learn more about a culture, place, or time period from its own sources.

When Are News Sources of Limited Use?

  • You need very detailed analysis by experts.
  • You need sources that must be scholarly or modern views on a historical topic.

Activity: Using News Effectively

Mainline and non-mainline news sources.

Mainline American news outlets stick with the tradition of trying to report the news as objectively as possibly. That doesn’t mean their reports are perfectly objective, but they are more objective than non-mainline news sources. As a result, mainline news sources are more credible than non-mainline sources. Some examples of mainline American news outlets: The New York Times , The Washington Post , The Boston Globe , The Chicago Tribune , The Los Angeles Times ; ABC News, CBS News, NBC News, PBS News, NPR News.

News from non-mainline American news outlets is often mixed with opinions. One way they frequently exhibit bias is that they leave out pertinent facts. Some examples of non-mainline American news outlets: MSNBC, Fox News, and reddit.

Types of News Sources

Press Services— News outlets (print, broadcast, and online) get a lot of their news from these services, such as Reuters, Bloomberg, or the Associated Press (AP), which make it unnecessary for individual outlets to send their own reporters everywhere. These services are so broadly used that you may have to look at several news outlets to get a different take on an event or situation.

News aggregators— Aggregators don’t have reporters of their own but simply collect and transmit the news reported by others. Some sources pull news from a variety of places and provide a single place to search for and view multiple stories. You can browse stories or search for a topic. Aggregators tend to have current, but not archival news. Google news and Yahoo News are examples.

Newspaper sites – Many print newspapers also have their own websites. They vary as to how much news they provide for free. Take a look at these examples.

  • The Lantern , Ohio State University’s student newspaper
  • The Columbus Dispatch
  • The Boston Globe
  • The Times of London
  • China Daily , USA edition
  • The New York Times

News Databases – Search current, recent, and historical newspaper content in databases provided free by libraries. OSU Libraries offers 69 news databases to students, staff, and faculty. They include:

  • LexisNexis Academic – contains news back to 1980 from newspapers, broadcast transcripts, wire services, blogs, and more.
  • Proquest Historical Newspapers – contains older content from several major U.S. newspapers.
  • allAfrica – contains more than a million articles from 100 African news sources, 1996-present.
  • Lantern Online – contains the archive of all of OSU’s student newspaper issues, 1881-1997.

See the complete list of OSU Libraries’ newspaper databases .

Activity: Choosing a Newspaper Database

Look at the list of OSU Libraries’ newspaper databases available to OSU users. Which one would be a good place to find an article with an international left perspective on a topic? Our answer is at the end of this section.

Broadcast News Sites – Although broadcast news (from radio and television) is generally consumed in real time, such organizations also offer archives of news stories on their websites. However, not all of their articles are provided by their own reporters: some originate from the press services, Reuters and the Associated Press (AP). Here are some examples of broadcast new sites:

Activity: Quick World News Scan

Visit the BBC’s News page and scan the headlines for a quick update on the world’s major news stories.

Social Media – Most of the news outlets listed above contribute to Twitter and Facebook . It’s customary for highly condensed announcements in this venue to lead you back to the news outlet’s website for more information. However, how credible tech companies such as Facebook, Twitter, and Google are with news is in serious doubt now that their lawyers have testified to the U.S. Congress that more than 100 million users may have seen content actually created by Russian operatives on the tech companies’ platforms leading up to the 2016 U.S. presidential election.  Read more about their testimony at  NPR  and  The New York Times. 

Blogs – Sometimes these are good sources for breaking news, as well as commentary on current events and scholarship. Authors who write more objectively elsewhere can share more insights and opinions, more initial questions and findings about a study before they are ready to release definitive data and conclusions about their research.

Citizen Journalism – A growing number of sites cater to those members of the general public who want to report breaking news and submit their own photos and videos on a wide range of topics. The people who do this are often referred to as citizen journalists.

Examples of such sources include CNN iReport , and  reddit . For more details on the history and development of citizen journalism, including addressing some of the pros and cons, read Your Guide to Citizen Journalism .

News Feeds – You can get updates on specific topics or a list of major headlines, regularly sent to you so you don’t have to visit sites or hunt for new content on a topic. Look for links that contain headings such as these to sign up for news feeds:

  • News Alerts
  • Table of Contents Alerts

What’s an RSS feed? How can it help you stay informed about what you are interested in?

Answer to Activity: Choosing a Newspaper Database

If you look at the database descriptions, you will notice that the one for Alternative Press Index matches the need expressed in the question.

Choosing & Using Sources: A Guide to Academic Research Copyright © 2015 by Teaching & Learning, Ohio State University Libraries is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , except where otherwise noted.

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Thoughts about using newspaper articles as sources in a dissertation?

I'm working on my dissertation lit review for my Ed.D. It's about the impacts of a new scholarship program in my state, so there's not a lot of info pertaining to my exact topic, aside from a few peer reviewed journal articles. I'd like to cite a few newspaper articles. Would you find that acceptable?

Just to clarify, I have lots of scholarly sources that discuss financial aid in general-just not about my topic exactly.

Thanks in advance!

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Writing Research Papers

  • What Types of References Are Appropriate?

When writing a research paper, there are many different types of sources that you might consider citing.  Which are appropriate?  Which are less appropriate?  Here we discuss the different types of sources that you may wish to use when working on a research paper.   

Please note that the following represents a general set of recommended guidelines that is not specific to any class and does not represent department policy.  The types of allowable sources may vary by course and instructor.

Highly appropriate: peer-reviewed journal articles

In general, you should primarily cite peer-reviewed journal articles in your research papers.  Peer-reviewed journal articles are research papers that have been accepted for publication after having undergone a rigorous editorial review process.  During that review process, the article was carefully evaluated by at least one journal editor and a group of reviewers (usually scientists that are experts in the field or topic under investigation).  Often the article underwent revisions before it was judged to be satisfactory for publication. 

Most articles submitted to high quality journals are not accepted for publication.  As such, research that is successfully published in a respected peer-reviewed journal is generally regarded as higher quality than research that is not published or is published elsewhere, such as in a book, magazine, or on a website.  However, just because a study was published in a peer-reviewed journal does not mean that it is free from error or that its conclusions are correct.  Accordingly, it is important to critically read and carefully evaluate all sources, including peer-reviewed journal articles.

Tips for finding and using peer-reviewed journal articles:

  • Many databases, such as PsycINFO, can be set to only search for peer-reviewed journal articles. Other search engines, such as Google Scholar, typically include both peer-reviewed and not peer-reviewed articles in search results, and thus should be used with greater caution. 
  • Even though a peer-reviewed journal article is, by definition, a source that has been carefully vetted through an editorial process, it should still be critically evaluated by the reader. 

Potentially appropriate: books, encyclopedias, and other scholarly works

Another potential source that you might use when writing a research paper is a book, encyclopedia, or an official online source (such as demographic data drawn from a government website).  When relying on such sources, it is important to carefully consider its accuracy and trustworthiness.  For example, books vary in quality; most have not undergone any form of review process other than basic copyediting.  In many cases, a book’s content is little more than the author’s informed or uninformed opinion. 

However, there are books that have been edited prior to publication, as is the case with many reputable encyclopedias; also, many books from academic publishers are comprised of multiple chapters, each written by one or more researchers, with the entire volume carefully reviewed by one or more editors.  In those cases, the book has undergone a form of peer review, albeit often not as rigorous as that for a peer-reviewed journal article.

Tips for using books, encyclopedias, and other scholarly works:

  • When using books, encyclopedias, and other scholarly works (that is, works written or produced by researchers, official agencies, or corporations), it is important to very carefully evaluate the quality of that source.
  • If the source is an edited volume (in which case in the editor(s) will be listed on the cover), is published by a reputable source (such as Academic Press, MIT Press, and others), or is written by a major expert in the field (such as a researcher with a track record of peer-reviewed journal articles on the subject), then it is more likely to be trustworthy.
  • For online encyclopedias such as Wikipedia, an instructor may or may not consider that an acceptable source (by default, don’t assume that a non-peer reviewed source will be considered acceptable). It is best to ask the instructor for clarification. 1

Usually inappropriate: magazines, blogs, and websites  

Most research papers can be written using only peer-reviewed journal articles as sources.  However, for many topics it is possible to find a plethora of sources that have not been peer-reviewed but also discuss the topic.  These may include articles in popular magazines or postings in blogs, forums, and other websites.  In general, although these sources may be well-written and easy to understand, their scientific value is often not as high as that of peer-reviewed articles.  Exceptions include some magazine and newspaper articles that might be cited in a research paper to make a point about public awareness of a given topic, to illustrate beliefs and attitudes about a given topic among journalists, or to refer to a news event that is relevant to a given topic. 

Tips for using magazines, blogs, and websites:

  • Avoid such references if possible. You should primarily focus on peer-reviewed journal articles as sources for your research paper.  High quality research papers typically do not rely on non-academic and not peer-reviewed sources.
  • Refer to non-academic, not peer-reviewed sources sparingly, and if you do, be sure to carefully evaluate the accuracy and scientific merit of the source.

Downloadable Resources

  • How to Write APA Style Research Papers (a comprehensive guide) [ PDF ]
  • Tips for Writing APA Style Research Papers (a brief summary) [ PDF ]

Further Resources

How-To Videos     

  • Writing Research Paper Videos

Databases and Search Engines (may require connection to UCSD network)

  • Google Scholar
  • PubMed (NIH/NLM)
  • Web of Science  

UCSD Resources on Finding and Evaluating Sources

  • UCSD Library Databases A-Z
  • UCSD Library Psychology Research Guide: Start Page
  • UCSD Library Psychology Research Guide : Finding Articles
  • UCSD Library Psychology Research Guide : Evaluating Sources

External Resources

  • Critically Reading Journal Articles from PSU/ Colby College
  • How to Seriously Read a Journal Article from Science Magazine
  • How to Read Journal Articles from Harvard University
  • How to Read a Scientific Paper Infographic from Elsevier Publishing
  • Tips for searching PsycINFO from UC Berkeley Library
  • Tips for using PsycINFO effectively from the APA Student Science Council

1 Wikipedia articles vary in quality; the site has a peer review system and the very best articles ( Featured Articles ), which go through a multi-stage review process, rival those in traditional encyclopedias and are considered the highest quality articles on the site.

Prepared by s. c. pan for ucsd psychology, graphic adapted from  t-x-generic-apply.svg , a public domain creation by the tango desktop project..

Back to top

  • Research Paper Structure
  • Formatting Research Papers
  • Using Databases and Finding References
  • Evaluating References and Taking Notes
  • Citing References
  • Writing a Literature Review
  • Writing Process and Revising
  • Improving Scientific Writing
  • Academic Integrity and Avoiding Plagiarism
  • Writing Research Papers Videos

Frequently asked questions

Is a newspaper article a primary or secondary source.

Articles in newspapers and magazines can be primary or secondary depending on the focus of your research.

In historical studies, old articles are used as primary sources that give direct evidence about the time period. In social and communication studies, articles are used as primary sources to analyze language and social relations (for example, by conducting content analysis or discourse analysis ).

If you are not analyzing the article itself, but only using it for background information or facts about your topic, then the article is a secondary source.

Frequently asked questions: Citing sources

A scientific citation style is a system of source citation that is used in scientific disciplines. Some commonly used scientific citation styles are:

  • Chicago author-date , CSE , and Harvard , used across various sciences
  • ACS , used in chemistry
  • AMA , NLM , and Vancouver , used in medicine and related disciplines
  • AAA , APA , and ASA , commonly used in the social sciences

There are many different citation styles used across different academic disciplines, but they fall into three basic approaches to citation:

  • Parenthetical citations : Including identifying details of the source in parentheses —usually the author’s last name and the publication date, plus a page number if available ( author-date ). The publication date is occasionally omitted ( author-page ).
  • Numerical citations: Including a number in brackets or superscript, corresponding to an entry in your numbered reference list.
  • Note citations: Including a full citation in a footnote or endnote , which is indicated in the text with a superscript number or symbol.

A source annotation in an annotated bibliography fulfills a similar purpose to an abstract : they’re both intended to summarize the approach and key points of a source.

However, an annotation may also evaluate the source , discussing the validity and effectiveness of its arguments. Even if your annotation is purely descriptive , you may have a different perspective on the source from the author and highlight different key points.

You should never just copy text from the abstract for your annotation, as doing so constitutes plagiarism .

Most academics agree that you shouldn’t cite Wikipedia as a source in your academic writing , and universities often have rules against doing so.

This is partly because of concerns about its reliability, and partly because it’s a tertiary source. Tertiary sources are things like encyclopedias and databases that collect information from other sources rather than presenting their own evidence or analysis. Usually, only primary and secondary sources are cited in academic papers.

A Wikipedia citation usually includes the title of the article, “Wikipedia” and/or “Wikimedia Foundation,” the date the article was last updated, and the URL.

In APA Style , you’ll give the URL of the current revision of the article so that you’re sure the reader accesses the same version as you.

There’s some disagreement about whether Wikipedia can be considered a reliable source . Because it can be edited by anyone, many people argue that it’s easy for misleading information to be added to an article without the reader knowing.

Others argue that because Wikipedia articles cite their sources , and because they are worked on by so many editors, misinformation is generally removed quickly.

However, most universities state that you shouldn’t cite Wikipedia in your writing.

Hanging indents are used in reference lists in various citation styles to allow the reader to easily distinguish between entries.

You should apply a hanging indent to your reference entries in APA , MLA , and Chicago style.

A hanging indent is used to indent all lines of a paragraph except the first.

When you create a hanging indent, the first line of the paragraph starts at the border. Each subsequent line is indented 0.5 inches (1.27 cm).

APA and MLA style both use parenthetical in-text citations to cite sources and include a full list of references at the end, but they differ in other ways:

  • APA in-text citations include the author name, date, and page number (Taylor, 2018, p. 23), while MLA in-text citations include only the author name and page number (Taylor 23).
  • The APA reference list is titled “References,” while MLA’s version is called “ Works Cited .”
  • The reference entries differ in terms of formatting and order of information.
  • APA requires a title page , while MLA requires a header instead.

A parenthetical citation in Chicago author-date style includes the author’s last name, the publication date, and, if applicable, the relevant page number or page range in parentheses . Include a comma after the year, but not after the author’s name.

For example: (Swan 2003, 6)

To automatically generate accurate Chicago references, you can use Scribbr’s free Chicago reference generator .

APA Style distinguishes between parenthetical and narrative citations.

In parenthetical citations , you include all relevant source information in parentheses at the end of the sentence or clause: “Parts of the human body reflect the principles of tensegrity (Levin, 2002).”

In narrative citations , you include the author’s name in the text itself, followed by the publication date in parentheses: “Levin (2002) argues that parts of the human body reflect the principles of tensegrity.”

In a parenthetical citation in MLA style , include the author’s last name and the relevant page number or range in parentheses .

For example: (Eliot 21)

A parenthetical citation gives credit in parentheses to a source that you’re quoting or paraphrasing . It provides relevant information such as the author’s name, the publication date, and the page number(s) cited.

How you use parenthetical citations will depend on your chosen citation style . It will also depend on the type of source you are citing and the number of authors.

APA does not permit the use of ibid. This is because APA in-text citations are parenthetical and there’s no need to shorten them further.

Ibid. may be used in Chicago footnotes or endnotes .

Write “Ibid.” alone when you are citing the same page number and source as the previous citation.

When you are citing the same source, but a different page number, use ibid. followed by a comma and the relevant page number(s). For example:

  • Ibid., 40–42.

Only use ibid . if you are directing the reader to a previous full citation of a source .

Ibid. only refers to the previous citation. Therefore, you should only use ibid. directly after a citation that you want to repeat.

Ibid. is an abbreviation of the Latin “ibidem,” meaning “in the same place.” Ibid. is used in citations to direct the reader to the previous source.

Signal phrases can be used in various ways and can be placed at the beginning, middle, or end of a sentence.

To use signal phrases effectively, include:

  • The name of the scholar(s) or study you’re referencing
  • An attributive tag such as “according to” or “argues that”
  • The quote or idea you want to include

Different citation styles require you to use specific verb tenses when using signal phrases.

  • APA Style requires you to use the past or present perfect tense when using signal phrases.
  • MLA and Chicago requires you to use the present tense when using signal phrases.

Signal phrases allow you to give credit for an idea or quote to its author or originator. This helps you to:

  • Establish the credentials of your sources
  • Display your depth of reading and understanding of the field
  • Position your own work in relation to other scholars
  • Avoid plagiarism

A signal phrase is a group of words that ascribes a quote or idea to an outside source.

Signal phrases distinguish the cited idea or argument from your own writing and introduce important information including the source of the material that you are quoting , paraphrasing , or summarizing . For example:

“ Cognitive psychologist Steven Pinker (1994) insists that humans possess an innate faculty for comprehending grammar.”

If you’re quoting from a text that paraphrases or summarizes other sources and cites them in parentheses , APA and Chicago both recommend retaining the citations as part of the quote. However, MLA recommends omitting citations within a quote:

  • APA: Smith states that “the literature on this topic (Jones, 2015; Sill, 2019; Paulson, 2020) shows no clear consensus” (Smith, 2019, p. 4).
  • MLA: Smith states that “the literature on this topic shows no clear consensus” (Smith, 2019, p. 4).

Footnote or endnote numbers that appear within quoted text should be omitted in all styles.

If you want to cite an indirect source (one you’ve only seen quoted in another source), either locate the original source or use the phrase “as cited in” in your citation.

In scientific subjects, the information itself is more important than how it was expressed, so quoting should generally be kept to a minimum. In the arts and humanities, however, well-chosen quotes are often essential to a good paper.

In social sciences, it varies. If your research is mainly quantitative , you won’t include many quotes, but if it’s more qualitative , you may need to quote from the data you collected .

As a general guideline, quotes should take up no more than 5–10% of your paper. If in doubt, check with your instructor or supervisor how much quoting is appropriate in your field.

To present information from other sources in academic writing , it’s best to paraphrase in most cases. This shows that you’ve understood the ideas you’re discussing and incorporates them into your text smoothly.

It’s appropriate to quote when:

  • Changing the phrasing would distort the meaning of the original text
  • You want to discuss the author’s language choices (e.g., in literary analysis )
  • You’re presenting a precise definition
  • You’re looking in depth at a specific claim

To paraphrase effectively, don’t just take the original sentence and swap out some of the words for synonyms. Instead, try:

  • Reformulating the sentence (e.g., change active to passive , or start from a different point)
  • Combining information from multiple sentences into one
  • Leaving out information from the original that isn’t relevant to your point
  • Using synonyms where they don’t distort the meaning

The main point is to ensure you don’t just copy the structure of the original text, but instead reformulate the idea in your own words.

“ Et al. ” is an abbreviation of the Latin term “et alia,” which means “and others.” It’s used in source citations to save space when there are too many authors to name them all.

Guidelines for using “et al.” differ depending on the citation style you’re following:

To insert endnotes in Microsoft Word, follow the steps below:

  • Click on the spot in the text where you want the endnote to show up.
  • In the “References” tab at the top, select “Insert Endnote.”
  • Type whatever text you want into the endnote.

If you need to change the type of notes used in a Word document from footnotes to endnotes , or the other way around, follow these steps:

  • Open the “References” tab, and click the arrow in the bottom-right corner of the “Footnotes” section.
  • In the pop-up window, click on “Convert…”
  • Choose the option you need, and click “OK.”

To insert a footnote automatically in a Word document:

  • Click on the point in the text where the footnote should appear
  • Select the “References” tab at the top and then click on “Insert Footnote”
  • Type the text you want into the footnote that appears at the bottom of the page

Footnotes are notes indicated in your text with numbers and placed at the bottom of the page. They’re used to provide:

  • Citations (e.g., in Chicago notes and bibliography )
  • Additional information that would disrupt the flow of the main text

Be sparing in your use of footnotes (other than citation footnotes), and consider whether the information you’re adding is relevant for the reader.

Footnotes appear at the bottom of the page they refer to. This is convenient for the reader but may cause your text to look cluttered if there are a lot of footnotes.

Endnotes appear all together at the end of the whole text. This may be less convenient for the reader but reduces clutter.

Both footnotes and endnotes are used in the same way: to cite sources or add extra information. You should usually choose one or the other to use in your text, not both.

An in-text citation is an acknowledgement you include in your text whenever you quote or paraphrase a source. It usually gives the author’s last name, the year of publication, and the page number of the relevant text. In-text citations allow the reader to look up the full source information in your reference list and see your sources for themselves.

If you are reusing content or data you used in a previous assignment, make sure to cite yourself. You can cite yourself just as you would cite any other source: simply follow the directions for that source type in the citation style you are using.

Keep in mind that reusing your previous work can be considered self-plagiarism , so make sure you ask your professor or consult your university’s handbook before doing so.

A credible source should pass the CRAAP test  and follow these guidelines:

  • The information should be up to date and current.
  • The author and publication should be a trusted authority on the subject you are researching.
  • The sources the author cited should be easy to find, clear, and unbiased.
  • For a web source, the URL and layout should signify that it is trustworthy.

Peer review is a process of evaluating submissions to an academic journal. Utilizing rigorous criteria, a panel of reviewers in the same subject area decide whether to accept each submission for publication. For this reason, academic journals are often considered among the most credible sources you can use in a research project– provided that the journal itself is trustworthy and well-regarded.

Academic dishonesty can be intentional or unintentional, ranging from something as simple as claiming to have read something you didn’t to copying your neighbor’s answers on an exam.

You can commit academic dishonesty with the best of intentions, such as helping a friend cheat on a paper. Severe academic dishonesty can include buying a pre-written essay or the answers to a multiple-choice test, or falsifying a medical emergency to avoid taking a final exam.

Academic dishonesty refers to deceitful or misleading behavior in an academic setting. Academic dishonesty can occur intentionally or unintentionally, and varies in severity.

It can encompass paying for a pre-written essay, cheating on an exam, or committing plagiarism . It can also include helping others cheat, copying a friend’s homework answers, or even pretending to be sick to miss an exam.

Academic dishonesty doesn’t just occur in a classroom setting, but also in research and other academic-adjacent fields.

To apply a hanging indent to your reference list or Works Cited list in Word or Google Docs, follow the steps below.

Microsoft Word:

  • Highlight the whole list and right click to open the Paragraph options.
  • Under Indentation > Special , choose Hanging from the dropdown menu.
  • Set the indent to 0.5 inches or 1.27cm.

Google Docs:

  • Highlight the whole list and click on Format >  Align and indent >  Indentation options .
  • Under  Special indent , choose Hanging from the dropdown menu.

When the hanging indent is applied, for each reference, every line except the first is indented. This helps the reader see where one entry ends and the next begins.

For a published interview (whether in video , audio, or print form ), you should always include a citation , just as you would for any other source.

For an interview you conducted yourself , formally or informally, you often don’t need a citation and can just refer to it in the text or in a footnote , since the reader won’t be able to look them up anyway. MLA , however, still recommends including citations for your own interviews.

The main elements included in a newspaper interview citation across APA , MLA , and Chicago style are the names of the interviewer and interviewee, the interview title, the publication date, the name of the newspaper, and a URL (for online sources).

The information is presented differently in different citation styles. One key difference is that APA advises listing the interviewer in the author position, while MLA and Chicago advise listing the interviewee first.

The elements included in a newspaper article citation across APA , MLA , and Chicago style are the author name, the article title, the publication date, the newspaper name, and the URL if the article was accessed online .

In APA and MLA, the page numbers of the article appear in place of the URL if the article was accessed in print. No page numbers are used in Chicago newspaper citations.

Untitled sources (e.g. some images ) are usually cited using a short descriptive text in place of the title. In APA Style , this description appears in brackets: [Chair of stained oak]. In MLA and Chicago styles, no brackets are used: Chair of stained oak.

For social media posts, which are usually untitled, quote the initial words of the post in place of the title: the first 160 characters in Chicago , or the first 20 words in APA . E.g. Biden, J. [@JoeBiden]. “The American Rescue Plan means a $7,000 check for a single mom of four. It means more support to safely.”

MLA recommends quoting the full post for something short like a tweet, and just describing the post if it’s longer.

The main elements included in image citations across APA , MLA , and Chicago style are the name of the image’s creator, the image title, the year (or more precise date) of publication, and details of the container in which the image was found (e.g. a museum, book , website ).

In APA and Chicago style, it’s standard to also include a description of the image’s format (e.g. “Photograph” or “Oil on canvas”). This sort of information may be included in MLA too, but is not mandatory.

The main elements included in a lecture citation across APA , MLA , and Chicago style are the name of the speaker, the lecture title, the date it took place, the course or event it was part of, and the institution it took place at.

For transcripts or recordings of lectures/speeches, other details like the URL, the name of the book or website , and the length of the recording may be included instead of information about the event and institution.

The main elements included in a YouTube video citation across APA , MLA , and Chicago style are the name of the author/uploader, the title of the video, the publication date, and the URL.

The format in which this information appears is different for each style.

All styles also recommend using timestamps as a locator in the in-text citation or Chicago footnote .

Each annotation in an annotated bibliography is usually between 50 and 200 words long. Longer annotations may be divided into paragraphs .

The content of the annotation varies according to your assignment. An annotation can be descriptive, meaning it just describes the source objectively; evaluative, meaning it assesses its usefulness; or reflective, meaning it explains how the source will be used in your own research .

Any credible sources on your topic can be included in an annotated bibliography . The exact sources you cover will vary depending on the assignment, but you should usually focus on collecting journal articles and scholarly books . When in doubt, utilize the CRAAP test !

An annotated bibliography is an assignment where you collect sources on a specific topic and write an annotation for each source. An annotation is a short text that describes and sometimes evaluates the source.

The elements included in journal article citations across APA , MLA , and Chicago style are the name(s) of the author(s), the title of the article, the year of publication, the name of the journal, the volume and issue numbers, the page range of the article, and, when accessed online, the DOI or URL.

In MLA and Chicago style, you also include the specific month or season of publication alongside the year, when this information is available.

In APA , MLA , and Chicago style citations for sources that don’t list a specific author (e.g. many websites ), you can usually list the organization responsible for the source as the author.

If the organization is the same as the website or publisher, you shouldn’t repeat it twice in your reference:

  • In APA and Chicago, omit the website or publisher name later in the reference.
  • In MLA, omit the author element at the start of the reference, and cite the source title instead.

If there’s no appropriate organization to list as author, you will usually have to begin the citation and reference entry with the title of the source instead.

The main elements included in website citations across APA , MLA , and Chicago style are the author, the date of publication, the page title, the website name, and the URL. The information is presented differently in each style.

When you want to cite a specific passage in a source without page numbers (e.g. an e-book or website ), all the main citation styles recommend using an alternate locator in your in-text citation . You might use a heading or chapter number, e.g. (Smith, 2016, ch. 1)

In APA Style , you can count the paragraph numbers in a text to identify a location by paragraph number. MLA and Chicago recommend that you only use paragraph numbers if they’re explicitly marked in the text.

For audiovisual sources (e.g. videos ), all styles recommend using a timestamp to show a specific point in the video when relevant.

The abbreviation “ et al. ” (Latin for “and others”) is used to shorten citations of sources with multiple authors.

“Et al.” is used in APA in-text citations of sources with 3+ authors, e.g. (Smith et al., 2019). It is not used in APA reference entries .

Use “et al.” for 3+ authors in MLA in-text citations and Works Cited entries.

Use “et al.” for 4+ authors in a Chicago in-text citation , and for 10+ authors in a Chicago bibliography entry.

Check if your university or course guidelines specify which citation style to use. If the choice is left up to you, consider which style is most commonly used in your field.

  • APA Style is the most popular citation style, widely used in the social and behavioral sciences.
  • MLA style is the second most popular, used mainly in the humanities.
  • Chicago notes and bibliography style is also popular in the humanities, especially history.
  • Chicago author-date style tends to be used in the sciences.

Other more specialized styles exist for certain fields, such as Bluebook and OSCOLA for law.

The most important thing is to choose one style and use it consistently throughout your text.

The main elements included in all book citations across APA , MLA , and Chicago style are the author, the title, the year of publication, and the name of the publisher. A page number is also included in in-text citations to highlight the specific passage cited.

In Chicago style and in the 6th edition of APA Style , the location of the publisher is also included, e.g. London: Penguin.

A block quote is a long quote formatted as a separate “block” of text. Instead of using quotation marks , you place the quote on a new line, and indent the entire quote to mark it apart from your own words.

The rules for when to apply block quote formatting depend on the citation style:

  • APA block quotes are 40 words or longer.
  • MLA block quotes are more than 4 lines of prose or 3 lines of poetry.
  • Chicago block quotes are longer than 100 words.

In academic writing , there are three main situations where quoting is the best choice:

  • To analyze the author’s language (e.g., in a literary analysis essay )
  • To give evidence from primary sources
  • To accurately present a precise definition or argument

Don’t overuse quotes; your own voice should be dominant. If you just want to provide information from a source, it’s usually better to paraphrase or summarize .

Every time you quote a source , you must include a correctly formatted in-text citation . This looks slightly different depending on the citation style .

For example, a direct quote in APA is cited like this: “This is a quote” (Streefkerk, 2020, p. 5).

Every in-text citation should also correspond to a full reference at the end of your paper.

A quote is an exact copy of someone else’s words, usually enclosed in quotation marks and credited to the original author or speaker.

The DOI is usually clearly visible when you open a journal article on an academic database. It is often listed near the publication date, and includes “doi.org” or “DOI:”. If the database has a “cite this article” button, this should also produce a citation with the DOI included.

If you can’t find the DOI, you can search on Crossref using information like the author, the article title, and the journal name.

A DOI is a unique identifier for a digital document. DOIs are important in academic citation because they are more permanent than URLs, ensuring that your reader can reliably locate the source.

Journal articles and ebooks can often be found on multiple different websites and databases. The URL of the page where an article is hosted can be changed or removed over time, but a DOI is linked to the specific document and never changes.

When a book’s chapters are written by different authors, you should cite the specific chapter you are referring to.

When all the chapters are written by the same author (or group of authors), you should usually cite the entire book, but some styles include exceptions to this.

  • In APA Style , single-author books should always be cited as a whole, even if you only quote or paraphrase from one chapter.
  • In MLA Style , if a single-author book is a collection of stand-alone works (e.g. short stories ), you should cite the individual work.
  • In Chicago Style , you may choose to cite a single chapter of a single-author book if you feel it is more appropriate than citing the whole book.

A fictional movie is usually a primary source. A documentary can be either primary or secondary depending on the context.

If you are directly analyzing some aspect of the movie itself – for example, the cinematography, narrative techniques, or social context – the movie is a primary source.

If you use the movie for background information or analysis about your topic – for example, to learn about a historical event or a scientific discovery – the movie is a secondary source.

Whether it’s primary or secondary, always properly cite the movie in the citation style you are using. Learn how to create an MLA movie citation or an APA movie citation .

To determine if a source is primary or secondary, ask yourself:

  • Was the source created by someone directly involved in the events you’re studying (primary), or by another researcher (secondary)?
  • Does the source provide original information (primary), or does it summarize information from other sources (secondary)?
  • Are you directly analyzing the source itself (primary), or only using it for background information (secondary)?

Some types of source are nearly always primary: works of art and literature, raw statistical data, official documents and records, and personal communications (e.g. letters, interviews ). If you use one of these in your research, it is probably a primary source.

Primary sources are often considered the most credible in terms of providing evidence for your argument, as they give you direct evidence of what you are researching. However, it’s up to you to ensure the information they provide is reliable and accurate.

Always make sure to properly cite your sources to avoid plagiarism .

Common examples of secondary sources include academic books, journal articles , reviews, essays , and textbooks.

Anything that summarizes, evaluates or interprets primary sources can be a secondary source. If a source gives you an overview of background information or presents another researcher’s ideas on your topic, it is probably a secondary source.

Common examples of primary sources include interview transcripts , photographs, novels, paintings, films, historical documents, and official statistics.

Anything you directly analyze or use as first-hand evidence can be a primary source, including qualitative or quantitative data that you collected yourself.

The Scribbr Citation Generator is developed using the open-source Citation Style Language (CSL) project and Frank Bennett’s citeproc-js . It’s the same technology used by dozens of other popular citation tools, including Mendeley and Zotero.

You can find all the citation styles and locales used in the Scribbr Citation Generator in our publicly accessible repository on Github .

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Newspapers and Magazines as Primary Sources

What are newspapers and magazines, bibliography.

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Newspapers and magazines are print publications issued at regular intervals over time. Historically, newspapers were usually issued daily or weekly, but sometimes semi-weekly (twice a week), bi-weekly (every two weeks), or monthly. Magazines, in contrast, were usually issued weekly, bi-weekly, monthly, or quarterly (four times a year). Both newspapers and magazines could be purchased by subscription (an arrangement whereby the reader pays in advance for a year of issues), or individually, often at news-stands, grocery stores, book stores, train stations, and other places.

There is no absolute way of distinguishing between newspapers and magazines, since they share many features. The main reason for understanding the distinctions is that in a library you will find newspapers and magazines--even digitized newspapers and magazines--in different places.

In general, the purpose of a newspaper is to convey, as efficiently as possible, current information, or "news", to a particular audience. What constitutes "news" depends in part on the intended audience. Newspapers aimed at a general audience will carry news about politics, crime, wars, economics--just about anything that could interest a general reader. A farm newspaper, on the other hand, might carry news about developments in farming techniques, information about the progress of farm-related legislation through Congress, crop prices, information about county and state fairs, and so forth.

A magazine or periodical will, in general, be written in a more elevated prose style, and will usually offer more in-depth coverage of news, if it carries news at all. If a newspaper attempts to inform, a magazine in contrast attempts to enlighten and entertain.

Magazines and periodicals usually have covers, often bearing an illustration or photograph. A newspaper, in contrast, typically does not have a cover, but a nameplate running across the top of its front page, the rest of the page being filled with news-stories. Magazines are more likely than newspapers to have detailed tables of contents, whereas newspapers, if they include any table of contents at all, will simply identify the the principal sections (ie. national news, local news, sports, society news, classifieds, business news, etc.).

Towards the end of the nineteenth century, magazines and newspapers could increasingly be distinguished by the kind of paper they were printed on. Newspapers were printed on cheap paper, "newsprint", that tended to degrade fairly quickly. Many newspapers are now so brittle that they crumble to pieces when touched. By the twentieth century, magazines were increasingly printed on clay coated paper. Clay coated paper has been treated with a chemical application that gives the paper a glossier appearance, and which also makes them slightly more durable than newspapers. Clay coated paper is preferred over newsprint for printing photographs and other types of illustrations, especially color illustrations.

Bureau County Tribune

Carey, Helen H., and Judith E. Greenberg. How to Read a Newspaper . New York: Franklin Watts, 1983.

Eaman, Ross. Historical Dictionary of Journalism . Lanham, Md.: Scarecrow Press, 2009.

Franklin, Bob, Martin Hamer, Mark Hanna, Marie Kinsey, and John E. Richardson. Key Concepts in Journalism Studies . London: Sage, 2005.

Giles, Vic, and F.W. Hodgson. Creative Newspaper Design . 2d ed. Oxford, Eng.: Focal Press, 1996.

Hall, Linda, ed. Acronyms, Initialisms, and Abbreviations Dictionary . 40th ed. Detroit: Gale, 2008.

Harnett, Richard M. Wirespeak: Codes and Jargon of the News Business . San Mateo, Calif.: Shorebird Press, 1997.

Hutt, Allen, and Bob James. Newspaper Design Today: A Manual for Professionals . London: Lund Humphries, 1989.

Miller, Greg, Elizabeth Novickas, and Gerry Labedz. The Daily Illini Design Guide . Champaign, Ill.: Illini Publishing, 1976.

Moen, Daryl R. Newspaper Layout and Design: A Team Approach . 4th ed. Ames, Ia.: Iowa State University Press, 2000. Includes an interesting discussion of the tabloid format in chapter 15.

Salmon, Lucy Maynard. The Newspaper and the Historian . New York: Oxford University Press, 1923.

Sutton, Albert A. Design and Makeup of the Newspaper . New York: Prentice-Hall, 1948. Includes useful, if brief, essays on historical developments in newspaper design. See, for example, chapter 11 on the headline.

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Answered By: Laura Last Updated: Oct 12, 2021     Views: 28687

Newspapers, tabloids and other forms of similar media are not considered academic sources.

They are, however, a primary source as they provide firsthand accounts of events or experiences.

Academic journals are the most relevant for research and study purposes as they are often refereed (also called "peer reviewed" or "scholarly").

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  • Why Use Newspapers
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Members of the OSU Community can access many newspapers electronically. Search for a newspaper by title below:

If you can't find what you're looking for electronically, see our Finding Newspapers page for information about searching our print or microform collections.

  • Newspaper Source [Selected Articles in Full Text] Includes nearly 200 newspapers and news wires, with a strong focus on content from the United States.
  • Nexis Uni Provides access to a wide range of national and international newspapers.
  • International Newsstand Includes hundreds of international newspapers with coverage from 1977-present.
  • PressDisplay Useful for its full scan of printed newspapers, but only includes the past 90 days.
  • ProQuest Historical Newspapers [Full Text] Includes full text including images for several prominent newspapers from the 19th and 20th centuries.

EXTRA! EXTRA! Hear all about it!

Live news, as it happens.

  • C-SPAN (National Cable Satellite Corporation) Provides live coverage of Congressional activities.
  • Statehouse News Bureau . Provides live coverage of the Ohio Legislature's activities.
  • USA Today . Updated 24/7 provides access to breaking events and news.

Why Use Newspapers?

Newspaper articles can provide a useful source of information, serving as a primary source of information about historical and current events. Some of the benefits of using newspaper articles as primary sources include:

  • Seeing how people viewed an event when it happened;
  • Providing multiple points of view about an issue, including a comparison of the United States and international views;
  • Permitting researchers to trace the historical development of subjects over time;
  • Examining issues in the context of their time (by seeing how stories about an issue relate to other stories, or by examining the type of coverage provided);
  • Giving a snapshot of a time period detailing how people lived, and what they purchased which is helpful for writers, playwrights, historians, etc.

Because newspapers also contain commentaries or retrospective articles about events, they can also serve as a secondary source .

Whether used as a primary or a secondary source, newspapers can provide a valuable research tool.

For more information about using news sources, see our news source tutorial .

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Local News Sources

The Columbus Dispatch – Electronic archive to the Columbus Dispatch from 1985-present. Please see our microfilm holdings for access to 1975-present and 1960-1975 .

The Lantern – The official student newspaper of The Ohio State University. See the Lantern’s website for current issues and the Lantern Online Archive for issues 1881-2013.

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Newspapers as a research tool

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Fun with newspapers

  • Newseum Through a special agreement with more than 2,000 newspapers worldwide, the Newseum displays their front pages each day on its website.
  • Best news websites for students A list of 19 news websites for students of all ages (grades K-12). more... less... What news sites can students trust? These great, classroom-friendly news websites can give students different perspectives on key current events. There are picks on this list for students of all grade levels with appropriately adjusted content. For those sites that target developing readers, the reading levels are dialed down but not dumbed down. Most importantly, all of these options have a few key things in common: They're unbiased and well-researched, and they dig into a host of topics that students will naturally gravitate toward.
  • Motorcycle mania: early history of motorcycles Links to 15 historic newspaper articles (ranging in date from 1869 to 1921) about motorcycles, from The Library of Congress's Chronicling America.
  • Comic strips Links to 21 cartoons and comic strips (and articles about the form) from newspapers around the country between 1899 and 1908, also from Chronicling America.

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​Why use newspapers?

  • In-depth coverage of a particular country, state or city
  • Reporting on activities of state and local government
  • Eyewitness accounts of events
  • Editorial analysis of news and events
  • Up-to-date coverage of breaking news
  • Obituaries and other information of interest to genealogists

Why use newspaper databases?

Most newspapers today have a website with current news, and most make it possible to search their archives of older issues. However, the Marriott Library subscribes to a number of newspaper databases that offer advantages over searching newspapers directly on the Web:

  • Search more than one newspaper at the same time
  • Powerful keyword search engines
  • Deep historic news archives
  • Access to content that costs money on the Web
  • Find newspapers from a specific region or country

Why use newspaper websites?

  • Breaking news stories
  • Extra content such as blogs, info-graphics, videos, etc.
  • Access to newspapers that aren't in Marriott Library databases
  • Newspaper fact sheet Pew Research Center. June 13, 2018 more... less... Daily circulation of physical newspapers is down, digital readership is challenging to gauge, the financial picture is grim -- learn about the current state of affairs in the newspaper business.
  • The Biographer’s New Best Friend New York Times (2011) An article about doing historical research with digital newspapers. more... less... The Biographer’s New Best Friend By STEPHEN MIHM New York Times Published: September 10, 2011
  • How News Happens Pew Research Center. January 11, 2010 more... less... Do you think you can get all the news you need from the Web? This study looked at news from newspapers, TV, radio and new media and found that eight out of ten stories studied simply repeated or repackaged previously published information. Of the stories that did contain new information nearly all, 95% came from traditional media—most of them newspapers.
  • How people learn about their local community Pew Research Center. September 26, 2011 more... less... The data show that newspapers play a much bigger role in people’s lives than many may realize. Newspapers (both the print and online versions, though primarily print) rank first or tie for first as the source people rely on most for 11 of the 16 different kinds of local information asked about—more topics than any other media source.
  • Local news in a digital age Pew Research Center. March 5, 2015 more... less... In-depth case studies in three disparate cities (Denver, Macon and Sioux City) show that local news still matters, with nearly nine in ten city residents following it closely.
  • Understanding news researchers through a content analysis of dissertations and theses An article by Mary Feeney, published in Qualitative and quantitative methods in libraries, reporting on scholarly use of newspapers for research.
  • The national newspaper as a tool for educational empowerment: origins and rationale By John N. Gardner and Betty L. Sullivan, published as part of the University of South Carolina's National Resource Center for The First-Year Experience collection.

Newspapers on campus

In addition to the Daily Utah Chronicle , several local and national daily papers are available for free to students Monday through Friday during the school year as part of the ASUU -sponsored  Collegiate Readership Program,  in boxes scattered around the campus.  At the west entrance of the Marriott Library you can pick up:

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​Recent back issues (the last month or so) of those same four papers can be found with the current periodicals, on the east side of the elevator lobby on Level 2 of the Marriott Library.  Older issues of these newspapers (and others) can be found online (through one of our databases) or on microfilm.

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Authors : Newspaper articles frequently do not list authors. Articles may be obtained from the various national and international wire services such as Associated Press and Reuters and may only reference the wire service providing the news article. Feature stories will normally attribute authorship. Editorials might attribute authorship or will imply that the newspaper editors are the authors. Letters to the editors will routinely provide the names of the readers submitting the letters.

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Illustrations/Photographs : Newspapers make extensive use of photographs. Photographs might come from syndicated sources or from the paper's own staff photographers. Photos are typically in black and white, however some sections of the paper, such as the weekend comics, might make use of color.

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Delving deep —

The telltale words that could identify generative ai text, new paper counts "excess words" that started appearing more often in the post-llm era..

Kyle Orland - Jul 1, 2024 11:30 am UTC

If your right hand starts typing

Further Reading

To measure these vocabulary changes, the researchers analyzed 14 million paper abstracts published on PubMed between 2010 and 2024, tracking the relative frequency of each word as it appeared across each year. They then compared the expected frequency of those words (based on the pre-2023 trendline) to the actual frequency of those words in abstracts from 2023 and 2024, when LLMs were in widespread use.

The results found a number of words that were extremely uncommon in these scientific abstracts before 2023 that suddenly surged in popularity after LLMs were introduced. The word "delves," for instance, shows up in 25 times as many 2024 papers as the pre-LLM trend would expect; words like "showcasing" and "underscores" increased in usage by nine times as well. Other previously common words became notably more common in post-LLM abstracts: the frequency of "potential" increased 4.1 percentage points; "findings" by 2.7 percentage points; and "crucial" by 2.6 percentage points, for instance.

Some examples of words that saw their use increase (or decrease) substantially after LLMs were introduced (bottom three words shown for comparison).

These kinds of changes in word use could happen independently of LLM usage, of course—the natural evolution of language means words sometimes go in and out of style. However, the researchers found that, in the pre-LLM era, such massive and sudden year-over-year increases were only seen for words related to major world health events: "ebola" in 2015; "zika" in 2017; and words like "coronavirus," "lockdown" and "pandemic" in the 2020 to 2022 period.

In the post-LLM period, though, the researchers found hundreds of words with sudden, pronounced increases in scientific usage that had no common link to world events. In fact, while the excess words during the COVID pandemic were overwhelmingly nouns, the researchers found that the words with a post-LLM frequency bump were overwhelmingly "style words" like verbs, adjectives, and adverbs (a small sampling: "across, additionally, comprehensive, crucial, enhancing, exhibited, insights, notably, particularly, within").

This isn't a completely new finding—the increased prevalence of "delve" in scientific papers has been widely noted in the recent past , for instance. But previous studies generally relied on comparisons with "ground truth" human writing samples or lists of pre-defined LLM markers obtained from outside the study. Here, the pre-2023 set of abstracts acts as its own effective control group to show how vocabulary choice has changed overall in the post-LLM era.

An intricate interplay

By highlighting hundreds of so-called "marker words" that became significantly more common in the post-LLM era, the telltale signs of LLM use can sometimes be easy to pick out. Take this example abstract line called out by the researchers, with the marker words highlighted: "A comprehensive grasp of the intricate interplay between [...] and [...] is pivotal for effective therapeutic strategies."

After doing some statistical measures of marker word appearance across individual papers, the researchers estimate that at least 10 percent of the post-2022 papers in the PubMed corpus were written with at least some LLM assistance. The number could be even higher, the researchers say, because their set could be missing LLM-assisted abstracts that don't include any of the marker words they identified.

Before 2023, it took a major world event like the coronavirus pandemic to see large jumps in word usage like this.

Those measured percentages can vary a lot across different subsets of papers, too. The researchers found that papers authored in countries like China, South Korea, and Taiwan showed LLM marker words 15 percent of the time, suggesting "LLMs might... help non-natives with editing English texts, which could justify their extensive use." On the other hand, the researchers offer that native English speakers "may [just] be better at noticing and actively removing unnatural style words from LLM outputs," thus hiding their LLM usage from this kind of analysis.

Detecting LLM use is important, the researchers note, because "LLMs are infamous for making up references, providing inaccurate summaries, and making false claims that sound authoritative and convincing." But as knowledge of LLMs' telltale marker words starts to spread, human editors may get better at taking those words out of generated text before it's shared with the world.

Who knows, maybe future large language models will do this kind of frequency analysis themselves, lowering the weight of marker words to better mask their outputs as human-like. Before long, we may need to call in some Blade Runners to pick out the generative AI text hiding in our midst.

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House passes GOP bill requiring proof of citizenship to vote, boosting election-year talking point

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Speaker of the House Mike Johnson, R-La., speaks at a news conference with Rep. Chip Roy, R-Texas, left, House Majority Leader Steve Scalise, R-La., right, at the Capitol on Tuesday, July 9, 2024 in Washington. (AP Photo/Kevin Wolf)

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WASHINGTON (AP) — The House on Wednesday passed a proof-of-citizenship requirement for voter registration, a proposal Republicans have prioritized as an election-year talking point even as research shows noncitizens illegally registering and casting ballots in federal elections is exceptionally rare.

The legislation, approved largely along partisan lines but with five Democrats voting in favor, is unlikely to advance through the Democratic-led Senate. The Biden administration also says it’s strongly opposed because there already are safeguards to enforce the law against noncitizen voting.

Still, the House vote will give Republicans an opportunity to bring attention to two of their central issues this year — border and election security.

It also provides an opportunity to fuel former President Donald Trump’s claims that Democrats have encouraged the surge of migrants so they can register them to vote, which would be illegal. Noncitizens are not allowed to vote in federal elections, nor is it allowed for any statewide elections.

Research and audits in several states show there have been incidences of noncitizens who successfully registered to vote and cast ballots, but it happens rarely and is typically by mistake. States have mechanisms to check for it, although there isn’t one standard protocol they all follow.

Republican House Speaker Mike Johnson, a key backer of the bill, said in a news conference earlier this week that the Democratic opposition means many Democrats “want illegals to participate in our federal elections; they want them to vote.”

During a speech Wednesday, he called the vote a “generation-defining moment.”

“If just a small percentage, a fraction of a fraction of all those illegals that Joe Biden has brought in here to vote, if they do vote, it wouldn’t just change one race,” he said. “It might potentially change all of our races.”

On his Truth Social platform this week, Trump suggested that Democrats are pushing to give noncitizen migrants the right to vote and urged Republicans to pass the legislation — the Safeguard American Voter Eligibility Act — or “go home and cry yourself to sleep.”

The fixation on noncitizen voting is part of a broader and long-term Trump campaign strategy of casting doubt on the validity of an election should he lose, and he has consistently pushed that narrative during his campaign rallies this year. Last month in Las Vegas, he told supporters, “The only way they can beat us is to cheat.” It also is part of a wider Republican campaign strategy, with GOP lawmakers across the country passing state legislation and putting noncitizen voting measures on state ballots for November.

One Democrat who voted for the GOP bill, Rep. Vincente Gonzalez, said he only did so because the bill was doomed in the Senate.

“It’s not going anywhere,” said Gonzalez, who represents a competitive border district in Texas. “It’s just another Republican messaging bill.”

The majority of Democrats and voting rights advocates have said the legislation is unnecessary because it’s already a felony for noncitizens to register to vote in federal elections, punishable by fines, prison or deportation. Anyone registering must attest under penalty of perjury that they are a U.S. citizen. Noncitizens also are not allowed to cast ballots at the state level. A handful of municipalities allow them to vote in some local elections.

They also have pointed to surveys showing that millions of Americans don’t have easy access to up-to-date documentary proof of citizenship, such as a birth certificate, naturalization certificate or passport, and therefore the bill could inhibit U.S. citizen voters who aren’t able to further prove their status.

During the Wednesday floor debate, Rep. Joe Morelle of New York, the top Democrat on the House Administration Committee, expressed concern that the bill would disenfranchise various American citizens.

He mentioned military members stationed abroad who couldn’t show documentary proof of citizenship in person at an election office, as well as married women whose names have changed, Native Americans whose tribal IDs don’t show their place of birth and natural disaster survivors who have lost their personal documents.

Morelle said he doesn’t see the bill as an attempt to maintain voter rolls, but as part of larger GOP-led plans to question the validity of the upcoming election.

“The false claim that there is a conspiracy to register noncitizens is a pretext for trying to overturn the 2024 election, potentially leading to another tragedy on January 6th, 2025,” he said.

Yet Republicans who support the bill contend the unprecedented surge of migrants illegally crossing the U.S.-Mexico border creates too large a risk of noncitizens slipping through the cracks and casting ballots that sway races in November.

“Every illegal vote cancels out the vote of a legal American citizen,” said Rep. Bryan Steil of Wisconsin, the Republican chair of the House Administration Committee.

If passed, the bill would require noncitizens to be removed from state voter rolls and require new applicants to provide documentary proof of U.S. citizenship. It also would require states to establish a process for applicants who can’t show proof to provide other evidence beyond their attestation of citizenship, though it’s unclear what that evidence could include.

Ohio Secretary of State Frank LaRose recently found 137 suspected noncitizens on the state’s rolls — out of roughly 8 million voters — and said he was taking action to confirm and remove them.

In 2022, Georgia’s Republican secretary of state, Brad Raffensperger, conducted an audit of his state’s voter rolls specifically looking for noncitizens. His office found that 1,634 had attempted to register to vote over a period of 25 years, but election officials had caught all the applications and none had been able to register.

In North Carolina in 2016, an audit of elections found that 41 legal immigrants who had not yet become citizens cast ballots, out of 4.8 million total ballots cast. The votes didn’t make a difference in any of the state’s elections.

In a document supporting the bill, Johnson listed other examples of noncitizens who had been removed from the rolls in Boston and Virginia.

Several secretaries of state, interviewed during their summer conference in Puerto Rico this week, said noncitizens attempting to register and vote is not a big problem in their state.

Utah Lt. Gov. Deidre Henderson, a Republican who oversees elections, said she supports the legislation in concept but provided a cautionary tale about how aggressively culling voter rolls can sometimes result in the removal of qualified voters.

A few years ago, everyone in her household received mail ballots for a municipal election, except her. She had been removed from the rolls because she had been born in the Netherlands, where her father was stationed with the U.S. Air Force.

“I was the lieutenant governor, I was overseeing elections, and I got taken off because I was born in the Netherlands,” she said, “So I think we definitely have those checks and balances in the state of Utah, maybe to an extreme.”

The House vote comes days after the Republican National Committee released its party platform, which emphasizes border security and takes a stand against Democrats giving “voting rights” to migrants living in the country illegally. Republicans are expected to shine a light on immigration and election integrity concerns at the Republican National Convention next week in Milwaukee.

Swenson reported from New York. Associated Press writer Christina A. Cassidy in San Juan, Puerto Rico, contributed to this report.

The Associated Press receives support from several private foundations to enhance its explanatory coverage of elections and democracy. See more about AP’s democracy initiative here . The AP is solely responsible for all content.

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What is Project 2025? What to know about the conservative blueprint for a second Trump administration

By Melissa Quinn , Jacob Rosen

Updated on: July 11, 2024 / 9:40 AM EDT / CBS News

Washington — Voters in recent weeks have begun to hear the name "Project 2025" invoked more and more by President Biden and Democrats, as they seek to sound the alarm about what could be in store if former President Donald Trump wins a second term in the White House.

Overseen by the conservative Heritage Foundation, the multi-pronged initiative includes a detailed blueprint for the next Republican president to usher in a sweeping overhaul of the executive branch.

Trump and his campaign have worked to distance themselves from Project 2025, with the former president going so far as to call some of the proposals "abysmal." But Democrats have continued to tie the transition project to Trump, especially as they find themselves mired in their own controversy over whether Mr. Biden should withdraw from the 2024 presidential contest following his startling debate performance last month.

Here is what to know about Project 2025:

What is Project 2025?

Project 2025 is a proposed presidential transition project that is composed of four pillars: a policy guide for the next presidential administration; a LinkedIn-style database of personnel who could serve in the next administration; training for that pool of candidates dubbed the "Presidential Administration Academy;" and a playbook of actions to be taken within the first 180 days in office.

It is led by two former Trump administration officials: Paul Dans, who was chief of staff at the Office of Personnel Management and serves as director of the project, and Spencer Chretien, former special assistant to Trump and now the project's associate director.

Project 2025 is spearheaded by the Heritage Foundation, but includes an advisory board consisting of more than 100 conservative groups.

Much of the focus on — and criticism of — Project 2025 involves its first pillar, the nearly 900-page policy book that lays out an overhaul of the federal government. Called "Mandate for Leadership 2025: The Conservative Promise," the book builds on a "Mandate for Leadership" first published in January 1981, which sought to serve as a roadmap for Ronald Reagan's incoming administration.

The recommendations outlined in the sprawling plan reach every corner of the executive branch, from the Executive Office of the President to the Department of Homeland Security to the little-known Export-Import Bank. 

President Donald Trump speaks during a meeting with advisers in the Oval Office of the White House in Washington, D,C., on June 25, 2019.

The Heritage Foundation also created a "Mandate for Leadership" in 2015 ahead of Trump's first term. Two years into his presidency, it touted that Trump had instituted 64% of its policy recommendations, ranging from leaving the Paris Climate Accords, increasing military spending, and increasing off-shore drilling and developing federal lands. In July 2020, the Heritage Foundation gave its updated version of the book to then-White House Chief of Staff Mark Meadows. 

The authors of many chapters are familiar names from the Trump administration, such as Russ Vought, who led the Office of Management and Budget; former acting Defense Secretary Chris Miller; and Roger Severino, who was director of the Office of Civil Rights at the Department of Health and Human Services.

Vought is the policy director for the 2024 Republican National Committee's platform committee, which released its proposed platform on Monday. 

John McEntee, former director of the White House Presidential Personnel Office under Trump, is a senior advisor to the Heritage Foundation, and said that the group will "integrate a lot of our work" with the Trump campaign when the official transition efforts are announced in the next few months.

Candidates interested in applying for the Heritage Foundation's "Presidential Personnel Database" are vetted on a number of political stances, such as whether they agree or disagree with statements like "life has a right to legal protection from conception to natural death," and "the President should be able to advance his/her agenda through the bureaucracy without hindrance from unelected federal officials."

The contributions from ex-Trump administration officials have led its critics to tie Project 2025 to his reelection campaign, though the former president has attempted to distance himself from the initiative.

What are the Project 2025 plans?

Some of the policies in the Project 2025 agenda have been discussed by Republicans for years or pushed by Trump himself: less federal intervention in education and more support for school choice; work requirements for able-bodied, childless adults on food stamps; and a secure border with increased enforcement of immigration laws, mass deportations and construction of a border wall. 

But others have come under scrutiny in part because of the current political landscape. 

Abortion and social issues

In recommendations for the Department of Health and Human Services, the agenda calls for the Food and Drug Administration to reverse its 24-year-old approval of the widely used abortion pill mifepristone. Other proposed actions targeting medication abortion include reinstating more stringent rules for mifepristone's use, which would permit it to be taken up to seven weeks into a pregnancy, instead of the current 10 weeks, and requiring it to be dispensed in-person instead of through the mail.

The Alliance Defending Freedom, a conservative legal group that is on the Project 2025 advisory board, was involved in a legal challenge to mifepristone's 2000 approval and more recent actions from the FDA that made it easier to obtain. But the Supreme Court rejected the case brought by a group of anti-abortion rights doctors and medical associations on procedural grounds.

The policy book also recommends the Justice Department enforce the Comstock Act against providers and distributors of abortion pills. That 1873 law prohibits drugs, medicines or instruments used in abortions from being sent through the mail.

US-NEWS-SCOTUS-ABORTION-PILL-NEWSOM-TB

Now that the Supreme Court has overturned Roe v. Wade , the volume states that the Justice Department "in the next conservative administration should therefore announce its intent to enforce federal law against providers and distributors of such pills."

The guide recommends the next secretary of Health and Human Services get rid of the Reproductive Healthcare Access Task Force established by the Biden administration before Roe's reversal and create a "pro-life task force to ensure that all of the department's divisions seek to use their authority to promote the life and health of women and their unborn children."

In a section titled "The Family Agenda," the proposal recommends the Health and Human Services chief "proudly state that men and women are biological realities," and that "married men and women are the ideal, natural family structure because all children have a right to be raised by the men and women who conceived them."

Further, a program within the Health and Human Services Department should "maintain a biblically based, social science-reinforced definition of marriage and family."

During his first four years in office, Trump banned transgender people from serving in the military. Mr. Biden reversed that policy , but the Project 2025 policy book calls for the ban to be reinstated.

Targeting federal agencies, employees and policies

The agenda takes aim at longstanding federal agencies, like the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, or NOAA. The agency is a component of the Commerce Department and the policy guide calls for it to be downsized. 

NOAA's six offices, including the National Weather Service and National Marine Fisheries Service, "form a colossal operation that has become one of the main drivers of the climate change alarm industry and, as such, is harmful to future U.S. prosperity," the guide states. 

The Department of Homeland Security, established in 2002, should be dismantled and its agencies either combined with others, or moved under the purview of other departments altogether, the policy book states. For example, immigration-related entities from the Departments of Homeland Security, Justice and Health and Human Services should form a standalone, Cabinet-level border and immigration agency staffed by more than 100,000 employees, according to the agenda.

The Department of Homeland Security logo is seen on a law enforcement vehicle in Washington on March 7, 2017.

If the policy recommendations are implemented, another federal agency that could come under the knife by the next administration, with action from Congress, is the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau.

The agenda seeks to bring a push by conservatives to target diversity, equity and inclusion, or DEI, initiatives in higher education to the executive branch by wiping away a slew of DEI-related positions, policies and programs and calling for the elimination of funding for partners that promote DEI practices.

It states that U.S. Agency for International Development staff and grantees that "engage in ideological agitation on behalf of the DEI agenda" should be terminated. At the Treasury Department, the guide says the next administration should "treat the participation in any critical race theory or DEI initiative without objecting on constitutional or moral grounds, as per se grounds for termination of employment."

The Project 2025 policy book also takes aim at more innocuous functions of government. It calls for the next presidential administration to eliminate or reform the dietary guidelines that have been published by the Department of Agriculture for more than 40 years, which the authors claim have been "infiltrated" by issues like climate change and sustainability.

Immigration

Trump made immigration a cornerstone of his last two presidential runs and has continued to hammer the issue during his 2024 campaign. Project 2025's agenda not only recommends finishing the wall along the U.S.-Mexico border, but urges the next administration to "take a creative and aggressive approach" to responding to drug cartels at the border. This approach includes using active-duty military personnel and the National Guard to help with arrest operations along the southern border.

A memo from Immigration and Customs Enforcement that prohibits enforcement actions from taking place at "sensitive" places like schools, playgrounds and churches should be rolled back, the policy guide states. 

When the Homeland Security secretary determines there is an "actual or anticipated mass migration of aliens" that presents "urgent circumstances" warranting a federal response, the agenda says the secretary can make rules and regulations, including through their expulsion, for as long as necessary. These rules, the guide states, aren't subject to the Administration Procedure Act, which governs the agency rule-making process.

What do Trump and his advisers say about Project 2025?

In a post to his social media platform on July 5, Trump wrote , "I know nothing about Project 2025. I have no idea who is behind it. I disagree with some of the things they're saying and some of the things they're saying are absolutely ridiculous and abysmal. Anything they do, I wish them luck, but I have nothing to do with them."

Trump's pushback to the initiative came after Heritage Foundation President Kevin Roberts said in a podcast interview that the nation is "in the process of the second American Revolution, which will remain bloodless if the left allows it to be."

The former president continued to disavow the initiative this week, writing in another social media post  that he knows nothing about Project 2025.

"I have not seen it, have no idea who is in charge of it, and, unlike our very well received Republican Platform, had nothing to do with it," Trump wrote. "The Radical Left Democrats are having a field day, however, trying to hook me into whatever policies are stated or said. It is pure disinformation on their part. By now, after all of these years, everyone knows where I stand on EVERYTHING!"

While the former president said he doesn't know who is in charge of the initiative, the project's director, Dans, and associate director, Chretien, were high-ranking officials in his administration. Additionally, Ben Carson, former secretary of Housing and Urban Development under Trump; John Ratcliffe, former director of National Intelligence in the Trump administration; and Peter Navarro, who served as a top trade adviser to Trump in the White House, are listed as either authors or contributors to the policy agenda.

Still, even before Roberts' comments during "The War Room" podcast — typically hosted by conservative commentator Steve Bannon, who reported to federal prison to begin serving a four-month sentence last week — Trump's top campaign advisers have stressed that Project 2025 has no official ties to his reelection bid.

Susie Wiles and Chris LaCivita, senior advisers to the Trump campaign, said in a November statement that 2024 policy announcements will be made by Trump or his campaign team.

"Any personnel lists, policy agendas, or government plans published anywhere are merely suggestions," they said.

While the efforts by outside organizations are "appreciated," Wiles and LaCivita said, "none of these groups or individuals speak for President Trump or his campaign."

In response to Trump's post last week, Project 2025 reiterated that it was separate from the Trump campaign.

"As we've been saying for more than two years now, Project 2025 does not speak for any candidate or campaign. We are a coalition of more than 110 conservative groups advocating policy & personnel recommendations for the next conservative president. But it is ultimately up to that president, who we believe will be President Trump, to decide which recommendations to implement," a statement on the project's X account said.

The initiative has also pushed back on Democrats' claims about its policy proposals and accused them of lying about what the agenda contains.

What do Democrats say?

Despite their attempts to keep some distance from Project 2025, Democrats continue to connect Trump with the transition effort. The Biden-Harris campaign frequently posts about the project on X, tying it to a second Trump term.

Mr. Biden himself accused his Republican opponent of lying about his connections to the Project 2025 agenda, saying in a statement that the agenda was written for Trump and "should scare every single American." He claimed on his campaign social media account  Wednesday that Project 2025 "will destroy America."

Congressional Democrats have also begun pivoting to Project 2025 when asked in interviews about Mr. Biden's fitness for a second term following his lackluster showing at the June 27 debate, the first in which he went head-to-head with Trump.

"Trump is all about Project 2025," Pennsylvania Sen. John Fetterman told CNN on Monday. "I mean, that's what we really should be voting on right now. It's like, do we want the kind of president that is all about Project '25?"

Rep. Jim Clyburn of South Carolina, one of Mr. Biden's closest allies on Capitol Hill, told reporters Monday that the agenda for the next Republican president was the sole topic he would talk about.

"Project 2025, that's my only concern," he said. "I don't want you or my granddaughter to live under that government."

In a statement reiterating her support for Mr. Biden, Rep. Frederica Wilson of Florida called Project 2025 "MAGA Republicans' draconian 920-page plan to end U.S. democracy, give handouts to the wealthy and strip Americans of their freedoms."

What are Republicans saying about Project 2025?

Two GOP senators under consideration to serve as Trump's running mate sought to put space between the White House hopeful and Project 2025, casting it as merely the product of a think tank that puts forth ideas.

"It's the work of a think tank, of a center-right think tank, and that's what think tanks do," Florida Sen. Marco Rubio told CNN's "State of the Union" on Sunday.

He said Trump's message to voters focuses on "restoring common sense, working-class values, and making our decisions on the basis of that."

Ohio Sen. J.D. Vance raised a similar sentiment in an interview with NBC's "Meet the Press," saying organizations will have good ideas and bad ideas.

"It's a 900-page document," he said Sunday. "I guarantee there are things that Trump likes and dislikes about that 900-page document. But he is the person who will determine the agenda of the next administration."

Jaala Brown contributed to this report.

Melissa Quinn is a politics reporter for CBSNews.com. She has written for outlets including the Washington Examiner, Daily Signal and Alexandria Times. Melissa covers U.S. politics, with a focus on the Supreme Court and federal courts.

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First study to measure toxic metals in tampons shows arsenic and lead, among other contaminants

  • By Elise Proulx
  • 3 min. read ▪ Published July 3
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Tampons from several brands that potentially millions of people use each month can contain toxic metals like lead, arsenic, and cadmium, a new study led by a UC Berkeley researcher has found.

Tampons are of particular concern as a potential source of exposure to chemicals, including metals, because the skin of the vagina has a higher potential for chemical absorption than skin elsewhere on the body. In addition, the products are used by a large percentage of the population on a monthly basis—50–80% of those who menstruate use tampons—for several hours at a time.

“Despite this large potential for public health concern, very little research has been done to measure chemicals in tampons,” said lead author Jenni A. Shearston , a postdoctoral scholar at the UC Berkeley School of Public Health and UC Berkeley’s Department of Environmental Science, Policy, & Management. “To our knowledge, this is the first paper to measure metals in tampons. Concerningly, we found concentrations of all metals we tested for, including toxic metals like arsenic and lead.”

Metals have been found to increase the risk of dementia, infertility, diabetes, and cancer. They can damage the liver, kidneys, and brain, as well as the cardiovascular, nervous, and endocrine systems. In addition, metals can harm maternal health and fetal development.

“Although toxic metals are ubiquitous and we are exposed to low levels at any given time, our study clearly shows that metals are also present in menstrual products, and that women might be at higher risk for exposure using these products,” said study co-author Kathrin Schilling , assistant professor at Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health.

Researchers evaluated levels of 16 metals (arsenic, barium, calcium, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, iron, manganese, mercury, nickel, lead, selenium, strontium, vanadium, and zinc) in 30 tampons from 14 different brands. The metal concentrations varied by where the tampons were purchased (US vs. EU/UK), organic vs. non-organic, and store- vs. name-brand. However, they found that metals were present in all types of tampons; no category had consistently lower concentrations of all or most metals. Lead concentrations were higher in non-organic tampons but arsenic was higher in organic tampons.

Metals could make their way into tampons a number of ways: The cotton material could have absorbed the metals from water, air, soil, through a nearby contaminant (for example, if a cotton field was near a lead smelter), or some might be added intentionally during manufacturing as part of a pigment, whitener, antibacterial agent, or some other process in the factory producing the products.

“I really hope that manufacturers are required to test their products for metals, especially for toxic metals,” said Shearston. “It would be exciting to see the public call for this, or to ask for better labeling on tampons and other menstrual products.”

For the moment, it’s unclear if the metals detected by this study are contributing to any negative health effects. Future research will test how much of these metals can leach out of the tampons and be absorbed by the body; as well as measuring the presence of other chemicals in tampons.

Additional authors include: Kristen Upson of the College of Human Medicine, Michigan State University; Milo Gordon, Vivian Do, Olgica Balac, and Marianthi-Anna Kioumourtzoglou of Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health; and Khue Nguyen and Beizhan Yan of Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University.

Funding was provided by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; and the National Institute of Nursing Research.

In the Media:

  • A study found toxic metals in popular tampon brands. Here’s what experts advise  – NPR
  • Lead, Arsenic, Other Toxic Metals Found in Dozens of Tampon Products – Los Angeles Magazine
  • Lead and other toxic metals found in tampons, study finds – The Atlanta Journal-Constitution
  • Toxic Metal in Tampons Risks Brain’s Cognitive Function, Scientists Warn – Newsweek
  • New study finds lead and arsenic in tampons. But don’t panic, experts say – TODAY
  • Tampons contain toxic metals such as lead and arsenic, UC Berkeley study finds – San Francisco Chronicle
  • Toxic Tampon Warning As Arsenic and Lead Found in Common Menstrual Products – Newsweek
  • Some tampons found to contain LEAD and other toxic metals that could be absorbed into the body, alarming study suggests – Daily Mail

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COMMENTS

  1. Research Guides: Newspapers: Using Newspapers for Research

    Newspaper articles can provide a useful source of information, serving as a primary source of information about historical and current events. Some of the benefits of using newspaper articles as primary sources include: Because newspapers also contain commentaries or retrospective articles about events, they can also serve as a secondary source.

  2. How to Cite a Newspaper Article

    Revised on January 17, 2024. To cite an article from a newspaper, you need an in-text citation and a reference listing the author, the publication date, the article's title, the name of the newspaper, and a URL if it was accessed online. Different citation styles present this information differently. The main styles are APA, MLA, and Chicago ...

  3. How to Cite a Newspaper in APA Style

    An APA Style newspaper citation includes the author, the publication date, the headline of the article, and the name of the newspaper in italics. Print newspaper citations include a page number or range; online newspaper citations include a URL. You can easily create citations for newspaper articles using our free APA Citation Generator.

  4. Newspaper Article References

    This page contains reference examples for newspaper articles, including print and online versions, as well as comments on online newspaper articles.

  5. How Are Newspapers Used in Scholarly Research?

    A recent study revealed insights about how academic researchers use newspapers in their scholarly publications, and the widespread impact of newspaper citations in scholarly journals. Some of what we learned from this study wasn't surprising - it affirmed that newspapers are an important resource for research in the arts, social sciences and humanities.

  6. Newspaper articles: primary or secondary sources?

    Newspaper articles as primary sources Newspaper articles are great starting points for research, and can sometimes be invaluable vaults of information, but when you want to use a newspaper article in your paper, you need to know why. Many people assume that newspaper articles are always primary sources, but it's important to ask yourself some questions about the article before you include it ...

  7. Can Literature Review Include Newspaper Articles

    Timeliness And Relevance Newspaper articles are known for their rapid reporting of current events. In certain fields, particularly those related to current affairs, politics, and social issues, including newspaper articles in a literature review can provide up-to-date and relevant information.

  8. Evaluation of Sources

    When to use a newspaper article While newspaper articles are not typically the first choices for inclusion in academic research papers for their analytical content, they do provide first‐hand accounts of events that have historical significance and are excellent examples of primary sources.

  9. Harvard Referencing

    Harvard Referencing - How to Cite a Newspaper Article Newspapers and magazines aren't the most common sources in academic writing. Nevertheless, you may need to cite a magazine or newspaper article when writing about something that has been in the media (or when analysing the media itself). As such, we're looking at how to cite a newspaper article or magazine in Harvard referencing.

  10. How to Cite a Newspaper Article in APA

    Newspapers can be an excellent source of information, as they are published daily and can illustrate emerging events in specific communities. This guide covers how to cite a newspaper according to APA 7.

  11. How to Cite Newspaper Articles in APA: 10 Steps (with Pictures)

    You may want to use newspaper articles as references for information you include in a research paper. Newspaper articles can be especially helpful if you're writing about events that have happened too recently for there to be books or scholarly articles devoted to the topic. When you paraphrase or quote from the article, a citation tells your readers that the information came from somewhere ...

  12. 8. News as a Source

    8. News as a Source. News sources can provide insights that scholarly sources may not or that will take a long time to get into scholarly sources. For instance, news sources are excellent for finding out people's actions, reactions, opinions, and prevailing attitudes around the time of an event—as well as to find reports of what happened at ...

  13. Step 1: Article

    Introduction When working with newspapers and magazines, you will likely begin with an article, especially if you are using digitized newspaper and magazine collections, article indexes, or footnote tracking as strategies for discovering primary sources.

  14. Thoughts about using newspaper articles as sources in a ...

    Thoughts about using newspaper articles as sources in a dissertation? I'm working on my dissertation lit review for my Ed.D. It's about the impacts of a new scholarship program in my state, so there's not a lot of info pertaining to my exact topic, aside from a few peer reviewed journal articles. I'd like to cite a few newspaper articles. Would you find that acceptable?

  15. What Types of References Are Appropriate?

    Highly appropriate: peer-reviewed journal articles In general, you should primarily cite peer-reviewed journal articles in your research papers. Peer-reviewed journal articles are research papers that have been accepted for publication after having undergone a rigorous editorial review process. During that review process, the article was carefully evaluated by at least one journal editor and a ...

  16. How to Research Online Newspaper Articles to Conduct a Qualitative

    Learn how to conduct a qualitative media content analysis using online newspaper articles as a source of data.

  17. Is a newspaper article a primary or secondary source?

    Is a newspaper article a primary or secondary source? Articles in newspapers and magazines can be primary or secondary depending on the focus of your research. In historical studies, old articles are used as primary sources that give direct evidence about the time period. In social and communication studies, articles are used as primary sources ...

  18. Newspapers and Magazines as Primary Sources

    A tutorial on using newspapers and magazines as primary sources for historical research. Emphasis is on analysis and interpretation of these sources, not on finding them.

  19. Are newspaper articles academic references?

    Oct 12, 2021 28673. Newspapers, tabloids and other forms of similar media are not considered academic sources. They are, however, a primary source as they provide firsthand accounts of events or experiences. Academic journals are the most relevant for research and study purposes as they are often refereed (also called "peer reviewed" or ...

  20. Research Guides: Newspapers: Why Use Newspapers

    Why Use Newspapers? Newspaper articles can provide a useful source of information, serving as a primary source of information about historical and current events. Some of the benefits of using newspaper articles as primary sources include:

  21. Newspapers as a research tool

    An article by Mary Feeney, published in Qualitative and quantitative methods in libraries, reporting on scholarly use of newspapers for research. The national newspaper as a tool for educational empowerment: origins and rationale. By John N. Gardner and Betty L. Sullivan, published as part of the University of South Carolina's National Resource ...

  22. Newspaper Articles

    This guide provides basic characteristics of the various types of articles published in periodicals and draws distinctions between when to use a particular source in a college research paper. Characteristics of a Newspaper Article

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    Can I cite "Newspaper report" in my PhD thesis? In the introduction of thesis (for motivation), I want to cite newspaper report, to justify/support the motivation behind the work.

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  28. First study to measure toxic metals in tampons shows arsenic and lead

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