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The impact of service recovery on Consumer-Based Brand Equity (CBBE)

Khan, Muhammad Ali (2022) The impact of service recovery on Consumer-Based Brand Equity (CBBE). PhD thesis, University of Glasgow.

The current thesis contributes to service marketing and branding literature by investigating the impact of service recovery (customer participation in service recovery and firm recovery) on Consumer-Based Brand Equity (CBBE) and perceived justice. This thesis examines the mediating role of perceived justice between service recovery and CBBE. It further identifies the moderating role of service failure severity on the relationships between service recovery, perceived justice and CBBE. Finally, this thesis investigates the occurrence of the service recovery paradox with respect to the dimensions of CBBE.

The theoretical development involves a systematic literature review of service recovery literature which set the parameters to review the branding literature. A total of five research questions are developed to fulfil the research gaps which are identified from the literature review. For the empirical investigation, this research uses an exploratory sequential mixed-method research design to answer the research questions (RQs). The first empirical phase is carried out through a qualitative study. There are 24 Semi-structured interviews conducted for qualitative data collection. The second phase is quantitative and includes a 3 (customer participation in service recovery vs firm recovery vs no recovery) X 2 (low service failure severity vs high service failure severity) factorial scenario-based experiment undertaken by 322 participants. RQ1 is answered in the qualitative phase, whereas RQ2, RQ3, RQ4 and RQ5 are answered in the quantitative phase.

The findings of the qualitative phase suggest that perceived quality, perceived value, brand reputation, brand trust, and brand loyalty are the dimensions of CBBE, which have the tendency to decline after a service failure but may increase after a successful service recovery (RQ1). The positive impact of service recovery on these dimensions of CBBE, perceived justice and overall brand equity is confirmed in the quantitative phase (RQ2). The quantitative findings suggest that perceived justice is a critical mediator between service recovery and CBBE (RQ3). Further, it is concluded that service failure severity is a significant moderator among the relationships except in the case of service recovery and brand reputation (RQ4). Finally, the findings suggest that brand loyalty is the only dimension of CBBE which may produce a service recovery paradox (RQ5).

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The University of Glasgow is a registered Scottish charity: Registration Number SC004401

Service recovery: Literature review and research issues

  • Original Articles
  • Published: 31 August 2011
  • Volume 3 , pages 71–121, ( 2011 )

Cite this article

thesis service recovery

  • Anupam Krishna 1 ,
  • G. S. Dangayach 2 &
  • Rakesh Jain 3  

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18 Citations

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Service recovery has attracted serious research attention in the recent past. Purpose of this paper is to review service recovery research, classify research articles according to their approaches and methodologies, and find the gaps in the literature for better service recovery research. A total of 280 articles from 70 refereed journals and international conferences are classified into nine categories, service failure, customer relationship, customer overall satisfaction, customer behavioral intentions, recovery choices, service recovery paradox, best practices, performance measurement, and literature survey. Research methodologies are classified into conceptual, empirical, descriptive, exploratory cross-sectional and exploratory longitudinal approaches. This study finds lacks in complaint management and recovery processes. This paper could be helpful for business managers to understand the state of mind after a service failure and to capitalize the situation to retain business.

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Anupam Krishna

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Malaviya National Institute of Technology (MNIT), Jaipur, India

G. S. Dangayach

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Malaviya National Institute of Technology, Jaipur, India

Rakesh Jain

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Anupam Krishna : He is a PhD scholar in department of management studies Malaviya National Institute of Technology, Jaipur, India . He is doing PhD in service failure and recovery issues. His subjects of inte-rests are Service failures, services recovery, service recovery paradox, Customer service management.

Dr. G S Dangayach : He is an Associate Professor in Department of Mechanical Engineering in Malaviya National Institute of Technology (MNIT), Jaipur. He was graduated in Mechanical Engineering from M.B.M. Engineering College Jodhpur in the year 1985. He obtained Master’s degree in Production Engineering from Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi. He earned his Doctorate in Industrial Engineering also at Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi. He has published 76 research papers in various National and International Journals. He is Guest Editor of two International Journals viz. International Journal of Manufacturing Technology and Management (IJMTM), International Journal of Business Performance Management (IJBPM). He is Reviewer of Fifteen International Journals. He is Visiting Professor at School of Management, Asian Institute of Technology (AIT) Bangkok. He delivered several Invited Lectures/ Key note addresses in India & abroad. He has 25 years of Teaching and Industrial Engineering.

Dr. Rakesh Jain : He is a professor in Department of Mechanical Engineering, Malaviya National Institute of Technology, Jaipur, India . He is reviewer of many national and international journals. He has a wide number of publications under him.

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Krishna, A., Dangayach, G.S. & Jain, R. Service recovery: Literature review and research issues. J Serv Sci Res 3 , 71–121 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12927-011-0004-8

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Received : 22 May 2010

Accepted : 07 July 2011

Published : 31 August 2011

Issue Date : June 2011

DOI : https://doi.org/10.1007/s12927-011-0004-8

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Macquarie University

Customer participation in service recovery: a systematic literature review and empirical research

Service failures occur frequently in firms. With the aim of addressing such situations, service research has developed a substantial body of knowledge about how firms should respond to service failures, which are known as service recovery attempts. Service recovery has been defined as the actions that a firm takes as a response to a service failure in order to rectify, amend, and restore the losses caused by a service failure. The service recovery literature has grown over the past 45 years and has evolved into an extensive, diversified body of knowledge. An analysis of the literature reveals that early research on service recovery took a firm-oriented perspective and typically focused on firms’ attempts to recover customers and rectify the unpleasant situation, while in the last decade some service recovery researchers moved on to a customer-oriented approach and investigated the issue of how customers could contribute to fixing the problem in a service recovery process. Taking a participatory perspective on service recovery issues requires extending our knowledge of what efforts customers can make in a service recovery process and to what extent customers should be involved in different stages of a service recovery process to enhance positive outcomes for customers. In addition, little attention has been given to determining whether participatory service recovery may form relational connections between the entities involved in the recovery process, including customers, frontline employees, and the service firm. Using a bibliometric approach, the second chapter brings critical attention to the theoretical foundations underlying the service recovery literature. This systematic literature review identifies three main theoretical perspectives and seven research streams in the literature. Furthermore, this chapter discusses several recent advancements, research trends, and gaps in the extant literature that may not have received adequate attention to date and can serve as guidelines for future research. Drawing on the results of the second chapter, the third and fourth chapters address the shortcomings of the current literature on taking a participatory perspective to service recovery situations and the role of customers in a service recovery process. The third chapter takes a more precise look at the role of customers in a service recovery situation. This chapter investigates the effects of customer participation in two distinct stages of the service recovery process, namely solution identification and solution implementation, on customers’ evaluations of the service recovery process. This chapter draws upon a mixed-methods approach combining a qualitative critical incident technique (CIT) study with an experimental design study. The results find that customer participation in either of the stages of solution identification and solution implementation increases customer satisfaction with the recovery process through enhancing customers’ perceived control and empowerment. Therefore, this chapter extends our understanding of the role of customers in a service recovery process and offers customer participation in a service recovery process as an actionable way to enhance the process and outcomes of service recovery (Bagherzadeh et al., 2020). The level of customer participation in a service recovery process may range from being a receiver of the service in a recovery encounter (low level) to actively participating in solving the problem (high level). The fourth chapter brings the relationship investment theory to participatory recovery practices and investigates how customer participation in a service recovery process enhances customers’ perception of rapport with the frontline employee they participate with and, consequently, customer relationship quality with the firm. In addition, this chapter articulates the moderating role of employee age (young vs. middle-aged) in enhancing the effects of customer participation in service recovery on customers’ perception of rapport and customer relationship quality. Furthermore, we examine the psychological process that underlies the effects of employee age on a customer’s perception of rapport through investigating the mediating role of employee trustworthiness. Empirical support for the proposed effects comes from three scenario-based online experimental studies in an airline setting. The findings of this chapter provide new insights for firms to repair interpersonal relationships in a service recovery encounter through involving customers in the recovery process to ensure they keep their relationship with their customers after a service failure incident. Overall, the thesis advances the literature by analysing the service recovery field, and providing novel theoretical explanations to understand the effects of customer participation in different stages of service recovery on customer’s post-recovery outcomes as well as the contribution that participatory recovery practices make to achieving closer relational connections between customers and frontline employees and the service firm.

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Effects of Justice Theory on Service Recovery Satisfaction on Metro Manila Dine-in Experiences

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2014, Philippine Management Review

Service failure happens, but as studies have shown, the recovery efforts performed by the frontline employees can turn these negative experiences to satisfying ones. This empirical study investigated how these recovery efforts affect customer satisfaction. The primary objective of the study was to determine how justice theory affects recovery satisfaction. Using confirmatory factor analysis, results showed that distributive and interactional justices have significant effects on recovery satisfaction, while results provided weak support for procedural justice. The effect of distributive justice on recovery satisfaction was stronger than interactional justice. Results also showed that satisfaction with the recovery efforts positively and significantly affect the customer’s behavioral intentions of repurchase and word-of-mouth communications.

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Abu, Bakar Siti Zakiah. "SERVICE RECOVERY IN E-SERVICES: SERVICE RECOVERY PROCESS, PERCEIVED JUSTICE AND SATISFACTION." OpenSIUC, 2017. https://opensiuc.lib.siu.edu/dissertations/1328.

Selmén, Anna, and Euler Anne von. "Service recovery : “To err is human; recover, divine”." Thesis, Uppsala University, Department of Business Studies, 2006. http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-9065.

Uppsatsen handlar om hur företag hanterar missnöjda kunder, vilket i teorin benämns service recovery. Uppsatsen behandlar ett företag som sedan mindre än ett år tillbaka är en sammanslagning av fyra olika varumärken. Syftet med uppsatsen är att kartlägga hur fallföretaget hanterar missnöjda kunder samt att undersöka möjligheter till förbättringar. Uppsatsen bygger på teorier om service recovery skrivna av Grönroos, Bowen, Hart, Spreng och Best. Avsikten med uppsatsen är att skriva en plan för hur företaget kan förbättra sitt hanterande av missnöjda kunder. För att besvara syftet har vi genomfört tre personliga intervjuer med tre gruppchefer inom fallföretaget. Vi har kommit fram till att det finns en vilja hos samtliga respondenter att hantera service recovery på ett bra sätt. Dock saknas både kunskap och gemensamma rutiner. En annan viktig slutsats är att företaget måste inse vilka kostnadsfördelar service recovery kan medföra. Uppsatsen avslutas med en plan för hur företaget gemensamt kan förbättras och utveckla hanterandet av missnöjda kunder.

Johansson, Niklas E. "Self-Service Recovery." Doctoral thesis, Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, 2007. http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-575.

Service recovery is about problems. What happens when customers experience problems? Well, sometimes customers complain to the one responsible for the service. Sometimes customers do not complain but instead tell somebody else about the problem, possibly leading to a bad reputation for the one responsible for the service. Sometimes it happens that customers never return to the same provider because of the problem experienced. To avoid the customer leaving, service recovery can be used. Service recovery is a set of actions a service pro-vider can take in order to repair a failure (Tax and Brown, 1998; Zemke, 1995; Scheuing and Christopher, 1993; Levesque and McDougall, 2000).

In addition, many services today are Internet-based, meaning that services are self-services enabled by information technology (IT). Self-services enabled by IT, referred to as self-service technology (SST), are characterized by an interac-tion between a user and a machine rather than between two humans. Conse-quently, service recovery is no longer between two people interacting in a face-to-face manner when solving problems, but between a user and a machine when taking place in an SST context.

This change of context has resulted in difficulties but also opportunities in the work of service recovery. Instead of turning to the one responsible for the service when problems occur, it is now possible to turn to other customers and users to receive help. SST has opened up new opportunities to learn with and from other individuals through the sharing of knowledge. The sharing of knowledge for the purpose of turning problems into solutions and improve-ments depends on the ability to create value for people involved.

Service recovery in a self-service technology context, i.e. self-service recovery (SSR) is defined as the capability, enabled by self-service technology, of turning user prob-lems into solutions and improvements by means of sharing knowledge between users in order to create value.

The aim of this doctoral thesis is to answer the question, “Why self-service recovery works?” The question is addressed by seven research studies and by evolving a framework for understanding why self-service recovery works.

The contributions of this dissertation reside from the framework, which en-hances our understanding of self-service recovery as a value creation activity through not only recovery, but also improvement of the service in question.

Johansson, Niklas E. "Self-service recovery /." Karlstad : Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Information Systems, Karlstad University, 2006. http://www.diva-portal.org/kau/theses/abstract.xsql?dbid=575.

Ruksa, Kitija, and Elrener Törnquist. "Service recovery : Vilka strategier har hotell som arbetar med service recovery?" Thesis, Örebro universitet, Restaurang- och hotellhögskolan, 2017. http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-61245.

Hvitman, Sandra, and Elin Rylner. "Service Recovery Policy, Empowerment or both? : A study of the interrelation between service recovery policy and empowerment within service organizations." Thesis, Jönköping University, JIBS, Business Administration, 2005. http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-231.

Today’s economy is getting more service oriented and we live in a service society. The service sector has experienced a great development, which has implied and implies greater competition. The customers have a wider range of services to choose among and as a service provider, it is all about providing a superior service. However, being a service provider can sometimes imply a hard undertaking. Sometimes the service provider does not accomplish to provide the service perfectly. These situations are more known as service failures. Service recoveries are often used to recover service failures, which can e.g. imply an apology or offering the customer something extra at no cost.

To be able to act correctly in a service recovery situation, a com-pany can e.g. have a service recovery policy for how to act in service failure situations. A company can also choose to empower the front-line employees who interact frequently with the customers.

The purpose of the thesis is to determine the interrelation between service recovery policy and empowerment.

The research method chosen in this thesis is qualitative and the in-formation is collected by using semi-formal in-depth interviews as well as verbal protocols. One middle manager and one front-line employee representing three different service companies is partici-pating in the thesis. The three companies operate in three different industries within the service sector.

There is somewhat an interrelation between service recovery policy and the degree of empowerment. A non-specific service recovery policy seems to demand a high degree of empowerment while a specific policy does not seem to require a high degree of empowerment. According to the findings of this thesis, a company can also have a semi-formal policy and a medium degree of empowerment. This means that the more formal and specific service recovery policy, the less empowered staff is required.

Ngae, A. Njama Alain Patrick. "After Sales service : Complaint to Service Recovery Improvement." Thesis, Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan, ELNU, 2012. http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-23031.

Lau, Nga Lok. "Service recovery in airline industry." Thesis, University of Macau, 2006. http://umaclib3.umac.mo/record=b1636417.

Yockel, Sharon Lynn. "Service recovery : a case study /." Online version of thesis, 1997. http://hdl.handle.net/1850/12325.

Ma, Jun. "Attribution, Expectation, and Recovery: An Integrated Model of Service Failure and Recovery." Kent State University / OhioLINK, 2007. http://rave.ohiolink.edu/etdc/view?acc_num=kent1186171198.

Lilienthal, Sonja K. "Service recovery in sport service contexts : an investigation of the veracity of the recovery paradox." The Ohio State University, 1997. http://rave.ohiolink.edu/etdc/view?acc_num=osu1300215011.

Claesson, Jennifer, and Nina Dijnér. "Service Recovery Paradox: A quantitative research concerning customer post-recovery satisfaction in the service sector." Thesis, Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för marknadsföring (MF), 2017. http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-65197.

Edström, Andreas, and Beatrice Nylander. "Where Service Recovery Meets its Paradox : A search for the level of Service Recovery required for the Service Recovery Paradox to occur in the Hotel Industry." Thesis, Högskolan i Gävle, Företagsekonomi, 2021. http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-36114.

Anundi, Daniel. "Service recovery i praktiken : En kvalitativ studie av användandet av service recovery-teorier i ett tjänsteföretag." Thesis, Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, 2011. http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-73062.

Jareankieatbovorn, Natthida. "Customer perceptions of service failure, service recovery and loyalty recovery : an investigation into the airline industry." Thesis, Brunel University, 2018. http://bura.brunel.ac.uk/handle/2438/17131.

Svensson, Tilda, and Gabrielle Wågström. "Interna service recovery strategier inom hotellbranschen." Thesis, Högskolan i Gävle, Avdelningen för ekonomi, 2019. http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-30164.

Hope, Peter C. "Service failure and recovery : relational aspects of communication in the service encounter." Thesis, Queensland University of Technology, 2002.

Ekeström, Frida, and Eva Tiselius. ""Man måste vara egoistisk för att kunna hjälpa andra" : -En studie om hanteringen av service recovery på Icehotel och Björkliden." Thesis, Umeå universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet (USBE), 2011. http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-45595.

Rattfelt, Maria, and Åsa Sjöstrand. "Service Recovery : Tjänsteföretagens viktigaste tillgång i kvalitetsutvecklingen?" Thesis, Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, 2008. http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-3585.

Uppsatsen skrevs i samband med Konsumentverket och undersöker hurKarlstadsbuss använder sig av service recovery i sitt dagliga arbete.

Service recovery innebär att så fort en kund upplevt något negativt i samband med ett företagsmöte så ska denne få återkoppling i form av en ursäkt, pengar tillbaka eller någon annan typ av förmån. Lyckas företaget ge kunden detta så fort som möjligt så förhindrar det att kunden får en negativ bild av företaget som den sprider vidare till personer i sin omgivning.

För att få djupare kunskap i ämnet har tidigare teorier om klagomålshantering, service recovery och hur företag kan motivera sina anställda till att vara mer serviceinriktade studerats.

Syftet med den här uppsatsen är att studera hur service recovery används i ett kollektivtrafikföretag och hur det tillämpas i hela organisationen.

Först studerades teorier inom ämnet och sedan gjordes en empirisk undersökning, uppsatsen är med andra ord uppbyggd enligt den deduktiva strategin.

Gotsis, V. "Service failure and recovery in UK airlines." Thesis, University of Salford, 2016. http://usir.salford.ac.uk/41175/.

Mohammad, Allan, and Jens Olsson. "Service Recovery inom telekombranschen - Hantering av eWOM." Thesis, Högskolan i Gävle, Företagsekonomi, 2019. http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-30152.

Hamadi, Rachid Computer Science &amp Engineering Faculty of Engineering UNSW. "Formal Composition and Recovery Policies in Service-Based Business Processes." Awarded by:University of New South Wales. Computer Science and Engineering, 2005. http://handle.unsw.edu.au/1959.4/20666.


Tan, Chee-Wee. "Understanding e-service failures : formation, impact and recovery." Thesis, University of British Columbia, 2011. http://hdl.handle.net/2429/36390.

Ma, Tiejun. "Quality of service of crash-recovery failure detectors." Thesis, University of Edinburgh, 2007. http://hdl.handle.net/1842/2124.

Johnston, Robert. "The service quality factors : satisfaction, dissatisfaction and recovery." Thesis, University of Warwick, 1993. http://wrap.warwick.ac.uk/34729/.

Sutherland, Sophie. "Forensic mental health service users' narratives of recovery." Thesis, Staffordshire University, 2018. http://eprints.staffs.ac.uk/4904/.

Ching, Wai Fan. "The effect of interpersonal touch during service recovery." Thesis, Queensland University of Technology, 2020. https://eprints.qut.edu.au/201434/1/Wai%20Fan_Ching_Thesis.pdf.

Persson, Josefine, and Amelie Claesson. "Service Quality Dimensions in an Online Context : -A Perspective Comparison of Service Recovery." Thesis, Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan, ELNU, 2012. http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-19390.

Lee, Ching-Yun, and 李錦雲. "The Study of Delay of Service Recovery and Satisfaction of Service Recovery." Thesis, 2003. http://ndltd.ncl.edu.tw/handle/58382213322568025853.

CHANG, SHIH-YUAN, and 張詩苑. "The External Attribution and Service Recovery Satisfaction of Service Co-recovery-Investigation on the Impact of Levels and Results of Service Co-recovery and the Validation of Service Recovery Paradox." Thesis, 2017. http://ndltd.ncl.edu.tw/handle/xq6f89.

Pan, Su-Ching, and 潘素靜. "Service Failure and Service Recovery in Customer Service Center." Thesis, 2010. http://ndltd.ncl.edu.tw/handle/28607277465648262314.

Wu, Ling-Chuan, and 吳綾娟. "The Influences of Mechanistic and Organic Online Services Recovery Approach on Service Recovery Performance." Thesis, 2013. http://ndltd.ncl.edu.tw/handle/47u4hm.

Yu, Chiao-Chin, and 余巧琴. "The associations among orphan policy service recovery strategy, service recovery satisfaction and relationship retention." Thesis, 2015. http://ndltd.ncl.edu.tw/handle/60720959349797283189.

Hou, Yi-Jhen, and 侯亦貞. "The Effect of Service Recovery on Satisfaction of Service Recovery and Third-party Action." Thesis, 2010. http://ndltd.ncl.edu.tw/handle/35707755309070890141.

Cheng, Shao-Cheng, and 鄭紹成. "Service Failure, Service Recovery and Customer Respond in Service industry." Thesis, 1997. http://ndltd.ncl.edu.tw/handle/92372228512882135112.

Ko, Yi-Chun, and 柯怡君. "The Effectiveness of Service Recovery after Service Failure in Online Shopping—Take Service Recovery Satisfaction as a Mediator." Thesis, 2007. http://ndltd.ncl.edu.tw/handle/65294788870610386604.

yih-lan, Tsang, and 臧憶蘭. "A Study of the Relationship among Customer Complaint Behavior, Service Recovery, Service Recovery Performance, Service Recovery Disconfirmation, after Service Recovery Satisfaction and Follow-up Behavior of Customer- An Example of Japanese Airline Call Ce." Thesis, 2008. http://ndltd.ncl.edu.tw/handle/74590246165346065082.

Chen, Pao-Chung, and 陳寶中. "Service failure and service recovery in health care industry : The research of process recovery approach." Thesis, 2007. http://ndltd.ncl.edu.tw/handle/63443593631337107927.

Yu, Ya-Ping, and 游雅萍. "Service Failure and Service Recovery in Apparel Retailing:Dramaturgical Analysis." Thesis, 2007. http://ndltd.ncl.edu.tw/handle/96511512431246032527.

Huang, Wen-Ham, and 黃文翰. "A study of the Relationship Among Service Recovery Disfirmation, Service Recovery Satisfaction and Consumer Behavior Intention." Thesis, 2002. http://ndltd.ncl.edu.tw/handle/02517378904325684383.

Soares, Raquel Vanessa Reis Silva Ferreira. "Service Recovery Paradox: Customers' Response to a Service Failure-Recovery Situation in a Mobile Telecommunications Context." Doctoral thesis, 2015. https://repositorio-aberto.up.pt/handle/10216/78769.

Soares, Raquel Vanessa Reis Silva Ferreira. "Service Recovery Paradox: Customers' Response to a Service Failure-Recovery Situation in a Mobile Telecommunications Context." Tese, 2015. https://repositorio-aberto.up.pt/handle/10216/78769.

Matos, Catarina Duarte Paulos Roque. "Recovery strategies in collaborative consumption: how to recover from a service failure." Master's thesis, 2021. http://hdl.handle.net/10362/112993.

Ting, Chiu-Yao, and 丁秋瑤. "Service recovery strategy from medical institution." Thesis, 2009. http://ndltd.ncl.edu.tw/handle/16936894306289280550.

Liu, Hsin-Long, and 劉新隆. "Exploring Antecedents to Customer Service Recovery Expectation Considering Justice-Based:Exploring Antecedents to Customer Service Recovery Expectation Considering Justice-Based:Exploring Antecedents to Customer Service Recovery Expectation Considering Ju." Thesis, 2006. http://ndltd.ncl.edu.tw/handle/65819095715911586135.

Chao, Tai-Yuan, and 趙泰源. "The Studies of Recovery Effectiveness on Service Failures and Recovery Paradox." Thesis, 2003. http://ndltd.ncl.edu.tw/handle/68094683309737554905.

李婷琪. "Must be forgiven after recovery? Exploring Service Recovery on Repurchase Intention." Thesis, 2019. http://ndltd.ncl.edu.tw/handle/szg929.

Yan, Kuanghung, and 顏匡宏. "The Effects of Service Failure Severity and Service Recovery on Customer Dissatisfaction-The Moderating Effect of Service Recovery Employees’ Physical Attractiveness." Thesis, 2012. http://ndltd.ncl.edu.tw/handle/9a77c3.

CHIHWEN, KO, and 柯智文. "The Moderating Effect of Corporate Image Between Methods of Service Recovery and Customers Satisfaction On Service Recovery." Thesis, 2006. http://ndltd.ncl.edu.tw/handle/52474290022588055988.

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Turkish airlines and airports reap rewards from bet on pandemic recovery

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Adam Samson in Ankara and Philip Georgiadis in London

Roula Khalaf, Editor of the FT, selects her favourite stories in this weekly newsletter.

Turkey’s aviation industry is booming as airlines and airports reap the rewards from years of investment and a bet that international travel would rebound from the pandemic more swiftly than rivals anticipated.

The country’s main airlines — flag carrier Turkish Airlines and low-cost airline Pegasus Airlines — ferried 115mn passengers last year, up 10 per cent from 2019, the year before the pandemic. This compares with global air passenger volumes, which are only likely to exceed pre-pandemic levels this year, according to trade group Airports Council International.

Istanbul airport was the busiest in the Europe region in terms of flight numbers last year, according to data firm OAG, while Turkish Airlines was the third-busiest airline, behind Ryanair and easyJet.

The rapid expansion of Turkey’s aviation sector compared with rivals has led the country to become a dominant player in the European market. The growth comes as the country’s airlines and airports have invested in upgraded infrastructure and fleets, and were quick to bring back capacity following the pandemic. Turkey’s buoyant tourism industry has also provided a boost.

“Turkish aviation was on the rise since before the pandemic . . . in terms of infrastructure and Turkish carriers [also] had the appetite to grow. And once we grew our capacity, we were getting the demand,” said Güliz Öztürk, chief executive of Istanbul-listed Pegasus Airlines.

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thesis service recovery

The rise of Turkish aviation stands in sharp contrast to the picture in western Europe, where parts of the industry are in retreat.

The region’s big national airline groups, British Airways owner IAG, Air France-KLM and Lufthansa, are still flying smaller schedules than in 2019, after cautiously rebuilding their businesses from the pandemic disruption.

Meanwhile leading airports have struggled to expand amid a growing focus on the impact of noise and pollution on local residents, and the broader carbon emissions from increased flights.

London’s Heathrow is focused on a scaled down growth plan after decades-long struggles to build a third runway, while the Dutch government has been pushing to lower the number of flights at Amsterdam’s Schiphol.

Istanbul airport is at the heart of Turkey’s aviation industry. The $11bn international transit hub, which opened in 2019, features a cavernous terminal, around the size of 200 football pitches. Some 76mn passengers passed through Istanbul last year, slightly lower than Heathrow’s 79mn.

The project, pursued by Turkey’s strongman leader Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, was controversial on environmental grounds, but it has been a boon to state-backed Turkish Airlines’ bid to widen its international scale.

“Turkey is a developing country with a demographic surge that could potentially become middle class and kick the entire country forward, so the policy settings are to set sail for growth,” said Andrew Charlton, consultant at advisory Aviation Advocacy.

Turkish Airlines boosted its available seat kilometres (ASK), a key industry metric for capacity, by about 25 per cent last year from 2019 as it expanded its route map and fleet of aircraft. Pegasus has similarly increased its capacity despite the pandemic by building its fleet.

Bar chart of Number of scheduled flights in 2023 (‘000) showing Istanbul is the busiest airport serving the European market

Industry-wide ASK has shrunk 5.6 per cent over the same period as many carriers retrenched during the pandemic, according to the International Air Transport Association.

Turkish Airlines is plotting a further expansion after it ordered in December more than 200 Airbus aircraft , while Pegasus is expecting to receive 68 single-aisle Airbus jets geared towards medium-haul flights over the next five years.

The investments in Turkey’s aviation sector have not been limited to its flagship airport in Istanbul, the country’s biggest city. A second runway recently opened at Istanbul’s Sabiha Gökçen airport, while expansions are under way in the capital Ankara and tourist hotspot Antalya.

Serkan Kaptan, chief executive of TAV, which operates several major airports in Turkey, said the group had been “laying the foundations for growth . . . [through a] continuous investment programme [that stretched through] the pandemic”.

Turkey’s dominant tourism sector has also been a driver for the aviation sector. Tourism revenues, which reached a record $54bn last year, are forecast to hit $60bn in 2024, with a strong rise in foreign visitor numbers thanks to the weak currency.

Pegasus chief executive Güliz Öztürk

The 80 per cent plunge of the lira against the dollar over the past five years has also helped the Turkish airlines, since they generate a significant share of revenue in foreign currencies.

“On the cost side they are benefiting from the cheaper lira. That makes them quite competitive when they try to compete with European carriers like Lufthansa”, said Sathish Sivakumar, head of European transport and infrastructure at Citigroup.  

In 2023, Turkish Airlines’ revenue rose almost 14 per cent to $21bn, placing it within the ranks of top-10 global air carriers by sales, according to FactSet data. Earnings before interest taxes depreciation and amortisation rose 11.7 per cent to $5.5bn.

Still, JPMorgan notes that it expects “operational performance to ease off the peak in 2024-25” as “rising competition [and] softening passenger growth” affect operating profits.

Turkey’s long-running inflation crisis has also increased airlines’ and airports’ non-fuel costs, which are often paid in local currency. Labour costs, for instance, have risen significantly in recent years as Erdoğan’s government has sharply increased the minimum wage.

A bitter row between Turkey and Israel over its offensive in Gaza and instability across the broader region have affected Turkish aviation.

Turkish and Pegasus have both suspended flights to Israel, which had been a popular route. The unrest in the Middle East also depressed Turkish Airlines’ ability to fill seats in late 2023, the airline said.

Despite the geopolitical jitters, European airlines have watched with rising concern the growth of Turkish and airlines in the Gulf which connect east and west via stopovers.

Airlines operating in the EU are subject to the world’s strictest environmental rules, as Brussels charges companies which pollute through its emissions trading scheme , and also plans to bring in a mandate to require airlines to use cleaner but more expensive fuels.

European airlines complain that there is a risk of “carbon leakage” if it is cheaper to break a journey in Istanbul or Dubai rather than fly from point to point on a European airline paying higher environmental taxes.

“More stringent regulation means you might drive people to areas where there is less regulation,” one European airline executive said.

“It is a concern,” said another. “We didn’t care so much about this in 2019 when the cost of polluting in the EU was cheaper, but now we are thinking ‘oh dear’.”

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Behavioral Health Resources for Those Affected by the Violence in Lewiston

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DHHS → Blog → Maine DHHS Supports Recovery and Resiliency in Response to Lewiston Tragedy

Maine DHHS Supports Recovery and Resiliency in Response to Lewiston Tragedy

April 25, 2024

Today marks six months since the tragedy in Lewiston on the evening of October 25, 2023. Since last October, Maine people, businesses, communities, and state government have come together to honor and remember those who died, and to begin walking the road to recovery. Tonight, the Maine Resiliency Center in Lewiston is holding a commemoration event at the Simard-Payne Memorial Park. Participants will gather at 6:30 p.m. for a ceremony in memory of those lost and in honor of all those affected by the shootings. The Center is also asking the community to light candles or lights in their windows tonight.

This is just one example of Maine people coming together to build the foundation for resiliency and recovery.

The Maine Department of Health and Human Services has worked with municipalities, hospitals, schools, and service partners to address behavioral health needs in the aftermath of the tragedy. It remains committed to doing so in the months and years to come. This takes many forms.

On Monday, Governor Janet Mills signed the supplemental budget passed by the Legislature which includes significant investments supporting resiliency and recovery in Lewiston and across Maine. Those investments funded through the Department are summarized here . The budget includes one-time funds for a crisis receiving center in Lewiston, post-traumatic wellness services for first responders, community-based behavioral health services, and filling in the behavioral health service continuum.

Additionally, the Department was awarded a federal grant in March 2024 to support meeting the evolving needs of individuals in Lewiston and surrounding communities. It will fund a trauma-informed learning community that will contribute to a ready and resilient workforce and help build a communications campaign to promote mental well-being and access to services. Additional supports are available for the Deaf and hard-of-hearing as well as New Mainer communities.

Maine DHHS continues to work in close partnership with the Office of the Attorney General and Community Concepts Inc., which operates the Maine Resiliency Center , to coordinate available resources and efforts. The Maine Resiliency Center serves anyone across the state impacted by the events, with support groups and other programming based on age and nature of involvement. More information about the Center can be found here .

Finally, we want Maine people affected by the Lewiston tragedy to know that they don’t have to go it alone. StrengthenME  is a resource for stress management and resiliency that brings together information on how to access services, via phone, text, or through community connection. The path to recovery may take time, and the loss may never fully heal, but connecting to others and to resources is important for well-being. As Governor Mills said in a recent StrengthenME message , if you or a loved one needs help, reach out, because “when times are tough, you don’t need to go it alone.”

Lauren Weisenberger - Celebrating ESA 50th with the Plant Recovery Coordinator in Hawaiʻi

A person in a red jacket standing at the top of a mountain overlooking a gulch and the ocean.

This year is the 50th anniversary of the Endangered Species Act, a law that has been a powerful catalyst for conservation of America’s most treasured fish, wildlife, plants and their habitats. In the Pacific Region, our Tribes, state and federal agencies, and partners have joined with our dedicated staff to be the driving force behind the successes we share and the strength ensuring we can address the challenges ahead. Celebrate this milestone with us in this collection of stories as we reflect on past successes, assess current challenges, and envision an equally bright future for the next 50 years and beyond.

Lauren Weisenberger grew up in Bangor, a small rural town in east central Pennsylvania. She went to college for her undergrad in Allentown, Pennsylvania, and gradaute school at the University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa. Weisenberger has been the plant recovery coordinator with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Pacific Islands Fish and Wildlife Office (PIFWO) for six years. Whether Weisenberger is coordinating Hawaiʻi Rare Plant Genetics Workshops, writing species reports, or making pressed plant bookmarks with keiki for USFWS Bring a Kid to Work Day, her positive attitude and creativity make her so much fun to work with. Daily, she lends her passion to make meaningful contributions for the Service and the communities she engages.

Three small ʻĀhinahina plants.

When selecting a species to represent the Pacific Region for the Endangered Species Act 50th anniversary Weisenberger recommended the ʻāhinahina (Kāʻu silversword, Argyroxiphium kauense ). This plant species is an excellent example of a recovery success because of the collaboration and teamwork between the Service and partner organizations. With more than 440 federally listed plant species in Hawai‘i, Weisenberger works closely with partners like the Plant Extinction Prevention Program (PEPP) to troubleshoot and find solutions to plant recovery of rare species like the ʻāhinahina. As we celebrate the ESA 50th, it is an opportunity to highlight species and their success stories, but it is equally important to also recognize the people in our agency and those we work with who truly make these recovery efforts possible.

A person in a red jacket looking at a bunch of rare Cyanea plants

What influenced you into your current career?

My grandfather. My grandparents lived in the Pocono Mountains in Pennsylvania, and I have nice memories of hiking with him through the forest and along the Pocono Creek, observing wildlife, such as white-tailed deer and black bears, and picking blueberries and black walnuts. I used to sit for hours cracking open walnuts in their driveway. My first career-oriented job was at the Lyon Arboretum Seed Conservation Laboratory, where I made the easy transition from eating my harvest to learning how to germinate and store them! I was excited by how much there was to learn about seeds of rare Hawaiian plants, and that every single bit of data we collected at the lab could substantially contribute to the protection and restoration of not only that species, but also closely-related species.

What are you currently working on?

Recovery Plans! With 442 listed plants at PIFWO, we try to invest in a standard approach for providing the best recovery guidance we can for each species. We are currently working on drafting recovery plans for over 100 plant species, and we conduct around 90 plant five-year reviews, annually. Data management is key to the process, and the Recovery and Strategic Habitat Conservation teams at PIFWO are working on how best to collect and organize data to provide us with the data analysis we need to track the recovery of each species.

What is the most rewarding part about the work that you do?

For me, it is making connections between people that help with their efforts in plant conservation and providing any support to species and land managers who are working to prevent species extinctions, restore habitats, and other conservation efforts.

A person in a blue shirt standing next to a rare lobelia with bright pink flowers in a wet forest.

Why are partnerships and collaborations important for the work that you do?

There is so much work to do and it can be overwhelming from time to time. There are so many native plant species in decline, hundreds threatened with extinction daily, and healthy native habitats are becoming exceedingly rare. We need each other to make progress. We also need to hear and share successes and failures, our victories and frustrations, to find the paths forward. We all have unique roles to play in conservation and when those roles intersect and fit together with others, we can make the greatest impact.

This is especially true throughout Hawaiʻi where the flora is such an amazing example of adaptive radiation and speciation. For example, there are dozens of species of Cyanea throughout the islands. So when we learn something about the biology or impacts of threats, for one species, we have information that may be critical for protecting 50 more species.

A person in a red jacket with a rare Cyanea plant in a wet forest surrounded by other green plants.

We have a few examples of how this collaborative process works. The first is the Hawaiʻi Rare Plant Restoration Group, which serves as the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Species Survival Commission, Hawaiian Islands Plant Specialist Group:

“The Hawaiʻi Rare Plant Restoration Group (HRPRG) is an informal alliance of public and private agencies and organizations working to prevent the extinction of native Hawaiian plants and provide for their recovery through integrated in situ (on-site) and ex situ (off-site) efforts through its diverse and committed membership. Partners work collaboratively to sample, propagate, and reintroduce rare plants, and to advance the preservation of native plants and their habitats through effective communication and public education.”

We meet quarterly to hear updates from all partners, as well as updates from subcommittees. The subcommittees focus on the HRPRG best management practices for plant conservation, with guidance ranging from how to collect from rare plants, to growing plants in nurseries, to viewing plants in the wild.

One of the most significant contributions of this network was the effort to recognize and articulate the need for, and creation of, the Plant Extinction Prevention Program (PEPP), whose mission statement is “preserving Hawaiʻi’s rarest plants through teamwork”, and who focuses primarily on species with 50 or fewer wild plants remaining in the wild. Through support through the Service, State of Hawaiʻi, and University of Hawaiʻi, PEPP botanists work on Kauaʻi, Oʻahu, Molokaʻi, Maui Lānaʻi, and Hawaiʻi, and in close collaboration with private landowners and propagation facilities. The PEPP program itself could not exist on its own. The program conducts management at the species level and works across property boundaries and islands to protect these critically endangered plants. It also relies upon propagation and storage facilities to grow plants, store seeds, and conduct research. This model for rare plant conservation has also been adopted in the Mariana Islands.

More recently, several of our partners recognized the need to expand this network to include all aspects of plant conservation in Hawaiʻi, as well as the development of goals to track and report statewide progress across all partners on our shared plant conservation efforts. This effort led to the formation of Laukahi, the Hawaiian Plant Conservation Network, which currently serves as an informal umbrella network for HRPRG and collectively implements the Hawaiʻi Strategy for Plant Conservation.

A tall ahinahina plant next to shorter ahinahina plants.

What does it mean to you to celebrate the ESA 50th anniversary this year?

It makes me excited and grateful to work for the USFWS and to appreciate the significance and utilize the support the ESA gives to protect plants. This is a time to summarize progress and highlight successes and next steps. Argyroxiphium kauense (Kāʻu silversword, ʻāhinahina) is the endangered species representing Region 1 for the 50th anniversary of the ESA. When listed in 1993, there were two populations totaling 540 individuals. Over the following 20 years, the number of individuals declined to fewer than 50 individuals due to persistent threats, such as ungulates. However, the ESA enabled partners to collect seeds and rescue plants from the remnant populations, develop and execute an extensive controlled breeding program to produce thousands of seeds and plants, and reintroduce over 21,000 plants representing 169 founders into protected habitat. These plants have successfully established and reproduced. Careful monitoring over the next decade will provide us with the data to continue to quantify this success and learn from it.

Birds eye view of an ahinahina plant, wet with dew or rain.

I believe this species of ʻāhinahina emphasizes the value of the ESA, to support partners and landowners to protect and recovery species. When we have the tools to control the threats, we can identify a pathway to recovery. When the tools to control threats are not in our hands, the path forward has temporary roadblocks that we need to work together to remove. Celebrating ESA at 50 is a time to identify and plan for challenges ahead.

Lastly, it is a time to reflect on how we can best protect all species threatened with extinction. Every species deserves protection from extinction, regardless of where they are located or which biological kingdom they belong to. It is the healthy, resilient ecosystem on that land (or air or water) that owns ours and every species, future.

I am incredibly humbled to be a Service employee and serve not only the public but the plants they rely on for survival.

The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service works with others to conserve, protect, and enhance fish, wildlife, plants, and their habitats for the continuing benefit of the American people. For more information, visit www.fws.gov/pacificislands , or connect with us through any of these social media channels at https://www.facebook.com/PacificIslandsFWS , www.flickr.com/photos/usfwspacific/ , https://medium.com/usfwspacificislands or www.twitter.com/USFWSPacific .

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