The Monstrous Body of Knowledge in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein

Studies in romanticism , 14 (1995), 227-53.

Galvanism . . . independently of other advantages, holds out such hopes of utility in regard to . . . mankind; a work containing a full account of the late improvements which have been made in it . . . cannot fail of being acceptable to the public in general, and in particular to medical men, to whose department, in one point of view, it more essentially belongs. Preface to Giovanni Aldini's Improvements of Galvanism (1803) 1 Death snatches away many blooming children, the only hopes of their doating parents. Mary Shelley, Frankenstein (1818) [ 3.4.4 ]

1. Knowledge and Culture

Ii. knowledge and narrative, iii. product vs. process.

If I have conceived an earnest desire of being the benefactor of my race, I shall no doubt, find out a channel in which for [sic] my desire to operate, and shall be quick-sighted in discovering the defects, or comparative littleness, of the plan I may have chosen. ( 306 )
It was very different, when the masters of science sought immortality and power; such views, although futile, were grand: but now the scene was changed. The ambition of the inquirer seemed to limit itself to the annihilation of those visions on which my interest in science was chiefly founded. I was required to exchange chimeras of boundless grandeur for realities of little worth. ( 41 ) 20
Knowledge is not, like food, destroyed by use, but rather augmented and perfected. It acquires not, perhaps, a greater certainty, but at least {236} a confirmed authority and a probable duration, by universal assent; and there is no body so complete, but that it may acquire accession, or so free from error but that it may receive correction in passing through the minds of millions. (69)

IV. The Body of Knowledge

has its own peculiar terms, and, so to speak, its own idioms of language; and these it would be unwise, were it even possible, to relinquish; but everything that tends to clothe it in a strange and repulsive garb, and especially every thing that, to keep up an appearance of superiority over the rest of mankind, assumes an unnecessary guise of profundity and obscurity, should be sacrificed without mercy. Not to do this, is to deliberately reject the light which the natural unencumbered good sense of mankind is capable of throwing on every subject. (70)

V. Applied Knowledge

I thought, that if I could bestow animation upon lifeless matter, I might in process of time (although I now found it impossible) renew life where death had apparently devoted the body to corruption. ( 49 )
passed an electric shock from one leg to the other, the effect of which was extremely surprising; the patient started, opened his eyes, and seemed very much frightened. . . . The shocks were repeated three or four times in the space of ten minutes; after the last, a kind of hysteric affection took place, and seemed further to relieve him; his feet became warm, a general perspiration ensued, [and] he became quite rational. (53)
when suddenly her foot slipt, and she fell into the rapid stream. I rushed from my hiding place, and, with extreme labour from the force of the current, saved her, and dragged her to shore. She was senseless; and I endeavoured, by every means in my power, to restore animation . . . ( 137 )
I believe that it were better for you if you were dead, for I fancy it will go hard with you! . . . However, that's none of my business, I am sent to nurse you, and get you well; I do my duty with a safe conscience, it were well if every body did the same. ( 175 )
In the mean time the reader, will, doubtless, receive satisfaction from this short notice he [Aldini] has enabled me to give of his labour, on a subject which promises greatly to extend the limits of natural science and may be reasonably expected to add to the powers which man is enabled to exert for his own benefit over the numerous beings around him. 31

VI. Nurturing and Science

{245} Wealth was an inferior object; but what glory would attend the discovery, if I could banish disease from the human frame, and render man invulnerable to any but a violent death! ( 34 )
Dream that my little baby came to life again -- that it had only been cold & that we rubbed it by the fire & it lived -- I awake & find no baby -- I think about the little thing all day. (70)
We would like of all things to have a house near you by the seaside at Livorno but the heat would frighten me for William who is so very delicate -- and we must take the greatest possible care of him this summer -- We shall at least be within reach of a good english physician & we have the most rooted contempt & in any case of illness the greatest dread of Italian Medicos. (98)

VII. Demonstrating Knowledge in Society

Death snatches away many blooming children, the only hopes of their doating parents; how many brides and youthful lovers have been one day in the bloom of health and hope, and the next a prey for worms and the decay of the tomb! ( 174 )

knowledge in frankenstein essay


Mary shelley, everything you need for every book you read..

Welcome to the LitCharts study guide on Mary Shelley's Frankenstein . Created by the original team behind SparkNotes, LitCharts are the world's best literature guides.

Frankenstein: Introduction

Frankenstein: plot summary, frankenstein: detailed summary & analysis, frankenstein: themes, frankenstein: quotes, frankenstein: characters, frankenstein: symbols, frankenstein: literary devices, frankenstein: quizzes, frankenstein: theme wheel, brief biography of mary shelley.

Frankenstein PDF

Historical Context of Frankenstein

Other books related to frankenstein.

  • Full Title: Frankenstein, or, The Modern Prometheus
  • When Published: 1818
  • Literary Period: Switzerland and London, England: 1816–1817
  • Genre: Gothic novel
  • Setting: Switzerland, France, England, Scotland, and the North Pole in the 18th century
  • Climax: The Monster's murder of Elizabeth Lavenza on her wedding night to Victor
  • Antagonist: The Monster
  • Point of View: Frankenstein is told through a few layers of first person narratives. Walton is the primary narrator, who then recounts Victor's first-person narrative. In addition, Victor's narrative contains the monster's first person story as well as letters from other characters.

Extra Credit for Frankenstein

A ghost story. On a stormy night in June of 1816, Mary Shelley, her husband, and a few other companions, including the Romantic poet Lord Byron, decided to try to write their own ghost stories, but Shelley couldn't come up with any ideas. A few nights later, she had a dream in which she envisioned "the pale student of unhallowed arts" kneeling beside his creation—the monster. She began writing the story that became Frankenstein the next morning.

The Tale of Two Frankensteins. Shelley published the first edition of Frankenstein anonymously, perhaps due to her concern that such a grim and violent tale would not be well received by her audience if they knew her gender. She revised the novel and published it under her real name in 1831. Some key differences exist between the editions, namely that in the first edition, Elizabeth is Alphonse's niece and, therefore, Victor's cousin. (In the 1831 edition, the more popular version and the one used in this Outline, the Frankensteins adopt Elizabeth from another family).

The logo.

Join Now to View Premium Content

GradeSaver provides access to 2355 study guide PDFs and quizzes, 11005 literature essays, 2762 sample college application essays, 926 lesson plans, and ad-free surfing in this premium content, “Members Only” section of the site! Membership includes a 10% discount on all editing orders.


The theme of knowledge portrayed in frankenstein anonymous 12th grade.

Humankind has been unravelling the secrets of the universe for millennia, discovering more about the world in the process; but will we ever reach a point where we know too much? That is indeed the premise of Shelley’s “The Modern Prometheus”; a presentation of the consequences a man faces for knowing more than he can control. In Frankenstein, the idea of knowledge always seems to be linked with the source of the protagonist’s abundant feelings of foreboding and misery. The protagonist changes ascetically during his pursuit of greater knowledge with high hopes for his success, but Shelly forbids the better outcome for Victor. Knowledge is vetted as a negative concept in Frankenstein by haunting the primary protagonist with a sense of isolation from humanity and blame for the events that were the indirect effect of Victor gaining too much knowledge.

In the first volume, the reader is confronted by the scene when Victor witnesses an oak tree get struck by lightning, which is symbolic to the attainment of knowledge in Prometheus; as fire and lightning were used to represent the power of knowledge in Greek mythology, specifically the ability to have free will (hence “The Modern Prometheus). The lighting is seen as something...

GradeSaver provides access to 2313 study guide PDFs and quizzes, 10989 literature essays, 2751 sample college application essays, 911 lesson plans, and ad-free surfing in this premium content, “Members Only” section of the site! Membership includes a 10% discount on all editing orders.

Already a member? Log in

knowledge in frankenstein essay


Guide cover image

88 pages • 2 hours read

Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus

A modern alternative to SparkNotes and CliffsNotes, SuperSummary offers high-quality Study Guides with detailed chapter summaries and analysis of major themes, characters, and more.

Chapter Summaries & Analyses

Letters 1-4

Chapters 1-4

Chapters 5-8

Chapters 9-12

Chapters 13-16

Chapters 17-20

Chapters 21-24

Character Analysis

Symbols & Motifs

Important Quotes

Essay Topics

Further Reading & Resources

Discussion Questions

The Dangers of Knowledge

In Frankenstein , though knowledge is beneficial to humankind, there are limits to the kinds of knowledge humans should attempt to acquire. Frankenstein’s warnings against acquiring this dangerous knowledge are woven into the novel from the beginning. The very reason he tells his story is to keep Walton from following in his footsteps.

Frankenstein describes how, growing up, he was drawn to the promise of alchemy and had a “thirst for knowledge” (25). Once he arrived at university, he gravitated to the practicality of natural sciences. However, it is not just knowledge he desires as an adult; he craves “the secrets of heaven and earth” (23). Furthermore, he seeks this knowledge not solely for the benefit of mankind but also for the personal glory it will bring. 

Get access to this full Study Guide and much more!

  • 7,200+ In-Depth Study Guides
  • 5,000+ Quick-Read Plot Summaries
  • Downloadable PDFs

He is attracted to natural scientists’ “almost unlimited powers” (33). When he discovers the secret of creating life, he revels in the fact that “[w]hat had been the study and desire of the wisest men since the creation of the world was now within [his] grasp” (37). He imagines that “[a] new species would bless [him] as its creator and source” and that “many happy and excellent natures would owe their being” to him (39). 

blurred text

Don't Miss Out!

Access Study Guide Now

Ready to dive in?

Get unlimited access to SuperSummary for only $ 0.70 /week

Related Titles

By Mary Shelley

Guide cover image

The Last Man

Mary Shelley

Featured Collections

Audio study guides.

View Collection

British Literature

#commonreads 2020, nature versus nurture, romanticism / romantic period, safety & danger.

Home — Essay Samples — Literature — Frankenstein — Victor Frankenstein: Nature Vs Nurture


Victor Frankenstein: Nature Vs Nurture

  • Categories: Frankenstein Gender Discrimination Nature Versus Nurture

About this sample


Words: 642 |

Published: Mar 16, 2024

Words: 642 | Page: 1 | 4 min read

Table of contents

Nature versus nurture: an overview, victor frankenstein: a product of nature, nurture's influence on victor, the tragic consequences.

Image of Dr. Charlotte Jacobson

Cite this Essay

Let us write you an essay from scratch

  • 450+ experts on 30 subjects ready to help
  • Custom essay delivered in as few as 3 hours

Get high-quality help


Verified writer

  • Expert in: Literature Social Issues Psychology


+ 120 experts online

By clicking “Check Writers’ Offers”, you agree to our terms of service and privacy policy . We’ll occasionally send you promo and account related email

No need to pay just yet!

Related Essays

5 pages / 2316 words

6 pages / 2868 words

5 pages / 2300 words

3.5 pages / 1676 words

Remember! This is just a sample.

You can get your custom paper by one of our expert writers.

121 writers online

Still can’t find what you need?

Browse our vast selection of original essay samples, each expertly formatted and styled

Related Essays on Frankenstein

Mary Shelley’s novel, Frankenstein, explores the dangers of the relentless pursuit of knowledge and the consequences of playing god. Through the character of Victor Frankenstein, Shelley delves into the pitfalls of unchecked [...]

Bloom, Harold. Mary Shelley's Frankenstein. New York, NY: Chelsea House Publ, 2007. Print. Burt, Daniel S. The Biography Book: A Reader's Guide to Nonfiction, Fictional, and Film Biographies of More Than 500 of the Most [...]

Mary Shelley's novel, Frankenstein, has garnered widespread acclaim and has become a staple in literary and academic circles. However, it has also faced considerable criticism due to its portrayal of science, gender roles, and [...]

Shelley, Mary. 'Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus.' Lackington, Hughes, Harding, Mavor, & Jones, 1818.Stoker, Bram. 'Dracula.' Archibald Constable and Co., 1897.Cunningham, Gail. 'The New Woman and the Victorian Novel.' [...]

Exclusively raising opposition to commonplace phenomena can only go as far as just that: talk of a new contrary, and usually unwanted, opinion. The crucial ingredient in making a significant impact with a foreign idea is to make [...]

The creation of life is a cautionary metaphor for the advancement of science in Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein. Today, however, this type of life-generating science is commonplace. It does not take place in the laboratory of a [...]

Related Topics

By clicking “Send”, you agree to our Terms of service and Privacy statement . We will occasionally send you account related emails.

Where do you want us to send this sample?

By clicking “Continue”, you agree to our terms of service and privacy policy.

Be careful. This essay is not unique

This essay was donated by a student and is likely to have been used and submitted before

Download this Sample

Free samples may contain mistakes and not unique parts

Sorry, we could not paraphrase this essay. Our professional writers can rewrite it and get you a unique paper.

Please check your inbox.

We can write you a custom essay that will follow your exact instructions and meet the deadlines. Let's fix your grades together!

Get Your Personalized Essay in 3 Hours or Less!

We use cookies to personalyze your web-site experience. By continuing we’ll assume you board with our cookie policy .

  • Instructions Followed To The Letter
  • Deadlines Met At Every Stage
  • Unique And Plagiarism Free

knowledge in frankenstein essay

104 Frankenstein Essay Topics & Examples

Looking for Frankenstein essay topics? You’re in the right place! Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein continues to be one of the most read books 200 years after it was written.

❓ Top 10 Frankenstein Essay Questions

🧟‍♂️ frankenstein essay themes, 👹 frankenstein essay characters, 📚 literary devices in frankenstein, 🏆 best frankenstein essay examples, 📃 good frankenstein essay topics, ✍️ frankenstein research paper topics.

In your Frankenstein essay, you might want to analyze good vs. evil characters in the novel. Another option is to write about the Monster and his role in the book. The theme of humanity is also worth focusing on. Whether you’re planning to write an argumentative or critical analysis essay on Frankenstein, this article will be helpful. Here we’ve collected Frankenstein essay questions and answers, writing tips, and top Frankenstein essay examples. Go on reading to learn more!

  • Why did Mary Shelley write “Frankenstein”?
  • Where does “Frankenstein” take place and what role does setting play in the novel?
  • What genre is “Frankenstein”?
  • Why is Frankenstein called the modern Prometeus?
  • Who is the real monster in “Frankenstein”?
  • What is the main theme of “Frankenstein”?
  • What natural phenomena influenced Frankenstein?
  • What do Victor and Walton have in common in “Frankenstein”?
  • Why does Frankenstein feel he has the right to take the life of his monster?
  • How has Victor changed by the end of “Frankenstein”?

💡 Frankenstein Essay Prompts

Writing a Frankenstein essay can be easy if you know what to write about. That’s why we gathered some ideas to get your essay started. You might want to write about the writing style of the novel, genre, symbols, characters, themes, or imagery. In general, we can divide all the topics into three categories: themes, characters, and literary devices.


The monster in Frankenstein is judged based on his grotesque appearance. Many pieces of literature have the idea of appearances as a prevalent, e.g., Little Zaches , Great Zinnober , The Hunchback of Notre Dame , etc.

If you’re assigned to write a compare and contrast essay, you might want to compare the monster and, for example, The Picture of Dorian Grey and The Hunchback of Notre Dame.

In the novel, Victor Frankenstein states he was destined to create the monster. Think, if his actions were a matter of fate or he had a choice? Or is he just using destiny as an excuse? How did Victor’s actions cause his and monster’s isolation? Argue about fate in Frankenstein. Analyze how man’s choice can impact his life.


Even though that seems like everyone in Mary Shelley’s novel is seeking revenge, try to take a closer look and see the theme of mercy and compassion.

Does Victor feel sympathy for the monster he created? Does the monster seek compassion and forgiveness from society? Think about these questions when you will write your Frankenstein essay outline.

Victor Frankenstein

While reading the novel, you will see how Frankenstein’s character develops from a mad scientist who pretended to become a God to a man, feeling guilty for creating such a monster. You might want to analyze Frankenstein’s character in your paper.

The monster

Also, you can examine the monster character who is intelligent but beaten by society due to his appearance. Explore how society can be prejudiced to anyone different. You can find out examples in other literary works to compare and contrast with Frankenstein’s monster.

Point of view

If you’re still looking for more Frankenstein essay topics, consider writing about points of view in the novel. Here’s the deal: most stories stick with one narrator, while Frankenstein is an exception.

You will learn about the story through Frankenstein and the monster’s perspectives, through Walton’s letters, and a third-person narrator. You can’t be sure which story (if any) is true. And your job as a writer, join all the events together and try to find the truth.

Think, only the monster or only Frankenstein narrated this novel, how it would change?

Frankenstein essay symbolism

When you are composing your Frankenstein essay titles, think about essential symbols in the novel. If you turn out the full title of the book, you will find a connection to Greek mythology. Prometheus gave fire to humanity, thus gave them knowledge.

And, like Prometheus, Victor also wished to bring knowledge and life when he created the monster. But, at the same time, the monster also learned the power of fire and realized that it could bring danger along with the light.

Frankenstein essay irony

Another topic example you may use in your writing is the irony. Victor Frankenstein tried to create life but also brought destruction through the monster he created.

If you still have no idea of how you can incorporate irony into your essay, check our Frankenstein essay examples to help you cope with writer’s block.

  • Dr Frankenstein & His Monster: Compare & Contrast His need to exert vengeance for the death of Elizabeth and Henry proves that he had a desire for a family but chose not to work on it.
  • The Dangers of Science in Frankenstein by Mary Shelley Her assertion is that science is equal to power, the power to create. Frankenstein reads like a warning to the modern world about the dangers of science.
  • Frankenstein: The Theme of Birth Frankenstein is a ruthless man who can stop at nothing in his pursuit of knowledge, and when he discovered the secrets of life, he uses it to create a monster.
  • Romanticism in Frankenstein: The Use of Poetry in the Novel’s Narrative Although the dark and horrific motifs of Frankenstein may appear to contrast with the bright tones and subjects of such poetry, there is a clear connection, as established in the text, between the poetry of […]
  • Who Is More Human Than the Monster of Frankenstein? By opposing the monster created by a scientist and the creator, Victor Frankenstein, the author alludes to the true meaning of being a human beyond the mere form of existence but rather living by virtues.
  • “Frankenstein” by Mary Shelley The monster then travels to Geneva and meets a little boy called William in the woods, where he hopes that the young boy who is not yet corrupted by the views of older people and […]
  • Homosexuality in Frankenstein by Mary Shelley However, at the same time, these breaks from the traditions incited a response reaction in favor of more traditional social roles in other areas, such as the refutation of male sexual relationships to the extent […]
  • Feminism in Frankenstein by Mary Shelley Mary Wollstonecraft expressly makes her stand known in advocating for the rights of the women in her novel, A Vindication of the Rights of Woman, but her daughter is a bit reluctant to curve a […]
  • Macbeth & Frankenstein: Compare & Contrast In the being of the play, we assume that Macbeth is akin to the king, a loyal soldier, and a person “full of the milk of human kindness”.
  • Victor Frankenstein vs. the Creature: Compare & Contrast While discussing the main characters, one is to keep in mind that the creator of the monster Victor Frankenstein and his creature are the principal figures of the novel.
  • Frankenstein & the Context of Enlightenment The public was becoming more and more involved in the debates being waged, particularly as newspapers and other periodicals became more prevalent with the introduction of the printing press, introducing and maintaining widespread discourse in […]
  • Theme of Knowledge in Frankenstein: The Modern Prometheus by Mary Shelley The milieu in which the novel, Frankenstein; The Modern Prometheus is situated served as a warning to people that the technological developments brought about by the quest for knowledge could bring about the very threat […]
  • The Role of Women in Frankenstein This shows that the woman presented to us has a strong character that enables her to deal with the enormous loss in her life.
  • Frankenstein: Monster’s Appearance & Visual Interpretations However, to my mind, the difference in the contexts of the novel and famous film can be neglected as the monster’s appearance is repulsive enough.
  • Innocence of Frankenstein’s Monster The name of the novel as Frankenstein conceals the major occurrence of the novel, hence, masking the intentions of the writer at first.
  • Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein as a Tragedy Another tragedy in the novel appertains to the difficulties that faced Victor and his family after the creation of the monster.
  • Frankenstein: a Deconstructive Reading In the story, Frankenstein assumes the position of the creator while the monster is the created being. As a creator who is ready to sail in the glory that his work will bring him, Frankenstein […]
  • Social Issues in “Frankenstein” Film Frankenstein’s monster represents the mangled and depressed soldiers returning from the war only to find an economy in crisis, given that the Great Depression was in the offing after the war.
  • Mary Shelley’s “Frankenstein” (1994) For instance, the Arctic scenery, the subtle fact that the creature can converse in the human voice and is smart and able to experience pain, the series of events related to William’s death and the […]
  • Ethical Issues in the Novel “Frankenstein” by Mary Shelley The paper looks at the ethical issues that the author highlights in her paper, such as the promotion of artificial life to help in the development of the discussions of this paper. Victor Frankenstein is […]
  • Mary Shelley’s Fears in “Frankenstein” Mary Shelley’s creation is often spoken about as a philosophical work telling about the influences of industrialization and technological progress on the society and the ideas about the values of life and death, the argument […]
  • Doctor Frankenstein: Hero, Villain or Something in Between? Even though he sets out to find and destroy the monster that he created, he knows that the challenge he is facing is much great.
  • Responsibility in “Frankenstein” by Mary Shelly Despite the description of a being created by Frankenstein as a wretch and the evil that he commits, he causes the feeling of sympathy.
  • Curse and Blessing in “Frankenstein” by Mary Shelley The idea that knowledge can be a curse is portrayed because the creature that the protagonist, Victor Frankenstein, has created relying on his knowledge harms himself and his family.
  • Science & Nature in Frankenstein & Blade Runner A novel Frankenstein by Mary Shelley is a romantic work that reflects the consequences of “blind science” and human ambition, and Blade Runner by Ridley Scott depicts the industrialized society and world of the future […]
  • Scientific Responsibility in “Frankenstein” by Shelley Shelley uses the anguish of both Frankenstein and the Monster to warn readers of the negative consequences of the pursuit of knowledge.
  • The Novel “Frankenstein” by Mary Shelley: Impact of Galvanism Galvanism is the technique of resurrecting a corpse and advancing Luigi Galvani’s research on using electricity to advance and extend life.
  • Ethics of Discovery in Mary Shelley’s “Frankenstein” The extent and horrific nature of the experiments encouraged the international community to prohibit scientific and medical experiments that cause harm to people in a treaty that would be called the Geneva Convention.
  • Ethics as a Theme in Frankenstein by Mary Shelley From the novel, it is evident that humans drove the monster into a state of madness when they subjected it to hatred and rejection, and thus the monster’s madness emerged due to the treatment it […]
  • “Frankenstein and Critique of Imperialism” by Gayatri Spivak What the author sets out to do is to expound on the intensity of imperialism in the story. There are several themes in the novel, but the central questions that the article seeks to addresses […]
  • Not Born a Monster: Nature vs. Nurture and the Creature in “Frankenstein” Among the things, the novel implicitly refers to the age-old nature vs.nurture debate about whether one’s personality is defined by the inborn qualities or the upbringing one receives in the course of one’s life.
  • Motifs and Themes in Mary Shelley’s “Frankenstein” Moreover the paper also describes the concept of education and upbringing of child through the analysis of charter of Frankenstein in the novel.
  • Frankenstein Attempts to Generate a Socially or Politically “Appropriate” Additionally the paper respond to the questions: does the film expel, discipline, or otherwise “manage” the elements of the film that might conflict the sanctioned meaning and whether these elements end up subverting or overwhelming […]
  • Mary Shelley’s ‘Frankenstein’: Chapter 18 Analysis This paper takes a critical look at the inclusion of chapter 18 in the publication entitled ‘Frankenstein’ by Mary Shelley and its significance in enabling a better understanding of the drama in the chapter. It […]
  • Nature of Child in Shelley’s “Frankenstein” These behaviors include understanding love and care, the role of parents, and fears of sharing affection. Victor believes that he should reflect his parents’ love for him to the creature.
  • The Symbol of Fire in Frankenstein by Mary Shelley The fire symbolizes the ambivalent nature of the creation: one the one hand, it grants rebirth and creates life, one the other mercilessly punishes people. The fire in the novel is the ultimate power regulating […]
  • Science and Integrity in Frankenstein and Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde Human experimentation is a violation of integrity and scientific norms, notwithstanding the fact that Dr. To conclude, the topics of science and integrity in Dr.
  • Frankenstein Murderer: Hero Analysis and Careful Study of the Case Knowing that the monster intended to cause yet more destruction in the world and who the monster was likely to target, Frankenstein’s deliberate refusal to do anything to help his creation comprises another instance of […]
  • Roles of Education & Family in Frankenstein In the story, the family serves as one of the major socializing agents in society. The role of love in the family is an additional theme that can be depicted in the story.
  • Responsibility as a Theme in Frankenstein In sum, through the character of Victor, Shelley portrays that a person matures when he can accept responsibilities for his actions and their consequences.
  • Comparison of Victor and the Creature in ”Frankenstein” by Mary Shelley Victor Frankenstein, the main character of the story, intentionally adopts the position of God in his attempt to overcome the forces of life and death and place them directly in the hands of man.
  • Frankenstein by Mary Shelley: Divine and Satanic Hetherington adequately concludes that Victor Frankenstein is a symbol of God through the creation of a new being, and the monster is a symbol of Satan due to his deeds.
  • Genetics, Reproductive and Cloning Technology in “Frankenstein” If Mary Shelley was for the idea of cloning technology, I think her novel would have ended up with Frankenstein creating a female companion for the monster to compliment the theme of love in the […]
  • Mary Shelley’s “Frankenstein” and H.G. Wells’s “The Island of Dr. Moreau” Frankenstein and Wells’s recognize outcomes of genetic engineering and scientific experiments that lose locus of control and result in to unexpected outcomes that add a new dimension of the body of knowledge to the literature […]
  • Humor and Technology in “Young Frankenstein” Film One of the debates of the day was the question of the proper role of the scientist in the contemporary age, addressed in the novel Frankenstein written by Mary Shelley.
  • Mary Shelley’s Novel Frankenstein or the Modern Prometheus This is the main theme that the writer explores; in this way, she prompts the readers to think about the causes of misfortunes that struck many innocent people.
  • Frankenstein: Influences of “The Prometheus” and “Paradise Lost” This is echoed in the novel, as Victor Frankenstein is said to create life against the laws of nature and is punished for it.
  • Artificial Intelligence and Frankenstein’s Monster: Article Review These models learn from the world around them and might eventually become sentient, and it is far from certain that they will decide to be benevolent to humans.
  • The “Frankenstein” Novel by Mary Shelley I predict that from the early moment when Frankenstein creates the creature, he will become the monster in his life, leading to madness, while no one will accept the creature because people are usually afraid […]
  • “Frankenstein” and “The Possibility of Evil”: Evil Theme The main difference between the stories of Frankenstein and The Possibility of Evil is based on the evil aspect and the type of horror represented.
  • Shelley’s Frankenstein: What It Means to Be Human The contestation was largely influenced by the Enlightenment led by the philosopher David Hume, who argued that there were different species of people and non-European species were “naturally inferior to the whites”.
  • “Frankenstein” by Mary Shelley Review The feelings conveyed in the book are incredibly gentle and pure, and the depictions of family life are of the most affable and straightforward, with a father who is alluring and deep.
  • Responsibility in Frankenstein by Mary Shelley Although Victor Frankenstein seems to be responsible for the wretch’s behavior due to his egoism, departure, and fears, the impact of the creature’s individuality cannot be ignored in the story.
  • The Novel “Frankenstein” by Mary Shelley: Critical Analysis The themes of creation and vengeance are illustrated to give a clear perspective of Mary’s main aim in writing her book.
  • Frankenstein’s Search of Companionship in Shelley’s Novel Frankenstein’s point is to establish his social life through the fulfillment of his ambition, and the monster seeks the unconditional love that a family can provide.
  • Romantic Characteristics in “Frankenstein” In the novel, there are at least two features of Romanticism that are not discussed in the overview: the illustration of grotesque and the theme of individual versus society.
  • Social Topics of Shelley’s Frankenstein Novel The main characters of Frankenstein are Victor and Robert, who constantly seek adventures and want to discover the unique parts of the world.
  • Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein Critical Analysis Hetherington’s “The Creator and Created Review of Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein” demonstrates that Shelley’s religious views and lifestyle influence Frankenstein and that Mary’s modernity may be replicated in chronicles to comprehend their meaning.
  • Conflict in “Frankenstein” Novel by Mary Shelley The novel’s main conflict revolves around negligence of responsibility in the name of ambition and the consequences of such actions. Refusing to take responsibility for producing a monster, the scientist loses his loved ones at […]
  • Metaphors in Frankenstein By creating an unnatural monster and endowing life to the dead objects, Victor denied one of the main laws of nature.
  • Evaluation of “Frankenstein” Critiques The narrative of the novel uses elements of superstition, but the writer acknowledges that giving life to the lifeless matter could potentially be possible. The author clearly distinguishes between “the marvelous and the effects of […]
  • Frankenstein’s Monster: Analysis The creature can be compared to a baby who tries to examine the world it lives in, and its actions are just contractions to the cruelty of the world.
  • The Novel “Frankenstein” by Mary Shelley Later, the reader can understand that the main hero feels quite lonely and pays much attention to his research and studies to cover this inner loneliness caused by the loss of his beloved ones.
  • Frankenstein by Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley He finds Victor and blames the creator for leaving his child alone and requires a woman to compensate for the cruel behavior.
  • The Feminine Roles in the ‘Frankenstein, or the Modern Prometheus’ by M. Shelley Shelley develops the theme of feminism in the course of the book by revealing the evil attributes of the creature and how the women fall victim of the creature.
  • Main Themes in Mary Shelley’s “Frankenstein” The purpose of the presented study is to discuss the perception of moral and ethical aspects in the field of scientific discoveries by Frankenstein.
  • Monsters, Reflection of Creators: Frankenstein and Mr. Hyde The research introduces the authors’ symbolic concepts of strangeness which address alienation and desire and, which happen in the unconscious state of the creator’s Victor and Dr.
  • Modern-Day Treatment of Frankenstein: New Variations of the Classic Novel Frankenstein’s monster would be a creature that would be hard to wipe out of the face of the earth and would be made of cells that are highly replicating within hours to form new monsters […]
  • The Novel Protagonist Victor Frankenstein Destiny Victor did not realize that God created humanity and took care of creature, while Frankenstein sought for the success of scientific experiment: “From the beginning, the creature is unloved: Victor, in his flight and subsequent […]
  • Shelley’s Frankenstein: Double Vision of the Hero The rest of the novel refers to a nameless creature who is simply addressed as “the monster” [O1] and the one, who is created by Victor.
  • Kipphardt’s “In the Matter of J. R. Oppenheimer” and Shelley’s “Frankenstein” In Kipphardt’s play, it is possible to pursue the development of Oppenheimer’s outlook on the value of the invention of the nuclear weapon.
  • Frankenstein: The Hidden Monster Is Worse Than the Apparent One She does this by employing the first definition as it applies to the monster, but then employs the second definition to apply to the doctor, suggesting that the hidden monster is far worse than the […]
  • Scientist’s Role in Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein The great issues of the day were the main focus of articles as well as the works of fiction that were becoming much more popular as the price of books fell.”The Victorian novel, with its […]
  • “Frankenstein” by Mary Shelley and “Blade Runner” by Ridley Scott: Comparative Analysis The texts under consideration picture the events of different periods of time and have absolutely different settings, but both Frankenstein and Blade Runner express the desire of a human to have powers of God.
  • Feminist Ideas in Mary Shelley’s “Frankenstein” One of these issues and the subject of this paper is the theme of feminism in Shelley’s novel. It is time to separate unchangeable morals from local manners”.- Mary Wollstonecraft in A Vindication of the […]
  • “Frankenstein“ the Book by Mary Shelley Though the true nature of the Monster is virtuous and kind, he is treated like a beast, like a devil and even his creator addresses to him as to “it” “For this I had deprived […]
  • The Ladies of Frankenstein: The Gender in Literature It is widely understood that Mary Shelley wrote for the female public, even though she originally wrote the novel on a wager among friends.”She fitted character and plot to the tastes of the public, especially […]
  • Frankenstein: The Novel or the Movie? The Star Wars or the War of the Worlds did bring to life the characters that were locked in the pages of the novel.
  • Scientist’s Role in “Frankenstein” by Mary Shelly Every action and character in the novel, in this manner, is linked to and affected by the role of the scientist protagonist Victor Frankenstein.
  • “Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus” by Shelley He studied in Ingolstadt where he discovered the secrets of life, which he uses to create a monster. He does this in secret since he is aware of the dangers of his experiment.
  • Stylistics of Frankenstein by Mary Shelly The name of the main character of the novel, who has created the living monster from the insentient substance, became a special sign that in a course of time widened its meaning.
  • What Frankenstein, Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde Say About Community? Hyde was not eager to become a part of the community and he tended to avoid communication with members of the society he lived in.
  • Mary Shelley’ “Frankenstein” Story Analysis The creation is not a monster because it has human habits and affection. From the start of the story, Frankenstein’s creation is misjudged due to the way it looks.
  • Themes in Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein Literature Analysis In connection to the previously discussed topic of the status of the female in the modern world, one can conclude that the world in which the public sphere of rationality and science becomes dominant naturally […]
  • Mary Shelley’s Monster in Frankenstein Literature Analysis Statement of the Research The underlying principle of this research undertaking is to examine the character traits of Frankenstein as a monster.
  • “The Marriage of Heaven and Hell” and “Frankenstein” In this essay, the author seeks to confirm that in the two books, the role of the devil is the same.
  • Loneliness & Isolation in Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein In addition to making him and his creature be isolated, Viktor does not accept the idea of duty and responsibility for his actions because of his inability to understand what it means to be responsible […]
  • Frankenstein: Critical Reflections by Ginn & Hetherington The complexity of the novel and its meaning is often compared to the challenging and full of struggles life the writer herself.
  • Frankenstein: Novel & Movie Comparison It also points to have a warning note to it in the subtitle against the over-ambition of the modern man and the impacts of the Industrial Revolution and French Revolution containing both enormous assurance and […]
  • Romantic Era Literature: “Frankenstein” by Mary Shelley The Romantic era of art and literature is a movement which started in Europe at the end of the 18th century, peaking around the time between 1800 and 1840.
  • Frankenstein’s Historical Context: Review of “In Frankenstein’s Shadow” by Chris Baldrick Baldrick’s ‘In Frankenstein’s Shadow’ is an indispensable input to what is promptly gaining primacy as decisive and learned compromise regarding the integral nature of Mary Shelly’s narrative to the comprehension of the two concepts of […]
  • Science and Society in “Frankenstein” by Mary Shelley Many scientists and scholars tried to view the problem of the connection between Frankenstein and science from the perspective of the feminist vision as the novel is written by a woman.
  • “On First Looking into Chapman’s Homer” vs. “Frankenstein, or the Modern Prometheus” : Compare & Contrast Giving readers the sense of being immersed in the world of the Greeks and the Trojans, or in the world of any fine literature, is a goal for many writers.
  • “Frankenstein” vs. “Great Expectations”: Compare and Contrast The book seems to make use of previous writings like Paradise Lost one of the books that the monster reads, Shakespeare and Don Quixote for instance, the Arabian lover and the sequence of the monster’s […]
  • Chicago (A-D)
  • Chicago (N-B)

IvyPanda. (2024, February 24). 104 Frankenstein Essay Topics & Examples.

"104 Frankenstein Essay Topics & Examples." IvyPanda , 24 Feb. 2024,

IvyPanda . (2024) '104 Frankenstein Essay Topics & Examples'. 24 February.

IvyPanda . 2024. "104 Frankenstein Essay Topics & Examples." February 24, 2024.

1. IvyPanda . "104 Frankenstein Essay Topics & Examples." February 24, 2024.


IvyPanda . "104 Frankenstein Essay Topics & Examples." February 24, 2024.

  • Catcher in the Rye Topics
  • The Alchemist Questions
  • The Handmaid’s Tale Research Ideas
  • The Bluest Eye Titles
  • The Cask of Amontillado Research Ideas
  • Call of the Wild Questions
  • I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings Research Ideas
  • A Raisin in the Sun Essay Titles
  • Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God Research Topics
  • Sir Gawain and the Green Knight Research Topics
  • The Great Gatsby Ideas
  • The House on Mango Street Research Topics
  • Their Eyes Were Watching God Ideas
  • The Things They Carried Questions
  • Of Mice and Men Essay Topics

The Danger of Knowledge in Frankenstein

Knowledge, by definition, is “the fact or condition of having information or of being learned” (Merriam-Webster). Children and adults alike are always looking for more knowledge and to learn more about the world around them. It is always seen as something positive because who does not want to learn something? This point can be proven wrong. Knowledge can be negative because a person might learn unjust or immoral things. One example of such invalidation is Frankenstein by Mary Shelley. In Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein, knowledge can be seen as a source of danger because characters fall victim to the pursuit of it which in the end causes harm to themselves and people that the love.

Knowledge starts from childhood and in Frankenstein Walton and Frankenstein were brought up similarly concerning their education. According to Walton, his “education was neglected, yet I was passionately fond of reading” (Shelley 28). Through this, the audience knows that Walton’s education from the start was not looked upon well. In context with the rest of the letter, it is shows that his Father did not care about what he wanted and did not let him learn what he longed for. In a similar way, Frankenstein says “the cursory glance of my father had taken of my volume had no means assured me that he was acquainted with its contents; and I continued to read with greatest avidity” (Shelley 46). Victor, similar to Walton, was looked down upon about his learning choices. Nevertheless, he continues to just learn what he wants and pursues what he is interested in.

Unlike Frankenstein and Walton, the Creature was brought up in an unconventional education, self-education. Walton and Frankenstein had materials and family to turn to when they were children and still learning. In contrast, the Creature “learned the science of letters as it was taught to the stranger” (Shelley 108). He had to learn simple things like the alphabet from scratch because he never knew anything. Through this one page, the Creature learns about politics, mannerisms, and religions of many nations. Frankenstein and Walton use their knowledge in a perversely but “the creature reads as a method of self-examination and definition, as a way of making sense of himself and his experience of the world.” (Englert). In her article, Englert proves the Creature has learned for different reasons. He does not try to learn more about something he is personally interested in. He learns to assimilate and become one with the surrounding people. Knowledge isn’t just something for him to learn, but it is a way to learn how to live in harmony with others. This knowledge, in the end, does him more harm than good.

Through the novel Victor’s journey progresses and slowly his pure intentions for knowledge soon turn impure and he falls to the lust of knowledge. While in Ingolstadt, Victor “clung to the hope which the next day or the next hour might realise” (Shelley 57). He “clung to the hope” that his work would succeed after countless times of failure. During his study time he became like a hermit, secluded and obsessed with his work. Slowly he grew stir-crazy and threw himself into his work hoping he would discover how life was discovered. According to Virginia Brackett in her article Frankenstein, Victor has forgotten the value of education, instead turning to his obsessions and gaining only perversion through his knowledge (Brackett, 2012). He lost the true reason to his research and instead his knowledge grew perverse. This perversion created the Creature and eventually he will be surrounded by the loss of all his loved ones.

Unlike Victor, the Creature did not fall off the path of knowledge, but knowledge is the things that caused him to start killing. He learns more about the world and himself. He says “I tried to dispel them, but sorrow only increased with knowledge” (Shelley 109). This quote comes after the monster reflects upon himself. His self-reflections are very negative, and his sadness grows as he sees “what a wretched outcast” (Shelley 117) he was. This self-loathing can drive anyone mad and indeed it turned the Creature mad. Through his new knowledge from Paradise Lost, “his painful experiences force him to recognize Satan as a fitter emblem of [his] condition. The creature finds selfhood and purpose in a plan of “eternal hatred and revenge” (Englert 2010). The Creature reads this book and relates himself to pure evil. This relation is the one that drives his plan for revenge, which is hurting all of his creator’s loved ones. This is the purest example of a character falling off the path of knowledge and turning to a primal like thing.

With Walton, his case in similar to Victor’s in which he has isolated himself and is in pursuit of learning new things, but he does not fully fall off the path. His pursuit is to find new land and in doing so isolates himself, like Victor. He “preferred glory to every enticement that wealth places in my path”. In context this means that glory is above anything else someone can offer. He is revealed to be quite ambitious like Frankenstein. In John R. Reed’s Will and Fate in Frankenstein, he points out that Walton was an example of an ordinary man possessed by a humanly extreme objective (Reed 1980). Reed points out that Walton was driven by a worldly want and did not think about his own source of suffering: isolation. On his journey he has “no friend” (Shelley 30). He has “one want which I have never yet been able to satisfy” (Shelley 30) and that one want is a friend. His crew are the only people there but they just are not enough since they will not understand his pursuit for glory.

Through the novel, Victor sees his loved ones and his life crash before him and through these tragedies he grew vengeful quite similar to the Creature. After all his loved ones have died Victor “hurried away by fury; revenge alone endowed me with strength and composure” (Shelley 172) goes to his loved ones graves and he is upset that they are dead and he lives.

Although Victor did degenerate into a vengeful man, he did grow as a person from the beginning of the novel. Through the loss of his loved ones, Victor shows that he has learned from his mistakes and that knowledge was his true demise.

Cite this page

The Danger of Knowledge in Frankenstein. (2021, May 20). Retrieved from

"The Danger of Knowledge in Frankenstein." , 20 May 2021, (2021). The Danger of Knowledge in Frankenstein . [Online]. Available at: [Accessed: 19 Mar. 2024]

"The Danger of Knowledge in Frankenstein.", May 20, 2021. Accessed March 19, 2024.

"The Danger of Knowledge in Frankenstein," , 20-May-2021. [Online]. Available: . [Accessed: 19-Mar-2024] (2021). The Danger of Knowledge in Frankenstein . [Online]. Available at: [Accessed: 19-Mar-2024]

The Danger of Knowledge in Frankenstein. (2021, May 20). Retrieved March 19, 2024 , from

This paper was written and submitted by a fellow student

Our verified experts write your 100% original paper on any topic

Having doubts about how to write your paper correctly?

Our editors will help you fix any mistakes and get an A+!

Leave your email and we will send a sample to you.

Please check your inbox

Sorry, copying content is not allowed on this website

Please indicate where to send you the sample.

Thank you for visiting You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.

  • View all journals
  • Explore content
  • About the journal
  • Publish with us
  • Sign up for alerts
  • 04 March 2024
  • Clarification 05 March 2024

Millions of research papers at risk of disappearing from the Internet

You can also search for this author in PubMed   Google Scholar

You have full access to this article via your institution.

Old documents and books stored on shelves in a library's archive.

A study identified more than two million articles that did not appear in a major digital archive, despite having an active DOI. Credit: Anna Berkut/Alamy

More than one-quarter of scholarly articles are not being properly archived and preserved, a study of more than seven million digital publications suggests. The findings, published in the Journal of Librarianship and Scholarly Communication on 24 January 1 , indicate that systems to preserve papers online have failed to keep pace with the growth of research output.

“Our entire epistemology of science and research relies on the chain of footnotes,” explains author Martin Eve, a researcher in literature, technology and publishing at Birkbeck, University of London. “If you can’t verify what someone else has said at some other point, you’re just trusting to blind faith for artefacts that you can no longer read yourself.”

Eve, who is also involved in research and development at digital-infrastructure organization Crossref, checked whether 7,438,037 works labelled with digital object identifiers (DOIs) are held in archives. DOIs — which consist of a string of numbers, letters and symbols — are unique fingerprints used to identify and link to specific publications, such as scholarly articles and official reports. Crossref is the largest DOI registration agency, allocating the identifiers to about 20,000 members, including publishers, museums and other institutions.

The sample of DOIs included in the study was made up of a random selection of up to 1,000 registered to each member organization. Twenty-eight per cent of these works — more than two million articles — did not appear in a major digital archive, despite having an active DOI. Only 58% of the DOIs referenced works that had been stored in at least one archive. The other 14% were excluded from the study because they were published too recently, were not journal articles or did not have an identifiable source.

Preservation challenge

Eve notes that the study has limitations: namely that it tracked only articles with DOIs, and that it did not search every digital repository for articles (he did not check whether items with a DOI were stored in institutional repositories, for example).

Nevertheless, preservation specialists have welcomed the analysis. “It’s been hard to know the real extent of the digital preservation challenge faced by e-journals,” says William Kilbride, managing director of the Digital Preservation Coalition, headquartered in York, UK. The coalition publishes a handbook detailing good preservation practice.

“Many people have the blind assumption that if you have a DOI, it’s there forever,” says Mikael Laakso, who studies scholarly publishing at the Hanken School of Economics in Helsinki. “But that doesn’t mean that the link will always work.” In 2021, Laakso and his colleagues reported 2 that more than 170 open-access journals had disappeared from the Internet between 2000 and 2019.

Kate Wittenberg, managing director of the digital archiving service Portico in New York City, warns that small publishers are at higher risk of failing to preserve articles than are large ones. “It costs money to preserve content,” she says, adding that archiving involves infrastructure, technology and expertise that many smaller organizations do not have access to.

Eve’s study suggests some measures that could improve digital preservation, including stronger requirements at DOI registration agencies and better education and awareness of the issue among publishers and researchers.

“Everybody thinks of the immediate gains they might get from having a paper out somewhere, but we really should be thinking about the long-term sustainability of the research ecosystem,” Eve says. “After you’ve been dead for 100 years, are people going to be able to get access to the things you’ve worked on?”

Nature 627 , 256 (2024)


Updates & Corrections

Clarification 05 March 2024 : The headline of this story has been edited to reflect the fact that some of these papers have not entirely disappeared from the Internet. Rather, many papers are still accessible but have not been properly archived.

Eve, M. P. J. Libr. Sch. Commun. 12 , eP16288 (2024).

Article   Google Scholar  

Laakso, M., Matthias, L. & Jahn, N. J. Assoc. Inf. Sci. Technol. 72 , 1099–1112 (2021).

Download references

Reprints and permissions

  • Information technology
  • Scientific community

AI image generators often give racist and sexist results: can they be fixed?

AI image generators often give racist and sexist results: can they be fixed?

News Feature 19 MAR 24

Why scientists trust AI too much — and what to do about it

Why scientists trust AI too much — and what to do about it

Editorial 06 MAR 24

Gender bias is more exaggerated in online images than in text

Gender bias is more exaggerated in online images than in text

News & Views 14 FEB 24

Meaningfulness in a scientific career is about more than tangible outputs

Correspondence 19 MAR 24

So … you’ve been hacked

So … you’ve been hacked

Technology Feature 19 MAR 24

‘Global swimways’ on free-flowing rivers will protect key migratory fish species

Peer-replication model aims to address science’s ‘reproducibility crisis’

Peer-replication model aims to address science’s ‘reproducibility crisis’

Nature Index 13 MAR 24

Numbers highlight US dominance in clinical research

Numbers highlight US dominance in clinical research

Embrace AI to break down barriers in publishing for people who aren’t fluent in English

Correspondence 12 MAR 24

Open Rank (Assistant Professor, Associate Professor, or Professor)

The Frost Institute for Chemistry and Molecular Science seeks to recruit two internationally recognized scientists.

Coral Gables, Florida

University of Miami, The Philip and Patricia Frost Institute for Chemistry and Molecular Science

knowledge in frankenstein essay

Sydney Horizon Educators (Faculty of Medicine and Health)

An opportunity for the best and brightest talented educators to be part of our future at the Faculty of Medicine and Health.

Sydney (LGA), New South Wales (AU)

University of Sydney

knowledge in frankenstein essay

Sydney Horizon Educators (Faculty of Engineering)

Opportunity for the best and brightest talented educators to be part of our future at the Faculty of Engineering.

Sydney Horizon Educators (Faculty of Science)

An opportunity for the best and brightest talented educators to be part of our future at the Faculty of Science.

Backend/ DevOps Engineer – National Facility for Data Handling and Analysis

APPLICATION CLOSING DATE: April 2nd, 2024. About the institute Human Technopole (HT) is a new interdisciplinary life science research institute, cr...

Human Technopole

knowledge in frankenstein essay

Sign up for the Nature Briefing newsletter — what matters in science, free to your inbox daily.

Quick links

  • Explore articles by subject
  • Guide to authors
  • Editorial policies

knowledge in frankenstein essay

ChatGPT scandal now rocks scientific world as multiple published studies are found with AI-generated text like 'as of my last knowledge update'

  • Some scientists have ChatGPT to write their papers, but the signs are obvious
  • 'Paper mills' publish loads of low-quality scientific papers for a publication fee
  • READ MORE: Sports Illustrated is accused of publishing AI-generated articles  

Academia was engulfed in scandal this week after research papers across dozens of academic journals were found to have been written by AI . 

An investigation found over 100 papers that were likely written, at least in part, by ChatGPT .

These papers slipped through because of lax or nonexistent peer-review processes at for-profit journals, stoking wider fears that the body of human scientific knowledge is being rapidly infiltrated by low-quality computer-generated garbage.

Many of these papers were published in obscure scientific journals, but news of this kind of scientific fraud hurts public trust in science, many scientists agree. Even before AI-generated text in scientific papers, so-called 'paper mills' have been pumping out low-quality and even plagiarized papers for years.

The influence of AI on research papers was exposed by a new report from the tech journalism site  404 Media . 

It found there were 115 results for 'As of my last knowledge update' in Google Scholar, Google's search tool for academic papers. This phrase, which as of Tuesday returned 188 results, is often used by the bot to tell users how current its information is.

The papers covered topics including spinal injuries, battery technologies, rural medicine, bacterial infections, cryptocurrency, children's wellbeing, and even artificial intelligence.

Many of the journals publishing these fraudulent papers are raking in money, charging the authors processing fees to publish their articles that do not contain any new ideas.

READ MORE: AI chatbots could be used to groom young men into launching terror attacks, lawyer warns  

A few of the search results are not meant to be fooling anyone, and in fact are about the pitfalls of using ChatGPT as a tool for research .

'Don't Trust ChatGPT: A Case Study of a Defective Research Tool,' is the title of one such paper. 

Removing any results with 'ChatGPT' in them still yields a staggering 135 papers that include the odd phrase.

Some of these articles appear legitimate, while others are barely intelligible: 'Global Education Iducation and International Education Advocacy' is one such example of garbled titles.

The phrase even appears in a paper about how to make AI systems more transparent and explainable.

Bellingcat researcher Kolina Koltai posted a screenshot of one academic paper on X where the researchers included ChatGPT's cheery reply in their academic paper: 'Certainly, here is a possible introduction for your topic.'

Besides the fact that using ChatGPT is easy, professional pressure is a major reason this is happening.

Academic researchers face immense pressure from their universities to publish papers, because they are one of the major ways scientists are evaluated when it comes time to get a new job or receive a promotion.

This challenge is so common, that there is an ominous phrase used to describe it: 'publish or perish.'

And for those looking to take the easy way out, plenty of academic journals are happy to oblige.

Normally the publishing process for a reputable academic journal is lengthy, involving 'peer review' by other scientists and multiple rounds of revisions.

Scientists may even need to perform additional experiments to satisfy the requests of journal editors and reviewers.

This process can take months or even years, depending on what changes are needed. 

But generally speaking, the end result is a solid piece of work that has been scrutinized, polished, and perfected.

Not so with these 'paper mills' that accept nearly every submission - as long as the author also pays the publishing fee. 

The International Journal of New Media Studies, for instance, has published two different papers containing the telltale phrase, 'As of my last knowledge update.'

The journal claims to conduct peer review, and even has a page dedicated to describing its process.

'The practice of peer review is to ensure that only good science is published,' reads the introduction to the page on the journal's website.

'It is an objective process at the heart of good scholarly publishing and is carried out by all reputable scientific journals.'

Peer review involves sending out a manuscript to multiple experts - usually three - who carefully read the paper and offer their critiques. Even with no major revisions, this process takes time, because reviewers are working scientists who must find time in their schedules to read the paper. 

Yet the journal promises that articles will be published one to two days after they are submitted. has reached out to the journal's editors regarding its policies on AI-generated submissions. 

The International Journal of New Media Studies charges authors $50 to publish an article, another $20 to assign the article a DOI number (used for online indexing), and yet another $50 to receive a hardcopy of the journal. 

This journal is a glaring example, but it is hardly unique. 

Searching for 'As of my last knowledge update' yields a huge list of papers published in all sorts of journals, covering topics as diverse as materials science, youth wellbeing, and quantum physics. 

It is no secret that paper mills crank out low-quality papers for a fee.

But as AI chatbot tools become easier to use and more widely available, these low-value papers seem to only be getting more abundant.

MailOnline logo

Help | Advanced Search

Computer Science > Machine Learning

Title: accelerating scientific discovery with generative knowledge extraction, graph-based representation, and multimodal intelligent graph reasoning.

Abstract: Using generative Artificial Intelligence (AI), we transformed a set of 1,000 scientific papers in the area of biological materials into detailed ontological knowledge graphs, revealing their inherently scale-free nature. Using graph traversal path detection between dissimilar concepts based on combinatorial ranking of node similarity and betweenness centrality, we reveal deep insights into unprecedented interdisciplinary relationships that can be used to answer queries, identify gaps in knowledge, and propose never-before-seen material designs and their behaviors. One comparison revealed detailed structural parallels between biological materials and Beethoven's 9th Symphony, highlighting shared patterns of complexity through isomorphic mapping. The algorithm further created an innovative hierarchical mycelium-based composite that incorporates joint synthesis of graph sampling with principles extracted from Kandinsky's Composition VII painting, where the resulting composite reflects a balance of chaos and order, with features like adjustable porosity, mechanical strength, and complex patterned chemical functionalization. We uncover other isomorphisms across physical, biological, and artistic spheres, revealing a nuanced ontology of immanence and material flux that resonates with postmodern philosophy, and positions these interconnections within a heterarchical framework. Our findings reveal the dynamic, context-dependent interplay of entities beyond traditional hierarchical paradigms, emphasizing the significant role of individual components and their fluctuative relationships within the system. Our predictions achieve a far higher degree of novelty, technical detail and explorative capacity than conventional generative AI methods. The approach establishes a widely useful framework for innovation by revealing hidden connections that facilitate discovery.

Submission history

Access paper:.

  • Download PDF
  • Other Formats

license icon

References & Citations

  • Google Scholar
  • Semantic Scholar

BibTeX formatted citation

BibSonomy logo

Bibliographic and Citation Tools

Code, data and media associated with this article, recommenders and search tools.

  • Institution

arXivLabs: experimental projects with community collaborators

arXivLabs is a framework that allows collaborators to develop and share new arXiv features directly on our website.

Both individuals and organizations that work with arXivLabs have embraced and accepted our values of openness, community, excellence, and user data privacy. arXiv is committed to these values and only works with partners that adhere to them.

Have an idea for a project that will add value for arXiv's community? Learn more about arXivLabs .


  1. The Danger of Knowledge in Frankenstein

    knowledge in frankenstein essay

  2. Frankenstein (GCSE)

    knowledge in frankenstein essay

  3. Theme of Knowledge in Frankenstein: The Modern Prometheus by Mary

    knowledge in frankenstein essay

  4. How Does Frankenstein Gain Knowledge Essay Example

    knowledge in frankenstein essay

  5. Isolation in frankenstein essay. Frankenstein Isolation And Isolation

    knowledge in frankenstein essay

  6. School paper: Frankenstein theme essay

    knowledge in frankenstein essay


  1. Frankenstein

  2. The Danger of Knowledge

  3. Frankenstein's essay (Video reading) by Luis Santos

  4. Frankenstein

  5. Do You Know Who Created The Monster Of Frankenstein? 📖 #shorts

  6. What can Frankenstein teach us about ToK ?


  1. Frankenstein: A+ Student Essay: The Impact of the Monster's Eloquence

    A+ Student Essay: The Impact of the Monster's Eloquence. The monster in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein lurches into life as big as a man but as ignorant as a newborn. He can't read, speak, or understand the rudiments of human interaction. When he stumbles upon the cottagers, however, he picks up language by observing them and studying their ...

  2. The Pursuit of Knowledge in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein

    Mary Shelley's novel, Frankenstein, explores the dangers of the relentless pursuit of knowledge and the consequences of playing god. Through the character of Victor Frankenstein, Shelley delves into the pitfalls of unchecked ambition and scientific discovery. In this essay, I will examine how Victor's thirst for knowledge leads to his ...

  3. Frankenstein: Themes

    Themes are the fundamental and often universal ideas explored in a literary work. Dangerous Knowledge. The pursuit of knowledge is at the heart of Frankenstein, as Victor attempts to surge beyond accepted human limits and access the secret of life. Likewise, Robert Walton attempts to surpass previous human explorations by endeavoring to reach the North Pole.

  4. Themes

    Written at a time when the boundaries of scientific knowledge, geographical discovery and technological change were being challenged, Frankenstein looks at the key question of whether mankind can ...

  5. Rauch, "The Monstrous Body of Knowledge"

    The Monstrous Body of Knowledge in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein Alan Rauch Studies in Romanticism, 14 (1995), 227-53 {[227]} Galvanism . . . independently of other advantages, holds out such hopes of utility in regard to . . . mankind; a work containing a full account of the late improvements which have been made in it . . . cannot fail of being acceptable to the public in general, and in ...

  6. Knowledge in Frankenstein by Mary Shelley

    Knowledge in Frankenstein. Mary Shelley 's Frankenstein is a famous novel from the English Romantic era. It is about a young medical student named Victor Frankenstein who learns the secrets of ...

  7. Frankenstein Sample Essay Outlines

    Outline. I. Thesis Statement: Ambition and the quest for knowledge is a fatal flaw in the characters of Victor Frankenstein, Robert Walton, and the creature. II. Victor Frankenstein's obsession ...

  8. Frankenstein Study Guide

    Key Facts about Frankenstein. Full Title: Frankenstein, or, The Modern Prometheus. When Published: 1818. Literary Period: Switzerland and London, England: 1816-1817. Genre: Gothic novel. Setting: Switzerland, France, England, Scotland, and the North Pole in the 18th century. Climax: The Monster's murder of Elizabeth Lavenza on her wedding ...

  9. 109 Outstanding Frankenstein Essay Topics

    Welcome to the Frankenstein Essay Topics page prepared by our editorial team! Here, you'll find a selection of top ideas, questions, and titles for any academic paper. We have topics about Frankenstein's literary analysis, characters, themes, and more. We will write a custom essay specifically. for you for only 11.00 9.35/page.

  10. Frankenstein Essay

    That is indeed the premise of Shelley's "The Modern Prometheus"; a presentation of the consequences a man faces for knowing more than he can control. In Frankenstein, the idea of knowledge always seems to be linked with the source of the protagonist's abundant feelings of foreboding and misery.

  11. Theme of Knowledge in Frankenstein: The Modern Prometheus by ...

    Published in 1818 (Mellor 05), Frankenstein; The Modern Prometheus is a gothic novel written by Mary Shelley. The novel incorporates aspects of romance with some aspects of horror which is depicted by the character of the monster (Mellor 10).

  12. Mary Shelley's Frankenstein: Essay & Research Paper Samples ...

    📝 Frankenstein: Essay Samples List. Frankenstein, by Mary Shelley, is famous all over the world.School and college students are often asked to write about the novel. On this page, you can find a collection of free sample essays and research papers that focus on Frankenstein.Literary analysis, compare & contrast essays, papers devoted to Frankenstein's characters & themes, and much more.

  13. Frankenstein: Historical Context Essay: Frankenstein & the Scientific

    In Frankenstein, the reckless pursuit of scientific discovery leads to chaos, tragedy, and despair for all of the novel's characters. Because so many characters suffer as a result of scientific advances, many critics read the book as a critical response to the Scientific Revolution.Beginning in the mid-sixteenth century with Copernicus's argument for the sun being located at the center of ...

  14. Frankenstein Themes

    Essay Topics. Quiz. Further Reading & Resources. Tools. Discussion Questions. Themes. The Dangers of Knowledge. In Frankenstein, though knowledge is beneficial to humankind, there are limits to the kinds of knowledge humans should attempt to acquire. Frankenstein's warnings against acquiring this dangerous knowledge are woven into the novel ...

  15. Impersonation of The Topic of Knowledge in Frankenstein

    That is indeed the premise of Shelley's "The Modern Prometheus"; a presentation of the consequences a man faces for knowing more than he can control. In Frankenstein, the idea of knowledge always seems to be linked with the source of the protagonist's abundant feelings of foreboding and misery. The protagonist changes ascetically during ...

  16. Frankenstein

    In Frankenstein, the use of multiple narrators, foreshadowing, symbolism, intertextuality, and allusions create parallels and connections to fundamental ideas of significant social and political upheaval. Below are some of the key themes from Frankenstein that make for a strong starting point to structure your essay analysis: Pursuit of knowledge

  17. Frankenstein Theme Of Knowledge Essay

    Frankenstein Theme Of Knowledge Essay. In Mary Shelley's novel Frankenstein, the theme of knowledge and understanding fuels the creatures anger and reinforces his state through his experiences with humanity. Throughout the novel, Mary Shelley gives us insight on a number of topics, one of which the most intriguing topics is the nature of mankind.

  18. Frankenstein Pursuit Of Knowledge Essay

    Frankenstein Pursuit Of Knowledge Essay. 357 Words2 Pages. Mary Shelley's novel Frankenstein is a masterpiece that explores the ethics of science and the human condition. It is a novel that has become a classic work of literature, with its enduring themes of ambition, creation, and morality. The story revolves around a young scientist, Victor ...

  19. Victor Frankenstein: Nature Vs Nurture

    Victor Frankenstein, the titular character in Mary Shelley's classic novel "Frankenstein," is a complex and enigmatic figure whose actions and motivations are the subject of much debate and analysis.One of the key themes that emerge from the novel is the concept of nature versus nurture, and how it impacts Victor's development and ultimately leads to his downfall.

  20. 104 Frankenstein Essay Topics & Examples

    Science and Society in "Frankenstein" by Mary Shelley. Many scientists and scholars tried to view the problem of the connection between Frankenstein and science from the perspective of the feminist vision as the novel is written by a woman. Romanticism in Frankenstein: The Use of Poetry in the Novel's Narrative.

  21. Dangerous Knowledge In Frankenstein

    The Real Villain in "Frankenstein": a Moral Dilemma Essay. Mary Shelley's novel "Frankenstein" is a timeless tale that raises profound questions about the nature of villainy and the consequences of human actions. It is a narrative that blurs the lines between creator and creation, ... 2 Pages 756 Words.

  22. Frankenstein: Mini Essays

    The entirety of Frankenstein is contained within Robert Walton's letters to his sister, which record the narratives of both Frankenstein and the monster (even Shelley's preface to the book can be read as an introductory letter). Walton's epistolary efforts frame Victor's narrative, which includes letters from Alphonse and Elizabeth. Like Walton's, these letters convey important ...

  23. The Danger of Knowledge in Frankenstein

    Knowledge can be negative because a person might learn unjust or immoral things. One example of such invalidation is Frankenstein by Mary Shelley. In Mary Shelley's Frankenstein, knowledge can be seen as a source of danger because characters fall victim to the pursuit of it which in the end causes harm to themselves and people that the love.

  24. Millions of research papers at risk of disappearing from the Internet

    An analysis of DOIs suggests that digital preservation is not keeping up with burgeoning scholarly knowledge.

  25. ChatGPT scandal now rocks scientific world as multiple published ...

    Scientists are submitting AI-written papers that bear telltale signs of having been produced by ChatGPT: the phrase 'As of my last knowledge update.' It is the latest in a trend of scientific fraud.

  26. Accelerating Scientific Discovery with Generative Knowledge Extraction

    Download PDF Abstract: Using generative Artificial Intelligence (AI), we transformed a set of 1,000 scientific papers in the area of biological materials into detailed ontological knowledge graphs, revealing their inherently scale-free nature. Using graph traversal path detection between dissimilar concepts based on combinatorial ranking of node similarity and betweenness centrality, we reveal ...