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9.3 Organizing Your Writing

Learning objectives.

  • Understand how and why organizational techniques help writers and readers stay focused.
  • Assess how and when to use chronological order to organize an essay.
  • Recognize how and when to use order of importance to organize an essay.
  • Determine how and when to use spatial order to organize an essay.

The method of organization you choose for your essay is just as important as its content. Without a clear organizational pattern, your reader could become confused and lose interest. The way you structure your essay helps your readers draw connections between the body and the thesis, and the structure also keeps you focused as you plan and write the essay. Choosing your organizational pattern before you outline ensures that each body paragraph works to support and develop your thesis.

This section covers three ways to organize body paragraphs:

  • Chronological order
  • Order of importance
  • Spatial order

When you begin to draft your essay, your ideas may seem to flow from your mind in a seemingly random manner. Your readers, who bring to the table different backgrounds, viewpoints, and ideas, need you to clearly organize these ideas in order to help process and accept them.

A solid organizational pattern gives your ideas a path that you can follow as you develop your draft. Knowing how you will organize your paragraphs allows you to better express and analyze your thoughts. Planning the structure of your essay before you choose supporting evidence helps you conduct more effective and targeted research.

Chronological Order

In Chapter 8 “The Writing Process: How Do I Begin?” , you learned that chronological arrangement has the following purposes:

  • To explain the history of an event or a topic
  • To tell a story or relate an experience
  • To explain how to do or to make something
  • To explain the steps in a process

Chronological order is mostly used in expository writing , which is a form of writing that narrates, describes, informs, or explains a process. When using chronological order, arrange the events in the order that they actually happened, or will happen if you are giving instructions. This method requires you to use words such as first , second , then , after that , later , and finally . These transition words guide you and your reader through the paper as you expand your thesis.

For example, if you are writing an essay about the history of the airline industry, you would begin with its conception and detail the essential timeline events up until present day. You would follow the chain of events using words such as first , then , next , and so on.

Writing at Work

At some point in your career you may have to file a complaint with your human resources department. Using chronological order is a useful tool in describing the events that led up to your filing the grievance. You would logically lay out the events in the order that they occurred using the key transition words. The more logical your complaint, the more likely you will be well received and helped.

Choose an accomplishment you have achieved in your life. The important moment could be in sports, schooling, or extracurricular activities. On your own sheet of paper, list the steps you took to reach your goal. Try to be as specific as possible with the steps you took. Pay attention to using transition words to focus your writing.

Keep in mind that chronological order is most appropriate for the following purposes:

  • Writing essays containing heavy research
  • Writing essays with the aim of listing, explaining, or narrating
  • Writing essays that analyze literary works such as poems, plays, or books

When using chronological order, your introduction should indicate the information you will cover and in what order, and the introduction should also establish the relevance of the information. Your body paragraphs should then provide clear divisions or steps in chronology. You can divide your paragraphs by time (such as decades, wars, or other historical events) or by the same structure of the work you are examining (such as a line-by-line explication of a poem).

On a separate sheet of paper, write a paragraph that describes a process you are familiar with and can do well. Assume that your reader is unfamiliar with the procedure. Remember to use the chronological key words, such as first , second , then , and finally .

Order of Importance

Recall from Chapter 8 “The Writing Process: How Do I Begin?” that order of importance is best used for the following purposes:

  • Persuading and convincing
  • Ranking items by their importance, benefit, or significance
  • Illustrating a situation, problem, or solution

Most essays move from the least to the most important point, and the paragraphs are arranged in an effort to build the essay’s strength. Sometimes, however, it is necessary to begin with your most important supporting point, such as in an essay that contains a thesis that is highly debatable. When writing a persuasive essay, it is best to begin with the most important point because it immediately captivates your readers and compels them to continue reading.

For example, if you were supporting your thesis that homework is detrimental to the education of high school students, you would want to present your most convincing argument first, and then move on to the less important points for your case.

Some key transitional words you should use with this method of organization are most importantly , almost as importantly , just as importantly , and finally .

During your career, you may be required to work on a team that devises a strategy for a specific goal of your company, such as increasing profits. When planning your strategy you should organize your steps in order of importance. This demonstrates the ability to prioritize and plan. Using the order of importance technique also shows that you can create a resolution with logical steps for accomplishing a common goal.

On a separate sheet of paper, write a paragraph that discusses a passion of yours. Your passion could be music, a particular sport, filmmaking, and so on. Your paragraph should be built upon the reasons why you feel so strongly. Briefly discuss your reasons in the order of least to greatest importance.

Spatial Order

As stated in Chapter 8 “The Writing Process: How Do I Begin?” , spatial order is best used for the following purposes:

  • Helping readers visualize something as you want them to see it
  • Evoking a scene using the senses (sight, touch, taste, smell, and sound)
  • Writing a descriptive essay

Spatial order means that you explain or describe objects as they are arranged around you in your space, for example in a bedroom. As the writer, you create a picture for your reader, and their perspective is the viewpoint from which you describe what is around you.

The view must move in an orderly, logical progression, giving the reader clear directional signals to follow from place to place. The key to using this method is to choose a specific starting point and then guide the reader to follow your eye as it moves in an orderly trajectory from your starting point.

Pay attention to the following student’s description of her bedroom and how she guides the reader through the viewing process, foot by foot.

Attached to my bedroom wall is a small wooden rack dangling with red and turquoise necklaces that shimmer as you enter. Just to the right of the rack is my window, framed by billowy white curtains. The peace of such an image is a stark contrast to my desk, which sits to the right of the window, layered in textbooks, crumpled papers, coffee cups, and an overflowing ashtray. Turning my head to the right, I see a set of two bare windows that frame the trees outside the glass like a 3D painting. Below the windows is an oak chest from which blankets and scarves are protruding. Against the wall opposite the billowy curtains is an antique dresser, on top of which sits a jewelry box and a few picture frames. A tall mirror attached to the dresser takes up most of the wall, which is the color of lavender.

The paragraph incorporates two objectives you have learned in this chapter: using an implied topic sentence and applying spatial order. Often in a descriptive essay, the two work together.

The following are possible transition words to include when using spatial order:

  • Just to the left or just to the right
  • On the left or on the right
  • Across from
  • A little further down
  • To the south, to the east, and so on
  • A few yards away
  • Turning left or turning right

On a separate sheet of paper, write a paragraph using spatial order that describes your commute to work, school, or another location you visit often.


Please share with a classmate and compare your answers.

Key Takeaways

  • The way you organize your body paragraphs ensures you and your readers stay focused on and draw connections to, your thesis statement.
  • A strong organizational pattern allows you to articulate, analyze, and clarify your thoughts.
  • Planning the organizational structure for your essay before you begin to search for supporting evidence helps you conduct more effective and directed research.
  • Chronological order is most commonly used in expository writing. It is useful for explaining the history of your subject, for telling a story, or for explaining a process.
  • Order of importance is most appropriate in a persuasion paper as well as for essays in which you rank things, people, or events by their significance.
  • Spatial order describes things as they are arranged in space and is best for helping readers visualize something as you want them to see it; it creates a dominant impression.

Writing for Success Copyright © 2015 by University of Minnesota is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License , except where otherwise noted.

essay composition process

How to Write an Essay

Use the links below to jump directly to any section of this guide:

Essay Writing Fundamentals

How to prepare to write an essay, how to edit an essay, how to share and publish your essays, how to get essay writing help, how to find essay writing inspiration, resources for teaching essay writing.

Essays, short prose compositions on a particular theme or topic, are the bread and butter of academic life. You write them in class, for homework, and on standardized tests to show what you know. Unlike other kinds of academic writing (like the research paper) and creative writing (like short stories and poems), essays allow you to develop your original thoughts on a prompt or question. Essays come in many varieties: they can be expository (fleshing out an idea or claim), descriptive, (explaining a person, place, or thing), narrative (relating a personal experience), or persuasive (attempting to win over a reader). This guide is a collection of dozens of links about academic essay writing that we have researched, categorized, and annotated in order to help you improve your essay writing. 

Essays are different from other forms of writing; in turn, there are different kinds of essays. This section contains general resources for getting to know the essay and its variants. These resources introduce and define the essay as a genre, and will teach you what to expect from essay-based assessments.

Purdue OWL Online Writing Lab

One of the most trusted academic writing sites, Purdue OWL provides a concise introduction to the four most common types of academic essays.

"The Essay: History and Definition" (ThoughtCo)

This snappy article from ThoughtCo talks about the origins of the essay and different kinds of essays you might be asked to write. 

"What Is An Essay?" Video Lecture (Coursera)

The University of California at Irvine's free video lecture, available on Coursera, tells  you everything you need to know about the essay.

Wikipedia Article on the "Essay"

Wikipedia's article on the essay is comprehensive, providing both English-language and global perspectives on the essay form. Learn about the essay's history, forms, and styles.

"Understanding College and Academic Writing" (Aims Online Writing Lab)

This list of common academic writing assignments (including types of essay prompts) will help you know what to expect from essay-based assessments.

Before you start writing your essay, you need to figure out who you're writing for (audience), what you're writing about (topic/theme), and what you're going to say (argument and thesis). This section contains links to handouts, chapters, videos and more to help you prepare to write an essay.

How to Identify Your Audience

"Audience" (Univ. of North Carolina Writing Center)

This handout provides questions you can ask yourself to determine the audience for an academic writing assignment. It also suggests strategies for fitting your paper to your intended audience.

"Purpose, Audience, Tone, and Content" (Univ. of Minnesota Libraries)

This extensive book chapter from Writing for Success , available online through Minnesota Libraries Publishing, is followed by exercises to try out your new pre-writing skills.

"Determining Audience" (Aims Online Writing Lab)

This guide from a community college's writing center shows you how to know your audience, and how to incorporate that knowledge in your thesis statement.

"Know Your Audience" ( Paper Rater Blog)

This short blog post uses examples to show how implied audiences for essays differ. It reminds you to think of your instructor as an observer, who will know only the information you pass along.

How to Choose a Theme or Topic

"Research Tutorial: Developing Your Topic" (YouTube)

Take a look at this short video tutorial from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill to understand the basics of developing a writing topic.

"How to Choose a Paper Topic" (WikiHow)

This simple, step-by-step guide (with pictures!) walks you through choosing a paper topic. It starts with a detailed description of brainstorming and ends with strategies to refine your broad topic.

"How to Read an Assignment: Moving From Assignment to Topic" (Harvard College Writing Center)

Did your teacher give you a prompt or other instructions? This guide helps you understand the relationship between an essay assignment and your essay's topic.

"Guidelines for Choosing a Topic" (CliffsNotes)

This study guide from CliffsNotes both discusses how to choose a topic and makes a useful distinction between "topic" and "thesis."

How to Come Up with an Argument

"Argument" (Univ. of North Carolina Writing Center)

Not sure what "argument" means in the context of academic writing? This page from the University of North Carolina is a good place to start.

"The Essay Guide: Finding an Argument" (Study Hub)

This handout explains why it's important to have an argument when beginning your essay, and provides tools to help you choose a viable argument.

"Writing a Thesis and Making an Argument" (University of Iowa)

This page from the University of Iowa's Writing Center contains exercises through which you can develop and refine your argument and thesis statement.

"Developing a Thesis" (Harvard College Writing Center)

This page from Harvard's Writing Center collates some helpful dos and don'ts of argumentative writing, from steps in constructing a thesis to avoiding vague and confrontational thesis statements.

"Suggestions for Developing Argumentative Essays" (Berkeley Student Learning Center)

This page offers concrete suggestions for each stage of the essay writing process, from topic selection to drafting and editing. 

How to Outline your Essay

"Outlines" (Univ. of North Carolina at Chapel Hill via YouTube)

This short video tutorial from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill shows how to group your ideas into paragraphs or sections to begin the outlining process.

"Essay Outline" (Univ. of Washington Tacoma)

This two-page handout by a university professor simply defines the parts of an essay and then organizes them into an example outline.

"Types of Outlines and Samples" (Purdue OWL Online Writing Lab)

Purdue OWL gives examples of diverse outline strategies on this page, including the alphanumeric, full sentence, and decimal styles. 

"Outlining" (Harvard College Writing Center)

Once you have an argument, according to this handout, there are only three steps in the outline process: generalizing, ordering, and putting it all together. Then you're ready to write!

"Writing Essays" (Plymouth Univ.)

This packet, part of Plymouth University's Learning Development series, contains descriptions and diagrams relating to the outlining process.

"How to Write A Good Argumentative Essay: Logical Structure" (Criticalthinkingtutorials.com via YouTube)

This longer video tutorial gives an overview of how to structure your essay in order to support your argument or thesis. It is part of a longer course on academic writing hosted on Udemy.

Now that you've chosen and refined your topic and created an outline, use these resources to complete the writing process. Most essays contain introductions (which articulate your thesis statement), body paragraphs, and conclusions. Transitions facilitate the flow from one paragraph to the next so that support for your thesis builds throughout the essay. Sources and citations show where you got the evidence to support your thesis, which ensures that you avoid plagiarism. 

How to Write an Introduction

"Introductions" (Univ. of North Carolina Writing Center)

This page identifies the role of the introduction in any successful paper, suggests strategies for writing introductions, and warns against less effective introductions.

"How to Write A Good Introduction" (Michigan State Writing Center)

Beginning with the most common missteps in writing introductions, this guide condenses the essentials of introduction composition into seven points.

"The Introductory Paragraph" (ThoughtCo)

This blog post from academic advisor and college enrollment counselor Grace Fleming focuses on ways to grab your reader's attention at the beginning of your essay.

"Introductions and Conclusions" (Univ. of Toronto)

This guide from the University of Toronto gives advice that applies to writing both introductions and conclusions, including dos and don'ts.

"How to Write Better Essays: No One Does Introductions Properly" ( The Guardian )

This news article interviews UK professors on student essay writing; they point to introductions as the area that needs the most improvement.

How to Write a Thesis Statement

"Writing an Effective Thesis Statement" (YouTube)

This short, simple video tutorial from a college composition instructor at Tulsa Community College explains what a thesis statement is and what it does. 

"Thesis Statement: Four Steps to a Great Essay" (YouTube)

This fantastic tutorial walks you through drafting a thesis, using an essay prompt on Nathaniel Hawthorne's The Scarlet Letter as an example.

"How to Write a Thesis Statement" (WikiHow)

This step-by-step guide (with pictures!) walks you through coming up with, writing, and editing a thesis statement. It invites you think of your statement as a "working thesis" that can change.

"How to Write a Thesis Statement" (Univ. of Indiana Bloomington)

Ask yourself the questions on this page, part of Indiana Bloomington's Writing Tutorial Services, when you're writing and refining your thesis statement.

"Writing Tips: Thesis Statements" (Univ. of Illinois Center for Writing Studies)

This page gives plentiful examples of good to great thesis statements, and offers questions to ask yourself when formulating a thesis statement.

How to Write Body Paragraphs

"Body Paragraph" (Brightstorm)

This module of a free online course introduces you to the components of a body paragraph. These include the topic sentence, information, evidence, and analysis.

"Strong Body Paragraphs" (Washington Univ.)

This handout from Washington's Writing and Research Center offers in-depth descriptions of the parts of a successful body paragraph.

"Guide to Paragraph Structure" (Deakin Univ.)

This handout is notable for color-coding example body paragraphs to help you identify the functions various sentences perform.

"Writing Body Paragraphs" (Univ. of Minnesota Libraries)

The exercises in this section of Writing for Success  will help you practice writing good body paragraphs. It includes guidance on selecting primary support for your thesis.

"The Writing Process—Body Paragraphs" (Aims Online Writing Lab)

The information and exercises on this page will familiarize you with outlining and writing body paragraphs, and includes links to more information on topic sentences and transitions.

"The Five-Paragraph Essay" (ThoughtCo)

This blog post discusses body paragraphs in the context of one of the most common academic essay types in secondary schools.

How to Use Transitions

"Transitions" (Univ. of North Carolina Writing Center)

This page from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill explains what a transition is, and how to know if you need to improve your transitions.

"Using Transitions Effectively" (Washington Univ.)

This handout defines transitions, offers tips for using them, and contains a useful list of common transitional words and phrases grouped by function.

"Transitions" (Aims Online Writing Lab)

This page compares paragraphs without transitions to paragraphs with transitions, and in doing so shows how important these connective words and phrases are.

"Transitions in Academic Essays" (Scribbr)

This page lists four techniques that will help you make sure your reader follows your train of thought, including grouping similar information and using transition words.

"Transitions" (El Paso Community College)

This handout shows example transitions within paragraphs for context, and explains how transitions improve your essay's flow and voice.

"Make Your Paragraphs Flow to Improve Writing" (ThoughtCo)

This blog post, another from academic advisor and college enrollment counselor Grace Fleming, talks about transitions and other strategies to improve your essay's overall flow.

"Transition Words" (smartwords.org)

This handy word bank will help you find transition words when you're feeling stuck. It's grouped by the transition's function, whether that is to show agreement, opposition, condition, or consequence.

How to Write a Conclusion

"Parts of An Essay: Conclusions" (Brightstorm)

This module of a free online course explains how to conclude an academic essay. It suggests thinking about the "3Rs": return to hook, restate your thesis, and relate to the reader.

"Essay Conclusions" (Univ. of Maryland University College)

This overview of the academic essay conclusion contains helpful examples and links to further resources for writing good conclusions.

"How to End An Essay" (WikiHow)

This step-by-step guide (with pictures!) by an English Ph.D. walks you through writing a conclusion, from brainstorming to ending with a flourish.

"Ending the Essay: Conclusions" (Harvard College Writing Center)

This page collates useful strategies for writing an effective conclusion, and reminds you to "close the discussion without closing it off" to further conversation.

How to Include Sources and Citations

"Research and Citation Resources" (Purdue OWL Online Writing Lab)

Purdue OWL streamlines information about the three most common referencing styles (MLA, Chicago, and APA) and provides examples of how to cite different resources in each system.

EasyBib: Free Bibliography Generator

This online tool allows you to input information about your source and automatically generate citations in any style. Be sure to select your resource type before clicking the "cite it" button.


Like EasyBib, this online tool allows you to input information about your source and automatically generate citations in any style. 

Modern Language Association Handbook (MLA)

Here, you'll find the definitive and up-to-date record of MLA referencing rules. Order through the link above, or check to see if your library has a copy.

Chicago Manual of Style

Here, you'll find the definitive and up-to-date record of Chicago referencing rules. You can take a look at the table of contents, then choose to subscribe or start a free trial.

How to Avoid Plagiarism

"What is Plagiarism?" (plagiarism.org)

This nonprofit website contains numerous resources for identifying and avoiding plagiarism, and reminds you that even common activities like copying images from another website to your own site may constitute plagiarism.

"Plagiarism" (University of Oxford)

This interactive page from the University of Oxford helps you check for plagiarism in your work, making it clear how to avoid citing another person's work without full acknowledgement.

"Avoiding Plagiarism" (MIT Comparative Media Studies)

This quick guide explains what plagiarism is, what its consequences are, and how to avoid it. It starts by defining three words—quotation, paraphrase, and summary—that all constitute citation.

"Harvard Guide to Using Sources" (Harvard Extension School)

This comprehensive website from Harvard brings together articles, videos, and handouts about referencing, citation, and plagiarism. 

Grammarly contains tons of helpful grammar and writing resources, including a free tool to automatically scan your essay to check for close affinities to published work. 

Noplag is another popular online tool that automatically scans your essay to check for signs of plagiarism. Simply copy and paste your essay into the box and click "start checking."

Once you've written your essay, you'll want to edit (improve content), proofread (check for spelling and grammar mistakes), and finalize your work until you're ready to hand it in. This section brings together tips and resources for navigating the editing process. 

"Writing a First Draft" (Academic Help)

This is an introduction to the drafting process from the site Academic Help, with tips for getting your ideas on paper before editing begins.

"Editing and Proofreading" (Univ. of North Carolina Writing Center)

This page provides general strategies for revising your writing. They've intentionally left seven errors in the handout, to give you practice in spotting them.

"How to Proofread Effectively" (ThoughtCo)

This article from ThoughtCo, along with those linked at the bottom, help describe common mistakes to check for when proofreading.

"7 Simple Edits That Make Your Writing 100% More Powerful" (SmartBlogger)

This blog post emphasizes the importance of powerful, concise language, and reminds you that even your personal writing heroes create clunky first drafts.

"Editing Tips for Effective Writing" (Univ. of Pennsylvania)

On this page from Penn's International Relations department, you'll find tips for effective prose, errors to watch out for, and reminders about formatting.

"Editing the Essay" (Harvard College Writing Center)

This article, the first of two parts, gives you applicable strategies for the editing process. It suggests reading your essay aloud, removing any jargon, and being unafraid to remove even "dazzling" sentences that don't belong.

"Guide to Editing and Proofreading" (Oxford Learning Institute)

This handout from Oxford covers the basics of editing and proofreading, and reminds you that neither task should be rushed. 

In addition to plagiarism-checkers, Grammarly has a plug-in for your web browser that checks your writing for common mistakes.

After you've prepared, written, and edited your essay, you might want to share it outside the classroom. This section alerts you to print and web opportunities to share your essays with the wider world, from online writing communities and blogs to published journals geared toward young writers.

Sharing Your Essays Online

Go Teen Writers

Go Teen Writers is an online community for writers aged 13 - 19. It was founded by Stephanie Morrill, an author of contemporary young adult novels. 

Tumblr is a blogging website where you can share your writing and interact with other writers online. It's easy to add photos, links, audio, and video components.

Writersky provides an online platform for publishing and reading other youth writers' work. Its current content is mostly devoted to fiction.

Publishing Your Essays Online

This teen literary journal publishes in print, on the web, and (more frequently), on a blog. It is committed to ensuring that "teens see their authentic experience reflected on its pages."

The Matador Review

This youth writing platform celebrates "alternative," unconventional writing. The link above will take you directly to the site's "submissions" page.

Teen Ink has a website, monthly newsprint magazine, and quarterly poetry magazine promoting the work of young writers.

The largest online reading platform, Wattpad enables you to publish your work and read others' work. Its inline commenting feature allows you to share thoughts as you read along.

Publishing Your Essays in Print

Canvas Teen Literary Journal

This quarterly literary magazine is published for young writers by young writers. They accept many kinds of writing, including essays.

The Claremont Review

This biannual international magazine, first published in 1992, publishes poetry, essays, and short stories from writers aged 13 - 19.

Skipping Stones

This young writers magazine, founded in 1988, celebrates themes relating to ecological and cultural diversity. It publishes poems, photos, articles, and stories.

The Telling Room

This nonprofit writing center based in Maine publishes children's work on their website and in book form. The link above directs you to the site's submissions page.

Essay Contests

Scholastic Arts and Writing Awards

This prestigious international writing contest for students in grades 7 - 12 has been committed to "supporting the future of creativity since 1923."

Society of Professional Journalists High School Essay Contest

An annual essay contest on the theme of journalism and media, the Society of Professional Journalists High School Essay Contest awards scholarships up to $1,000.

National YoungArts Foundation

Here, you'll find information on a government-sponsored writing competition for writers aged 15 - 18. The foundation welcomes submissions of creative nonfiction, novels, scripts, poetry, short story and spoken word.

Signet Classics Student Scholarship Essay Contest

With prompts on a different literary work each year, this competition from Signet Classics awards college scholarships up to $1,000.

"The Ultimate Guide to High School Essay Contests" (CollegeVine)

See this handy guide from CollegeVine for a list of more competitions you can enter with your academic essay, from the National Council of Teachers of English Achievement Awards to the National High School Essay Contest by the U.S. Institute of Peace.

Whether you're struggling to write academic essays or you think you're a pro, there are workshops and online tools that can help you become an even better writer. Even the most seasoned writers encounter writer's block, so be proactive and look through our curated list of resources to combat this common frustration.

Online Essay-writing Classes and Workshops

"Getting Started with Essay Writing" (Coursera)

Coursera offers lots of free, high-quality online classes taught by college professors. Here's one example, taught by instructors from the University of California Irvine.

"Writing and English" (Brightstorm)

Brightstorm's free video lectures are easy to navigate by topic. This unit on the parts of an essay features content on the essay hook, thesis, supporting evidence, and more.

"How to Write an Essay" (EdX)

EdX is another open online university course website with several two- to five-week courses on the essay. This one is geared toward English language learners.

Writer's Digest University

This renowned writers' website offers online workshops and interactive tutorials. The courses offered cover everything from how to get started through how to get published.


Signing up for this online writer's community gives you access to helpful resources as well as an international community of writers.

How to Overcome Writer's Block

"Symptoms and Cures for Writer's Block" (Purdue OWL)

Purdue OWL offers a list of signs you might have writer's block, along with ways to overcome it. Consider trying out some "invention strategies" or ways to curb writing anxiety.

"Overcoming Writer's Block: Three Tips" ( The Guardian )

These tips, geared toward academic writing specifically, are practical and effective. The authors advocate setting realistic goals, creating dedicated writing time, and participating in social writing.

"Writing Tips: Strategies for Overcoming Writer's Block" (Univ. of Illinois)

This page from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign's Center for Writing Studies acquaints you with strategies that do and do not work to overcome writer's block.

"Writer's Block" (Univ. of Toronto)

Ask yourself the questions on this page; if the answer is "yes," try out some of the article's strategies. Each question is accompanied by at least two possible solutions.

If you have essays to write but are short on ideas, this section's links to prompts, example student essays, and celebrated essays by professional writers might help. You'll find writing prompts from a variety of sources, student essays to inspire you, and a number of essay writing collections.

Essay Writing Prompts

"50 Argumentative Essay Topics" (ThoughtCo)

Take a look at this list and the others ThoughtCo has curated for different kinds of essays. As the author notes, "a number of these topics are controversial and that's the point."

"401 Prompts for Argumentative Writing" ( New York Times )

This list (and the linked lists to persuasive and narrative writing prompts), besides being impressive in length, is put together by actual high school English teachers.

"SAT Sample Essay Prompts" (College Board)

If you're a student in the U.S., your classroom essay prompts are likely modeled on the prompts in U.S. college entrance exams. Take a look at these official examples from the SAT.

"Popular College Application Essay Topics" (Princeton Review)

This page from the Princeton Review dissects recent Common Application essay topics and discusses strategies for answering them.

Example Student Essays

"501 Writing Prompts" (DePaul Univ.)

This nearly 200-page packet, compiled by the LearningExpress Skill Builder in Focus Writing Team, is stuffed with writing prompts, example essays, and commentary.

"Topics in English" (Kibin)

Kibin is a for-pay essay help website, but its example essays (organized by topic) are available for free. You'll find essays on everything from  A Christmas Carol  to perseverance.

"Student Writing Models" (Thoughtful Learning)

Thoughtful Learning, a website that offers a variety of teaching materials, provides sample student essays on various topics and organizes them by grade level.

"Five-Paragraph Essay" (ThoughtCo)

In this blog post by a former professor of English and rhetoric, ThoughtCo brings together examples of five-paragraph essays and commentary on the form.

The Best Essay Writing Collections

The Best American Essays of the Century by Joyce Carol Oates (Amazon)

This collection of American essays spanning the twentieth century was compiled by award winning author and Princeton professor Joyce Carol Oates.

The Best American Essays 2017 by Leslie Jamison (Amazon)

Leslie Jamison, the celebrated author of essay collection  The Empathy Exams , collects recent, high-profile essays into a single volume.

The Art of the Personal Essay by Phillip Lopate (Amazon)

Documentary writer Phillip Lopate curates this historical overview of the personal essay's development, from the classical era to the present.

The White Album by Joan Didion (Amazon)

This seminal essay collection was authored by one of the most acclaimed personal essayists of all time, American journalist Joan Didion.

Consider the Lobster by David Foster Wallace (Amazon)

Read this famous essay collection by David Foster Wallace, who is known for his experimentation with the essay form. He pushed the boundaries of personal essay, reportage, and political polemic.

"50 Successful Harvard Application Essays" (Staff of the The Harvard Crimson )

If you're looking for examples of exceptional college application essays, this volume from Harvard's daily student newspaper is one of the best collections on the market.

Are you an instructor looking for the best resources for teaching essay writing? This section contains resources for developing in-class activities and student homework assignments. You'll find content from both well-known university writing centers and online writing labs.

Essay Writing Classroom Activities for Students

"In-class Writing Exercises" (Univ. of North Carolina Writing Center)

This page lists exercises related to brainstorming, organizing, drafting, and revising. It also contains suggestions for how to implement the suggested exercises.

"Teaching with Writing" (Univ. of Minnesota Center for Writing)

Instructions and encouragement for using "freewriting," one-minute papers, logbooks, and other write-to-learn activities in the classroom can be found here.

"Writing Worksheets" (Berkeley Student Learning Center)

Berkeley offers this bank of writing worksheets to use in class. They are nested under headings for "Prewriting," "Revision," "Research Papers" and more.

"Using Sources and Avoiding Plagiarism" (DePaul University)

Use these activities and worksheets from DePaul's Teaching Commons when instructing students on proper academic citation practices.

Essay Writing Homework Activities for Students

"Grammar and Punctuation Exercises" (Aims Online Writing Lab)

These five interactive online activities allow students to practice editing and proofreading. They'll hone their skills in correcting comma splices and run-ons, identifying fragments, using correct pronoun agreement, and comma usage.

"Student Interactives" (Read Write Think)

Read Write Think hosts interactive tools, games, and videos for developing writing skills. They can practice organizing and summarizing, writing poetry, and developing lines of inquiry and analysis.

This free website offers writing and grammar activities for all grade levels. The lessons are designed to be used both for large classes and smaller groups.

"Writing Activities and Lessons for Every Grade" (Education World)

Education World's page on writing activities and lessons links you to more free, online resources for learning how to "W.R.I.T.E.": write, revise, inform, think, and edit.

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Example of a Great Essay | Explanations, Tips & Tricks

Published on February 9, 2015 by Shane Bryson . Revised on July 23, 2023 by Shona McCombes.

This example guides you through the structure of an essay. It shows how to build an effective introduction , focused paragraphs , clear transitions between ideas, and a strong conclusion .

Each paragraph addresses a single central point, introduced by a topic sentence , and each point is directly related to the thesis statement .

As you read, hover over the highlighted parts to learn what they do and why they work.

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Other interesting articles, frequently asked questions about writing an essay, an appeal to the senses: the development of the braille system in nineteenth-century france.

The invention of Braille was a major turning point in the history of disability. The writing system of raised dots used by visually impaired people was developed by Louis Braille in nineteenth-century France. In a society that did not value disabled people in general, blindness was particularly stigmatized, and lack of access to reading and writing was a significant barrier to social participation. The idea of tactile reading was not entirely new, but existing methods based on sighted systems were difficult to learn and use. As the first writing system designed for blind people’s needs, Braille was a groundbreaking new accessibility tool. It not only provided practical benefits, but also helped change the cultural status of blindness. This essay begins by discussing the situation of blind people in nineteenth-century Europe. It then describes the invention of Braille and the gradual process of its acceptance within blind education. Subsequently, it explores the wide-ranging effects of this invention on blind people’s social and cultural lives.

Lack of access to reading and writing put blind people at a serious disadvantage in nineteenth-century society. Text was one of the primary methods through which people engaged with culture, communicated with others, and accessed information; without a well-developed reading system that did not rely on sight, blind people were excluded from social participation (Weygand, 2009). While disabled people in general suffered from discrimination, blindness was widely viewed as the worst disability, and it was commonly believed that blind people were incapable of pursuing a profession or improving themselves through culture (Weygand, 2009). This demonstrates the importance of reading and writing to social status at the time: without access to text, it was considered impossible to fully participate in society. Blind people were excluded from the sighted world, but also entirely dependent on sighted people for information and education.

In France, debates about how to deal with disability led to the adoption of different strategies over time. While people with temporary difficulties were able to access public welfare, the most common response to people with long-term disabilities, such as hearing or vision loss, was to group them together in institutions (Tombs, 1996). At first, a joint institute for the blind and deaf was created, and although the partnership was motivated more by financial considerations than by the well-being of the residents, the institute aimed to help people develop skills valuable to society (Weygand, 2009). Eventually blind institutions were separated from deaf institutions, and the focus shifted towards education of the blind, as was the case for the Royal Institute for Blind Youth, which Louis Braille attended (Jimenez et al, 2009). The growing acknowledgement of the uniqueness of different disabilities led to more targeted education strategies, fostering an environment in which the benefits of a specifically blind education could be more widely recognized.

Several different systems of tactile reading can be seen as forerunners to the method Louis Braille developed, but these systems were all developed based on the sighted system. The Royal Institute for Blind Youth in Paris taught the students to read embossed roman letters, a method created by the school’s founder, Valentin Hauy (Jimenez et al., 2009). Reading this way proved to be a rather arduous task, as the letters were difficult to distinguish by touch. The embossed letter method was based on the reading system of sighted people, with minimal adaptation for those with vision loss. As a result, this method did not gain significant success among blind students.

Louis Braille was bound to be influenced by his school’s founder, but the most influential pre-Braille tactile reading system was Charles Barbier’s night writing. A soldier in Napoleon’s army, Barbier developed a system in 1819 that used 12 dots with a five line musical staff (Kersten, 1997). His intention was to develop a system that would allow the military to communicate at night without the need for light (Herron, 2009). The code developed by Barbier was phonetic (Jimenez et al., 2009); in other words, the code was designed for sighted people and was based on the sounds of words, not on an actual alphabet. Barbier discovered that variants of raised dots within a square were the easiest method of reading by touch (Jimenez et al., 2009). This system proved effective for the transmission of short messages between military personnel, but the symbols were too large for the fingertip, greatly reducing the speed at which a message could be read (Herron, 2009). For this reason, it was unsuitable for daily use and was not widely adopted in the blind community.

Nevertheless, Barbier’s military dot system was more efficient than Hauy’s embossed letters, and it provided the framework within which Louis Braille developed his method. Barbier’s system, with its dashes and dots, could form over 4000 combinations (Jimenez et al., 2009). Compared to the 26 letters of the Latin alphabet, this was an absurdly high number. Braille kept the raised dot form, but developed a more manageable system that would reflect the sighted alphabet. He replaced Barbier’s dashes and dots with just six dots in a rectangular configuration (Jimenez et al., 2009). The result was that the blind population in France had a tactile reading system using dots (like Barbier’s) that was based on the structure of the sighted alphabet (like Hauy’s); crucially, this system was the first developed specifically for the purposes of the blind.

While the Braille system gained immediate popularity with the blind students at the Institute in Paris, it had to gain acceptance among the sighted before its adoption throughout France. This support was necessary because sighted teachers and leaders had ultimate control over the propagation of Braille resources. Many of the teachers at the Royal Institute for Blind Youth resisted learning Braille’s system because they found the tactile method of reading difficult to learn (Bullock & Galst, 2009). This resistance was symptomatic of the prevalent attitude that the blind population had to adapt to the sighted world rather than develop their own tools and methods. Over time, however, with the increasing impetus to make social contribution possible for all, teachers began to appreciate the usefulness of Braille’s system (Bullock & Galst, 2009), realizing that access to reading could help improve the productivity and integration of people with vision loss. It took approximately 30 years, but the French government eventually approved the Braille system, and it was established throughout the country (Bullock & Galst, 2009).

Although Blind people remained marginalized throughout the nineteenth century, the Braille system granted them growing opportunities for social participation. Most obviously, Braille allowed people with vision loss to read the same alphabet used by sighted people (Bullock & Galst, 2009), allowing them to participate in certain cultural experiences previously unavailable to them. Written works, such as books and poetry, had previously been inaccessible to the blind population without the aid of a reader, limiting their autonomy. As books began to be distributed in Braille, this barrier was reduced, enabling people with vision loss to access information autonomously. The closing of the gap between the abilities of blind and the sighted contributed to a gradual shift in blind people’s status, lessening the cultural perception of the blind as essentially different and facilitating greater social integration.

The Braille system also had important cultural effects beyond the sphere of written culture. Its invention later led to the development of a music notation system for the blind, although Louis Braille did not develop this system himself (Jimenez, et al., 2009). This development helped remove a cultural obstacle that had been introduced by the popularization of written musical notation in the early 1500s. While music had previously been an arena in which the blind could participate on equal footing, the transition from memory-based performance to notation-based performance meant that blind musicians were no longer able to compete with sighted musicians (Kersten, 1997). As a result, a tactile musical notation system became necessary for professional equality between blind and sighted musicians (Kersten, 1997).

Braille paved the way for dramatic cultural changes in the way blind people were treated and the opportunities available to them. Louis Braille’s innovation was to reimagine existing reading systems from a blind perspective, and the success of this invention required sighted teachers to adapt to their students’ reality instead of the other way around. In this sense, Braille helped drive broader social changes in the status of blindness. New accessibility tools provide practical advantages to those who need them, but they can also change the perspectives and attitudes of those who do not.

Bullock, J. D., & Galst, J. M. (2009). The Story of Louis Braille. Archives of Ophthalmology , 127(11), 1532. https://​doi.org/10.1001/​archophthalmol.2009.286.

Herron, M. (2009, May 6). Blind visionary. Retrieved from https://​eandt.theiet.org/​content/​articles/2009/05/​blind-visionary/.

Jiménez, J., Olea, J., Torres, J., Alonso, I., Harder, D., & Fischer, K. (2009). Biography of Louis Braille and Invention of the Braille Alphabet. Survey of Ophthalmology , 54(1), 142–149. https://​doi.org/10.1016/​j.survophthal.2008.10.006.

Kersten, F.G. (1997). The history and development of Braille music methodology. The Bulletin of Historical Research in Music Education , 18(2). Retrieved from https://​www.jstor.org/​stable/40214926.

Mellor, C.M. (2006). Louis Braille: A touch of genius . Boston: National Braille Press.

Tombs, R. (1996). France: 1814-1914 . London: Pearson Education Ltd.

Weygand, Z. (2009). The blind in French society from the Middle Ages to the century of Louis Braille . Stanford: Stanford University Press.

If you want to know more about AI tools , college essays , or fallacies make sure to check out some of our other articles with explanations and examples or go directly to our tools!

  • Ad hominem fallacy
  • Post hoc fallacy
  • Appeal to authority fallacy
  • False cause fallacy
  • Sunk cost fallacy

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An essay is a focused piece of writing that explains, argues, describes, or narrates.

In high school, you may have to write many different types of essays to develop your writing skills.

Academic essays at college level are usually argumentative : you develop a clear thesis about your topic and make a case for your position using evidence, analysis and interpretation.

The structure of an essay is divided into an introduction that presents your topic and thesis statement , a body containing your in-depth analysis and arguments, and a conclusion wrapping up your ideas.

The structure of the body is flexible, but you should always spend some time thinking about how you can organize your essay to best serve your ideas.

Your essay introduction should include three main things, in this order:

  • An opening hook to catch the reader’s attention.
  • Relevant background information that the reader needs to know.
  • A thesis statement that presents your main point or argument.

The length of each part depends on the length and complexity of your essay .

A thesis statement is a sentence that sums up the central point of your paper or essay . Everything else you write should relate to this key idea.

A topic sentence is a sentence that expresses the main point of a paragraph . Everything else in the paragraph should relate to the topic sentence.

At college level, you must properly cite your sources in all essays , research papers , and other academic texts (except exams and in-class exercises).

Add a citation whenever you quote , paraphrase , or summarize information or ideas from a source. You should also give full source details in a bibliography or reference list at the end of your text.

The exact format of your citations depends on which citation style you are instructed to use. The most common styles are APA , MLA , and Chicago .

Cite this Scribbr article

If you want to cite this source, you can copy and paste the citation or click the “Cite this Scribbr article” button to automatically add the citation to our free Citation Generator.

Bryson, S. (2023, July 23). Example of a Great Essay | Explanations, Tips & Tricks. Scribbr. Retrieved April 2, 2024, from https://www.scribbr.com/academic-essay/example-essay-structure/

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Trying to devise a structure for your essay can be one of the most difficult parts of the writing process. Making a detailed outline before you begin writing is a good way to make sure your ideas come across in a clear and logical order. A good outline will also save you time in the revision process, reducing the possibility that your ideas will need to be rearranged once you've written them.

The First Steps

Before you can begin outlining, you need to have a sense of what you will argue in the essay. From your analysis and close readings of primary and/or secondary sources you should have notes, ideas, and possible quotes to cite as evidence. Let's say you are writing about the 1999 Republican Primary and you want to prove that each candidate's financial resources were the most important element in the race. At this point, your notes probably lack much coherent order. Most likely, your ideas are still in the order in which they occurred to you; your notes and possible quotes probably still adhere to the chronology of the sources you've examined. Your goal is to rearrange your ideas, notes, and quotes—the raw material of your essay—into an order that best supports your argument, not the arguments you've read in other people's works. To do this, you have to group your notes into categories and then arrange these categories in a logical order.


The first step is to look over each individual piece of information that you've written and assign it to a general category. Ask yourself, "If I were to file this in a database, what would I file it under?" If, using the example of the Republican Primary, you wrote down an observation about John McCain's views on health care, you might list it under the general category of  "Health care policy." As you go through your notes, try to reuse categories whenever possible. Your goal is to reduce your notes to no more than a page of category listings.

Now examine your category headings. Do any seem repetitive? Do any go together? "McCain's expenditure on ads" and "Bush's expenditure on ads," while not exactly repetitive, could easily combine into a more general category like "Candidates' expenditures on ads." Also, keep an eye out for categories that no longer seem to relate to your argument. Individual pieces of information that at first seemed important can begin to appear irrelevant when grouped into a general category.

Now it's time to generalize again. Examine all your categories and look for common themes. Go through each category and ask yourself, "If I were to place this piece of information in a file cabinet, what would I label that cabinet?" Again, try to reuse labels as often as possible: "Health Care," "Foreign Policy," and "Immigration" can all be contained under "Policy Initiatives." Make these larger categories as general as possible so that there are no more than three or four for a 7-10 page paper.

With your notes grouped into generalized categories, the process of ordering them should be easier. To begin, look at your most general categories. With your thesis in mind, try to find a way that the labels might be arranged in a sentence or two that supports your argument. Let's say your thesis is that financial resources played the most important role in the 1999 Republican Primary. Your four most general categories are "Policy Initiatives," "Financial Resources," "Voters' Concerns," and "Voters' Loyalty." You might come up with the following sentence: ÒAlthough McCain's policy initiatives were closest to the voters' concerns, Bush's financial resources won the voters' loyalty.Ó This sentence should reveal the order of your most general categories. You will begin with an examination of McCain's and Bush's views on important issues and compare them to the voters' top concerns. Then you'll look at both candidates' financial resources and show how Bush could win voters' loyalty through effective use of his resources, despite his less popular policy ideas.

With your most general categories in order, you now must order the smaller categories. To do so, arrange each smaller category into a sentence or two that will support the more general sentence you've just devised. Under the category of "Financial Resources," for instance, you might have the smaller categories of "Ad Expenditure," "Campaign Contributions" and "Fundraising." A sentence that supports your general argument might read: "Bush's early emphasis on fundraising led to greater campaign contributions, allowing him to have a greater ad expenditure than McCain."

The final step of the outlining process is to repeat this procedure on the smallest level, with the original notes that you took for your essay. To order what probably was an unwieldy and disorganized set of information at the beginning of this process, you need now only think of a sentence or two to support your general argument. Under the category "Fundraising," for example, you might have quotes about each candidate's estimation of its importance, statistics about the amount of time each candidate spent fundraising, and an idea about how the importance of fundraising never can be overestimated. Sentences to support your general argument might read: "No candidate has ever raised too much money [your idea]. While both McCain and Bush acknowledged the importance of fundraising [your quotes], the numbers clearly point to Bush as the superior fundraiser [your statistics]." The arrangement of your ideas, quotes, and statistics now should come naturally.

Putting It All Together

With these sentences, you have essentially constructed an outline for your essay. The most general ideas, which you organized in your first sentence, constitute the essay's sections. They follow the order in which you placed them in your sentence. The order of the smaller categories within each larger category (determined by your secondary sentences) indicates the order of the paragraphs within each section. Finally, your last set of sentences about your specific notes should show the order of the sentences within each paragraph. An outline for the essay about the 1999 Republican Primary (showing only the sections worked out here) would look something like this:




            A.  Fundraising

                        a.  Original Idea

                        b.  McCain Quote/Bush Quote

                        c.  McCain Statistics/Bush Statistics

            B.  Campaign Contributions

            C.  Ad Expenditure


Copyright 2000, David Kornhaber, for the Writing Center at Harvard University

Ultimate Guide to Writing Your College Essay

Tips for writing an effective college essay.

College admissions essays are an important part of your college application and gives you the chance to show colleges and universities your character and experiences. This guide will give you tips to write an effective college essay.

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Stuck on what to write your college essay about? Here are some exercises to help you get started.

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Student story: admissions essay about a past mistake, how to write a college application essay, tips for writing an effective application essay, sample college essay 1 with feedback, sample college essay 2 with feedback.

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3.4: Process Essay

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The Purpose of the Process Essay

The purpose of a process essay is to explain how to do something (directional) or how something works (informative). In either case, the formula for a process essay remains the same. The process is articulated into clear, definitive steps.

Almost everything we do involves following a step-by-step process. From learning to ride a bike as a child to starting a new job as an adult, we initially needed instructions to effectively execute the task. Likewise, we have likely had to instruct others, so we know how important good directions are—and how frustrating it is when they are poorly put together.

Exercise 10

On a separate sheet of paper, make a bulleted list of all the steps that you feel are required to clearly illustrate three of the following four processes (note that the first three are directional and the fourth is informative).

  • Tying a shoelace
  • Parallel parking
  • Planning a successful first date
  • How a historical event occurred (pick one you know well!)

The Structure of a Process Essay

The process essay opens with a discussion of the process and a thesis statement that states the goal of the process. The organization of a process essay typically follows chronological order. The steps of the process are conveyed in the order in which they usually occur, and so your body paragraphs will be constructed based on these steps. If a particular step is complicated and needs a lot of explaining, then it will likely take up a paragraph on its own. But if a series of simple steps is easy to understand, then the steps can be grouped into a single paragraph.

The time transition phrases covered in the Narration section are also helpful for organizing process analysis essays (see Table of Transition Words and Phrases for Expressing Time). Words such as first, second, third, next, and finally are cues to orient readers and organize the content of the essay.

Finally, it’s a good idea to always have someone else read your process analysis to make sure it makes sense. Once we get too close to a subject, it is difficult to determine how clearly an idea is coming across. Having a peer read over your analysis will serve as a good way to troubleshoot any confusing spots.

Exercise 11

Choose two of the lists you created in Exercise 10 and start writing out the processes in paragraph form. Try to construct paragraphs based on the complexity of each step. For complicated steps, dedicate an entire paragraph. If less complicated steps fall in succession, group them into a single paragraph.

Writing a Process Essay

Choose a topic that is interesting, is relatively complex, and can be explained in a series of steps. As with other rhetorical writing modes, it is best to choose a process that you know well so that you can more easily describe the finer details about each step in the process. Your thesis statement should come at the end of your introduction, and it should state the final outcome of the process you are describing.

Body paragraphs are composed of the steps in the process. Each step should be expressed using strong details and clear examples. If you are writing a directional essay, you should provide every detail necessary for your reader to complete the process. If you are writing an instructional essay, your body paragraphs should explain the process and how it works, although you should not expect your reader to be actually performing the process. Use time transition phrases to help organize steps in the process and to orient readers. The conclusion should thoroughly describe the result of the process described in the body paragraphs. See the student paper below, “Keep Them in Stitches,” or one of the sample professional essays to read an example of a process analysis essay.

Exercise 12

Choose one of the expanded lists from Exercise 11. Construct a full process essay from the work you have already done. That means adding an engaging introduction, a clear thesis, time transition phrases, body paragraphs, and a solid conclusion.

Sample Process Essay

“Keep Them in Stitches,” by Jacob Gallman-Dreiling, describes the process of finding the perfect yarn for a knitting project. As you read, pay attention to the words and phrases the author uses to help orient the reader, as well as the strong details that bring the subject to life.

Jacob Gallman-Dreiling

English 1101

24 February 2013

Thesis statement: Choosing the perfect yarn for a knitting project relies on the preferences of the person for whom the project is being made, the availability of the yarn, and the type of yarn called for by the pattern.

  • Wool yarn will aggravate allergies to lanolin.
  • Acrylic yearns can be scratchy or leave splinters.
  • Warmer items should be made with animal fibers.
  • Lighter items should be made with cotton.
  • Wool yarn should be hand washed with cold water.
  • Cotton and acrylic yarns are machine washable.
  • Solid colors are great for sweaters and accessories like professional iPad cases.
  • Variegated yarn makes for show-stopping pieces and can help maintain the knitter’s interest through the end of the project.
  • An advantage to shopping in person is the ability to touch the yarn.
  • An advantage to shopping at the local yarn store is the knowledgeable staff, many of whom have been knitting for years.
  • An advantage to shopping at the yarn store is that the staff can provide ready assistance and often have first-hand knowledge of the yarn the knitter intends to use.
  • Online retailers typically have greater stock availability.
  • Online retailers also provide tutorial videos.
  • Fingering, sport, and DK weight yarns are good for smaller projects like socks or baby clothes.
  • Worsted, bulky, and super bulky are great for sweaters, scarves, blankets, and washcloths.
  • Some people prefer sweaters with a small gauge.
  • Some people prefer socks with a large gauge

Keep Them in Stitches

The popularity of knitting is cyclical, rising and falling according to the prevailing opinion of women’s places in society. Though internationally a unisex hobby, knitting is pervasively thought of as a woman’s hobby in the United States. Knitting is currently enjoying a boost in popularity as traditionally minded women pick up the craft while women who enjoy subverting traditional gender roles have also picked up the needles to reclaim “the lost domestic arts” and give traditionally feminine crafts the proper respect. American men are also picking up the needles in greater numbers, with men’s knitting guilds and retreats nationwide. This rise in popularity has made the receiving of hand-knit items special, and many people enjoy receiving these long-lasting, painstakingly crafted items. For any knitters, the perfect gift starts by choosing the perfect yarn. Choosing the perfect yarn for a knitting project relies on the preferences of the person for whom the project is being made, the availability of the yarn, and the type of yarn recommended by the pattern.

In order to select the right yarn for a knitting project, the knitter must take into account the preferences of the recipient of the knitted item. The most basic choice is the composition of the yarn to be used. Natural fibers are luxurious and tend to age better. Nevertheless, the knitter must determine if the recipient has any allergies or sensitivities. Wool yarn, for example, will aggravate allergies in those sensitive to lanolin, but mohair, alpaca, cotton, or angora will not cause discomfort. Acrylic is a synthetic yarn, but it can be scratchy or leave splinters. A second consideration is the type of project the knitter plans to complete: each project requires a specific type of yarn. For warmer items such as sweaters, blankets, or mittens, animal fibers are best. Socks, warmer-weather items, and household accessories are best served using cotton. One must also give thought to the care of the finished project. Items made from wool yarn survive best when hand washed in cold water whereas cotton and acrylic items are machine washable.

Once the type of yarn has been chosen, the knitter should consider what color yarn the recipient prefers. A solid color garment looks more professional and functions as a base piece in a wardrobe or interior design. Sweaters, iPad and tablet cases, as well as belts are well-suited to solid colors. Pieces made with variegated colors, in which the yarn has either multiple colors or shades of the same basic color, make for show pieces and accessories. Socks, gloves, scarves, and cowls are great projects for variegated yarn. Variegated yarn colors tend to keep the knitter’s interest, but multicolored yarn can be difficult to use when working on larger projects which require multiple skeins of yarn. Due to the way yarn is dyed, the color at the end of one skein may not match the color at the beginning of the next skein.

The next step in determining the right yarn for a project is availability, particularly where to purchase the yarn. Some people prefer to shop at a local store for yarn because it offers many advantages. Shopping in person allows the knitter to feel the yarn he or she intends to purchase. This can help sway the knitter’s opinion in regards to yarn choice. The staff at a local shop is often knowledgeable; many of them have been knitting for years, and they are usually ready to offer assistance with projects or yarn selection. If a knitter does not live near a yarn store, there are many online retailers who can fulfill their orders. Online retailers typically have a larger selection of yarns and patterns available for download. Since they cannot give personal assistance, many compensate for this deficiency by providing free tutorial videos.

Finally, choosing the right yarn for a project relies on the type of yarn called for in the knitting pattern. Patterns are highly adaptable. Most things in a pattern can be substituted: yarn type, yarn weight, color, and number of stitches can all be substituted to fit the knitter’s desire, but the pattern will provide a good place to start. The yarn weight, which determines the gauge of the project, is one of the most basic substitutions. Fingering or lace weight, sport, and DK weight are lighter weight yarns typically good for smaller projects like socks or baby clothes. Those types of yarn tend to be knit on smaller needles and produce a smaller stitch. Worsted, bulky, and super-bulky yarns are chunkier, knit on larger needles, and provide beautiful, large stitches. They are well suited for sweaters, scarves, blankets, and washcloths. The preferences of the recipient must also be taken into account. Some people prefer sweaters with a small stitch, while others prefer thick, warm socks to wear around the house.

The right yarn for a knitting project is one that meets the preferences of the recipient of the project, is readily available, and matches the needs of the pattern. After the project is completed and given to the intended recipient, both the knitter and receiver can bask in the adulation the finished garment brings. These hand-knit items can be passed down for several generations, truly becoming a gift that keeps on giving.

Online Process Essay Alternatives:

Stanley Fish, an American literary theorist, public intellectual, and professor of humanities and law, tells us why “Getting Coffee Is Hard to Do.”

essay composition process

How to Write a Process Essay

essay composition process

The process essay, also known as the "how-to" essay, is commonly written for people or companies that need tutorials or a set of instructional steps. Whether it's building a robot or cooking a chocolate cake, process essays use a similar format for any variations. They follow a step-by-step style, with the initial step influencing the second, which influences the third, and so on. Each step carries its own importance, and a poor explanation of one step can ruin the entire process. It's important to stay concise and efficient. However, before you begin writing your essay, you should do some small preparations. Let's discover them with our research writing service .

What Is a Process Paper?

A process essay is a type of essay that explains a process step by step and gives guidance for a certain process, working mechanism, procedure, etc. Process essays range from very simple ones, such as instructions for how to ride a bicycle, to more complex ones, such as a chemistry lab report of an oxidative reaction experiment. The goal of a process paper is to give its readers guidance and directions. 

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A process paper is characterized, first of all, by explaining a process using a description. Some words that are frequently used in process essays are “further”, “then”, “next”, “first”, “last”, “finally”, and “initially”. It is really important to remember that every process essay includes features, such as:

  • clear and straightforward narration - the last thing you want to do is to confuse your reader with complex language and an unorganized thought thread;
  • chronological order - avoid skipping steps and shifting them around, as it will result in misunderstanding and frustration for the readers;
  • transition words - make sure to separate the next step from the previous ones by using transition words;
  • descriptions of the steps - make sure your steps are clear and easy to follow.

There are several types of process essays. The first one is directional - it explains the “how to” for something. It can take on a wide range of subjects, such as how to apply for a credit card, how to get your driver’s license, how to plan a wedding, etc. The outcome of the directional essay should be a result. In the cases of the examples above: a credit card, a driver’s license, or a carefully planned wedding. The other type of process paper is informational - it explains how something works. Here are some examples: how a weather forecast is determined, how a space rocket works, how intermittent fasting changes your body, etc. An informational essay explains something to a reader and does not necessarily end up with a result, like directional does. 

Another type of essay that is similar to a process essay is a process analysis essay. The biggest difference is that a process analysis essay not only explains the steps, but also analyses them in depth. It has all of the characteristics of a process essay, although goes into more detail about the causes and consequences of every step.

If you need any additional information for process analysis essays, check out our article: HOW TO WRITE A PROCESS ANALYSIS ESSAY

Writing a process essay is not extremely difficult. By following simple rules and a set of steps, a successful, well-structured essay can be guaranteed.

Prepare The Small Stuff

Here we gathered some small general tips and advice that you should follow throughout your writing process to make sure that all of the expectations of a process paper are met.

  • Determine the Audience's Skill Level. It's important to base the level of complexity of the essay on who the readers will be. For example, if you need to teach a friend how to do a simple fix or create a certain tool, then it would be most reasonable to stick to more basic terminology. However, if you are writing an essay for your astrophysics professor about the creation of a black hole in the universe, use more sophisticated and informative terminology.
  • Make a List of Materials. Obviously, the creation of anything comes with some prerequisites. Whether it's items or ideas, the importance of knowing the necessities beforehand and having them ready to go is essential. Make sure to place each item in accordance with its importance. The more impactful a part is, the higher up on the list it should be. 
  • Write out Each Task. In a step-by-step tutorial, each individual task carries some sort of weight. Since an entire process can not be complete if a step is skipped, it's crucial to write out every single step. However, don't go overboard in your explanations. It's not necessary to bring the tutorial to a microscopic level, but each step should be understandable and competent.

If you still have difficulty writing, you can get essay help online from our service.

Process Essay Topics

Choosing a topic for a process paper can be quite challenging. A good place to start is with your passions. If you pick something you are excited about, you can make it interesting for your readers and fun for yourself to write about. If your professor limits you to write a process essay on something you have very little knowledge of, choose a topic that is intriguing and triggers your interest. Then, conduct enough thorough research to make sure you understand everything perfectly before you go ahead and try to explain it to someone else. 

How to Pick a Process Analysis Essay Topic

Another very important thing to consider while writing a process essay is your audience. It is highly unlikely that college students are interested in instructions for “How to Get Into Your Dream School” or “How to Pass Your SATs”. Make sure your topic relates to the subject you are studying and you are following your professor’s prompt guidelines.

Here are some ideas that might be of interest for you:

  • How to lose weight on a keto diet
  • How your immune system fights COVID-19
  • How to start selling on Amazon
  • How to improve your credit score
  • How to decrease your social media usage
  • How to apply for unemployment insurance
  • How to improve your college performance 
  • How to open your first bank account

It's important to note that these essay topics are just some common examples used by several college students for their course papers. Feel free to use any one of them if you want, or think of one on your own. Just make sure it's a PROCESS!

Process Essay Outline

Most essay outlines follow the standard scheme: Intro > Body Paragraphs > Conclusion . follow the standard scheme: Intro > Body Paragraphs > Conclusion. A good process essay outline should look like this:


  • Introduction — brief your reader on your topic, explain why you have chosen it and how you are planning to approach the explanation of the process. 
  • Body — the biggest part of your essay that should be divided into paragraphs for easier understanding and structure. Make sure each paragraph is flowing smoothly into the next one with connective words.

Paragraph 1. First step of the process. Explain what the step is, what the best way to perform it is, and how to avoid common mistakes when doing it.

Paragraph 2. The next step of the process (the same as in Paragraph 1). Thoroughly explain what this step is about.

  • Conclusion . Here you need to explain why your instructions are valuable. It is your opportunity to persuade your reader(s) that the steps you presented and the process they learned will be useful for them in the future. 

Every process is different: some can take a couple of minutes, while others can take months or years to complete. The length of the essay is generally based on the difficulty and number of steps it takes. However, the structure doesn't maneuver.


The first thing that you want to do as a writer for your process paper is to help your readers be interested in your individual process. Be descriptive about it, paint a picture for your readers. A joke or a personal reference can be a great attention grabber and can pull your reader right in. For somebody to be keen on approaching your process, they have to express interest in it. Though, it generally goes without saying that many writers ignore this fact. Let's break it down into subsections:

  • Give a little bit of historical background. People often want to know the origins of whatever it is that they're working on. Introducing this part of the process helps to intrigue your readers, as well as give them a sense of purpose for the task.
  • Create an approximate timeframe. Unfortunately, your readers don't have all day to spend on this one event. In addition to learning about its purpose, people want to know how long the task will take. This way, they can decide how to break up the work. If it's a quick fix, then they can knock it out in one session. However, if it's a large-scale operation, then your readers will obviously have to create their own time schedule.
For example, let’s say that the topic of your essay is “How to Save Money”. You can start the introduction of your process essay by explaining that as a college student, you often find yourself in need of extra money and you are stuck with bad money habits. This will create a good connection with your readers, because almost everyone has been in a situation of needing to be savvy with their finances. Another thing you can mention is the importance of saving money and the multiple opportunities it presents, such as being able to invest it, being able to pay off a credit card debt, or being able to save up to avoid taking out a student loan.

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Body Paragraphs

This is the point in the process essay where you start introducing the step-by-step process your readers will need to take. A lot of the time, it helps to break down each process into subsections. For example, if a step has many parts to it, it would be clever to create a paragraph on its own just for that step. Remember, it's important to keep things smooth and efficient. Break down the body paragraphs in unity with the steps. Let's go into more detail about each step:

Each step should be carefully explained.  Every step will vary in length. Think about it: every instruction manual has several steps. Some are more difficult to comprehend or perform than others. For this reason, create your steps and explanations accordingly. You should be able to get a sense of their length and difficulty based on the explanation.

Don't forget to explain the purpose.  People don't want orders barked at them aimlessly. Besides just accomplishing a task, people want to learn as they perform.

  • Why did they do this?
  • What was the purpose of this method?
  • Why did we do it this way and not this other way?

To make everything flow smoothly use transitions.  Make the steps flow one after another to create a well-structured essay. As you introduce the next step, consider using transition words like “next”, “now”, “then”, “so that”, etc.

Before writing the steps out in full sentences, it is a great idea to create an outline for your body paragraphs. Here is an outline for the body paragraphs of a process essay on “How to Save Money”:

Paragraph 1:

  • keep track of your expenses
  • organize your collected data
  • decide what you can skimp on in your spendings

Paragraph 2:

  • create a realistic budget
  • check weekly to ensure you are sticking to it
  • save 15% of every monthly income
  • set a tangible goal for saving, such as a car

These process essay examples use only two body paragraphs, but feel free to include more to ensure a better understanding and cohesive flow for your paper. Although, do not include excessive unnecessary details that clutter your essay and make understanding it even more difficult. While writing your essay, include small brief explanations for each statement. For example, “Even though eating out and grabbing a coffee on your way to class sounds tempting, setting a budget and saving 15% of each of your monthly earnings aside can help you have enough to put down a downpayment on a new car.” Here the reader will understand that there is a direct relationship between each step and the result it is going to give. 

Showing the readers that they are learning and not just repeating is one of the most effective ways to lock down their attention and keep them coming back!

After going through every step meticulously and explaining the whole process, a process essay needs a confident conclusion. This paragraph should be short, sweet, and to the point. It's main goal is to accomplish the following tasks:

  • Discuss the main result. After the readers have completed the process, they should be left with a final result. It's important that you explain to your readers what the end result will look like, and what can be done with it.
  • Restate the process’s general purpose. After completing the task, you obviously would like to know its overall purpose. When your readers feel that they have accomplished a challenge, learned something from it, and have a path to take the result towards, they will be satisfied!
  • State your Overall Conclusion. To put a pretty tie around your process essay means that you need to neatly wrap things up! Restate some of the highlightable points as well as the process’s key overall purpose. Make sure that your readers feel accomplished after going through your process, and  ensure that you strengthen the necessity of its purpose with a nice concluding sentence!

The conclusion of an essay on “How to Save Money” would explain that the completion of all of the steps will result in saving money that can be used for a specific goal or for rainy day fund purposes. You can mention the importance of every step and briefly repeat some of the key points. 

Post-Writing Tips

Here are some final tips to wrap up your writing process. Use them as a checklist for a successful and coherent essay. 

  • Make sure the work is simple enough to follow. Worst-case-scenario: its author creates a feeling of absolute confusion in the reader’s mind. To avoid this problem, always remember that your readers can be beginners. Do not try to impress them with complicated words or sentences, use simple language to provide clear directions on how to do something. Give as many details as possible, but do it plainly. "Why is he making me do this?" "What was the purpose of this?" "I don't understand this step at all!" If the reader is asking themself these questions, then it's time to do some editing!
  • Experiment and try it for yourself or ask a friend. There's no better way to experience success than to actively attempt your process through your own instructions. If everything truly makes sense, then you should have no problem solving the task using your own words. Even better, ask a peer to try it through your words to get an outside point of view.
  • Choose the right topic for you and research it well
  • Maintain a logical order of steps, make it easy to follow
  • Avoid using imperative sentences - you do not want to sound like an Apple TV manual
  • Explain terms that are most likely outside of most people’s range of common knowledge 

If you have a ready-made essay but need to make significant changes to it, you can use our rewrite my essay service .

Process Essay Examples

Now that you know all about process essays and how to write them, we have prepared some great essay topic ideas in case you are stuck and cannot choose one:

Building a business from scratch is an intricate process that entails a number of steps. Each of these steps should have specific objectives and measurable outcomes.The following analysis gives the basic steps followed when building any business from scratch.
Saving can be defined as a differed consumption or keeping aside a portion of your income for unexpected future uncertainties or plans. Read for reason and actual steps for saving more money

Read also a thesis statement example from our author. In this article, you can learn something useful for yourself.

Still Need Help?

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  • Published: 03 April 2024

ChatGPT and the digitisation of writing

  • Xin Zhao   ORCID: orcid.org/0000-0002-8968-6912 1 ,
  • Andrew Cox 1 &
  • Liang Cai 2  

Humanities and Social Sciences Communications volume  11 , Article number:  482 ( 2024 ) Cite this article

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  • Language and linguistics

The aim of this study is to uncover how students’ practices of writing in higher education are being impacted by ChatGPT. The use of ChatGPT and other generative AI needs to be set in the context of a longer-term process of the digitisation of writing, where many tools are being employed by students to support writing because it is a complex iterative process. Generative AI appears to have had a large impact on how students write, and we propose a model of generative AI literacy to assess their capabilities in doing so. Semi-structured interviews and observation data were collected at a British University with 23 students from diverse backgrounds, including the UK, USA, China, Japan, and Saudi Arabia. The data was analysed thematically. It was found that students used ChatGPT alongside many other tools, and in rather individualistic ways often to address specific challenges they felt they had with writing. Their main concerns were around plagiarism, information inaccuracy and technology dependence. There was a relatively weak understanding or interest in the ethical issues around the exploitative and environmental impacts of generative AI. The social controversy around ChatGPT can be seen as a useful opportunity to engage students in a discussion about the digitisation of writing and promote AI literacy in this context.

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The use of AI in education (AIEd) has been a discrete area of study for several decades, albeit the majority of studies have been from a technical development standpoint with less involvement of educators (Zawacki-Richter et al., 2019 ). Development of AIEd has tended to be concentrated on Intelligent Tutoring Systems (Guan et al., 2020 ). Use of such technologies in an educational context has not been without its critics (e.g. Selwyn, 2019 ). Meanwhile, AI has already made a relatively unheralded appearance in low-level features of much technology supporting everyday knowledge work such as search, recommendation, transcription and translation. It has also appeared increasingly within writing support tools, such as grammar checkers, as well as in plagiarism detection.

This picture of gradual change was dramatically disrupted in November 2022 by the launch of ChatGPT. Particularly in education, generative AI has created excitement but is also a considerable concern (Kasneci et al., 2023 , Trust et al., 2023 ; Lo, 2023 ). The usage figures of ChatGPT show an incredibly rapid rise in popularity and the potential benefits claimed for it are wide-ranging. Much of the fear has revolved around its potential impact on academic integrity. What is lacking to date are in-depth studies that explore how ChatGPT is actually used and experienced by students. Since it is in writing text that generative AI excels, and because writing is central to many forms of learning, including assessment, this paper focuses on how generative AI is changing how students write. With the increasing use of AI in many domains of activity there is a growing interest in defining AI literacy (Long and Magerko, 2020 ). We build on this work to propose a model of generative AI literacy as a framework to assess student use of ChatGPT in their writing.

In this context, the present study had the aim of uncovering how postgraduate students’ practices of writing were impacted by ChatGPT, with the specific research questions for the study being:

How were postgraduate students using ChatGPT and other digital writing tools for writing tasks in the summer of 2023?

What do students consider the benefits and problems of ChatGPT’s use?

What are the strengths and weaknesses in student generative AI literacy?

The digitisation of writing

The impacts of generative AI tools such as ChatGPT in education, need to be understood in the context of long-term digitisation of writing . The digitisation of writing is a major shift in writing as a fundamental process of expression and learning (Strobl et al. 2019 ). It carries particular significance because of the cultural value and status placed on good writing, particularly in some academic disciplines. Through the introduction of word processors, then spelling, grammar and style checking, then connectivity, and now generative AI tools, this digitisation process is having profound effects on writing, albeit they remain difficult to pinpoint because they are primarily mental rather than directly visible changes (Kruse and Rapp, 2019 ).

There has been an acceleration of this digitisation process in the last decade with the growing number of AI-powered writing assistants that are appearing. Godwin-Jones ( 2022 ) differentiates four types of such tools:

Automatic writing evaluation (AWE) which provides feedback on completed work;

Automatic written corrective feedback (AWCF) which offers synchronous feedback on spelling, grammar and or style as text is written;

Translation tools;

Text generation tools which create bodies of text from a short stimulus.

We could add to this other tools and apps used during the research process at the beginning of writing such as for search, text summarisation (e.g., Scholarcy, iris.ai, summarisebot) and literature reviewing (e.g., ResearchRabbit, Gecko, connectedpapers). There are also well-established tools for referencing which link search and reading to producing a final reference list for a completed assignment (e.g., EndNote, RefWorks, Zotero, and Mendeley).

If writing as a process consists of the stages of “prewriting, planning, drafting, revising, and editing” (Strobl et al., 2019 , p. 38), then AWE and AWCF are mostly used in the latter two stages. Our previous research revealed, however, that rephrasing tools such as Wordtune are used both in improving text at the revision stage, but also in breaking through mental blocks in the early stages of writing or even planning (Zhao et al., 2023 ). Similarly, Malik et al. ( 2023 ) found Indonesian students also using a wide range of AI-based tools in their writing. Translation tools might also be used at various stages, such as in processing reading and drafting text (Zhao et al., 2024 ). So just as writing is a complex iterative process, the use of digital writing tools is complex. Our study of Wordtune also found it being commonly being combined with other writing tools (Zhao et al., 2023 ). While many such tools have multiple functionalities, they tend to be used for specific tasks for which they are best known. For example, many tools will offer some support for translation, but users tend to have a preferred tool for this function.

Thus, it is important to recognise that many learners were already using multiple tools at different stages of the writing process prior to the dramatic debut of ChatGPT, so the use of generative AI appears in a pre-existing landscape of digital writing. Yet the panoply of tools to support the writing process has been little analysed, particularly from the perspective of how they are used in practice and in conjunction with each other, during writing as a complex, iterative process.

Generative AI

ChatGPT’s launch has been a dramatic, potentially paradigm-shifting intervention, influencing how writing as a central aspect of learning is performed, but also the general perception of AI in Education. It has seen an extraordinary explosion of use, with a claimed 100 million users within two months of its launch (Trust et al., 2023 ). At the same time, it has been deeply controversial, particularly within education, and has been linked to many of the wider debates on the ethics of AI around bias, privacy and impact on society. Whereas the widespread use in the writing of tools such as Grammarly and Google Translate seems to have been tacitly accepted with relatively little controversy, ChatGPT has drawn huge debate to the digitisation of writing (Adeshola and Adepoju, 2023 ; AlAfnan et al., 2023 ; Memarian and Doleck, 2023 ). This may be partly because tools such as Turnitin have at least partly given teachers the lead in the “arms race” with unfair means. From an educational point of view, it is the impossibility of detecting generative AI’s use that makes it so controversial (Uzun, 2023 ).

Yet it is hard to deny the power and user-friendliness of ChatGPT. While it remains essentially a form of narrow AI (as opposed to a general AI that mimics the breadth of human intelligence), it does perform a wide range of tasks across the writing process, potentially composing a complete essay, but also including the ability to: summarise readings or a topic, produce an outline for a text, draft text, rewrite text in different styles or lengths, and check grammar and spelling (UNESCO, 2023 ). Thus, ChatGPT has the ability to write entire texts from a prompt or support specific processes in writing. In addition, it can also write computer code, solve math problems, etc. Yet ChatGPT, at least in its early manifestation, poses many informational and ethical problems (EPIC, 2023 ) (Table  1 ).

Some of these problems are being addressed in later versions of ChatGPT or in other text generation tools such as Bard or the new Bing. Moreover, they are not inherent to large language models but rather features of systems built by BigTech. Nevertheless, given the great AI capabilities of BigTech in terms of resources including data and so their power to define the definition of AI, we anticipate that users need to be aware of such potential issues.

AI literacy

In the last 5 years, there have been growing suggestions of the need to define AI literacy, because of the increasingly pervasive presence of AI in everyday lives and work. A widely cited definition is offered by Long and Magerko ( 2020 ):

We define AI literacy as a set of competencies that enables individuals to critically evaluate AI technologies; communicate and collaborate effectively with AI; and use AI as a tool online, at home, and in the workplace.

The authors break AI literacy down under five headings, with 17 components under those headings:

What AI is—this is knowledge such as how to recognise AI when it is encountered and understanding distinctions between general and narrow AI.

What it can do—this consists of differentiating the tasks AI is good at doing from those it is not good at, and also being able to imagine future uses, reflecting the evolving nature of AI.

How AI works—includes ideas such as representation and has an emphasis on data literacy, emphasising learning from data and the need for critical interpretation of data.

How it should be used—under which ethics is placed.

How people perceive it.

This is useful in contrasting to more technically oriented definitions such as that of Pinski and Benlian ( 2023 ) which lack the ethical and critical dimension. Another useful definition is offered by Ridley and Pawlick-Potts ( 2021 ) when they suggest that:

Algorithmic literacy is the skill, expertise, and awareness to, understand and reason about algorithms and their processes; recognise and interpret their use in systems (whether embedded or overt); create and apply algorithmic techniques and tools to problems in a variety of domains; assess the influence and effect of algorithms in social, cultural, economic, and political contexts; position the individual as a co-constituent in algorithmic decision-making.

This is a concise expression of the key aspects, integrating notions of algorithmic literacy, which focuses on the way that AI is often encountered indirectly through functions such as filtering and personalisation on online platforms. Levels of student AI literacy have been much investigated, often using Long and Magerko’s ( 2020 ) framework (e.g. Kong et al. 2022 ). However, most of this work was done before the advent of ChatGPT.

The capability of ChatGPT and other generative AI to create a significant body of content from a short prompt has shifted concepts of what AI is. We suggest that this implies the need to update our notion of AI literacy. In the light of the potential and critiques of the technology (discussed above), we can suggest that generative AI literacy might be defined under five headings:

Pragmatic understanding: The individual can use generative AI effectively and interpret the information it produces critically

The individual can pick the right tool for the task, in the context of the proliferation of writing tools (including alternative generative AI to ChatGPT)

The individual learns to use the chosen tool effectively for a specific task

Deciding where in the writing process to use it, e.g. for Search, brainstorming, structuring text etc

Uses the tool effectively through prompt engineering), such as by

Being CLEAR (concise, logical, explicit, adaptive and reflective) (Lo, 2023 )

Providing context for prompts posed

Defining what sort of answer is required

Rephrasing questions

Asking for sources used

Iterating and synthesising results

Updating their knowledge as tools develop rapidly

The individual interprets generative AI outputs critically, given an understanding of how they work and their limits

Information accuracy, currency, citeability

Safety understanding: The individual can use generative AI safely

Is aware of privacy risks

Reflective understanding: The individual can assess and take action to manage the impacts of AI on their experience in the educational context

Impacts on own skills and learning

Impacts on social connection, including the social aspects of learning

Socio-ethical understanding: The individual understands the societal impacts of AI, including

IPR issues relating to how models are trained

Impact on information culture, misinformation and disinformation

Social impacts such as through exploitative process of creation, and the impacts on jobs/ job enrichment

Equity of access

Environmental impacts

Implications of the undue power of BigTech

Contextual understanding: The individual understands how to use generative AI appropriately in a particular context and make their own use explicit, as appropriate

What is appropriate to context

How to make use transparent and cite appropriately

Generative AI in education

It has been education in particular that has been disrupted by the potential and risks of generative AI in 2023. Yet while much has been written about this in editorials and opinion pieces (Kasneci et al., 2023 ; Trust et al., 2023 ) usually to inform educators about how to use it, we are only at the beginning of learning its impact on student behaviour through empirical research. This is important because it seems likely that students have taken up its use far more quickly than teachers.

We do have a few early studies of use by students. A number of surveys by Best Colleges indicate that though US students had concerns about whether it was fair to use ChatGPT for assessments, they were using it and saw it as soon to become the norm (Welding, 2023 ). Chan and Hu ( 2023 ) found Hong Kong students positive about generative AI and willing to use it. This was partly because of its direct uses for brainstorming, individualised assistance with questions, and help with literature reviewing (such as summarisation). But their willingness to use it was partly because they saw it as representing long-term trends in technologies. They had concerns about its accuracy, the transparency of its working, the privacy of their data, the risk of becoming over-reliant, the impacts on employment and conflicts with human values. This accords well with a study by Attewell ( 2023 ) based on focus groups with UK students. This again found generative AI being used in a wide range of ways. A similar range of concerns were also expressed such as about the reliability of information from generative AI, privacy, equity of access and fears of becoming over-reliant on it. Students wanted educational institutions to have clearer policies and offer training in the use of generative AI. Interestingly, they also wanted student involvement in generating policy on AI.

If students are generally positive about ChatGPT’s use it is staff who express more concerns. Cardon et al. ( 2023 ) conducted a survey of business communication instructors. The main concern of this group of educators was that students would use it to cheat. But they saw a range of negative impacts on learning, such as

Less critical thinking/ creativity—itself seen as part of a wider malaise, and the crisis of creativity

Less writing skills

Less authenticity

Less agency because of dependence on such tools

Less commitment to authenticity in communication, such as valuing authorial voice and sincerity in communications

They also acknowledged that it can be helpful e.g. in the early stages of writing, and certainly enhanced the efficiency of writing. However they did believe such tools would be used in the workplace, so it was unavoidable that it had to be taught.


To answer the research questions, we employed a qualitative methodology within the interpretivist paradigm. We used a combination of semi-structured interviews and observational techniques to gain an understanding of how students selectively employed digital tools in their writing processes and to understand their experiences and concerns regarding the use of generative AI. We recruited participants through an email invitation circulated to students asking for participants who were using “digital tools” for writing. We also asked interviewees to suggest other suitable participants. Our study included 23 participants of diverse nationalities, including students from the UK, China, India, Thailand, Japan, Greece, Malaysia, the USA, and other regions (Table  2 ). These students were pursuing a range of academic degrees, including postgraduate taught and postgraduate research programmes. All the participants were in the process of undertaking academic tasks, such as writing dissertations or theses. The interviews were conducted in the summer of 2023, this was before the university had issued its policy on AI use.

At the beginning of the interview, participants were asked to demonstrate their writing process for an academic essay/dissertation and explain how they use digital tools to support their writing. The second part of the interview participants were asked a series of questions, including about the tools they used during the writing process, how they had used ChatGPT, and what their concerns were about it, such as data privacy, inclusivity, accessibility, bias, ethics, and the potential impact of generative AI on education. Thematic Analysis served as our chosen method for analysing the qualitative data, enabling us to gain a nuanced understanding of students’ perceptions of digital writing and ChatGPT in particular (Braun and Clarke, 2006 ). The research received ethical approval from the University of Sheffield. Voluntary, informed consent was gained from participants. All the data were anonymised for the purposes of analysis and reporting.

Many tools used in the complex task of writing

One theme that emerged strongly from the data was that students were routinely using a wide range of digital tools (many with an AI component) throughout the academic writing process. The most commonly mentioned tools were grammar checkers (especially Grammarly), paraphrasing tools (Quillbot and Wordtune) and translation tools (e.g., DeepL and Google Translate). Somewhat less commonly other types of tools were in use such as for managing references (Endnote, MyBib) and plagiarism detection (Q-text).

Students who were native English speakers used more basic tools such as Word’s grammar checking or very specialist tools such as to manage references. In contrast, non-English speakers were using a wider range of tools, with considerable experience of having done so built up over time.

Such services seem to be used in quite individualistic ways and critically the impression was that their use had been learned from classmates, social media (such as Youtube or Little Red Book), and trial and error—rather than the institution and educators, although one individual was using Grammarly on supervisory advice.

Sometimes students paid a subscription for such tools; sometimes not. ChatGPT was the most frequently paid-for tool among all those mentioned.

ChatGPT: Used in many different ways

Interviewees talked about other tools as much as about ChatGPT and for these interviewees, it was early days with ChatGPT. Many had used it to only a limited extent. Nevertheless, there was evidence of ChatGPT being employed throughout the writing process. There were frequent mentions of uses to:

understand difficult concepts including understanding assignment briefs

summarise readings during the research process

suggest structures for writing

get words down on the page and break through a mental block

rephrase text and check grammar

Central uses that ChatGPT was uniquely good at was gaining an understanding of an assignment brief and then structuring ideas:

This is the topic and I first use ChatGPT to give me some idea about this topic. And actually, when I saw this topic, I didn’t really understand it. I use ChatGPT to give me some explanations. [9, Thailand]
So I asked it how to organise an essay about this topic. And then it gave me this structure. So I use this as a reference. [2, China]

Some also used it to check that the final text met the brief:

Then in writing or after writing, I would ask if this paragraph was in line with classwork requirements. I would send it all the requirements, and then ask it if I could write like this? [1, China]

Some used it for searching for literature.

I think the most difficult part of writing an essay is the idea you need to make your own opinions and you need to structure your essay but you need to find examples and literature to support your argument. If you just google it or search […] sometimes you can’t find much relevant information or only a few. […] You can just find less relevant information and articles but with ChatGPT, it will collect the most relevant information for you. [1, China].

For other tasks, such as summarising readings, rephrasing ideas into more academic language and grammar checking participants used other tools as much as ChatGPT. Grammarly, Quillbot, Wordtune and translation tools had heavy use in rewriting. Students tended to use ChatGPT for just one or a few of these tasks, not all of them, linked to which aspect of writing they found hardest.

Students’ individual explorations of the tool had produced quite distinct patterns of use, often linked to the areas of weakness they perceived in their own writing. For example, participant 23 emphasised using it to generate analogies to help them understand complex ideas in the context of moving to study computer science from another discipline:

If I don’t understand, repeat, repeat, repeat, repeat, repeat until I understand and then proceed. And that is how my process is. It’s a lot of repetition, a lot of reclarifying myself and always detecting all this reading and fact checking. [23, Malaysia]

Participant 17 described using in complex way to support reading:

I would copy literally like a whole article into it and then say, summarise this in bullet points. I’ll then write it on a piece of paper because that just helps me to like process it in my head as I write the words. Um, and then after that, and then I’ll read the paper like normal [17, UK]

Participant 15 described using it directly in the writing process:

Sometimes if I’ve written something, what I do is I ask for a feedback and I ask or like, you know, if I want a paraphrasing also. So what I do is I prompt it by asking that the check for flow and paraphrase and then it will kind of give it suggestions and sometimes it adds its own things. And then if I don’t want something, I can just not have it. But most of the times what happens is you get a pretty good idea of like, you know, yeah, this is something good and then you can build up from there. So it gives you that initial kind of a boost and then it becomes easier to build your arguments or build your paragraphs. (15, India)

Participant 20 stands out as potentially using it in a way to simply write ideas for him. He talked about “delegating” tasks to it, constructing himself as in control of the process:

So when I break it down, so usually when I have an academic paper, say it’s 10 pages, I have one thought for each page, like one heading for each page in my head. And once I have that set, then I just start off with ChatGPT straight up. [20, India]

Such complex uses, often involved quite interactive exchanges. Participant 23 used the term “bouncing” ideas off it.

I always have sort of like a conversation with it. [23, Malaysia]

Indeed, one interesting dimension of these interactions was the sense that the experience was something quite close to discussing with another human.

Just directly ask a question. Yes. As if I’m asking a human being. [22, China]
But always, always, always remember it is still a tool. It is not a living being. That is that’s why I keep reminding myself it’s not a living being. Always cross check your back. [23, Malaysia]

The quote implies a genuine struggle not to see ChatGPT as human. Equally, the value of ChatGPT was often linked to not needing to ask tutors or peers for help. Of course, it also gives immediate responses unlike them, but it raises the question of how ChatGPT is impacting the social dimension of learning.

ChatGPT was also being commonly used for non-academic writing, such as for job applications. Several interviewees mentioned using it for computer coding. There were also very specific uses, such as for converting text to Latex.

ChatGPT benefits and worries

The way that they described it, ChatGPT and the other digital tools they used, gave participants a sense of being more efficient and productive.

Thinking about it, basically, there is no big change, because there are still steps in writing, mainly those steps, but the efficiency has been improved. [1, China]
I think he saves me a lot of time when I’m reading like reference that’s really long. Helps me summarise it. I think it’s really efficient. [11, China]

This discourse implied that it did not really change what they did or learned, just speeded the process up and saved them time. This may be a rationalisation and disguise the loss of learning that the “efficiencies” might cause. A lot of the discourse around needing to use tools revolved around “laziness” but also a sense of a lack of confidence and anxiety. Using ChatGPT was often justified for reducing stress.

I’ll say I feel less stressful because we get to work more efficiently by using the tools, by using AI tools compared to the traditional way. [11, China]

There was a sense of ChatGPT being the future and there is an inevitability to it overtaking “traditional” learning practices.

Ten years ago, study style, study style, and the current one is very different. [23, Malaysia]

Yet, while it was being used rather extensively our participants were wary of ChatGPT for a number of reasons. Three were mentioned by most interviewees. The first was the unreliability of the information it output and the need to “fact check” it. There was less mention of specific issues such as failing to acknowledge sources or making up references. A second major concern was that its use would be detected by plagiarism detection tools (a concern they held regardless of the fact that it is generally not detectable). More positively participant 19 wanted to preserve her “voice”

I feel like it doesn’t sound like me and I do want to write in my own voice or in my own words as much as I can. [19, India]

Similarly, participant 23 thought that ChatGPT created a text that often read as “auto-generated” [23] so would not use it in many contexts, e.g. writing job applications because it would not effectively differentiate them from other candidates. Implicitly, they did not see this as a problem in the context of academic writing, suggesting that they did not see individuality as valued in that context.

There were certainly some students who did see using ChatGPT as impacting their learning:

But it sometimes it stopped me from thinking. [12, China]
It will reduce the ability to think independently, that is, reduce the motivation to think independently. Some things need to be understood by yourself. [5, China]

Thus a third major concern was a fear that the use of tools in general produced dependence. There were also a few comments that showed awareness of the risk to privacy of putting personal information into ChatGPT.

Nearly all the concerns reflected on personal impact. Disappointingly, the societal impacts of ChatGPT were not often acknowledged. One interviewee expressed concerns about the impact on low-paid workers. But even when prompted the participants showed little awareness or concern about bias, or ethical issues, e.g., sustainability or the exploitative labour relations used to create ChatGPT. Nevertheless, it seemed that the controversy around ChatGPT had filtered through to problematising its use, in ways that were expressed far less in relation to other tools such as Grammarly.

The findings confirm our earlier work from before the release of ChatGPT, that a wide range of tools is used during the writing process (Zhao et al., 2023 ). Perhaps ChatGPT will displace other tools, but at the time the study was conducted it was reaching a community of users well-versed in using digital tools. It was finding a unique place in helping understand assignment questions, aligning answers to the question and structuring ideas, but was also used to perform tasks such as summarisation and proofreading that others performed with pre-existing tools. Our findings suggested that students with higher English proficiency levels tended to use AI tools less frequently.

The study confirms previous research, that students are keen to use generative AI and see it as part of a general trend in technology development (Chan and Hu, 2023 ). Our respondents tended to use discourses around time-saving, efficiency, and stress avoidance as justification for using the tools.

ChatGPT was used rather intensively and iteratively but in highly individualistic ways. This differential use may reflect that there was little input at this time from the institution to help students how to use and where to draw the line in terms of appropriate use. Students wanted guidance from the institution on ChatGPT, echoing Attewell’s ( 2023 ) findings.

ChatGPT has brought advanced functions to digital writing but also intensified a sense of controversy in this area. For students, the worries focussed particularly on the unreliability of information it produced, fear of being accused of plagiarism if they used it and a concern about growing dependence on technology. While often its use was claimed to be justified for its time and stress reduction this may have underestimated the overall impact on learning. Saving time on learning tasks may unintentionally remove significant opportunities to learn. Many of the deeper ethical and societal issues such as around the exploitative way ChatGPT was developed were not fully understood. Yet it was clear that how writing was done digitally had become controversial. This could be seen as a benefit of ChatGPT, in that a gradual infiltration of digital tools into writing was made more visible institutionally and the controversial dimensions of technology use in education brought to the fore.

Using the model developed above we can point to strengths and weaknesses in students’ emergent generative AI literacy (Table  3 ).

Overall our student interviewees showed significant generative AI literacy in most areas, particularly when considering it was early days with their use of it and almost none of them had received support from their teachers or from their institution in understanding how to use it. The weakest area of development was probably appreciation of the societal impacts of generative AI. As instructors catch up with students in understanding AI hopefully they can help students build up a more systematic understanding of pragmatic use of AI, a more reflective approach and a much more critical awareness of the social implications of AI.

While ChatGPT appears as a threat to longstanding practices in education, especially to some genres of academic writing such as essays, it can also be seen as productively bringing to the fore the controversial nature of AI writing technologies which were already creeping unacknowledged into common use. This context produces an opportunity for educators to actively engage with students in a discussion about how writing can be best supported. Our analysis points to areas of weakness in generative AI literacy that need to be strengthened through this process, such as the understanding of the need to select between apps, to have more sophisticated prompt engineering skills, to think more about bias in results, to be more reflective about its use’s impact on learning and have a much stronger appreciation of the societal impacts of generative AI.

The paper is one of the first to explore student use of generative AI in practice and discover in-depth their perception of its benefits and worries about its drawbacks. It has also developed a framework of generative AI literacy as a way of assessing their use. This can be used to plan both institutional policy and instructor support by identifying gaps in AI literacy that need to be filled. For example, educational developers could use the framework to facilitate discussions with teaching staff, aiding in the development of their AI literacy and enhancing their ability to teach AI literacy to students. In addition, universities could apply the dimensions of the AI framework to formulate policies and provide concrete examples that guide learning and teaching practices. The framework also has the potential in evaluating student AI literacy.

The paper has a number of limitations, pointing to where future research can build on its findings. Most participants in this study were using the free version of ChatGPT (3.5) and only a few used the paid version (4). We did not examine in detail the impact of using different versions. While ChatGPT was the main generative AI tool in use at the time of the study, there were others rapidly emerging in popularity. Future research would need to examine how choices of different apps were made and the impact of these choices on writing. Although the participants of this study come from a variety of countries, it is focused on one institution at a particular time. Given the speed of change in technology and educational policy and practice, it is likely that future research will identify rapid shifts in behaviour. But we emphasise the need to examine student writing practices in the context of significant pre-existing use of digital writing tools. Our focus was on postgraduate students. We think less experienced students, such as undergraduates may be quicker and less discriminating in adopting the technology. As generative AI evolves there will be a need to update our definition of generative AI literacy and also to integrate it with notions such as algorithmic literacy, which point to the way that AI operates in rather hidden ways within the infrastructure. This research employed interviews and observations as its main data collection methods. These offer depth of insight but have less power of generalisability. Future studies could usefully seek to validate our findings through quantitative or mixed-methods approaches, such as surveys or experimental studies. Furthermore, future research could expand the scope of this study from AI literacy to the broader concept of writing digitisation, exploring the issue from other perspectives such as psychology and second language acquisition.

Data availability

The datasets analysed during the current study are not publicly available, but are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.

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Zhao, X., Cox, A. & Cai, L. ChatGPT and the digitisation of writing. Humanit Soc Sci Commun 11 , 482 (2024). https://doi.org/10.1057/s41599-024-02904-x

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essay composition process

essay composition process

2024 Global Learning Challenge

Is Using an Essay Writing Service Considered Cheating?

Oliva Campbell

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Debunking Misconceptions and Embracing Academic Support

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Is Using an Essay Writing Service Considered Cheating? Debunking Misconceptions and Embracing Academic Support

In the contemporary academic landscape, the utilization of essay writing service has sparked a debate regarding its ethical implications. Some perceive it as a form of cheating, while others argue it as a legitimate means of seeking academic support. As we delve into this discussion, it's imperative to explore both perspectives and shed light on the role of essay writing services in academia.

What is your solution?

Understanding the Controversy The Ethical Dilemma

The crux of the debate lies in the ethical dilemma surrounding the use of essay writing services. Traditional notions of academic integrity emphasize the importance of individual effort and originality in scholarly pursuits. From this standpoint, outsourcing the task of essay writing may seem like circumventing academic rigor and ethical standards.

Perceived Academic Dishonesty

Critics often equate using essay writing services to academic dishonesty, arguing that it undermines the learning process and devalues the significance of genuine scholarly achievements. They view it as a shortcut to academic success, devoid of the essential elements of critical thinking, research, and academic growth.

Legitimate Academic Support

On the contrary, proponents of essay writing services advocate for a nuanced understanding of academic support. They argue that seeking assistance from professional writers does not inherently constitute cheating but rather serves as a supplementary resource to enhance learning outcomes. Best Essay writing service can provide valuable guidance, especially for students grappling with complex topics or facing time constraints.

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Debunking Misconceptions Collaboration, Not Duplication

Contrary to popular belief, engaging with essay writing services does not entail passively submitting pre-written essays as one's own work. Instead, it involves collaboration between students and professional writers to develop custom essays tailored to their unique requirements. The final product reflects the student's input, understanding, and perspective, albeit with expert guidance.

Learning Opportunity

Essay writing services offer a valuable learning opportunity by providing model essays that serve as exemplars of academic writing standards. Students can analyze these essays to understand proper structuring, argumentation techniques, and citation practices, thereby honing their own writing skills. Additionally, interacting with professional writers fosters a deeper understanding of subject matter and research methodologies.

Academic Support System

Rather than undermining academic integrity, essay writing services complement existing support systems within educational institutions. They function as supplementary resources that assist students in navigating academic challenges effectively. By offering personalized assistance, these services empower students to overcome obstacles and achieve their academic goals.

Embracing Academic Support Fostering Academic Success

Ultimately, the goal of essay writing services is to facilitate academic success by providing students with the necessary tools and guidance to excel in their studies. By availing these services, students can alleviate academic pressure, meet deadlines, and improve their overall learning experience. Moreover, the support offered by essay writing services can enhance students' confidence and motivation, leading to greater academic achievements.

Ethical Considerations

While utilizing essay writing services is permissible within ethical boundaries, it's essential for students to uphold academic integrity and honesty. They should utilize these services responsibly, ensuring that the essays produced are used for reference purposes and serve as aids in their own academic endeavors. Transparency and integrity should guide students' interactions with essay writing services to maintain the ethical integrity of academic pursuits.

In conclusion, the debate surrounding the use of essay writing services underscores the complexities inherent in modern education. While some may view it as a contentious issue mired in ethical ambiguity, a nuanced perspective reveals its potential as a valuable academic support tool. By dispelling misconceptions and embracing the role of essay writing services as supplementary resources, students can leverage these services responsibly to enhance their academic journey. Ultimately, the ethical considerations lie in how students utilize these services to foster their academic growth while upholding principles of integrity and honesty in their scholarly pursuits.

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Leveraging CollegeEssay.org and MyPerfectWords.com for Optimal Results

In the quest for academic excellence and ethical scholarship, students can enhance their learning journey by leveraging reputable essay writing services such as CollegeEssay.org and MyPerfectWords.com. These platforms offer a myriad of features and benefits designed to support students in achieving their academic goals while upholding principles of integrity and honesty.

Customized Essay Writing Services

Both CollegeEssay.org and MyPerfectWords.com prioritize delivering custom-written essays tailored to each student's unique requirements. By availing of their services, students can collaborate with professional writers to develop high-quality essays that meet academic standards and reflect their individual insights and perspectives.

Expert Guidance and Support

The teams of skilled writers at CollegeEssay.org and MyPerfectWords.com possess expertise in various subjects and disciplines, ensuring that students receive expert guidance and support across a wide range of academic topics. From research and outlining to drafting and editing, these platforms offer comprehensive assistance at every stage of the writing process.

Timely Delivery and Flexible Deadlines

Meeting deadlines is paramount in academic pursuits, and both CollegeEssay.org and MyPerfectWords.com prioritize timely delivery of essays. With flexible deadlines ranging from 6 to 24 hours, students can rely on these platforms to accommodate urgent essay requests without compromising on quality or accuracy.

24/7 Customer Support

Navigating the intricacies of essay writing can be daunting, but with 24/7 customer support and their  reliable research paper writing service available at CollegeEssay.org, students can seek assistance and clarification at any time. Multilingual support teams ensure accessibility for students from diverse linguistic backgrounds, fostering a supportive and inclusive environment.

Originality and Plagiarism-Free Guarantee

Maintaining academic integrity is non-negotiable, and both CollegeEssay.org and MyPerfectWords.com uphold rigorous standards of originality and authenticity. Essays produced by these platforms undergo thorough plagiarism checks, ensuring that students receive 100% original and plagiarism-free content with every order.

Transparent Pricing and Payment Options

Affordability is a key consideration for students, and MyPerfectWords.com offer cheapest research paper writing service transparent pricing structures and flexible payment options. With prices starting at just $11/page and the option to pay 50% upfront and 50% upon completion, these platforms provide cost-effective solutions that fit students' budgets.


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Revision and Refund Policies

Student satisfaction is paramount, and both CollegeEssay.org and MyPerfectWords.com offer revision and refund policies to ensure that students are fully satisfied with the essays they receive. Students can request revisions free of charge until they are completely satisfied with the final product, and a 100% money-back guarantee ensures peace of mind in case of any unforeseen issues.

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In conclusion, students seeking academic support and assistance with essay writing can benefit greatly from utilizing reputable platforms such as CollegeEssay.org and MyPerfectWords.com. With features such as customized essay writing services, expert guidance and support, timely delivery, 24/7 customer support, originality guarantees, transparent pricing, and flexible payment options, these platforms provide comprehensive solutions to students' academic needs. By leveraging the services offered by CollegeEssay.org and MyPerfectWords.com, students can enhance their academic performance, alleviate academic pressure, and foster a deeper understanding of course materials, all while upholding principles of integrity and academic honesty.

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essay composition process

Nursing Essay Writing Services: 3 Best Dependable Websites

  • April 1, 2024

Feeling overburdened by endless piles of nursing essays and close deadlines? We’ve been there. But before you take a chance on nursing essay services, explore our reviews on the top websites. In this text, we’ll dissect the best nursing paper services based on our experience and highlight the key features of each. It’ll help you differentiate the reliable options from those you should avoid.

The Best 3 Nursing Essay Writing Services for Top-Grade Papers

  • com – the top nursing essay writing service overall – 4.9/5
  • com – best nursing essay writing service for cheap – 4.8/5
  • or g with top nursing essay writers – 4.8/5

NursingPaper.com – The Top Nursing Essay Writing Service Overall

NursingPaper.com is a well-known service, offering assistance with various nursing papers across different academic levels, including RN, BSN, MSN, and even DNP and PhD. Since 2015, the company has helped more than 10,000 students, as stated on their website. They have established a good reputation among students by providing nursing papers of the highest quality on time. Despite their glowing recommendations from former clients, we tested the service to confirm their credentials and ability, and here’s what we’ve found.

essay composition process

User Experience

We first noticed the website design, which was easy on the eyes and easy to navigate by scrolling. Their home page describes everything you should know, including their guarantees, details about their nursing assignment helpers, and an order process you can follow. The order button is also well placed at the top for quick ordering in a rush.

The order button redirected us to the order form, where we specified the type of nursing essay we needed. We had to select the type of work, subject, education level, page count, spacing, deadline, and even pick a writer for the task. After filling in the details, the form calculated our price, and we provided additional instructions for the work. We also added several files with special requirements for the essay writer and proceeded to checkout so the order would be placed. Then, we got an email confirming the order and went to the customer area. Overall, ordering was fast, and the writer was assigned quickly. Their attention to detail was commendable – all instructions we sent were followed.

Customer Support

We also tested their customer support using the information on the home page to learn more about the website. They responded quickly and answered our questions accordingly any time we contacted them.

Delivery and Content Quality

They completed our order earlier than we expected, and we were notified via email that the essay was ready to download. After downloading the work, we assessed it, and the nursing essay was well-written and without any errors. Great job, nothing more to add.

The pricing of their writing help was notable in that it was a little higher than other nursing essay writing services we’ve tried. However, they clearly explain that it is because of the highly skilled nursing writers who possess verified M.Sc., Ph.D., and DNP degrees. So, while their base price of $14.59 might be higher than most, their writers guarantee quality papers. Plus, it saves you time for possible revisions. The only thing is to specify instructions as much as possible and don’t hesitate to communicate with your writer to clarify something.

Pros and Cons

Overall, our experience with the service was great, from the ordering process to customer support, delivery, and quality of the work. Based on our experience, the pros of the platform are:

  • Easy-to-navigate website.
  • Simple order process.
  • Timely delivery.
  • High-quality nursing papers.
  • Top nursing writers with advanced degrees.

The only notable con was their pricing. However, while you pay a little extra, it is completely justified by the quality of content and overall experience.

Special Features

We’ve never seen anything like this before, so it’s worth discussing. In addition to their comprehensive writing help, NursingPaper.com has a sample project and blog. There’s a lot of useful information there, including examples of different papers, writing tips, and engaging articles nursing students can use in their studies. Turns out they even have a dedicated NursingPaper blog expert  – incredible!

Based on the quality of their writing, we could tell that their team of nursing writers was experienced. We interacted with the author of our paper during the writing process, and they understood what college instructors expected in the assignment. Besides, the content was unique, informative, and written in perfect English, meaning the writers are qualified and native speakers. So, we would recommend NursingPaper.com to students.

DNPCapstoneProject.com – Best Nursing Essay Writing Service For Cheap

Lengthy nursing research papers such as a DNP capstone can be a headache, especially because of the research required. This is when you look to DNPCapstoneProject.com. It is a proficient writing company that has provided DNP students worldwide with quality writing help since 2010. As the name suggests, the service started by specializing in DNP capstones but expanded to offer various nursing essay services. Since then, it has grown and currently has more than 500 experts who’ve handled more than 7500 orders.

essay composition process

User Experience and Prices

Their 98% client satisfaction rate is impressive, but we tested the service ourselves. Their website has a simple design with all the basics, such as an order button, a login button, and useful information about the service. The unique part was the price calculator on the homepage that let us calculate the price of our nursing essay before placing an order. The ordering process was also easy, and we completed it within minutes. What set this company apart from others we’ve tested was the option to pay in parts, something we’ve not seen with other websites. Their pricing starts at around $14.26 for a BSN essay, but you will also receive a discount on your first order.

As advertised, their nursing essay writer worked fast and delivered it within our deadline. They also did a good job in writing, using good-quality language and well-researched content. The work barely had any errors, so we didn’t need to request revisions. Also, their customer support responded on time and answered our queries throughout the process.

Pros, Cons, and Summary

In summary, DNPcapsstoneproject.com is a reliable budget option offering pros such as:

  • Payment in parts.
  • Cheaper prices with discounts.

Among the cons, we found nothing suspicious. However, we just ordered a 5-page essay and would also like to test their assistance with a capstone. Based on our experience, the work was decent for the price, which is what you’d expect from a good budget option.

NursingWriting.org With the Best Nursing Essay Writers

Another great option to consider is NursingWriting.org. Like the previous two, this one has assisted students for over a decade. Over the years, its reputation has developed greatly, especially among students who are short on time and urgently need a nursing essay writing service. So, are they reliable? Here’s what we discovered from testing the service.

essay composition process

Their website is easy to navigate, and the homepage has all the important information you need before placing an order. Interestingly, we encountered the choice between the standard process with the order form and ordering through chat, but we chose the first. After filling out the form, the price was calculated, and we selected the best available nursing essay writer for free to mimic the average user’s experience. Then, we provided the additional details and finished placing the order.

Delivery, Content Quality, and Prices

They completed the work within the deadline we provided, and after reviewing it, we can conclude that they have some of the best nursing writers out there. That’s because the essay was well-written and researched. That’s also because the service specializes in nursing papers and only hires skilled, verified nurses with proper knowledge and experience to be their nursing essay writers. The prices are consistent with most companies at $15.41 for a BSN-level essay, but first-time orders enjoy a 15% discount. We were also impressed by their customer support, as they were available throughout.

NursingWriting.org specializes in nursing only, meaning their essay writers are thorough with their research and writing. The service is reliable for students under pressure from deadlines and has a lot of interesting guarantees to protect students. These are the main pros making them a reliable student’s choice. As for the cons, this is more like subjective nitpicking. We want to see paper samples and valuable educational information on the blog.

Nursing Essay Writing Service: Comparative Analysis of Best Options

Exploring the different essay services has provided much important information about choosing an assistant. The three websites we’ve reviewed might be similar but have some distinct differences that set them apart. Here’s how these platforms compare to each other based on our experience.

Pricing-Quality Ratio

All three websites offered competitive prices; however, the cheapest option is DNPCapstoneProject.com. Their base price reflects their willingness to understand the students’ financial situations, and additional discounts make their essays even more affordable. NursingPaper.com offers services at a higher price than the other two because it guarantees superior papers and highly qualified nursing experts to handle them. So, your choice may come down to quality and price.

Quality and Depth of Content

Quality was one of the first things we always prioritized when thinking, “I should hire someone to write my nursing essay.” Many websites promise the world to clients but often fail by providing lower-quality nursing essays. The three services we’ve reviewed are among the few reliable choices in terms of quality. NursingPaper.com offers premium writers with years of experience but costs a little more. NursingWriting.org comes a close second in terms of quality, followed by DNPCapstoneProject.com, the reliable budget option. Note that all three produce excellent nursing papers, but based on experience, NursingPaper.com is the best. That’s where quality is valued above price.

Overall Experience

After testing all three services, it’s fair to say that they are all quite impressive in delivering good quality nursing essays, as their reviews will state. However, NursingPaper.com did just enough to stand out among the three by providing a fast and enjoyable experience from ordering to receiving the work. Their customer-focused approach and genuine interest in students’ success make it the best nursing essay writing service to trust with your essay.

FAQ About   Nursing Essay Service

We understand you’ll likely have more questions about making the right choice. So, let’s answer some of the questions students frequently ask.

What to Pay Attention to When Choosing a Service

When choosing a nursing paper service, you should first seek one that provides competent writers and guarantees quality work. This will ensure that any work you receive meets the requirements. From there, you can look at pricing, safety, plagiarism, money-back guarantees, on-time delivery, etc. These factors can help you choose the right assistant. Here’s some more information  about making the right call.

How Can I Be Sure My Paper Is Not Plagiarized?

You can confirm your paper’s uniqueness through a plagiarism detector. NursingPaper.com writers compose every paper from scratch and run it through plagiarism checkers. After receiving your work, you should also do the same to confirm that it’s not plagiarized.

What Guarantees Do I Get?

In the context of nursing essay services, guarantees are promises that essay websites make to protect your interests as a client. Regarding the above services, the guarantees include:

  • 24/7 availability so that clients can order at any time.
  • Allowed communication with the assigned writer.
  • Free unlimited corrections within 14 days.
  • Complete confidentiality to protect your privacy.
  • Safe payments to keep your money and account secure.
  • A money-back guarantee when the work doesn’t meet quality standards.

Every top nursing essay service offers the above or similar guarantees as a sign that they are reliable.

What Is the Best Nursing Essay Writing Service?

Our experience with the various services showed us that NursingPaper.com is the best fit for any nursing student seeking a reliable service. Even though opinions might differ, we believe the service values clients and always aims to get them the papers they need. But if you’re still unsure, there are more suggestions, as you’ll se e here .

Are Essay Writing Services Worth It?

Sites writing nursing essays can help you manage heavy workloads, beat close deadlines, and complete complex assignments on time. While they will charge a fee, essay services can help raise or maintain your grades, so they are definitely worth it.

Closing Remarks

Nursing essay assistants play a major role in helping college students navigate their college struggles and helping them improve their grades through quality nursing papers. Finding a dependable essay service can be challenging, and one needs to be keen to ensure they don’t get disappointed. That’s why you should take the time to research a service before purchasing an essay. Based on our experiences, we consider NursingPaper.com as the best choice for nursing students seeking high-quality work from verified RN, MSN, and DNP writers.

essay composition process

Pulaski Pool House nears completion in Poughkeepsie

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Scores of folks attend Ryan’s Senior Resource Fair

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Major drug trafficker sentenced

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Mid-Hudson News expands with “My Ride of the Hudson Valley” feature

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Guest Essay

José Andrés: Let People Eat

A woman wearing a head scarf sits on a cart next to a box of food marked “World Central Kitchen.”

By José Andrés

Mr. Andrés is the founder of World Central Kitchen.

In the worst conditions you can imagine — after hurricanes, earthquakes, bombs and gunfire — the best of humanity shows up. Not once or twice but always.

The seven people killed on a World Central Kitchen mission in Gaza on Monday were the best of humanity. They are not faceless or nameless. They are not generic aid workers or collateral damage in war.

Saifeddin Issam Ayad Abutaha, John Chapman, Jacob Flickinger, Zomi Frankcom, James Henderson, James Kirby and Damian Sobol risked everything for the most fundamentally human activity: to share our food with others.

These are people I served alongside in Ukraine, Turkey, Morocco, the Bahamas, Indonesia, Mexico, Gaza and Israel. They were far more than heroes.

Their work was based on the simple belief that food is a universal human right. It is not conditional on being good or bad, rich or poor, left or right. We do not ask what religion you belong to. We just ask how many meals you need.

From Day 1, we have fed Israelis as well as Palestinians. Across Israel, we have served more than 1.75 million hot meals. We have fed families displaced by Hezbollah rockets in the north. We have fed grieving families from the south. We delivered meals to the hospitals where hostages were reunited with their families. We have called consistently, repeatedly and passionately for the release of all the hostages.

All the while, we have communicated extensively with Israeli military and civilian officials. At the same time, we have worked closely with community leaders in Gaza, as well as Arab nations in the region. There is no way to bring a ship full of food to Gaza without doing so.

That’s how we served more than 43 million meals in Gaza, preparing hot food in 68 community kitchens where Palestinians are feeding Palestinians.

We know Israelis. Israelis, in their heart of hearts, know that food is not a weapon of war.

Israel is better than the way this war is being waged. It is better than blocking food and medicine to civilians. It is better than killing aid workers who had coordinated their movements with the Israel Defense Forces.

The Israeli government needs to open more land routes for food and medicine today. It needs to stop killing civilians and aid workers today. It needs to start the long journey to peace today.

In the worst conditions, after the worst terrorist attack in its history, it’s time for the best of Israel to show up. You cannot save the hostages by bombing every building in Gaza. You cannot win this war by starving an entire population.

We welcome the government’s promise of an investigation into how and why members of our World Central Kitchen family were killed. That investigation needs to start at the top, not just the bottom.

Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu has said of the Israeli killings of our team, “It happens in war.” It was a direct attack on clearly marked vehicles whose movements were known by the Israel Defense Forces.

It was also the direct result of a policy that squeezed humanitarian aid to desperate levels. Our team was en route from a delivery of almost 400 tons of aid by sea — our second shipment, funded by the United Arab Emirates, supported by Cyprus and with clearance from the Israel Defense Forces.

The team members put their lives at risk precisely because this food aid is so rare and desperately needed. According to the Integrated Food Security Phase Classification global initiative, half the population of Gaza — 1.1. million people — faces the imminent risk of famine. The team would not have made the journey if there were enough food, traveling by truck across land, to feed the people of Gaza.

The peoples of the Mediterranean and Middle East, regardless of ethnicity and religion, share a culture that values food as a powerful statement of humanity and hospitality — of our shared hope for a better tomorrow.

There’s a reason, at this special time of year, Christians make Easter eggs, Muslims eat an egg at iftar dinners and an egg sits on the Seder plate. This symbol of life and hope reborn in spring extends across religions and cultures.

I have been a stranger at Seder dinners. I have heard the ancient Passover stories about being a stranger in the land of Egypt, the commandment to remember — with a feast before you — that the children of Israel were once slaves.

It is not a sign of weakness to feed strangers; it is a sign of strength. The people of Israel need to remember, at this darkest hour, what strength truly looks like.

José Andrés is a chef and the founder of World Central Kitchen.

The Times is committed to publishing a diversity of letters to the editor. We’d like to hear what you think about this or any of our articles. Here are some tips . And here’s our email: [email protected] .

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