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How to Write an Abstract | Steps & Examples

Published on February 28, 2019 by Shona McCombes . Revised on July 18, 2023 by Eoghan Ryan.

How to Write an Abstract

An abstract is a short summary of a longer work (such as a thesis ,  dissertation or research paper ). The abstract concisely reports the aims and outcomes of your research, so that readers know exactly what your paper is about.

Although the structure may vary slightly depending on your discipline, your abstract should describe the purpose of your work, the methods you’ve used, and the conclusions you’ve drawn.

One common way to structure your abstract is to use the IMRaD structure. This stands for:

  • Introduction

Abstracts are usually around 100–300 words, but there’s often a strict word limit, so make sure to check the relevant requirements.

In a dissertation or thesis , include the abstract on a separate page, after the title page and acknowledgements but before the table of contents .

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Table of contents

Abstract example, when to write an abstract, step 1: introduction, step 2: methods, step 3: results, step 4: discussion, tips for writing an abstract, other interesting articles, frequently asked questions about abstracts.

Hover over the different parts of the abstract to see how it is constructed.

This paper examines the role of silent movies as a mode of shared experience in the US during the early twentieth century. At this time, high immigration rates resulted in a significant percentage of non-English-speaking citizens. These immigrants faced numerous economic and social obstacles, including exclusion from public entertainment and modes of discourse (newspapers, theater, radio).

Incorporating evidence from reviews, personal correspondence, and diaries, this study demonstrates that silent films were an affordable and inclusive source of entertainment. It argues for the accessible economic and representational nature of early cinema. These concerns are particularly evident in the low price of admission and in the democratic nature of the actors’ exaggerated gestures, which allowed the plots and action to be easily grasped by a diverse audience despite language barriers.

Keywords: silent movies, immigration, public discourse, entertainment, early cinema, language barriers.

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You will almost always have to include an abstract when:

  • Completing a thesis or dissertation
  • Submitting a research paper to an academic journal
  • Writing a book or research proposal
  • Applying for research grants

It’s easiest to write your abstract last, right before the proofreading stage, because it’s a summary of the work you’ve already done. Your abstract should:

  • Be a self-contained text, not an excerpt from your paper
  • Be fully understandable on its own
  • Reflect the structure of your larger work

Start by clearly defining the purpose of your research. What practical or theoretical problem does the research respond to, or what research question did you aim to answer?

You can include some brief context on the social or academic relevance of your dissertation topic , but don’t go into detailed background information. If your abstract uses specialized terms that would be unfamiliar to the average academic reader or that have various different meanings, give a concise definition.

After identifying the problem, state the objective of your research. Use verbs like “investigate,” “test,” “analyze,” or “evaluate” to describe exactly what you set out to do.

This part of the abstract can be written in the present or past simple tense  but should never refer to the future, as the research is already complete.

  • This study will investigate the relationship between coffee consumption and productivity.
  • This study investigates the relationship between coffee consumption and productivity.

Next, indicate the research methods that you used to answer your question. This part should be a straightforward description of what you did in one or two sentences. It is usually written in the past simple tense, as it refers to completed actions.

  • Structured interviews will be conducted with 25 participants.
  • Structured interviews were conducted with 25 participants.

Don’t evaluate validity or obstacles here — the goal is not to give an account of the methodology’s strengths and weaknesses, but to give the reader a quick insight into the overall approach and procedures you used.

Next, summarize the main research results . This part of the abstract can be in the present or past simple tense.

  • Our analysis has shown a strong correlation between coffee consumption and productivity.
  • Our analysis shows a strong correlation between coffee consumption and productivity.
  • Our analysis showed a strong correlation between coffee consumption and productivity.

Depending on how long and complex your research is, you may not be able to include all results here. Try to highlight only the most important findings that will allow the reader to understand your conclusions.

Finally, you should discuss the main conclusions of your research : what is your answer to the problem or question? The reader should finish with a clear understanding of the central point that your research has proved or argued. Conclusions are usually written in the present simple tense.

  • We concluded that coffee consumption increases productivity.
  • We conclude that coffee consumption increases productivity.

If there are important limitations to your research (for example, related to your sample size or methods), you should mention them briefly in the abstract. This allows the reader to accurately assess the credibility and generalizability of your research.

If your aim was to solve a practical problem, your discussion might include recommendations for implementation. If relevant, you can briefly make suggestions for further research.

If your paper will be published, you might have to add a list of keywords at the end of the abstract. These keywords should reference the most important elements of the research to help potential readers find your paper during their own literature searches.

Be aware that some publication manuals, such as APA Style , have specific formatting requirements for these keywords.

It can be a real challenge to condense your whole work into just a couple of hundred words, but the abstract will be the first (and sometimes only) part that people read, so it’s important to get it right. These strategies can help you get started.

Read other abstracts

The best way to learn the conventions of writing an abstract in your discipline is to read other people’s. You probably already read lots of journal article abstracts while conducting your literature review —try using them as a framework for structure and style.

You can also find lots of dissertation abstract examples in thesis and dissertation databases .

Reverse outline

Not all abstracts will contain precisely the same elements. For longer works, you can write your abstract through a process of reverse outlining.

For each chapter or section, list keywords and draft one to two sentences that summarize the central point or argument. This will give you a framework of your abstract’s structure. Next, revise the sentences to make connections and show how the argument develops.

Write clearly and concisely

A good abstract is short but impactful, so make sure every word counts. Each sentence should clearly communicate one main point.

To keep your abstract or summary short and clear:

  • Avoid passive sentences: Passive constructions are often unnecessarily long. You can easily make them shorter and clearer by using the active voice.
  • Avoid long sentences: Substitute longer expressions for concise expressions or single words (e.g., “In order to” for “To”).
  • Avoid obscure jargon: The abstract should be understandable to readers who are not familiar with your topic.
  • Avoid repetition and filler words: Replace nouns with pronouns when possible and eliminate unnecessary words.
  • Avoid detailed descriptions: An abstract is not expected to provide detailed definitions, background information, or discussions of other scholars’ work. Instead, include this information in the body of your thesis or paper.

If you’re struggling to edit down to the required length, you can get help from expert editors with Scribbr’s professional proofreading services or use the paraphrasing tool .

Check your formatting

If you are writing a thesis or dissertation or submitting to a journal, there are often specific formatting requirements for the abstract—make sure to check the guidelines and format your work correctly. For APA research papers you can follow the APA abstract format .

Checklist: Abstract

The word count is within the required length, or a maximum of one page.

The abstract appears after the title page and acknowledgements and before the table of contents .

I have clearly stated my research problem and objectives.

I have briefly described my methodology .

I have summarized the most important results .

I have stated my main conclusions .

I have mentioned any important limitations and recommendations.

The abstract can be understood by someone without prior knowledge of the topic.

You've written a great abstract! Use the other checklists to continue improving your thesis or dissertation.

If you want to know more about AI for academic writing, AI tools, or research bias, make sure to check out some of our other articles with explanations and examples or go directly to our tools!

Research bias

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An abstract is a concise summary of an academic text (such as a journal article or dissertation ). It serves two main purposes:

  • To help potential readers determine the relevance of your paper for their own research.
  • To communicate your key findings to those who don’t have time to read the whole paper.

Abstracts are often indexed along with keywords on academic databases, so they make your work more easily findable. Since the abstract is the first thing any reader sees, it’s important that it clearly and accurately summarizes the contents of your paper.

An abstract for a thesis or dissertation is usually around 200–300 words. There’s often a strict word limit, so make sure to check your university’s requirements.

The abstract is the very last thing you write. You should only write it after your research is complete, so that you can accurately summarize the entirety of your thesis , dissertation or research paper .

Avoid citing sources in your abstract . There are two reasons for this:

  • The abstract should focus on your original research, not on the work of others.
  • The abstract should be self-contained and fully understandable without reference to other sources.

There are some circumstances where you might need to mention other sources in an abstract: for example, if your research responds directly to another study or focuses on the work of a single theorist. In general, though, don’t include citations unless absolutely necessary.

The abstract appears on its own page in the thesis or dissertation , after the title page and acknowledgements but before the table of contents .

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McCombes, S. (2023, July 18). How to Write an Abstract | Steps & Examples. Scribbr. Retrieved February 15, 2024, from https://www.scribbr.com/dissertation/abstract/

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How to Write an Abstract of a Final Year Project or a Research Paper

How to Write an Abstract of a Final Year Project or a Research Paper

Although it is not part of the main chapters, an abstract is a crucial section of a thesis. It is a brief but impactful part of the research thesis that reveals what the author has done, how it has been done, the findings, research implications and recommendations . An abstract is a brief summary of a longer piece of writing (such as a dissertation or research paper ). The abstract clearly and succinctly indicates the goals and findings of the study so that readers explain exactly what the study is about.

When the whole thesis has been done (chapter 1-5), the abstract must be written at the end, although it is one of the first things that would be seen on the preliminary pages. The abstract must include the following four items:

  • The research question and objectives
  • The methodology
  • The main findings or arguments
  • The final thought and recommendation

An abstract is typically 150–300 words long, but there is often a strict word limit, so make sure to check the university or journal’s requirements.

What is an abstract in a research paper?

An abstract is a summary of a study (published or unpublished), typically two to three paragraphs long.  A well-written abstract performs several functions: it provides readers with the main idea or essence of the manuscript or article swiftly, allowing them to determine whether to read the full study; it prepares readers to follow the comprehensive information, statistical analysis, and assertions in the full study; and, later, it helps users recollect important elements from the study.

It is also important to remember that search results and digital libraries use abstracts, in addition to the title, to define essential phrases for indexing the study.

When should an abstract be written?

When creating a project, dissertation , or presenting an article to an academic journal , it is very important to provide an abstract.

The abstract should always be the last thing after the research has been done. It should be a totally different, self-contained writing, not a paraphrase of your paper or dissertation. An abstract should be completely understandable by anybody who has not really read the final document or online books.

The most straightforward method for writing an abstract is to mimic the arrangement of the more extensive work; consider it a small version of the dissertation or research paper. In most cases, the abstract must include four key elements: aim, methodology results, and conclusions, as earlier stated.

Step 1: Aim

Begin by explaining the objectives of the research. What practical problem-solving issue is the research addressing, or what problem statement are you attempting to answer?

This may include some quick background on the socioeconomic or scholastic significance of the topic but do not go into detail.

Declare the goal of the study after identifying the problem. To explain precisely what you intend to do, use verbs such as examine, evaluate, investigate, or assess. This abstract section can be written in either the present or simple past tense but should never refer to the future because the research has already been completed.

Step 2: Methodology

Then, describe the research methods you used to answer your question. This section should consist of a one- or two-sentence summary of what you did. Because it pertains to completed actions, it is commonly described in the simple past tense.

Step 3: Results

Following that, understand the major research findings. This section of the abstract can be written in the present or past simple tense. Regardless of how long and complicated the research is, the researcher may not be able to include all the results here. Discuss the important only the most significant aspects that will assist in understanding the conclusions.

Step 4: Conclusion

Lastly, state your research’s main findings: what is the solution to the issue or question? The reader should have a clear understanding of the fundamental point that the study has proven or argued by the end. In most cases, conclusion and recommendation are written in the present simple tense.

This enables the reader to reliably predict the research’s validity and generalisation. If your goal was to solve a practical issue, the conclusions could include integration recommendations. If applicable, you may make brief suggestions for additional research.

//

Undergraduate Research Center | Office of Undergraduate Education

Undergraduate Research Center

The following instructions are for the Undergraduate Research Center's Undergraduate Research, Scholarship and Creative Activities Conference, however the general concepts will apply to abstracts for similar conferences.  In the video to the right, Kendon Kurzer, PhD presents guidance from the University Writing Program.  To see abstracts from previous URC Conferences, visit our Abstract Books Page .

What is an abstract?

An abstract is a summary of a research project. Abstracts precede papers in research journals and appear in programs of scholarly conferences. In journals, the abstract allows readers to quickly grasp the purpose and major ideas of a paper and lets other researchers know whether reading the entire paper will be worthwhile. In conferences, the abstract is the advertisement that the paper/presentation deserves the audience's attention.

Why write an abstract?

The abstract allows readers to make decisions about your project. Your sponsoring professor can use the abstract to decide if your research is proceeding smoothly. The conference organizer uses it to decide if your project fits the conference criteria. The conference audience (faculty, administrators, peers, and presenters' families) uses your abstract to decide whether or not to attend your presentation. Your abstract needs to take all these readers into consideration.

How does an abstract appeal to such a broad audience?

The audience for the abstract for the Undergraduate Research, Scholarship and Creative Activities Conference (URSCA) covers the broadest possible scope--from expert to lay person. You need to find a comfortable balance between writing an abstract that both shows your knowledge and yet is still comprehensible--with some effort--by lay members of the audience. Limit the amount of technical language you use and explain it where possible. Always use the full term before you refer to it by acronym Example:  DNA double-stranded breaks (DSBs). Remember that you are yourself an expert in the field that you are writing about--don't take for granted that the reader will share your insider knowledge.

What should the abstract include?

Think of your abstract as a condensed version of your whole project. By reading it, the reader should understand the nature of your research question.

Like abstracts that researchers prepare for scholarly conferences, the abstract you submit for the Undergraduate Research, Scholarship and Creativities Conference (URSCA) will most likely reflect work still in progress at the time you write it. Although the content will vary according to field and specific project, all abstracts, whether in the sciences or the humanities, convey the following information:

  • The purpose of the project identifying the area of study to which it belongs.
  • The research problem that motivates the project.
  • The methods used to address this research problem, documents or evidence analyzed.
  • The conclusions reached or, if the research is in progress, what the preliminary results of the investigation suggest, or what the research methods demonstrate.
  • The significance of the research project. Why are the results useful? What is new to our understanding as the result of your inquiry?

Whatever kind of research you are doing, your abstract should provide the reader with answers to the following questions: What are you asking? Why is it important? How will you study it? What will you use to demonstrate your conclusions? What are those conclusions? What do they mean?

SUGGESTED CONTENT STRUCTURE:  

Brief Background/Introduction/Research Context:       What do we know about the topic? Why is the topic important?   Present Research Question/Purpose:       What is the study about? Methods/Materials/Subjects/Materials:       How was the study done? Results/Findings:         What was discovered?    Discussion/Conclusion/Implications/Recommendations       What does it mean?

What if the research is in progress and I don't have results yet? 

For the URSCA Conference you can write a "Promissory Abstract"  which will still describe the background, purpose and how you will accomplish your study's purpose and why it is important.  Phrases like  "to show whether"  or "to determine if"  can be helpful to avoid sharing a "hoped for" result. 

Stylistic considerations

The abstract should be one paragraph for the URSCA Conference and should not exceed the word limit (150-200 words). Edit it closely to be sure it meets the Four C's of abstract writing:

  • Complete — it covers the major parts of the project.
  • Concise — it contains no excess wordiness or unnecessary information.
  • Clear — it is readable, well organized, and not too jargon-laden.
  • Cohesive — it flows smoothly between the parts.

The importance of understandable language

Because all researchers hope their work will be useful to others, and because good scholarship is increasingly used across disciplines, it is crucial to make the language of your abstracts accessible to a non-specialist. Simplify your language. Friends in another major will spot instantly what needs to be more understandable. Some problem areas to look for:

  • Eliminate jargon. Showing off your technical vocabulary will not demonstrate that your research is valuable. If using a technical term is unavoidable, add a non-technical synonym to help a non-specialist infer the term's meaning.
  • Omit needless words—redundant modifiers, pompous diction, excessive detail.
  • Avoid stringing nouns together (make the relationship clear with prepositions).
  • Eliminate "narration," expressions such as "It is my opinion that," "I have concluded," "the main point supporting my view/concerns," or "certainly there is little doubt as to. . . ." Focus attention solely on what the reader needs to know.

Before submitting your abstract to the URSCA Conference:

  • Make sure it is within the word limit.  You can start with a large draft and then edit it down to make sure your abstract is complete but also concise.  (Over-writing is all too easy, so reserve time for cutting your abstract down to the essential information.).  
  • Make sure the language is understandable by a non-specialist. (Avoid writing for an audience that includes only you and your professor.)
  • Have your sponsoring professor work with you and approve the abstract before you submit it online.
  • Only one abstract per person is allowed for the URSCA Conference.  

Multimedia Risk Assessment of Biodiesel - Tier II Antfarm Project

Significant knowledge gaps exist in the fate, transport, biodegradation, and toxicity properties of biodiesel when it is leaked into the environment. In order to fill these gaps, a combination of experiments has been developed in a Multimedia Risk Assessment of Biodiesel for the State of California. Currently, in the Tier II experimental phase of this assessment, I am investigating underground plume mobility of 20% and 100% additized and unadditized Soy and Animal Fat based biodiesel blends and comparing them to Ultra Low-Sulfer Diesel #2 (USLD) by filming these fuels as they seep through unsaturated sand, encounter a simulated underground water table, and form a floating lens on top of the water. Thus far, initial findings in analyzing the digital images created during the filming process have indicated that all fuels tested have similar travel times. SoyB20 behaves most like USLD in that they both have a similar lateral dispersion lens on top of the water table. In contrast, Animal Fat B100 appears to be most different from ULSD in that it has a narrower residual plume in the unsaturated sand, as well as a narrower and deeper lens formation on top of the water table.

Narrative Representation of Grief

In William Faulkner's As I Lay Dying and Kazuo Ishiguro's Never Let Me Go how can grief, an incomprehensible and incommunicable emotion, be represented in fiction? Is it paradoxical, or futile, to do so? I look at two novels that struggle with representing intense combinations of individual and communal grief: William Faulkner's As I Lay Dying and Kazuo Ishiguro's Never Let Me Go . At first glance, the novels appear to have nothing in common: Faulkner's is a notoriously bleak odyssey told in emotionally heavy stream-of-consciousness narrative, while Ishiguro's is a near-kitschy blend of a coming-of-age tale and a sci-fi dystopia. But they share a rare common thread. They do not try to convey a story, a character, an argument, or a realization, so much as they try to convey an emotion. The novels' common struggle is visible through their formal elements, down to the most basic technical aspects of how the stories are told. Each text, in its own way, enacts the trauma felt by its characters because of their grief, and also the frustration felt by its narrator (or narrators) because of the complex and guilty task of witnessing for grief and loss.

This webpage was based on articles written by Professor Diana Strazdes, Art History and Dr. Amy Clarke, University Writing Program, UC Davis. Thanks to both for their contributions.

Writing an Abstract for Your Research Paper

Definition and Purpose of Abstracts

An abstract is a short summary of your (published or unpublished) research paper, usually about a paragraph (c. 6-7 sentences, 150-250 words) long. A well-written abstract serves multiple purposes:

  • an abstract lets readers get the gist or essence of your paper or article quickly, in order to decide whether to read the full paper;
  • an abstract prepares readers to follow the detailed information, analyses, and arguments in your full paper;
  • and, later, an abstract helps readers remember key points from your paper.

It’s also worth remembering that search engines and bibliographic databases use abstracts, as well as the title, to identify key terms for indexing your published paper. So what you include in your abstract and in your title are crucial for helping other researchers find your paper or article.

If you are writing an abstract for a course paper, your professor may give you specific guidelines for what to include and how to organize your abstract. Similarly, academic journals often have specific requirements for abstracts. So in addition to following the advice on this page, you should be sure to look for and follow any guidelines from the course or journal you’re writing for.

The Contents of an Abstract

Abstracts contain most of the following kinds of information in brief form. The body of your paper will, of course, develop and explain these ideas much more fully. As you will see in the samples below, the proportion of your abstract that you devote to each kind of information—and the sequence of that information—will vary, depending on the nature and genre of the paper that you are summarizing in your abstract. And in some cases, some of this information is implied, rather than stated explicitly. The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association , which is widely used in the social sciences, gives specific guidelines for what to include in the abstract for different kinds of papers—for empirical studies, literature reviews or meta-analyses, theoretical papers, methodological papers, and case studies.

Here are the typical kinds of information found in most abstracts:

  • the context or background information for your research; the general topic under study; the specific topic of your research
  • the central questions or statement of the problem your research addresses
  • what’s already known about this question, what previous research has done or shown
  • the main reason(s) , the exigency, the rationale , the goals for your research—Why is it important to address these questions? Are you, for example, examining a new topic? Why is that topic worth examining? Are you filling a gap in previous research? Applying new methods to take a fresh look at existing ideas or data? Resolving a dispute within the literature in your field? . . .
  • your research and/or analytical methods
  • your main findings , results , or arguments
  • the significance or implications of your findings or arguments.

Your abstract should be intelligible on its own, without a reader’s having to read your entire paper. And in an abstract, you usually do not cite references—most of your abstract will describe what you have studied in your research and what you have found and what you argue in your paper. In the body of your paper, you will cite the specific literature that informs your research.

When to Write Your Abstract

Although you might be tempted to write your abstract first because it will appear as the very first part of your paper, it’s a good idea to wait to write your abstract until after you’ve drafted your full paper, so that you know what you’re summarizing.

What follows are some sample abstracts in published papers or articles, all written by faculty at UW-Madison who come from a variety of disciplines. We have annotated these samples to help you see the work that these authors are doing within their abstracts.

Choosing Verb Tenses within Your Abstract

The social science sample (Sample 1) below uses the present tense to describe general facts and interpretations that have been and are currently true, including the prevailing explanation for the social phenomenon under study. That abstract also uses the present tense to describe the methods, the findings, the arguments, and the implications of the findings from their new research study. The authors use the past tense to describe previous research.

The humanities sample (Sample 2) below uses the past tense to describe completed events in the past (the texts created in the pulp fiction industry in the 1970s and 80s) and uses the present tense to describe what is happening in those texts, to explain the significance or meaning of those texts, and to describe the arguments presented in the article.

The science samples (Samples 3 and 4) below use the past tense to describe what previous research studies have done and the research the authors have conducted, the methods they have followed, and what they have found. In their rationale or justification for their research (what remains to be done), they use the present tense. They also use the present tense to introduce their study (in Sample 3, “Here we report . . .”) and to explain the significance of their study (In Sample 3, This reprogramming . . . “provides a scalable cell source for. . .”).

Sample Abstract 1

From the social sciences.

Reporting new findings about the reasons for increasing economic homogamy among spouses

Gonalons-Pons, Pilar, and Christine R. Schwartz. “Trends in Economic Homogamy: Changes in Assortative Mating or the Division of Labor in Marriage?” Demography , vol. 54, no. 3, 2017, pp. 985-1005.

“The growing economic resemblance of spouses has contributed to rising inequality by increasing the number of couples in which there are two high- or two low-earning partners. [Annotation for the previous sentence: The first sentence introduces the topic under study (the “economic resemblance of spouses”). This sentence also implies the question underlying this research study: what are the various causes—and the interrelationships among them—for this trend?] The dominant explanation for this trend is increased assortative mating. Previous research has primarily relied on cross-sectional data and thus has been unable to disentangle changes in assortative mating from changes in the division of spouses’ paid labor—a potentially key mechanism given the dramatic rise in wives’ labor supply. [Annotation for the previous two sentences: These next two sentences explain what previous research has demonstrated. By pointing out the limitations in the methods that were used in previous studies, they also provide a rationale for new research.] We use data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) to decompose the increase in the correlation between spouses’ earnings and its contribution to inequality between 1970 and 2013 into parts due to (a) changes in assortative mating, and (b) changes in the division of paid labor. [Annotation for the previous sentence: The data, research and analytical methods used in this new study.] Contrary to what has often been assumed, the rise of economic homogamy and its contribution to inequality is largely attributable to changes in the division of paid labor rather than changes in sorting on earnings or earnings potential. Our findings indicate that the rise of economic homogamy cannot be explained by hypotheses centered on meeting and matching opportunities, and they show where in this process inequality is generated and where it is not.” (p. 985) [Annotation for the previous two sentences: The major findings from and implications and significance of this study.]

Sample Abstract 2

From the humanities.

Analyzing underground pulp fiction publications in Tanzania, this article makes an argument about the cultural significance of those publications

Emily Callaci. “Street Textuality: Socialism, Masculinity, and Urban Belonging in Tanzania’s Pulp Fiction Publishing Industry, 1975-1985.” Comparative Studies in Society and History , vol. 59, no. 1, 2017, pp. 183-210.

“From the mid-1970s through the mid-1980s, a network of young urban migrant men created an underground pulp fiction publishing industry in the city of Dar es Salaam. [Annotation for the previous sentence: The first sentence introduces the context for this research and announces the topic under study.] As texts that were produced in the underground economy of a city whose trajectory was increasingly charted outside of formalized planning and investment, these novellas reveal more than their narrative content alone. These texts were active components in the urban social worlds of the young men who produced them. They reveal a mode of urbanism otherwise obscured by narratives of decolonization, in which urban belonging was constituted less by national citizenship than by the construction of social networks, economic connections, and the crafting of reputations. This article argues that pulp fiction novellas of socialist era Dar es Salaam are artifacts of emergent forms of male sociability and mobility. In printing fictional stories about urban life on pilfered paper and ink, and distributing their texts through informal channels, these writers not only described urban communities, reputations, and networks, but also actually created them.” (p. 210) [Annotation for the previous sentences: The remaining sentences in this abstract interweave other essential information for an abstract for this article. The implied research questions: What do these texts mean? What is their historical and cultural significance, produced at this time, in this location, by these authors? The argument and the significance of this analysis in microcosm: these texts “reveal a mode or urbanism otherwise obscured . . .”; and “This article argues that pulp fiction novellas. . . .” This section also implies what previous historical research has obscured. And through the details in its argumentative claims, this section of the abstract implies the kinds of methods the author has used to interpret the novellas and the concepts under study (e.g., male sociability and mobility, urban communities, reputations, network. . . ).]

Sample Abstract/Summary 3

From the sciences.

Reporting a new method for reprogramming adult mouse fibroblasts into induced cardiac progenitor cells

Lalit, Pratik A., Max R. Salick, Daryl O. Nelson, Jayne M. Squirrell, Christina M. Shafer, Neel G. Patel, Imaan Saeed, Eric G. Schmuck, Yogananda S. Markandeya, Rachel Wong, Martin R. Lea, Kevin W. Eliceiri, Timothy A. Hacker, Wendy C. Crone, Michael Kyba, Daniel J. Garry, Ron Stewart, James A. Thomson, Karen M. Downs, Gary E. Lyons, and Timothy J. Kamp. “Lineage Reprogramming of Fibroblasts into Proliferative Induced Cardiac Progenitor Cells by Defined Factors.” Cell Stem Cell , vol. 18, 2016, pp. 354-367.

“Several studies have reported reprogramming of fibroblasts into induced cardiomyocytes; however, reprogramming into proliferative induced cardiac progenitor cells (iCPCs) remains to be accomplished. [Annotation for the previous sentence: The first sentence announces the topic under study, summarizes what’s already known or been accomplished in previous research, and signals the rationale and goals are for the new research and the problem that the new research solves: How can researchers reprogram fibroblasts into iCPCs?] Here we report that a combination of 11 or 5 cardiac factors along with canonical Wnt and JAK/STAT signaling reprogrammed adult mouse cardiac, lung, and tail tip fibroblasts into iCPCs. The iCPCs were cardiac mesoderm-restricted progenitors that could be expanded extensively while maintaining multipo-tency to differentiate into cardiomyocytes, smooth muscle cells, and endothelial cells in vitro. Moreover, iCPCs injected into the cardiac crescent of mouse embryos differentiated into cardiomyocytes. iCPCs transplanted into the post-myocardial infarction mouse heart improved survival and differentiated into cardiomyocytes, smooth muscle cells, and endothelial cells. [Annotation for the previous four sentences: The methods the researchers developed to achieve their goal and a description of the results.] Lineage reprogramming of adult somatic cells into iCPCs provides a scalable cell source for drug discovery, disease modeling, and cardiac regenerative therapy.” (p. 354) [Annotation for the previous sentence: The significance or implications—for drug discovery, disease modeling, and therapy—of this reprogramming of adult somatic cells into iCPCs.]

Sample Abstract 4, a Structured Abstract

Reporting results about the effectiveness of antibiotic therapy in managing acute bacterial sinusitis, from a rigorously controlled study

Note: This journal requires authors to organize their abstract into four specific sections, with strict word limits. Because the headings for this structured abstract are self-explanatory, we have chosen not to add annotations to this sample abstract.

Wald, Ellen R., David Nash, and Jens Eickhoff. “Effectiveness of Amoxicillin/Clavulanate Potassium in the Treatment of Acute Bacterial Sinusitis in Children.” Pediatrics , vol. 124, no. 1, 2009, pp. 9-15.

“OBJECTIVE: The role of antibiotic therapy in managing acute bacterial sinusitis (ABS) in children is controversial. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of high-dose amoxicillin/potassium clavulanate in the treatment of children diagnosed with ABS.

METHODS : This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Children 1 to 10 years of age with a clinical presentation compatible with ABS were eligible for participation. Patients were stratified according to age (<6 or ≄6 years) and clinical severity and randomly assigned to receive either amoxicillin (90 mg/kg) with potassium clavulanate (6.4 mg/kg) or placebo. A symptom survey was performed on days 0, 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 10, 20, and 30. Patients were examined on day 14. Children’s conditions were rated as cured, improved, or failed according to scoring rules.

RESULTS: Two thousand one hundred thirty-five children with respiratory complaints were screened for enrollment; 139 (6.5%) had ABS. Fifty-eight patients were enrolled, and 56 were randomly assigned. The mean age was 6630 months. Fifty (89%) patients presented with persistent symptoms, and 6 (11%) presented with nonpersistent symptoms. In 24 (43%) children, the illness was classified as mild, whereas in the remaining 32 (57%) children it was severe. Of the 28 children who received the antibiotic, 14 (50%) were cured, 4 (14%) were improved, 4(14%) experienced treatment failure, and 6 (21%) withdrew. Of the 28children who received placebo, 4 (14%) were cured, 5 (18%) improved, and 19 (68%) experienced treatment failure. Children receiving the antibiotic were more likely to be cured (50% vs 14%) and less likely to have treatment failure (14% vs 68%) than children receiving the placebo.

CONCLUSIONS : ABS is a common complication of viral upper respiratory infections. Amoxicillin/potassium clavulanate results in significantly more cures and fewer failures than placebo, according to parental report of time to resolution.” (9)

Some Excellent Advice about Writing Abstracts for Basic Science Research Papers, by Professor Adriano Aguzzi from the Institute of Neuropathology at the University of Zurich:

how to write an abstract for a final year project

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Writing an abstract - a six point checklist (with samples)

Posted in: abstract , dissertations

how to write an abstract for a final year project

The abstract is a vital part of any research paper. It is the shop front for your work, and the first stop for your reader. It should provide a clear and succinct summary of your study, and encourage your readers to read more. An effective abstract, therefore should answer the following questions:

  • Why did you do this study or project?
  • What did you do and how?
  • What did you find?
  • What do your findings mean?

So here's our run down of the key elements of a well-written abstract.

  • Size - A succinct and well written abstract should be between approximately 100- 250 words.
  • Background - An effective abstract usually includes some scene-setting information which might include what is already known about the subject, related to the paper in question (a few short sentences).
  • Purpose  - The abstract should also set out the purpose of your research, in other words, what is not known about the subject and hence what the study intended to examine (or what the paper seeks to present).
  • Methods - The methods section should contain enough information to enable the reader to understand what was done, and how. It should include brief details of the research design, sample size, duration of study, and so on.
  • Results - The results section is the most important part of the abstract. This is because readers who skim an abstract do so to learn about the findings of the study. The results section should therefore contain as much detail about the findings as the journal word count permits.
  • Conclusion - This section should contain the most important take-home message of the study, expressed in a few precisely worded sentences. Usually, the finding highlighted here relates to the primary outcomes of the study. However, other important or unexpected findings should also be mentioned. It is also customary, but not essential, to express an opinion about the theoretical or practical implications of the findings, or the importance of their findings for the field. Thus, the conclusions may contain three elements:
  • The primary take-home message
  • Any additional findings of importance
  • Implications for future studies 

abstract 1

Example Abstract 2: Engineering Development and validation of a three-dimensional finite element model of the pelvic bone.

bone

Abstract from: Dalstra, M., Huiskes, R. and Van Erning, L., 1995. Development and validation of a three-dimensional finite element model of the pelvic bone. Journal of biomechanical engineering, 117(3), pp.272-278.

And finally...  A word on abstract types and styles

Abstract types can differ according to subject discipline. You need to determine therefore which type of abstract you should include with your paper. Here are two of the most common types with examples.

Informative Abstract

The majority of abstracts are informative. While they still do not critique or evaluate a work, they do more than describe it. A good informative abstract acts as a surrogate for the work itself. That is, the researcher presents and explains all the main arguments and the important results and evidence in the paper. An informative abstract includes the information that can be found in a descriptive abstract [purpose, methods, scope] but it also includes the results and conclusions of the research and the recommendations of the author. The length varies according to discipline, but an informative abstract is usually no more than 300 words in length.

Descriptive Abstract A descriptive abstract indicates the type of information found in the work. It makes no judgements about the work, nor does it provide results or conclusions of the research. It does incorporate key words found in the text and may include the purpose, methods, and scope of the research. Essentially, the descriptive abstract only describes the work being summarised. Some researchers consider it an outline of the work, rather than a summary. Descriptive abstracts are usually very short, 100 words or less.

(Adapted from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3136027/ )

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How to Write an Abstract

How to write an abstract for a conference, what is an abstract and why is it important, an abstract is a brief summary of your research or creative project, usually about a paragraph long (250-350 words), and is written when you are ready to present your research or included in a thesis or research publication..

For additional support in writing your abstract, you can contact the Office of URSA at [email protected]  or schedule a time to meet with a Writing and Research Consultant at the OSU Writing Center 

Main Components of an Abstract: 

The opening sentences should summarize your topic and describe what researchers already know, with reference to the literature. 

A brief discussion that clearly states the purpose of your research or creative project. This should give general background information on your work and allow people from different fields to understand what you are talking about. Use verbs like investigate, analyze, test, etc. to describe how you began your work. 

In this section you will be discussing the ways in which your research was performed and the type of tools or methodological techniques you used to conduct your research. 

This is where you describe the main findings of your research study and what you have learned. Try to include only the most important findings of your research that will allow the reader to understand your conclusions. If you have not completed the project, talk about your anticipated results and what you expect the outcomes of the study to be. 

Significance

This is the final section of your abstract where you summarize the work performed. This is where you also discuss the relevance of your work and how it advances your field and the scientific field in general.

  • Your word count for a conference may be limited, so make your abstract as clear and concise as possible.
  • Organize it by using good transition words found on the lef so the information flows well.
  • Have your abstract proofread and receive feedback from your supervisor, advisor, peers, writing center, or other professors from different disciplines. 
  • Double-check on the guidelines for your abstract and adhere to any formatting or word count requirements.
  • Do not include bibliographic references or footnotes. 
  • Avoid the overuse of technical terms or jargon. 

Feeling stuck? Visit the OSU ScholarsArchive for more abstract examples related to your field

how to write an abstract for a final year project

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HOW TO WRITE A STANDARD ABSTRACT FOR YOUR PROJECT

how to write an abstract for a final year project

Writing an abstract for every research or project work is so important that it can be regarded as the eyes through which project supervisors go through your project work. The saying that the beginning of everything is so important is true and more so in project or research works. Simply put, an abstract can be defined as a brief summary of a project work, article, paper, review etc. in drafting an abstract, the chapters of your work has to be represented  in as brief as possible manner, picking out the salient points in each chapter. During project presentation or defence, the research supervisor first looks at the abstract and from there alone can determine if your work, paper or thesis is interesting enough to go through the work.

Students usually find it difficult writing a standard abstract for their project work. In other to know how to draft a good abstract, students must know how a standard abstract should look like.

A standard abstract must have the following

1. Introduction or background of the study

2. Method of research or research methodology

3. Results and findings

4. Conclusions and recommendation

Introduction or background of the study

This is usually the first section of an abstract; it introduces the topic and aims or objectives of the research and what the study intends to achieve. This part of an abstract is expected to provide an insight into what the study is all about. The introduction of an abstract should be represented in clear and simple English; try as much as possible to avoid ambiguous sentences and always go direct to the point.

Method of research 

This follows the introduction in an abstract; it simply means the method of research employed by the researcher, the method of data collection, the population of the study and the means or method the data collected was analyzed.

Results and findings

The results and findings in your study follow the research methodology employed by the researcher. This section should be “brief”. Findings from the research alongside the results gotten from the analysis carried out in your work.

Conclusions and recommendation

This is the final part of a standard abstract which should contain a brief conclusions and your recommendation. This part of an abstract is an important of any abstract as it tells your project supervisor your conclusion and possible recommendation which should match or tally with the purpose of carrying out the research in this first section of the abstract.

Abstracts should be written after carrying out the research as any attempt to write an abstract before the completion of your work may lead to conflicting values and statements with the main body of your project work.

Below is an example of a standard abstract.

“This study examined the impact of budgetary control on the profitability of an organization. Thus, the importance of budgetary control cannot be overemphasized in business organizations as management needs to embark on effective budgeting to effect proper planning and control. In this regard, budgeting can be seen as a process of planning and control. Thus to examine whether budgeting control is profitable in XYZ construction company. To achieve this objective, five research questions and a research hypothesis were formulated to guide this study. A standard questionnaire was used as the major instrument for data collection from 30 employees of XYZ Construction Company. A sample size of 20 employees were randomly selected using the Taro Yamane’s statistical formular. The data collected from the respondents was analyzed using simple percentages and chi-square statistical tool was employed for testing the research hypothesis. The p-value of 0.000 indicates that XYZ construction should make use of budgetary control to avoid lose in business. The study concluded with some recommendations that the management of XYZ Construction Company should make use of budgetary control to avoid business loses”.

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How to Write and Setup a Final Year Project Abstract (Step-by-Step guide).

How to Write and Setup a Final Year Project Abstract (Step-by-Step guide). image

Writing an abstract for final year projects sounds so much like a big deal but it’s actually not. An abstract is simply a roundup or summary of a research; you must reserve this aspect of your project till you have concluded your project. Since an abstract is a summary of your research work, it has to come last although it is structurally positioned at the early pages of a research; it gives a brief but rich description of the purpose, problem, methods, results, conclusion and recommendation of a research. As soon as this procedure is followed, you may go ahead to apply the necessary formats required for an abstract. These are some of the guidelines you are expected to gain at the end of the day.

Writing the ‘Purpose’

Purpose here is simply the general objective of the research; for an abstract, that is about the first thing you are supposed to mention. You must state your research topic in your first statement and then the objective in one or two simple or compound sentences. In simpler terms, the purpose is exactly what the researcher intends to achieve at the end of the research.

The problem

Having an understanding of the problem your research needs to solve gives a research a clear vision. A research is a product of an existing problem; as part of the summary, you must state the problem that imposed the research. Those issues, short comings, events and daily routines may just constitute a problem for a final year project otherwise, you may have an argument for or against an issue that you need to clear.

State the research methods    

Stating the methodology you have adopted for the research is necessary to consider while writing an abstract. It makes your research sound attainable from the very first instance. In a statement, give a hint of your sample size, population of study, instrument for data gathering and sampling procedures; it tells how rich your project research is.

What does the finding say?

Also go ahead and tell what you found out during your research, which translates to the result. Your research may come out with more than one outcome, state them. With that you may go ahead to state what you have concluded from your research finding. The research conclusion you would state is just the product of the research findings; you may go ahead and make recommendations if need be.

The reason for an abstract is so that your readers may have clear information of what the research is about in case they do not have enough time to read through.  An abstract is meant to give brief information of the keynotes of a research and of course any other academic write-up

How to setup your abstract correctly

The word count: The recommended word count for an undergraduate abstract is 100- 200 words at most except some exceptional cases.

Type font and spacing: Times new roman is usually recommended 12 fonts with single line spacing. A typical abstract is expected to be summarized in a single paragraph except otherwise stipulated. 

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How To Write An Abstract For Final year Project

A final year project is more than a summary of a topic with credible sources, it is an expanded essay that presents a writer's interpretation and evaluation or argument. The purpose of writing this project is to analyse a perspective or argue a point thus demonstrating your knowledge, writing and vocabulary skills, and ability to do a great research on a given topic.

Sometimes, your supervisor may ask for an abstract along with a research paper. Although abstracts are relatively short, many students find them confusing. You also need to write abstracts if your work revolves around carrying out research or other investigative processes. Writing process is easier than you think, keep reading to see how to complete this task. Also, you can find ideas on the topics of a psychology research paper.

What is an abstract?

In order to write one, you have to know what abstracts are exactly. Well, an abstract is defined as a concise summary of a larger project; it describes the content and scope of the project while identifying objective, methodology, findings, and conclusion.

The purpose of an abstract is to summarize the major aspects of a research essay or paper, but it is important to bear in mind they are descriptions of your project, not the topic in general.

Basically, you use abstract to describe what specifically you are doing, not the topic your project is based upon. For example, if your research paper is about the bribe, the abstract is about survey or investigation you carry out about the prevalence of bribe, how people are likely to offer it to someone, do people take bribe etc. In this case, the abstract is not about the bribe itself, its definition, why people do it, and other related things. If you don't` know, what the research work should look like – look at the example of a research paper.

Types of abstractsCritical abstract – describes main information and findings while providing a comment or judgment about the study's reliability, validity, and completeness. Here, the researcher evaluates some paper and compares it to other works and papers on the same topicDescriptive abstract – only describes the work being summarized without comparing it to other papers on the given subjectInformative abstract – most common type of abstracts, the researcher explains and presents the main arguments and most important results. While it doesn't compare one work to others on the same subject, informative abstract includes conclusions of the research and recommendations of the authorHighlight abstract – written to catch the reader's attention, rarely used in academic writingElements the abstract has to contain

Even though there are different types of abstracts, one thing is in common for all of them – they contain the same elements i.e. four types of information presented to the reader. Before you learn how to write an abstract for a research paper, make sure your abstract should comprise of the following:

Objective or the main rationale of the project introduces readers with the research you carried out. This section accounts for the first few sentences of the abstract and announces the problem you set out to solve or the issue you have explored. The objective can also explain a writer's motivation for the project.

Once the objective is described, it's time to move to the next section – methods. Here, a writer explains how he/she decided to solve a problem or explore some issue i.e. methods or steps they used to get the answers. Of course, your approach or methods depend on the topic, your field of expertise, subject etc. For example:

Hard science or social science – a concise description of the processes used to conduct a researchService project – to outline types of services performed and the processes followedHumanities project – to identify methodological assumptions or theoretical frameworkVisual or performing arts project – to outline media and processes used to develop the project

In other words, regardless of the field or subject, methods section serves to identify any process you used to reach the results and conclusions.

This section is self-explanatory; your goal is to list the outcomes or results of the research. If the research isn't complete yet, you can include preliminary results or theory about the potential outcome.

Just like in every other work, the conclusion is the sentence or two wherein you summarize everything you've written above. In the abstract, a writer concludes or summarizes the results. When writing the conclusion, think of the question “what do these results mean”, and try to answer it in this section.

NOTE: More extensive research papers can also include a brief introduction before objective section. The introduction features one-two sentences that act as a basis or foundation for the objective. A vast majority of abstracts simply skip this section.

Don't include these in Abstract

A common mistake regarding abstracts is writing them the same way you would write the rest of a research paper. Besides some elements that your abstract has to contain, there are some things you should avoid. They are:

AbbreviationsFluff, abstracts should be relatively short, no need to pump up the word volumeImages, illustration figures, tablesIncomplete sentencesJargonLengthy background information, that's what research paper is for, abstracts should be conciseNew information that is not present in the research paperPhrases like “current research shows” or “studies confirm”ReferencesSlangTerms that reader might find confusingUnnecessary details that do not contribute to the overall intention of the abstractWriting the abstract

Now that you know what the abstract is, elements it should contain and what to avoid, you are ready to start writing. The first thing to bear in mind is that your abstract doesn't need a certain “flow”. Keep in mind that abstract should be precise and concise, you don't need to worry about making it seem bigger. Ideally, you should focus on introducing facts and making sure a reader will get the clear picture of the topic presented through your research paper. Follow these steps to create a strong, high-quality abstract. sample abstract for project

Start writing the abstract only when you complete the research paper. By the time you finish the essay writing process, you will know what to use in abstract to perfectly describe your work. choosing to write an abstract first is highly impractical, takes ages, and it doesn't represent the research paper adequately.

For your objective and conclusion sections, you can use the most important information from introduction and conclusion section of the research paper. Rather than wasting your time on trying to figure out what to include, just use the important premises and summarize them into one-two sentences in the abstract.

While researching or carrying out surveys for your paper, write down everything you do. Use these notes to create methods sections for the abstract. This particular section just has to inform a reader about the process you implemented to find the answers from the objective. No need to introduce unnecessary information.

Make sure the abstract answers these questions:  What is the purpose of this research? How was the research conducted? How did I get my answers?  What answers did I get?

What do these results mean?

When the abstract is complete, read everything you have written from top to bottom. Then, eliminate all extra information in order to keep it as concise as possible.

Read the abstract thoroughly again. Make sure there is the consistency of information presented in the abstract and in the research paper. Basically, information included in both abstract and research paper shouldn't be different. After all, the abstract is a summary or a short description of the research paper itself. This is why you shouldn't introduce new details into abstract as well. sample abstract for project

Once you ensure the abstract contains only relevant information and describes the research paper concisely, read it again. This time, you should look for grammar and spelling mistakes, punctuation, sentence structures, and tense consistency. Never submit the abstract (and research paper or any other type of work) without proofreading and editing first.

At this point, your research paper and abstract are error-free, complete, and ready for you to send them to your professor or client.

Don't forget:Vary sentence structures to avoid choppiness. Don't include too many long sentences one after another and avoid doing the same with short sentences as well. Mixture of longer and shorter sentences work the bestTo avoid adding too many long sentences, just break them up into shorter structuresUse active voice whenever possible. Also, ask your professor whether it is okay to use passive voice when necessary. Every professor has his/her criteria, asking is a great way to avoid mistakesUse past tense to describe the work you have already doneRead the abstract aloud or to someone else in order to make sure the content is readable and easy to understandMost Importantly

The final year project is a common assignment in college education, and beyond. Writing these papers usually involves creating an abstract, a brief summary or description of the subject or argument you discussed throughout the paper. Abstracts are a major source of concern for many students, but they are incredibly easy to write when you're familiar with the steps. As seen throughout this post, the ideal way to write an abstract is to keep it concise without pumping up word count with unnecessary information. If you don't know what about you can write – look at different research paper topics! Now you're ready to start writing the abstracts for research papers, good luck. Don't forget to see another guide about abstract research paper! sample abstract for project

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HOW TO WRITE A FINAL YEAR STUDENT PROJECT ABSTRACT

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How To Write A Final Year Student Project Abstract

What is an abstract.

An abstract is a 150- to 250-word paragraph that provides readers with a quick overview of your essay or report and its organization. It should express your thesis (or central idea) and your key points; it should also suggest any implications or applications of the research you discuss in the paper.

According to Carole Slade, an abstract is “a concise summary of the entire paper.”

The function of an abstract is to describe, not to evaluate or defend, the paper.

The abstract should begin with a brief but precise statement of the problem or issue, followed by a description of the research method and design, the major findings, and the conclusions reached.

The abstract should contain the most important key words referring to method and content: these facilitate access to the abstract by computer search and enable a reader to decide whether to read the entire dissertation.

Note: Your abstract should read like an overview of your paper, not a proposal for what you intended to study or accomplish. Avoid beginning your sentences with phrases like, “This essay will examine...” or “In this research paper I will attempt to prove...”  

(The examples above are taken from Form and Style (10th ed.), by Carole Slade; The Scott, Foresman Handbook for Writers (5th ed.); and the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (5th ed.).)

Note: The following are specifications for an abstract in APA style, used in the social sciences, such as psychology or anthropology. If you are in another discipline, check with your professor about the format for the abstract.

Writing an Abstract for an IMRaD Paper

Many papers in the social sciences, natural sciences, and engineering sciences follow IMRaD structure: their main sections are entitled Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion. People use the abstract to decide whether to read the rest of the paper, so the abstract for such a paper is important.

Because the abstract provides the highlights of the paper, you should draft your abstract after you have written a full draft of the paper. Doing so, you can summarize what you’ve already written in the paper as you compose the abstract.

Typically, an abstract for an IMRaD paper or presentation is one or two paragraphs long (120 – 500 words). Abstracts usually spend

25% of their space on the purpose and importance of the research (Introduction)

25% of their space on what you did (Methods)

35% of their space on what you found (Results)

15% of their space on the implications of the research

Try to avoid these common problems in IMRaD abstracts:

1. The abstract provides a statement of what the paper will ask or explore rather than what it found:

X This report examines the causes of oversleeping. (What did it find out about these causes?) √ Individuals oversleep because they go to bed too late, forget to set their alarms, and keep their rooms dark.

2. The abstract provides general categories rather than specific details in the findings:

X The study draws conclusions about which variables are most important in choosing a movie theater. (What, specifically, are these variables?)

√ The study concludes that the most important variables in choosing a movie theater are comfortable seats and high-quality popcorn.

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How To Write A Complete Final Year Project: Chapter One To Five

How To Write A Complete Final Year Project: Chapter One To Five

To complete your degree program in any tertiary university, home or abroad, you’ll have to write a final year project. A final year project is an independent research work typically of about 10,000 to 20,000 words in a word or PDF document. It will require that you carry out a scientific investigation using scientific methods to achieve specific objectives and answer predetermined research questions.

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You’ll work under the supervision of an academic staff, who will need to approve your project topic. After that, you’ll submit a research proposal to your supervisor, who will assess your proposal, approve it, and provide you with guidance to write a complete final year project. Note that when you complete your project, it will typically be assessed by an external supervisor from another tertiary institution, who will independently judge the value of your research work.

In your research proposal, you’ll need to state the intended subject of your study, briefly describe your work, give justification for your study, state the aims and objectives as well as assumptions that will be made, the methodologies that you’ll use, and provide references.

Specific standards will guide each stage of your final year project. From the build-up of your research to the research itself, your project presentation, and submission of your printed project, there are requirements you’ll need to follow. These requirements help to prepare final year students for the rigours of life after school.

Table of Contents

Here! Let’s now take an in-depth look at the different chapters (chapters one to five) of your research project.

Chapter One 

Chapter one is the introduction of your project. Here, you need to give an overview of what the project is all about. It provides information on the problem that your research will address. By reading your introduction, anyone should get a clear understanding of your research project, although not in detail. The rest of your project will build on the information you provide in your introduction. Here is the format your introduction will typically follow:

  • Background of the study : This gives an assessment of the research topic, current information about the topic, and similar research that has already been done.
  • Statement of the problem : This clearly states the issue that the research will address or improve upon. It should show what others have done and what the research intends to do, and flow logically to the research objectives.
  • Research objectives : This is a summary of what the researcher hopes to achieve from the study. It clearly shows the aims and objectives of the research; both general and specific.
  • Research questions : This is the query that the research is centred on. The questions that the research will answer. It should be straightforward and flow logically from the research objectives.
  • Research Hypothesis : This is a statement of expectation or prediction that will be tested by the research. It predicts the possible outcome of the study.
  • Significance of the study : The significance of the study is a description of the importance of the study, the impact it will have on existing learning, and how it will be of benefit to others.
  • Scope of the study : This shows the parameters within which the research will be done. It includes where the research will be carried out, the reason for choosing that place, and the timeframe of the research.
  • Definition of terms : This provides a standardized definition of the keywords used in the study, and how they are used.

Chapter two

Chapter two is the literature review of your project. To write your literature review, you’ll need to survey academic resources that are available on your specific research topic. Your literature review should provide detailed information on the current knowledge, substantial findings, and contributions of previous research already done about your research topic. It should show to a reader that you have a clear, in-depth understanding of the major published works carried out in your research area.

Ensure that your literature review isn’t simply a description of the works published by other researchers but a thorough critical evaluation of the various arguments, theories and research strategies. The evaluation should be linked to your own research objectives and purpose. You’ll need to collect and evaluate research materials like books and journals that are apply to your research questions.

Simple steps to write a great literature review include:

  • Compare and contrast various researchers’ views on your research topic
  • Group researchers that have similar conclusions
  • Look critically at the various aspects of their research method
  • Note areas of disagreements between researchers
  • Emphasize exemplary studies
  • State gaps in research
  • Show how your research work relates to the literature
  • Conclude by summarizing what the literature says

Note that your literature review should give credit to previous researchers, i.e. proper referencing should be done. As much as possible, try to do more paraphrasing of other published works than direct quotations.

Chapter three

Chapter three is the research methodology. The research methodology is a crucial part of your research project as it explains in detail the way your research is structured and how you were able to achieve your research objectives. You’ll state the research method that you adopted, the instruments used, where and how you got the data for your research. This chapter basically provides details about your research design, study area, population area, sampling techniques, data collection methods, data analysis, ethical concerns, etc. Your research methodology should be simple enough for another researcher to follow and achieve the same results and conclusions. It should provide sufficient information that can be helpful to replicate your research.

This chapter should be introduced by restating the purpose of the research. The research design should show how all the major aspects of your project, including sampling, data collection, and analysis, work together to answer your research questions. Your survey instruments, like questionnaires, interviews, or experiments, need to be appropriate for your survey location. To choose the best research method for your study, you need to ask yourself a question: Will this research method generate sufficient information that is needed to solve the research problem?

In your research methodology, you’ll also need to state how you ensured the reliability and validity of your research findings, particularly when using primary sources of data. Reliability means the ability of the research instrument to produce the same results in multiple trials. Validity refers to the ability of the research instrument to effectively measure what it was designed for. Also, all ethical considerations in your research, such as anonymity of the respondents, should be clearly stated. Note that the language you use to write your research methodology should be in the past tense.

Chapter four

The chapter four of your final year project is typically the data presentation and analysis (results and discussion). After carrying out your research and writing your chapters one to three, it’s important that you analyze the data obtained from your research, show the results, and discuss your findings.

You should begin this chapter by restating the research problem as stated in chapter one. Then explain each research question and state the results obtained. Your results should be presented using tables, figures or other mediums of summarizing data. Carefully choose your tables and figures. Note that for some studies, you may state all your raw data in this chapter, while for other studies, it may be more appropriate to have the major part of your raw data in the appendix section.

In a Qualitative Research, the title of this chapter may be called: Results of Study or Analysis and Results. Regardless of the chapter title, the most important thing is that this chapter analyses the data obtained and displays the results. You should also use graphs and charts to display your results. You’ll need to discuss your results and compare them to those obtained by previous researchers. The applications of your results should also be explained.

Chapter five

This chapter usually has the title, ‘Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations’ but may vary depending on your institution. So, confirm with your supervisor. By this time in your project, you should have completed your study, and are now writing your final report. Ideally, start this chapter by once again stating the purpose of your study. Summarize the entire project from chapters one to four to remind your readers about what your study is all about.

Your conclusions should be drawn from the result findings, stating what the research was able to discover. Limitations to your research should also be stated. Limitations refer to the influences that impact on the research methodology and conclusions which are beyond the control of the researcher. Based on the result findings, conclusions and limitations, you’ll then give recommendations. These recommendations include ways to improve on the positive outcomes of your research or mitigation strategies against negative outcomes. Recommendations also include suggestions on how future researchers can improve on the results obtained and other similar topic areas that still need to be explored.

After writing the chapters one to five of your final year research project, your project report is still not complete without your reference and appendix sections.

Your reference provides a list of all the publications; books, journals, and all information sources you used to write your research, whether online or print. To ensure your project is plagiarism-free, make sure you reference all quoted words properly, both in-text and in your reference list/bibliography. There are several reference styles that are used in research work. The most popular ones include Chicago, MLA, and APA. However, you’ll need to confirm from your supervisor which reference style is accepted in your institution.

Your appendices include all extra information and materials that you didn’t include in the body of your project report. These could include official data from case studies, a copy of your questionnaire, a list of parameters, etc. Typically, this section helps to give a more in-depth understanding of your research, and it’s the last section in your final year project.

Now that you’ve successfully written the various chapters of your project, as well as the references and appendices, you can now write your abstract.

Your abstract is a brief summary of your research work. It provides information about the research problem, objectives, methodology used, findings, and recommendations. Your abstract should be just one paragraph, and typically not more than 100 words. Ensure that you stick to the word limit.

After your supervisor has gone through your project report and you have made all necessary corrections, you can include your title page, declaration, dedication, acknowledgment, table of content, list of contents, list of tables, and list of figures. You’re now ready to bind your final year project.

In conclusion, note that one important thing you must do is to carefully and thoroughly edit your entire project before binding it. Use grammar checker tools if possible to check for all grammatical and spelling mistakes. Ensure that the pages are properly numbered. Overall, make sure that the final submission of your research project is free from error and meets the required standards of your institution.

After reading this article, you’re now fully informed to write an excellent and complete final year project. Remember to share this article with other final year students.

All the best!!

About Author

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Ofure Odibeli 

Ofure Odibeli is a freelance writer and editor who has worked across a range of digital and traditional media platforms. As a versatile writer, her projects have cut across several niches, including public health, education, history, health and wellness, real estate, international relations, and lifestyle. Her specialties are writing and editing, content marketing, and creative services. She currently works as a freelance writer on Upwork, an Editorial Consultant for the African Women’s Collaborative for Healthy Food Systems, and a writer for MotivationAfrica. Ofure is available for editing and writing projects, as well as private consultation. Contact Ofure at [email protected]

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14 thoughts on “How To Write A Complete Final Year Project: Chapter One To Five”

Thank you for this. A complete guide!

Sure wish to meet with you in the long ground

Nice guide thanks

I thank you for your help and support towards our Education field of study I may like to be part of you people

Well, I wish to recommend the source via which I did a perfect project work and analysis including my proposal.

will appreciate if you can share that.

Thank you, this was very helpful.

I NEED AN ADVICE ON HOW TO CREATE A TOPIC

So helpful Thanks

Thanks so much Sir, i have found this guidelines very relevant to my study

You did a great job here,k it is a big relieve. Thank you so much. God bless.

i found this so helpful after going through it. thanks.

Thanks very much it really help

Thank you for this guide.

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COMMENTS

  1. How to Write an Abstract

    Step 1: Introduction Step 2: Methods Step 3: Results Step 4: Discussion Keywords Tips for writing an abstract Other interesting articles Frequently asked questions about abstracts Abstract example Hover over the different parts of the abstract to see how it is constructed. Example: Humanities thesis abstract

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  22. How To Write A Final Year Student Project Abstract

    The abstract should begin with a brief but precise statement of the problem or issue, followed by a description of the research method and design, the major findings, and the conclusions reached.

  23. How To Write A Complete Final Year Project: Chapter One To Five

    Spread the love. To complete your degree program in any tertiary university, home or abroad, you'll have to write a final year project. A final year project is an independent research work typically of about 10,000 to 20,000 words in a word or PDF document. It will require that you carry out a scientific investigation using scientific methods ...