• Free Teaching Resources
  • Universities
  • Public Colleges
  • Private Colleges
  • N6 Question Papers and Memorandums with Study Guides
  • N5 Question Papers and Memorandums with Study Guides
  • N4 Question Papers and Memorandums with Study Guides
  • N3 Question Papers and Memorandums with Study Guides
  • N2 Question Papers and Memorandums with Study Guides
  • N1 Question Papers and Memorandums with Study Guides
  • Latest Updates
  • Learning Content

My Courses

  • History Grade 12 Study Resources Directory

Vietnam Essay Grade 12 memo: Questions and Answers PDF Download

Vietnam Essay Grade 12 memo: Questions and Answers PDF Download

Vietnam essay grade 12 memo: questions and answers pdf download:.

Table of Contents

The Extension of the Cold War: Case Study – Vietnam

Question 1:.

The tactics and strategies that the United States of America used between 1963 and 1975 against the Vietcong during the war in Vietnam were a dismal failure.  Do you agree with the statement? Use relevant evidence to support your line of argument. 

SUMMARY Candidates are expected to form an opinion on the statement, providing their agreement or disagreement. Their opinions should be based on arguments regarding whether the US lost the Vietnam War due to unconventional guerrilla warfare strategies and local environmental factors. Candidates should substantiate their viewpoints with relevant historical evidence.

KEY POINTS TO CONSIDER The following aspects should be included in the candidate’s response:

  • Introduction: Candidates must state their position on the statement and provide an overview of their supporting arguments.

IN-DEPTH ANALYSIS The response should delve into the strategies used by both the USA and the Vietcong:

  • Background: Examination of the division of North and South Vietnam, initial US intervention in South Vietnam due to the Domino Theory, and the significance of the Ho Chi Minh Trail.
  • The introduction and failure of the ‘Safe Village’ policy by the USA, aiming to separate guerrillas from villagers.
  • The Gulf of Tonkin incident and its impact on escalating the conflict.
  • Deployment of 3500 US Marines and ground troops to Vietnam on March 8, 1965.
  • Environmental factors: Operation Ranch Hand and the use of chemical defoliants and chemical weapons, leading to significant environmental damage and international condemnation.
  • Ineffectiveness of conventional strategies (Operation Rolling Thunder) versus unconventional guerrilla warfare tactics by the Vietcong.
  • Impact of the Tet Offensive on USA-controlled cities and increasing number of US soldiers’ casualties.
  • The implications of sending young and inexperienced soldiers to Vietnam, Search and Destroy Policy, and the My Lai massacre, leading to increased support for the Vietcong.
  • External support to North Vietnam from USSR and China, resulting in access to modern weaponry.
  • Effective use of guerrilla warfare and environmental tactics (underground tunnels, booby traps, sabotage) by the Vietcong and Vietminh.
  • Vietnamisation: Nixon’s strategic withdrawal policy from Vietnam indicating the failure of USA’s attempt to prevent Vietnam from becoming a communist state.
  • The end of USA involvement in the Vietnam war after the signing of the Paris Peace Accords and eventual control of Vietnam under communist rule.
  • Other pertinent responses.

Candidates should then draw their arguments to a close with appropriate conclusions.

Example Essay based on the above:

Title: The Failure of American Strategies in the Vietnam War (1963-1975): An Analytical Overview

Introduction

The Vietnam War (1963-1975) is an enduring symbol of the failure of American military might against a largely rural, determined insurgency, the Vietcong. This essay agrees with the assertion that the United States’ tactics and strategies against the Vietcong during this period were a dismal failure, given the historical evidence. The strategic miscalculations and failures will be analyzed, including the Safe Village policy, the introduction of chemical defoliants, and the unsuccessful attempts to separate the guerrillas from villagers.

The Unconventional War

As early as 1962, the United States had identified Vietnam not as a conventional battleground like WWII, but as a theater for countering communist influence, underpinned by the fear of the Domino Theory. This strategy led to the implementation of the ‘Safe Village’ policy, designed to isolate the Vietcong from villagers. However, this policy failed because the Vietcong effectively operated within the villages themselves.

Chemical Warfare and Unintended Consequences

Operation Ranch Hand, initiated in 1962, introduced the use of chemical defoliants like Agent Orange and Agent Blue, aimed at environmental warfare by destroying forests and crops. However, these tactics did not effectively weaken the Vietcong, and instead caused substantial environmental damage and international condemnation, turning global public opinion against the United States.

Moreover, the application of chemical weapons, notably Napalm gas, resulted in widespread civilian casualties and atrocities such as the My Lai massacre in March 1968, which further fueled anti-war sentiment in the United States and abroad. This further strained the United States’ already fragile credibility and exacerbated support for the Vietcong.

Misjudgment of Guerrilla Tactics

The U.S. notably failed to anticipate and effectively respond to the guerrilla warfare tactics employed by the Vietcong. These tactics, which included the use of underground tunnels, booby traps, sabotage, and hit-and-run attacks, were instrumental in the Vietcong’s resilience against the American military.

The Tet Offensive of 1968 was a clear example of the Vietcong’s ability to adapt and respond to the U.S. strategies. The surprise attacks on over 100 U.S.-controlled cities not only challenged the American military but also deeply impacted the U.S. home front, leading to increased anti-war demonstrations. This, coupled with the deployment of young and inexperienced soldiers, further weakened the U.S. efforts.

Failed De-escalation and Withdrawal

Towards the end of the war, the United States tried to employ a strategy of “Vietnamisation” under President Nixon, aimed at strategically withdrawing U.S. troops while bolstering South Vietnam’s ability to combat communism. The policy, dubbed WHAM (Winning the Hearts and Minds of the Vietnamese), was largely seen as an admission of the failure of U.S. strategies and led to the eventual withdrawal of all U.S. troops by 1973, following the Paris Peace Accords.

In conclusion, the American tactics and strategies against the Vietcong during the Vietnam War (1963-1975) were indeed a dismal failure. Not only did they fail to curtail the Vietcong, but they also led to significant civilian casualties, alienated global public opinion, and failed to prevent Vietnam’s unification under communist rule. The inability to adapt to guerrilla warfare, coupled with strategic missteps, such as the Safe Village policy and the application of chemical warfare, resulted in the U.S. failing to achieve its objectives in Vietnam. Thus, this period represents a sobering lesson in the limitations of conventional warfare against determined and adaptable insurgencies.

Question 2:

The USA withdrew from Vietnam in 1975 because the war became more difficult and the public at home was turning against the USA’s participation. Do you agree with the statement? Support your answers with relevant historical evidence.

Introduction: In this response, I will agree with the statement and provide a comprehensive argument showcasing the difficulties faced by America in the Vietnam War and how public sentiment turned against the conflict.

Elaboration:

The Vietnam War presented numerous challenges for the United States, ultimately leading to a shift in public opinion against the war. Several key factors contributed to this shift:

  • Geneva agreement and division of Vietnam: The Geneva agreement of 1954 divided Vietnam into North and South, setting the stage for the conflict. South Vietnam, under President Ngo Dinh Diem, refused to hold elections, leading to discontent among the Vietnamese people.
  • The rise of the Vietcong: The communist Vietcong emerged in South Vietnam, starting a guerrilla war against the government. Their tactics included booby traps, underground tunnels, surprise attacks, and hit-and-run strategies, making it difficult for the United States to combat them effectively.
  • USA’s involvement and rationale: The United States entered the war based on the principles of containment and the domino theory, fearing the spread of communism. They provided weapons and advisors to South Vietnam, while the Vietcong received support from China, Russia, and the Vietminh via the Ho Chi Minh Trail.
  • Failures and setbacks: Despite implementing strategies like the safe village policy and Operation Rolling Thunder, the United States struggled to quell the Vietcong’s insurgency. The safe village policy failed as the Vietcong operated within the villages, and Operation Rolling Thunder did not succeed in destroying the Ho Chi Minh Trail.
  • Public disillusionment and media exposure: The use of chemical weapons, such as Agent Orange and Agent Blue, by the United States, turned the Vietnamese population against them. Additionally, televised coverage of the war exposed the horrors faced by both soldiers and civilians, leading many Americans to question the justification and morality of their country’s involvement.
  • Tet Offensive and its aftermath: The Tet Offensive in 1968, where the Vietcong launched surprise attacks and captured numerous cities, caused heavy casualties among U.S. forces. The offensive and subsequent events, including US atrocities like the My Lai massacre, further fueled anti-war sentiment and intensified protests within the United States.
  • Vietnamization and withdrawal: President Nixon implemented the Vietnamization policy, which involved the gradual withdrawal of U.S. troops while South Vietnam continued the fight against the Vietcong. Eventually, all U.S. troops were withdrawn by 1973, and in 1975, North Vietnam took control of Saigon, unifying the country under a communist government.

Conclusion: The Vietnam War posed significant challenges for the United States, with the public opinion gradually turning against the conflict due to a combination of factors. The unconventional tactics employed by the Vietcong, the disillusionment caused by media exposure, and the inability of the U.S. to achieve decisive victories all contributed to the changing perception of the war. Ultimately, the United States withdrew its troops, and the communist forces emerged victorious. The Vietnam War stands as a stark reminder of the complexities of warfare and the crucial role public opinion plays in shaping the outcomes of such conflicts.

Title: The American Withdrawal from Vietnam in 1975: A Confluence of Military Challenges and Domestic Opposition

I concur with the statement that the USA withdrew from Vietnam in 1975 largely due to the escalating difficulty of the war and the burgeoning opposition at home. This essay will argue this position using relevant historical evidence and will explore the multi-faceted reasons for this turn of events, encompassing both geopolitical considerations and socio-political dynamics.

The Military Quagmire

The Geneva Accords of 1954 divided Vietnam into North and South, setting a stage ripe for conflict. When South Vietnam’s leader Diem refused to hold reunification elections, fearing communist victory, this led to the formation of the communist Viet Cong, backed by North Vietnam, China, and Russia. The USA, driven by Cold War ideologies of containment and the domino theory, provided support to South Vietnam to counter this threat. However, they grossly underestimated the complexity of the war.

The Viet Cong’s successful guerrilla tactics and intimate knowledge of the terrain posed a formidable challenge to the US forces. They were farmers by day and freedom fighters by night, often indistinguishable from the civilian population, and used intricate networks of tunnels and booby traps to launch surprise attacks. This innovative warfare, coupled with the harsh jungle environment, made American military operations – including Operation Rolling Thunder aimed at destroying the Ho Chi Minh Trail – largely ineffective.

The Domino Effect at Home

Meanwhile, at home, the American public sentiment was changing. The Gulf of Tonkin incident, which led to the escalation of US involvement, had initially galvanized support for the war. However, as the war dragged on with mounting casualties – the Tet Offensive alone resulted in 14,000 US casualties – and little progress, public opinion began to sour.

The widespread use of television brought the horrors of the war into American homes. The brutalities of the war, such as the My Lai massacre, and the use of controversial chemical weapons like Agent Orange, sparked public outcry. The war became increasingly unpopular, leading to widespread anti-war protests and a general consensus that the war was unwinnable. The pressure to withdraw was further intensified by revelations about the government’s deceit in managing public perceptions of the war, notably exposed in the Pentagon Papers.

The Path to Withdrawal

By 1969, with domestic opposition escalating and the war showing no signs of a decisive victory, President Nixon initiated the policy of Vietnamization. This policy aimed at training South Vietnamese forces to take over the fight while gradually withdrawing US troops. This marked a significant shift in US strategy, effectively signaling the impending end of direct US involvement.

In 1973, the Paris Peace Accords were signed, leading to the complete withdrawal of US troops. However, without American support, South Vietnam fell to the communist forces, and Saigon was captured in 1975, marking the end of the Vietnam War.

In conclusion, the US withdrawal from Vietnam in 1975 was indeed the result of a combination of the war’s growing difficulty and escalating domestic opposition. The military challenges were underscored by the Viet Cong’s effective guerrilla tactics and the unfavorable environmental conditions, while domestic opposition was fueled by a disillusioned and protesting public. This historic event illustrates the profound impact of both military realities on the ground and public sentiment at home in shaping the course of foreign policy and military involvement.

PDF Downloadable Memos and more Essay Questions

vietnam essay grade 12 memorandum

Did You See These?

Steve Biko and the Black Consciousness Movement Grade 12 Essay Guide (Question and Answers)

Important History Grade 12 Essays Questions and Answers to Prepare for Exams

History Grade 12 2023 November Structured Past Question Papers To Simulate Real Exam Conditions

Anglo-Boer War Questions and Answers History Grade 12

History Grade 12 November 2022 Strategically Chosen Past Question Papers To Maximize Learning

History Grade 12 May – June 2018 Past Question Papers With Integrated Memos For Detailed Study

History Grade 12 2021 June Past Papers and Memos

History Grade 12 exam guidelines – 2024 Scope pdf download

  • Share This Post:

Reset Password

You are using an outdated browser. Please upgrade your browser or activate Google Chrome Frame to improve your experience.

WCED - eResources

HISTORY T1 W3 Gr. 12: THE EXTENSION OF THE COLD WAR: CASE STUDY: VIETNAM

ESSAY: THE EXTENSION OF THE COLD WAR: CASE STUDY: VIETNAM

Do you have an educational app, video, ebook, course or eResource?

Contribute to the Western Cape Education Department's ePortal to make a difference.

vietnam essay grade 12 memorandum

Home Contact us Terms of Use Privacy Policy Western Cape Government © 2024. All rights reserved.

vietnam essay grade 12 memorandum

How and When Learners Portal

  • South Africa
  • Grade 12 Free Learning Resources
  • History Grade 12 Notes and Past Exam Papers for Revision

Extension of the Cold War Case Study Vietnam Essay – Grade 12 History

vietnam essay grade 12 memorandum

Extension of the Cold War Case Study Vietnam Essay – Grade 12 History Answer Guide based on the memo.

All the military might of the United States of America’s army could not defeat a small nation of Vietnamese peasants.

Critically discuss this statement in the context of the military strategies that both the United States of America and the Vietcong used in Vietnam between 1963 and 1973.

Answer Guide:

Plan and construct an original argument based on relevant evidence using analytical and interpretative skills.

Candidates must critically discuss why the USA was unable to defeat a small nation of Vietnamese peasants during the Vietnam War between 1963 and 1973.

An outline of the tactics and strategies employed by the USA’s army and the Vietmihn/Vietcong (National Liberation Front) during the war should be highlighted.

MAIN ASPECTS

Candidates may include the following aspects in their response:

Introduction: Candidates should critically discuss the statement and develop a relevant line of argument.

ELABORATION

USA strategies:

  • Reasons for the USA’s deployment of troops to Vietnam
  • Villagisation/strategic hamlet programme (USA and South Vietnam government created new villages and attempted to separate villagers (farmers) from guerrillas) of which it was a failure
  • Gulf of Tonkin resolution (1964) gave President Johnson wide military powers resulting in the escalation of warfare in Vietnam
  • The USA’s mass aerial bombing – “Operation Rolling Thunder”
  • Operation Ranch Hand (used chemicals to destroy forests (Agent Orange) and crops (Agent Blue)
  • US sent young and inexperienced soldiers to Vietnam
  • US used search and destroy missions (My Lai massacre) to destroy villages supported by Viet Cong (this resulted in a number of civilian deaths)
  • The role of the media, students and disarmament movements in bringing pressure on the US government to withdraw from Vietnam
  • President Nixon’s Vietnamisation policy/including WHAM (Winning the hearts and minds of the Vietnamese) was an attempt by the USA to withdraw from war and save face
  • The USA withdraw all troops by 1973 and North Vietnam took control of Saigon in 1975
  • Any other relevant response

Vietcong strategies:

  • North Vietnam received military support from the USSR and China so the Vietminh and Vietcong had access to some modern weapons
  • Guerrilla warfare was effectively used by the Vietcong, supported by Vietminh from the north and used tactics such as booby traps, underground tunnels, hit and run and sabotage
  • Tet offensive (1968) was launched by Vietminh and Vietcong against urban centres and USA bases throughout Vietnam
  • The local Vietnamese population supported the Vietcong to liberate their country
  • Ho Chi Minh Trail used by Vietminh (North) to support Vietcong in the south
  • The Vietcong increased its support base because of the tactics used against the USA soldiers
  • Vietnamese were united in the defence of their country
  • Conclusion: Candidates should tie-up their arguments with relevant conclusions.

Questions and Answers

My Courses has a large Questions and Answers repository for the most popular High School and Tertiary Schools subjects. This comes in handy when doing your revision or preparing for exams, tests, research tasks, and assignments.

Best motivational speech topics for College and High School Students

Independent africa comparative case study: the congo and tanzania essay, related posts, find history grade 12 september 2023 trial exam question papers and memos: pdf download.

History Grade 12 November 2021 Final NSC Exams question papers and memorandums

History Grade 12 November 2021 Final NSC Exams question papers and memorandums

History Grade 12 May - June Trial Exams 2021 previous Papers for downloads

History Grade 12 May – June Mid Year Exams 2021 previous Papers for downloads

List of History Grade 12 September 2020 Past Papers and Memos

List of History Grade 12 September 2020 Past Papers and Memos

List of Reasons why is South Africa regarded as a developing country

List of Reasons why is South Africa regarded as a developing country

Leave your thought here cancel reply.

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment.

Latest Posts

Thumbnail

Hospitality Studies Grade 12 June Question Papers and Memos pdf Download

Visual arts grade 12 june 2023 question papers and memos pdf download, dramatic arts grade 12 june 2023 question papers and memos pdf download, setswana home language grade 12 june 2023 question papers and memos pdf download, tourism studies grade 12 june 2023 question papers and memos pdf download, electrical technology grade 12 june 2023 question papers and memos pdf download, engineering graphics and designs grade 12 june 2023 question papers and memos pdf download, english home language grade 12 june 2023 question papers and memos pdf download, civil technology grade 12 june 2023 question papers and memos pdf download, siswati home language grade 12 june 2023 question papers and memos pdf download.

More Learning Resources @ My Courses

  • Availability
  • Add to cart
  • Description
  • Additional information
  • Custom attributes
  • Custom fields

How and When Learners Portal

  • Grade 12 Learning Resources Study Notes and Previous Papers
  • Grade 11 Learning Resources
  • Grade 10 Learning Resources
  • IGCSE Syllabus
  • Latest Updates

Insert/edit link

Enter the destination URL

Or link to existing content

History Paper 1 Memorandum - Grade 12 September 2021 Preparatory Exams

SECTION A: SOURCE-BASED QUESTIONS QUESTION 1 HOW DID THE BERLIN BLOCKADE CONTRIBUTE TO COLD WAR TENSIONS BETWEEN THE WESTERN POWERS AND THE SOVIET UNION? 1.1 1.1.1 Extraction of evidence from Source 1A – L1]

  • Germany (1 x 1) (1)

1.1.2 [Extraction of evidence from Source 1A – L1]

  • Germany was divided into four occupational zones
  • Berlin was divided as well, with the Western part of the city in Allied hands and the East under Soviet control (2 x 1) (2)

1.1.3 [Extraction of evidence from Source 1A – L1]

  • ‘forcing the country to pay war reparations’
  • ‘contribute its industrial technology to help post war Soviet recovery’ (Any 1 x 1) (1)

1.1.4 [Interpretation of evidence from Source 1A – L1]

  • This is because no agreement had been reached at Yalta or Potsdam on a uniform currency for the different zones.
  • The Allies did not inform Russia of the introduction of the new currency, although they jointly controlled Berlin.
  • Any other relevant response (Any 1 x 2) (2)

1.1.5 [Extraction of evidence from Source 1A – L2]

  • ‘Soviets immediately issued their own currency, the Ostmark, into Berlin and eastern Germany’
  • ‘That same day – June 24, 1948 – they blocked all road, railway and canal access to the Allied-occupied zones of Berlin, announcing that the four-way administration of the city had come to an end’ (2 x 1) (2)

1.2 1.2.1 [Definition of a historical concept from Source 1B – L1]

  • Cold War is an ideological battle between capitalism and communism without engaging in physical combat.

1.2.2 [Interpretation of evidence from Source 1B – L2]

  • They were avoiding a ‘hot war’.
  • They did not want to be perceived as the aggressor.
  • Germany had just emerged from a 6-year war, and another war would have caused devastation.
  • An armed conflict in Berlin would have led to the deaths of thousands of Germans.
  • Any other relevant response (Any 2 x 2)  (4)

1.2.3 [Definition of historical concepts from Source 1B – L2]

  • Economic system based on private ownership.
  • Any other relevant response  (Any 1 x 2) (2)

1.2.4 [Extraction of evidence from Source 1B – L1]

  • The did not want to risk an armed conflict with the Soviet Union (1 x 1) (1)

1.2.5 Extraction of evidence from Source 1B – L1]

  • France   (Any 2 x 1)(2)

1.2.6 [Interpretation of evidence from Source 1B – L2]

  • To speed up the economic recovery of West Berlin.
  • Showing the world that capitalism was better than communism.
  • To demonstrate the success of capitalism.
  • To prevent possible riots amongst the residents of West Berlin.
  • To bring about divisions in East Germany and East Berlin
  • To cause divisions amongst communist thinking
  •  Any other relevant response (Any 1 x 2)   (2)

1.3 1.3.1 [Extraction of evidence from Source 1C – L1]

  • Other necessities   (Any 2 x 1)  (2)

1.3.2 [Interpretation of evidence from Source 1C – L2]

  • They were cut off from essential necessities.
  • Residents were cut off from relatives who lived in the other zones.
  • Residents of West Berlin were now exposed to power outages, food shortages and food rationing.
  • Residents of West Berlin were adversely hit by the blockade.
  • Any other relevant response (Any 1 x 2)  (2)

1.3.3 [Interpretation of evidence from Source 1C – L2]

  • They wanted to showcase their resistance against the blockade.
  • They did not want to give in to communist pressure.
  • They wanted to show Russia that they were not dependent on them.
  • To demonstrate their determination to live under a capitalist order.
  • They would have lost their independence had they accept help from the Russians.

1.3.4 [Evaluate the usefulness of evidence from Source 1C – L3] The source is USEFUL because:

  • It shows that the Allies did not give in to Russian pressure.
  • It gives the finer details of the airlift that the Allies used to provide West Berlin with supplies
  • It demonstrates the Allies’ resolve to limit communism.
  • It demonstrates the Allies’ determination to protect and support capitalist and democratic countries.
  • Any other relevant response (Any 2 x 2) (4)

1.4 1.4.1 [Interpretation of evidence from Source 1D – L3]

  • It shows Western powers delivering the necessities in West Berlin.
  • They used airplanes to deliver food to West Berlin because of the Blockade.

1.4.2 [Extraction of evidence from Source 1D – L1]

  • Airplanes (1 x 1) (1)

1.5 [Comparison of evidence from Sources 1C and 1D – L3]

  • Source 1C states that British and American soldiers made about 400 000 flights into Western Berlin carrying necessities and Source 1D shows soldiers delivering necessities to West Berlin.
  • Source 1C states that British and American soldiers delivered nearly two million tons of food, coal, clothing and other essentials while Source 1D clearly depicts the crates in which the food, coal and essentials were transported.
  • Both sources show that food were delivered through air lifts

1.6 [Interpretation, analysis and synthesis of evidence from relevant sources – L3] Candidates may use the following as points to answer the question:

  • The United States, France and Soviet Union divided Germany and Berlin into four zones (Source 1A)
  • The Western powers decided to combine their sectors to form West Berlin while Russia named their zone East Berlin (Own knowledge)
  • No agreement was reached on a uniform system of government in different zones (Own knowledge)
  • Western powers introduced a new currency and it led to prosperity in the West compared to the poverty in East Berlin.
  • Stalin perceived the introduction of the new currency as a violation of post war agreements (Source 1A)
  • Stalin blocked all the access routes and canals to gain total control Berlin (Source 1A)
  • Western allies were not prepared to risk armed conflict with the Soviets as a way to open access routes to West Berlin (Source 1B)
  • They decided to supply their sectors with all the necessities through airlifts (Source 1B, 1C and 1D)
  • Flights were landing every 45 seconds at one of the three airports in West Berlin (Source 1C and Source 1D)
  • Stalin on the other side was not prepared to risk a war by shooting those airplanes (Source 1B)
  • In May 1949, Stalin ended/lifted the Blockade (Source 1B)
  • Any other relevant response

Use the following rubric to allocate a mark:

QUESTION 2: WHY DID ANGOLA BECOME THE FOCAL POINT OF THE COLD WAR IN AFRICA DURING THE 1970s? 2.1 2.1.1 [Extraction of evidence from Source 2A – L1]

  • ‘Oil’ (2 x 1)  (2)

2.2.2 [Definition of a historical concept from Source 2A – L1]

  • A peace agreement between fighting parties to bring an end to an armed conflict
  • Any relevant response (Any 1 x 2)  (2)

2.1.3 [Extraction of evidence from Source 2A – L1]

  • ‘Portugal’ (1 x 1) (1)

2.1.4 [Extraction of evidence from Source 2A – L1]

  • ‘UNITA’ (3 x 1)  (3)

2.1.5 [Interpretation of evidence from Source 2A – L2]

  • Russia wanted to spread communism in Africa.
  • Russia wanted to obtain naval bases in Africa
  • Russia wanted to sign trade agreements with African countries
  • Any relevant response (Any 2 x 2)  (4)

2.2 2.2.1 [Extraction of evidence from Source 2B – L1] • ‘… the superpowers and their allies delivered military assistance to their preferred clients’ (1 x 2) (2) 2.2.2 [Interpretation of evidence from Source 2B – L2]

  • The USA wanted to prevent the communist MPLA from taking over Angola.
  • The USA wanted to safeguard her petroleum interests in Angola.
  • The USA did not want to send troops to Angola since she was already defeated in Vietnam; hence they supported these movements to overthrow the MPLA.

2.2.3 [Interpretation of evidence from Source 2B – L2]

  • The MPLA and Castro were communist allies.
  • Many Cubans were of Angolan descent.

2.2.4 [Definition of historical concept in Source 2B – L2]

  • The right of Angolan citizens to govern themselves free from colonial rule.

2.3 2.3.1 [Extraction of evidence from Source 2C – L1]

  • ‘Cubans’ (2 x 1) (2)

2.3.2 [Extraction of evidence from Source 2C – L1]

  • ‘Calueque’ (2 x 1)  (2)

2.3.3 [Interpretation of evidence from Source 2C – L2]

  • The MPLA was a communist organisation.
  • The MPLA was against SA Apartheid policy
  • The MPLA allowed SWAPO and ANC to establish military bases in Angola.
  • SA did not want to be surrounded by communist neighbouring states.

2.3.4 Evaluate the usefulness of evidence from Source 2C – L3] The source is USEFUL because:

Related Items

  • History Paper 2 Errata - Grade 12 September 2021 Preparatory Exams
  • Geography Paper 1 Errata - Grade 12 September 2021 Preparatory Exams
  • Tourism Memorandum - Grade 12 September 2021 Preparatory Exams
  • Tourism Questions - Grade 12 September 2021 Preparatory Exams
  • Technical Sciences Paper 2 Memorandum - Grade 12 September 2021 Preparatory Exams
  • Technical Sciences Paper 2 Questions - Grade 12 September 2021 Preparatory Exams
  • Technical Sciences Paper 1 Memorandum - Grade 12 September 2021 Preparatory Exams
  • Technical Sciences Paper 1 Questions - Grade 12 September 2021 Preparatory Exams
  • Technical Mathematics Paper 2 Memorandum - Grade 12 September 2021 Preparatory Exams
  • Technical Mathematics Paper 2 Questions - Grade 12 September 2021 Preparatory Exams
  • It gives an objective view of SA’s involvement in the Angolan Civil War of 1975
  • The purpose of the source is to inform the reader about SA’s reasons for intervening in Angola.
  • It highlights the SA government’s fear of communism.
  • It shows that SA had economic and political interest in SWA that they wanted to protect.
  • Any other relevant response. (Any 2 x 2) (4)

2.4 2.4.1 [Interpretation of evidence from Source 2D – L2]

  • SA and UNITA had a very good relationship.
  • SA and UNITA were allies.
  • SA and UNITA supported each other’s objectives during the Angolan Civil War
  • SA favoured or preferred UNITA as the ruling party in Angola.

2.4.2 [Interpretation of evidence from Source 2D – L2]

  • UNITA is the enemy of the MPLA and SA; hence the two are allies.
  • UNITA is the enemy of the MPLA and therefore UNITA is a friend of SA.

2.5 [Comparison of information from Source 2C and Source 2D – L3]

  • Source 2C states that SA supported UNITA whilst this support is clearly depicted in Source 2D.
  • Source 2C states that SA started to train UNITA soldiers whilst this support is clearly depicted in the photograph where Magnus Malan is seen next to PW Botha and Jonas Savimbi
  • Both sources depict SA and UNITA as allies.
  • Any other relevant answer (Any 2 x 2)  (4)

2.6 [Interpretation, analysis and synthesis of evidence from relevant sources – L3] Candidates may include the following aspects in their responses.

  • After independence, the three movements competed for power in Angola (Own knowledge)
  • Angola was rich in diamonds and oil and thus sparked foreign interference (Source 2A)
  • The superpowers and their allies delivered military assistance to their preferred clients (Source 2B)
  • The foreign powers provided aid to different liberation movements (MPLA, FNLA and UNITA) in Angola (Source 2A and 2B)
  • The USA supplied aid and training to FNLA and UNITA (Source 2B)
  • The Soviet Union also provided military training and equipment to the MPLA (Source 2B)
  • SA supported UNITA because they wanted to prevent the spread of communism in Southern Africa (Source 2B)
  • SA wanted to break its own isolation and therefore welcomed the US request to support UNITA (own knowledge)
  • MPLA negotiated with Castro for Cuban assistance (Source 2B)
  • SA was against the communist MPLA (Source 2C)
  • South Africa supported UNITA (Source 2B)
  • South Africa had economic interests in SWA – Ruacana and Calueque dams (Source 2C)
  • SA supported UNITA as official government of Angola (Source 2C and 2D)
  • SA and UNITA united in their effort to topple the MPLA as the official government of Angola. (Source 2C and 2D)
  • Any other relevant answer

QUESTION 3: WHAT CHALLENGES DID THE LITTLE ROCK NINE FACE DURING THE INTERGRATION OF CENTRAL HIGH SCHOOL IN 1957? 3.1 3.1.1 [Extraction of information from Source 3A – L1]

  • ‘that the racial segregation in educational facilities was unconstitutional’ (1 x 2) (2)

3.1.2 [Definition of historical concept in Source 3A – L1]

  • The end of segregation and the opening of facilities to all races.
  • Any other relevant response (Any 1 x 2) (2)

3.1.3 [Interpretation of evidence from Source 3A – L2]

  • It meant that segregated schools and universities were against the law.
  • It meant that segregated educational facilities were not accepted and protected in the constitution.

3.1.4 [Extraction of evidence from Source 3A – L1]

  • ‘Eighty students’ (1 x 1) (1)

3.1.5 [Interpretation of evidence from Source 3A – L2]

  • They were more comfortable amongst their own people.
  • They wanted to avoid racism towards them at Little Rock.
  • They did not want to be humiliated.
  • They knew their safety would not be guaranteed.
  • They avoided prosecution at the hands of the KKK.
  • Any other relevant response (Any 1 x 2)   (2)

3.2 3.2.1 [Extraction of evidence from Source 3B – L1]

  • ‘All alone, her knees shaking …’ (1 x 2) (2)

3.2.2 [Extraction of evidence from Source 3B – L1]

  • ‘A jeering mob blocked her path’
  • ‘The mob surrounded her’
  • ‘Get a rope’
  • ‘Drag her over to this tree!’
  • ‘Let’s take care of the nigger’ (Any 3 x 1)  (3)

3.2.3 [Interpretation of evidence in Source 3B – L2]

  • The white mob was opposed to integration at Central High School
  • The white mob was still racist.
  • The white mob believed that whites were superior, and blacks were inferior.

3.2.4 [Interpretation of evidence from Source 3B – L2]

  • Grace Lorch was not a racist
  • Grace Lorch did not perceive blacks to be inferior.
  • Grace Lorch was in favour of integration.
  • Grace Lorch saw all races as equal.
  • Grace Lorch had sympathy for the plight of Blacks.
  • She showed sympathy to Eckford
  • Any other relevant response (Any 2 x 2)   (4)

3.3 3.3.1 [Interpretation of evidence from Source 3C – L2]

  • Racial integration was not tolerated by the white community in Arkansas.
  • Racial integration would be very hard to implement.
  • Racial integration was even prevented by the state police.

3.3.2 [Evaluating the reliability of evidence in Source 3C – L3] The source is RELIABLE to a large extent because:

  • It is a primary source providing first-hand information about the event.
  • The information can be confirmed by other historical sources.
  • The photographer was present during the event – eyewitness

3.4 [Comparison of evidence in Sources 3B and 3C – L3]

  • Source 3B declares that Elizabeth was greeted on her way to school by an angry white crowd, while Source 3C portrays the angry crowd
  • Source 3B states that the National guardsmen did nothing to protect Elizabeth while Source 3C portrays the National Guardsmen as passive soldiers who observe the event instead of protecting Elizabeth.

3.5 3.5.1 [Extraction of evidence from Source 3D – L1]

  • ‘… he had taken the action to defend the rule of law’
  • ‘and prevent mob rule and anarchy’ (2 x 1)  (2)

3.5.2 [Extraction of evidence from Source 3D – L1]

  • ‘Black students were subjected to verbal and physical assaults from a faction of white students.’
  • ‘Melba Patillo, one of nine, had acid thrown in her eyes.’
  • ‘Elizabeth Eckford was pushed down a flight of stairs.’
  • ‘The three male students in the group were subjected to more conventional beatings.’
  • ‘Minnijean Brown was suspended after dumping a bowl of chili over the head of a taunting white student’ (Any 2 x 1)  (2)

3.5.3 [Interpretation of evidence from Source 3D – L2]

  • He was against racial integration of schools.
  • Faubus was a racist
  • Faubus wanted to prevent the Black learners from entering the school

3.5.4 [Definition of historical concept in Source 3D – L2]

  • Refers to the situation where African Americans and whites would share the same facilities without racial discrimination.

3.6 [Interpretation, analysis and synthesis from relevant sources – L3] Candidates may include the following aspects in their responses:

  • Racial discrimination was very common in the southern states and Arkansas was also affected (Source 3A)
  • Brown versus Board of Education of Topeka ruled that racial segregation in educational facilities was unconstitutional (Source 3A
  • Integration at Little Rock was approved but because it was located in the south, many challenges were expected (Source 3A)
  • Elizabeth Eckford, one of the Little Rock Nine was denied entry at Central High School (Source 3B)
  • An angry white mob surrounded, shouted and harassed her (Source 3B)
  • The guards did nothing to protect Elizabeth Eckford (Source 3B and 3C)
  • The president decided to enforce integration by force (Source 3D)
  • Black students were subjected to verbal and physical assaults (Source 3D)
  • Governor Faubus fought school integration plan by closing Little Rock’s high school rather than allowing integration (Source 3D)
  • Despite challenges, majority of Black students graduated (Source 3D

SECTION B: ESSAY QUESTIONS QUESTION 4: THE COLD WAR – VIETNAM [Plan and construct an original argument based on relevant evidence using analytical and interpretative skills.] SYNOPSIS Candidates need to agree or disagree with the statement and support their argument with relevant historical evidence. In disagreeing with the statement candidates should identify and discuss the other military strategies that were used to contain communism. MAIN ASPECTS Candidates should include the following aspects in their responses: Introduction: Candidates should agree or disagree with the statement and briefly explain their reasons. ELABORATION

  • After the French Vietnamese war, Vietnam was divided, along the 17th Parallel, into North and South Vietnam
  • North Vietnam was under a communist regime, while South Vietnam was under a capitalist regime
  • The USA gave unconditional support to South Vietnam.
  • South Vietnam was ruled by the corrupt and unpopular Ngo Dinh Diem
  • The National Liberation Front was formed and had a guerrilla army, the Vietcong.
  • Ngo Dihn Diem was overthrown – instability in South Vietnam
  • Vietcong started a protracted campaign to unify Vietnam
  • China and North Vietnam supported the Vietcong
  • The USA got involved – to prevent the spreading of communism in South East Asia – the ‘Domino Effect’
  • The Vietcong received supplies from the communist North Vietnam through the Ho Chi Minh Trail
  • USA’s operation Rolling Thunder: Bombing campaigns directed against North Vietnam. Thousands of civilians were killed by the bombs. Bombing was intensive and it lasted for eight years. The operation failed, partly because North Vietnam was mainly a farming country and there were no military or industrial targets. Russia and Chinese were able to replace all military supplies that the Americans destroyed.
  • Tet Offensive: On 30th January 1968 the Viet Cong and North Vietnamese Army launched widespread attacks on about 100 cities and towns. These attacks were timed to coincide with the first day of the Tet holiday although there was an agreement to observe a ceasefire during the holiday. The attack came as a surprise to the South and its American allies.
  • The USA’s use of technological weapons: Americans used some methods that relied on the application of science to warfare. Helicopters were used to transport troops. A great problem for the Americans was finding the VC in the thick, tropical jungle. They therefore developed ‘Agent Orange’ to destroy the bush where the VC soldiers could hide. ‘Agent Blue’ was used by Americans and it polluted the land, which remained infertile for many years. America also used chemicals that caught fire. Napalm produces a thick gel that attaches itself to the skin and burns through to the muscle and bone.
  • Search and destroy policy: The purpose of the policy was to find the enemy and destroy him. One problem was identifying the enemy. Innocent civilians were the victims of the bombs. So it was very much a hit-and-miss policy.
  • The USA’s public opposition to the war
  • The USA’s heavy losses
  • The USA’s withdrawal
  • Fall of Saigon: The capital of South Vietnam was Saigon and the American embassy itself was seized by guerrillas after six and half hours. Americans watched this event on TV. The symbol of American power and prestige that dominated downtown Saigon has been disposed of with bullet holes.
  • American perspective of the war
  • Vietnamese perspective of the war
  • Any other relevant response.
  • Conclusion: Candidates should tie up their argument with a relevant conclusion.             [50]

QUESTION 5: INDEPENDENT AFRICA: CASE STUDY – THE CONGO [Plan and construct an original argument based on relevant evidence using analytical and interpretative skills.] SYNOPSIS Candidates must focus on the political and economic challenges that the Congo faced after attaining independence. They should also emphasise all the successes that have been achieved despite the circumstances. MAIN ASPECTS Candidates should include the following aspects in their responses: Introduction: Candidates should critically discuss the successes and challenges faced by Congo with specific reference to the economic and political aspects after attaining independence from colonial rule. ELABORATION POLITICAL ASPECTS Congo:

  • Attained independence through democratic elections (the Congo 1960) – J. Kasavubu became President and P. Lumumba became the Prime Minister
  • After holding multi-party elections at independence, the Congo became a one- party state within the first five years after gaining independence
  • Mobuto Sese Seko remained as president for life until his death in 2007
  • Mobuto aimed at promoting a sense of national unity and pride in Zairian identity and culture
  • He changed the name of the Congo to Zaire
  • The new name signified the beginning of a programme of ‘Zaireanisation’
  • Mobuto supported the losing faction in the Angolan Civil War
  • Mobuto Sese Seko created a kleptocracy where a group of appointed public officials abused their positions for financial gain
  • Brought back African values
  • Strong centralised government
  • Political stability (though based on authoritarianism)

ECONOMIC ASPECTS

  • The Congo inherited a single-product economy from her coloniser.
  • The Congo followed a capitalistic model
  • The Congo struggled to develop its economy
  • Mobuto initially nationalised industries using the Zairianisation policy – which involved taking farms and businesses from the foreign owners who were replaced by Congolese.
  • The Congolese people became very angry because the country’s economy collapsed
  • The Congolese were without food and ethnic groups quarrelled to control valuable resources
  • When it failed due to lack of skills and poor management, he adopted a capitalistic model and returned businesses to foreign owners.
  • He supported the idea of free enterprise and encouraged foreign companies to involve themselves in the economic development of Zaire
  • The Congo had to accept foreign aid and allow investments which initially was viewed as neo-colonialists
  • Conclusion: Candidates should tie up their argument with a relevant conclusion.       [50]

QUESTION 6: CIVIL SOCIETY PROTESTS FROM THE 1950s TO THE 1970s – THE BLACK POWER MOVEMENT [Plan and construct an original argument based on relevant evidence using analytical and interpretative skills.] SYNOPSIS Candidates should indicate to what extent the Black Power Movement was successful in changing the lives of African Americans in the 1960s. MAIN ASPECTS Candidates should include the following aspects in their responses: Introduction: Candidates should indicate to what extent the Black Power Movement was successful in changing the lives of African Americans in the 1960s. They must also indicate how they intend to support their line of argument. ELABORATION Causes

  • Blacks in the north was still discriminated against and still economically disempowered
  • Blacks were disillusioned with the slow pace of change and peaceful protest actions of the CRM
  • Police brutality was a contributing factor
  • Grew nationalist feelings – the right to govern themselves

Black Power:

  • This philosophy advocated self-reliance and self determination
  • Urged blacks to take pride in themselves
  • Urged blacks to control their own politics in their communities
  • Urged blacks to protect themselves from police brutality

The Black Panther Party

  • Newton and Searle formed the BPP for self defence
  • They patrolled the cities to protect Blacks against police brutality
  • Implemented the Ten Point Programme
  • Demanded better housing and job opportunities for Blacks
  • Implemented the Survival Programmes
  • Free breakfast for children, literacy classes, feeding schemes and free medical clinics
  • Demanded that Black History be taught in Black schools
  • Rejected white ideas of fashion
  • Was opposed to racial integration

The role of Malcolm X:

  • Malcolm X was a powerful speaker and dedicated human rights activist
  • Malcolm X believed in black separation, self-determination (black nationalism) and he advocated self-respect and self-discipline
  • He believed in the concept of Black self-pride and self-esteem/self- respect/self-help
  • Called for assertiveness (aggressiveness) in their revolution e.g. race riots at Watt, Detroit
  • Wanted African Americans to stand up against white authorities in pursuit of freedom, justice and equality by whatever means possible
  • Promoted the use of violence as a means of self defence against those who attacked African Americans

The role of Stokely Carmichael:

  • Stockely became the chairman of SNCC (Student Non-violent Coordinating Committee) in 1966 and decided to embrace the teachings of the Black Power Movement
  • In 1966 he popularised the Black Power slogan ‘Black is beautiful’
  • Advocated the principles of Black Power (do things for yourself; control politics in their communities; take pride in own culture and defend themselves against racial oppression and manipulation)
  • He believed in non-violence as a strategy that was not working because of on- going violence that was used by white Americans against African Americans
  • Advocated the exclusion of ‘white’ liberals as a philosophy for African Americans
  • Stokely Carmichael was in favour of African clothing and African hairstyles as a symbol of Black Pride
  • Carmichael joined the Black Panther Party (for self-defence) which put into action the Black Power/Black Pride philosophy
  • The Black Panther Party was formed by Bobby Searle and Huey Newton
  • They were involved in initiating and supporting community-based programmes and feeding schemes as well as anti-poverty centres; for defence against police brutality; focused on socio-economic conditions of African Americans and also operated community survival programmes
  • The Ten (10)-point plan served as the Black Panther Party Manifesto that covered its social, political and economic goals
  • The Black Panther Party got involved in streets patrols; monitored police activities and defended themselves by carrying guns (military approach) to stop the on-going police brutality and harassment of young urban black men.
  • Conclusion: Candidates should tie up their argument with a relevant conclusion.    [50]

Related items

  • Mathematics Grade 12 Investigation 2023 Term 1
  • HISTORY PAPER 2 GRADE 12 ADDENDUM - NSC PAST PAPERS AND MEMOS JUNE 2022
  • TECHNICAL SCIENCES PAPER 2 GRADE 12 QUESTIONS - NSC PAST PAPERS AND MEMOS JUNE 2022
  • TECHNICAL SCIENCES PAPER 1 GRADE 12 QUESTIONS - NSC PAST PAPERS AND MEMOS JUNE 2022
  • MATHEMATICS LITERACY PAPER 2 GRADE 12 MEMORANDUM - NSC PAST PAPERS AND MEMOS JUNE 2022

COMMENTS

  1. Vietnam Essay Grade 12 memo: Questions and Answers PDF Download

    Introduction. The Vietnam War (1963-1975) is an enduring symbol of the failure of American military might against a largely rural, determined insurgency, the Vietcong. This essay agrees with the assertion that the United States' tactics and strategies against the Vietcong during this period were a dismal failure, given the historical evidence.

  2. Grade 12 Vietnam Essay

    Grade 12 Vietnam Essay. Essay for Grade 12 term 1. Subject. History. 644 Documents. Students shared 644 documents in this course. Degree FET. School Emang Mmogo Comprehensive School - Kimberley. Academic year: 2024/2025. Uploaded by: Fikile Sithole. Emang Mmogo Comprehensive School. 0 followers. 2 Uploads. 1 upvotes.

  3. Vietnam-Essay-Note

    Vietnam-Essay-Note - History Grade 12 Vietnam essay. Subject: History. 577 Documents. Students shared 577 documents in this course. Degree: FET. Info More info. Download. AI Quiz. AI Quiz. Download. AI Quiz. AI Quiz. ... Amended Official 10791 History P1 Eng Memo 2023 prelim; Post apartheid; History; 07 - Hfyyggft; History; Related documents ...

  4. History Paper 1 Grade 12 Memorandum

    HISTORY PAPER 1 GRADE 12 MEMORANDUM - NSC PAST PAPERS AND MEMOS SEPTEMBER 2016. 1. SOURCE-BASED QUESTIONS. 1.1 The following cognitive levels were used to develop source-based questions: Extract evidence from sources. Selection and organisation of relevant information from sources. Define historical concepts/terms.

  5. HISTORY T1 W3 Gr. 12: THE EXTENSION OF THE COLD WAR: CASE STUDY: VIETNAM

    essay: the extension of the cold war: case study: vietnam. essay: the extension of the cold war: case study: vietnam ... 8 grade 9 grade 10 grade 11 grade 12 broadcasts . online, radio & tv my learner dashboard ...

  6. History Paper 1 Grade 12 Memorandum

    HISTORY P1. FEBRUARY/MARCH 2016. MEMORANDUM. NATIONAL SENIOR CERTIFICATE. GRADE 12. 1. SOURCE-BASED QUESTIONS. 1.1 The following cognitive levels were used to develop source-based questions: COGNITIVE LEVELS.

  7. 2021 National Recovery ATP: Grade 12 Term 1: HISTORY

    2021 National Recovery ATP: Grade 12 ... Vietnam (Essay question) Stages in the war: • 1957-1965 Struggle in Vietnam between the South Vietnamese army and communist-trained rebels (also known as the Viet Cong) • 1965 -1969 North Vietnamese - USA struggle (include the nature

  8. PDF NATIONAL SENIOR CERTIFICATE GRADE 12

    Your essay should be about THREE pages long. QUESTION 4: EXTENSION OF THE COLD WAR: CASE STUDY - VIETNAM . The North Vietnamese and National Liberation Front (Viet Cong) were fighting to liberate their country from American interferenceThis was arguably . the main reason why the Americans failed to defeat them.

  9. PDF NATIONAL SENIOR CERTIFICATE GRADE 12

    2.4.2 During the reading of the essay ticks need to be awarded for a relevant introduction (indicated by a bullet in the marking guideline/memorandum), each of the main points/aspects that is properly contextualized (also indicated by bullets in the marking guideline/memorandum) and a relevant

  10. PDF NATIONAL SENIOR CERTIFICATE GRADE 12

    question 4: extension of the cold war: case study - vietnam Explain to what extent the tactics and strategies that the Viet Cong used against the United States of America's army were successful in containing the spread of capitalism

  11. The Vietnam War (1945-1975): Suggested Essay Topics

    Suggestions for essay topics to use when you're writing about The Vietnam War (1945-1975). ... Go ad-free AND get instant access to grade-boosting study tools! Start your 7-day FREE trial now! The Vietnam War (1945-1975) ... Compare and contrast Johnson's and Nixon's respective Vietnam War strategies. 4. Discuss the impact of antiwar ...

  12. Extension of the Cold War Case Study Vietnam Essay

    Extension of the Cold War Case Study Vietnam Essay - Grade 12 History Answer Guide based on the memo. All the military might of the United States of America's army could not defeat a small nation of Vietnamese peasants. Critically discuss this statement in the context of the military strategies that both the United States of America and the Vietcong used in Vietnam between 1963 and 1973.

  13. Essay-Point-Note

    Essay-Point-Note - History Grade 12 Vietnam essay. History Grade 12 Vietnam essay. Subject. History. 508 Documents. Students shared 508 documents in this course. Degree FET. School High School - South Africa. Info More info. Academic year: 2021/2022. Listed books Hmh Geometry: Exploration in Core Math Florida: Student Workbook English Literature.

  14. History Paper 1 Grade 12 Questions

    QUESTION 4: EXTENTION OF THE COLD WAR: CASE STUDY - VIETNAM 4.1 Explain to what extent was the USA successful in the Vietnam War. Use relevant historical evidence from the period 1965 to 1975 to support your answer. ... MATHEMATICS LITERACY PAPER 2 GRADE 12 MEMORANDUM - NSC PAST PAPERS AND MEMOS JUNE 2022;

  15. Vietnam War Essay

    10 Lines on Vietnam War Essay in English. 1. The Vietnam War was a conflict between the communist and the capitalist countries and was a part of the Cold War. 2. The Vietnam War was a controversial issue in the United States. 3. It was the first war to feature in live television coverage. 4.

  16. PDF Exploring the Vietnam War

    On the other side, Bao Ninh's The Sor- row of War (1991) is a novel by a North Vietnamese Army veteran. One of 500 sol- diers who served in the North's 27th Youth Brigade, and one of only ten who survived, Ninh was seventeen when he joined the war and twenty-three when it ended. His novel has become a literary classic.

  17. National Senior Certificate: Grade 12

    History P1 Nov 2014 Memo Eng - Free download as PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or read online for free. Memorandum

  18. Vietnam Essay (Matric)

    They continued to be unsuccessful until the signing of the Paris Peace Accords in January 1973 to end the Vietnam War. By 29 March 1973, the last US forces left Vietnam. However, in December 1974, North Vietnam launched a major offensive against South Vietnam. By April 1975 Saigon fell to communist forces. [LINK] WORD COUNT: 1096 CONTEXUALIZATION:

  19. Grade 12 History notes-Vietnam war essay

    Answer: Leader of North Vietnam. 2. True/False America was successful in Vietnam war. Answer: False. 3. Why America got involved in Vietnam war? Answer: To contain the spread of communism. 4. Vietcongs lived in the: A. Tunnel B. Jungle.

  20. History Paper 1 Memorandum

    1.2 1.2.1 [Definition of a historical concept from Source 1B - L1] Cold War is an ideological battle between capitalism and communism without engaging in physical combat. Any other relevant response (Any 1 x 2) (2) 1.2.2 [Interpretation of evidence from Source 1B - L2] They were avoiding a 'hot war'.

  21. Vietnam Essay Grade 12

    Term 4 yr 10 History Assignment- the Vietnam War Men aged between 18 and 30 during the 1960s. 1. Synopsis In today's Australian society, young men from the ages of 18 to 30 are usually starting their lives as independent citizens- graduating from school, going to university, getting employed- even starting families.

  22. Vietnam Essay Grade 12 Memo

    Marketing Mix Marketers use numerous tools to elicit the desired responses from their target markets. These tools constitute a marketing mix:12 Marketing mix is the set of marketing tools that the firm uses to pursue its marketing objectives in the target market. As shown in Figure 1-3, McCarthy classified these tools into four broad groups ...

  23. History Essays Grade 12

    All grade 12 history essays are there history essays grade 12 2023 vietnam essay how did america lose in vietnam? vietnam managed to avoid defeat the united. Skip to document. University; High School ... History P1 Nov 2020 Memo Eng; Introductoryessay - Stalin essay; HIST105 Assesment 2; Latin America; Timeline; 25Stellenbosch LRev 187; Related ...