Types and Examples of Essays: The Complete List

Types and Examples of Essays

Essays are concise pieces of writing that present information in a comprehensible, straightforward manner. The traditional structure of an essay begins with an introduction, uses topic sentences, and concludes with a conclusion that restates the thesis.

Table of Contents

Diverse essay types demand different writing abilities, such as the ability to inject the figurative language into a personal essay to make it come to life or to critically analyze a complex issue in an analytical essay in order to find a solution.

The length and format of essays also vary, with some spanning pages and others neatly fitting into just a few paragraphs. Before you are required to write these types of essays, familiarize yourself with them. You will become a skilled essayist once you comprehend how they differ and how they are similar.

In this article, we provide you with a list of the most prevalent essay types.

Types of Essays with Examples

Understanding the different types of essays that make up the majority of your high school, college, and university assignments is a smart place to start when considering how to write one.

Essays can be categorized into a wide variety, but the four main types of essays are argumentative, expository, narrative, and descriptive essays. Let us take a detailed look at these four main types of essays with examples.

4 Major Types of Essay with Examples

The four primary methods/ types of essays that are typically required in academic settings are as follows (according to Purdue Online Writing Lab), and the majority of the essays you will ever write in your life will roughly fit into one of these categories:

The majority of the essays you will ever have to write in your existence will come under one of these four categories, which are the norm in academia.

These are four different ways to convey an essay’s idea rather than four unique essay genres. Of the nine conventional rhetorical modes, which also include techniques like classification and process analysis, these four are the most frequently employed.

1. Expository Essays

These are most likely the types of essays you may encounter and the standard essay style needed for exams.

When writing an expository essay, you will go deeper into a subject or issue to develop an idea, analyze supporting data, and then organize an “exposition” on the concept.

Depending on the writer’s objectives, expository essays can take a variety of forms including:

  • Descriptive or Definition Essays
  • Procedure or “How-To” Essays
  • Comparison Essays
  • Cause-and-Effect Essays
  • Problem/Solution Essays
  • Examples of Expository Essays

Watching The Thinderstoem

Over the open ocean, I observed a thunderstorm. Only thick, heavy clouds and a roiling tide could be seen at the start, and everything was quiet. I was standing on my balcony looking out toward the horizon when I heard a quiet thunderclap. The clouds began to shut over the following few minutes and reflected lightning lit up the undulating ocean. The sun was obscured by the thunderheads, casting shadows across the scene. For a very long period, there was calm.

I turned to look up just as the first thunderclap struck clearly. It shone against the sky and the water, and when I blink, I can see its outline in perfectly reversed colors. Thereafter, more. Thunder appeared to be struggling to keep up as it rumbled and stalled. Suddenly, the clouds appeared to be tearing apart, and patches of dazzling blue gleamed above the gloomy water.

I then looked down and observed the waves. Every bolt was met with a brief period of surface-spreading light. I could hear the waves smashing as they became more violent, rising high.

Then the rain started. It deluged the sea and soaked the sand all at once and in sheets. I could only see the lightning as bursts of light since the fog was so thick. The rain was so intense that it drowned out the thunder. Everything was rhythmic light and shadow, quiet and sound, and all five senses were combined into one experience.

It abruptly came to a standstill. The storm broke out. Clouds began to separate like curtains. Still falling, but much more subtly now. With the exception of one signature, it appeared as though there had never been a storm. A nearly ferociously vivid rainbow covered the sky and the lake. The horizon was once again visible.

Click here for an in-depth understanding of exploratory essays and how to write them ?????

2. Argumentative Essays

These essays are comparable to expository essays, but they are typically far more in-depth and support their arguments with well-researched qualitative and quantitative data (acquired via primary or secondary sources). An argumentative essay’s goal is to establish a viewpoint or position on a subject by offering justifications and proof.

An argumentative essay is typically written for a higher-level audience, such as high school or university. This implies that you will have to conduct some research, make some notes, and probably refer to your lecture notes.

  • Examples of Argumentative Essays

Having chocolate milk in class?

I disagree that chocolate milk should no longer be served in school cafeterias. Do people believe that chocolate milk's sugar content is unhealthy, according to Chocolate Milk in School Cafeterias? They want to remove it from the dining halls. This is not a smart move.

The options available to children purchasing lunches in the cafeteria are limited. They could be limited to a single main course or veggie. They can then select chocolate milk in place of white milk. They might eat extra potato chips, cookies, donuts, and other junk food if they are unable to make a decision. Many kids just purchase junk food for lunch.

Compared to Coke or Gatorade, chocolate milk is preferable. When bringing a lunch, children must purchase a beverage; instead of purchasing milk, these children might bring a sugary beverage.

Even though chocolate milk contains some sugar, it is still preferable to other beverages. It still has vitamins and minerals, so that's a plus. Although some kids just don't like white milk, I believe it is preferable for youngsters to at least drink some milk than none at all. The American Heart Association and the American Academy of Pediatrics both say this, and I agree!

For an in-depth understanding of argumentative essays, click here. ??????

3. Descriptive Essays

As the title suggests, the focus of this essay is language in general, specifically adjectives, similes, and metaphors. The goal of these essays is to describe the topic you are requested to write about as vividly as you can. You will need to include an introduction, body, and conclusion, just like in an expository essay.

A descriptive essay, however, differs from other types of writing since it requires you to describe a specific object in great detail. The other types of essays may include description, but they typically require a little more, such as an argument, whereas a descriptive essay only provides a detailed description of something, with the thing being described serving as the main focus rather than an argument.

  • Examples of Descriptive Essays

Parents' view of university education in my country

Teenagers in my nation do not work because they are too busy studying. For teenagers, playing the character of a student and a good student is paramount. Making your parents proud is crucial, as is competing for top colleges and employment.

Families and parents believe that it is crucial for kids to study very hard, very long, and without breaks in order to achieve the best grades possible. Only a small percentage of the population in my country can attend university since there are so few open spots.

Therefore, the pupils who perform best in school are the ones who attend universities. The top employment goes to students who attend the best universities. Choosing the right university will allow you to unwind.

It's crucial to make your parents happy. In the 1950s, while our nation was at war, our parents struggled mightily to rise above it. The nation was empty. Like in Japan, parents here put in long hours at work, and pupils here are expected to work hard. The family is honored for their labors. Top marks are crucial, so parents may be proud of their son's diligence.

Click here for more on descriptive essays ?????

4. Narrative Essays|

Again, a narrative essay is a more personal piece of writing where your point of view is made apparent to the reader, contrary to what the title might imply. These articles may take the form of stories or be referred to as “creative non-fiction.” In these essays, the first-person pronoun “I” is frequently used.

Narrative essays, which are frequently the closest thing to works of journalism, must also have a distinct introduction, body, and conclusion that are filled with brief language. You are probably well on your way to being a successful journalist if you are able to write a compelling narrative essay.

  • Examples of Narrative Essays

Thinking in a Systems Approach

A child's death is always tragic. Only a few hours after giving birth, one of my sisters lost her first two children, twins. I learned from how my family members handled this incident that even those who were raised with the same ideas and ideals might have very diverse perspectives on the world.

My sibling was delivered early. We weren't shocked to find that her first pregnancy would not proceed to term because she arrived a month early than she should have. However, the fact that the infants would arrive two months early rather than just one upset us.

We had little expectation that they would live a long life because their prospects of survival were slim. My role in the situation was quite limited because I lived several hundred km apart, but I worried and wept with everyone else. The full extent of my sorrow for my sister and the rest of my family did not reach me until a few years later when I saw my sister at a family reunion.

That's when I realized how much hope, disappointment, and grief those two little girls' incredibly brief lives had brought to our family. At that point, I genuinely felt sad for both my sister and myself.

At about the same time, I realized that our collective perspectives on the incident varied. My mother was at one extreme and I was at the other, creating a type of polarization.

I'm a devoted Mormon, as is my mother. We both hold the same beliefs about God, including that we were all in God's presence before coming to Earth, that God has a plan for our salvation, and that if we live righteously, we can return to God. We also hold to the doctrine of foreordination, which holds that God assigns particular individuals to particular jobs on Earth.

I eventually realized that our differences stemmed from what I like to refer to as system orientation. We both practice religion, however, my mother exclusively practices religion, whilst I also practice science. She believes that religion is the only rational and consistent explanation for everything, particularly the loss of a baby.

In my worldview, which integrates religion and science, God may exist, but he need not be in charge of everything. Many events, such as infant deaths, take place within his plan without being specifically mentioned in it. Understanding and respecting my mother's viewpoints as well as my own and feeling better about them are made possible by looking at it in this way.

Click here for an in-depth look at narrative essays ?????

Components (Paragraphs) of a good essay

There are 4 main types of essays

The 7 Other Types of Essays

Using one of these four rhetorical devices may be required of you when writing an essay. You might be required to write an argumentative essay on whether or not a new college policy should be implemented.

You would convey your stance by using persuasive writing tactics in your essay, such as by outlining your opinion of the proposed legislation and how it is likely to affect society.

You can better grasp the texts you work with by having a better understanding of the four primary forms of writing. When reading an essay, try to determine the writing style the author is using by focusing on the essay’s structure, tone, vocabulary, and method of presenting the main idea.

Here we analyze the 4 types of essays available:

Personal essays

Your emphasis in a personal essay is on something that has affected you personally. It may be a current issue, a historical occurrence, or a more comprehensive examination of how many situations and events have molded you into the person you are now.

Personal essays frequently use narrative writing strategies. However, depending on the subject matter and thesis of the essay, authors may also use expository or descriptive tactics. Argumentative, comical, and college application essays are just a few examples of different genres of writing that can overlap with personal essays.

Political essays

Some of the most well-known political essays may be familiar to you from what you studied in history class. These essays are works by eminent philosophers from the past and the present that address society and ideal forms of government.

In a political essay, the author discusses the current situation and suggests solutions, occasionally using historical examples of situations or solutions that are analogous to the current one. Political essays typically fall under the categories of informative or persuasive writing.

Compare-and-contrast essays

Essays that compare and contrast two things are probably one of the essay types that students write the most. In this style of essay, the author contrasts and compares two subjects in order to highlight the main distinctions and similarities between them.

The content of compare-and-contrast essays is typically revealed through the similarities the author draws, making them expository writing assignments. When comparisons are used to persuade the reader to adopt a particular perspective, they can also be considered persuasive writing pieces.

College (application) essays

Essays you write in college may not always qualify as college essays. Actually, you’ll write all of your college essays before you enroll in a college unless you later go to graduate school or another type of specialized academic program.

A concise personal essay that emphasizes your personality traits and life experiences that make you the perfect fit for the college to which you are applying is known as a college application essay or personal statement.

Analytical essays

Essays that analyze a topic in-depth focus on its essential elements and draw conclusions after carefully analyzing these elements. An analytical essay regarding a book’s topics or an argumentative essay’s ideas can be required of you. The purpose of analytical essays, which are examples of expository writing, is to present facts by interpreting content.

An analytical essay does not attempt to persuade the reader to adopt a particular viewpoint. Instead, the author gives a piece of media, such as a short story or movie, and analyzes its theme by going over the various ways it conveys that theme.

Argumentative essays

As the name implies, you argue in an argumentative essay.

You specifically make an argument for or against a certain viewpoint. For instance, your task might be to advocate for or against your school’s rule prohibiting students from enrolling in more than two AP courses annually and to back up your arguments with facts.

You might use statistics showing a correlation between a student’s enrollment in AP courses and their typical AP test results or the amount of homework an AP course requires to support your argument that it’s a good idea.

Argumentative essays that are well-written don’t rely on emotional appeal. Instead, they use evidence—statistics, facts, and logic—to persuade readers of the validity of their ideas. Argumentative essays are typical examples of persuasive writing.

Humorous essays

As the name suggests, this sort of essay aims to make the reader laugh and be entertained. A comical essay could describe an amusing incident in the author’s life or it might be a political essay that makes political commentary through satire. A humorous essay is one that is both entertaining and academic.

Essays that are humorous frequently rely more on tactics used in narrative writing, such as metaphors and descriptive language, than they do on other essay-writing strategies. Hilarious essays frequently take the form of descriptive articles that employ hyperbole, irreverence, or quirky language to communicate a humorous perspective on the subject matter.

We hope by reading to this point, you now know how to write an essay that gets all the accolades and grades you deserve.

What are you waiting for now that you are aware of the various essay types and how to compose them? Start working on your essay right away.

How to Write Expository Essays (and Elements)

How to Write Expository Essays (and Elements)

How to Write a Compelling Argumentative Essay

How to Write a Compelling Argumentative Essay

How to Write a Descriptive Essay Types and Tips

How to Write a Descriptive Essay (Types and Tips)

Narrative Essays How to Write with Examples

Narrative Essays: Examples and How to Write them

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Essay Writing Guide

Types Of Essay

Nova A.

Explore Different Types of Essays, their Purpose, and Sub-types

11 min read

types of essay

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Are you a college or high school student ready to start on a journey through the fascinating world of essay writing ? Brace yourself because you'll encounter a variety of essay types that will challenge your writing skills and creativity.

Picture this: You're handed an assignment, a blank canvas on which to express your thoughts and ideas. But here's the catch – your teacher won't always specify the type of essay you should craft. It's up to you to solve the riddle hidden within the assignment question.

But fear not! 

In this blog, we'll discuss the four most common types of essays you're likely to encounter during your academic years. While these essays may share a common foundation and structure, each possesses its own unique characteristics. Let’s get started!

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  • 1. Major Types of Essays In Academic Writing
  • 2. Argumentative Essay
  • 3. Descriptive Essay
  • 4. Expository Essay
  • 5. Narrative Essay
  • 6. Other Essay Types

Major Types of Essays In Academic Writing

When it comes to academic writing, understanding the different types of essays is essential. Each type serves a distinct purpose and requires a specific approach. Let's explore these essay types along with their descriptions and example prompts in the table below:

Formulating arguments, critical thinking, persuasive writing.Argue for or against the implementation of stricter gun control laws in the United States.

Sensory Description, Imagery, Figurative LanguageDescribe a place you visited recently and explain why it left a lasting impression on you.
Informative Writing, Research, ClarityExplain the causes and effects of climate change, and discuss its impact on the environment and society.
Storytelling, Narrative Structure, EngagementDescribe a memorable childhood event that had a significant impact on your life.

Understanding these major types of essays and the skills they assess will empower you to approach your academic writing with confidence. Depending on your assignment's requirements, you'll be better equipped to choose the appropriate essay type and showcase your writing abilities effectively. 

Each type offers a unique opportunity for you to express your ideas, and arguments and perfect your specific writing skills.

Here are the key types of essay formats explained in detail, along with examples to enhance your understanding.

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Argumentative Essay

An argumentative essay is an essay type that presents a well-structured argument supported by evidence and reasoning. The primary goal is to engage the reader in a discussion, provide evidence, and logically demonstrate why a particular viewpoint is more valid.

In simple words, the writer must provide evidence and remain consistent in their stance. While argumentative essays present both sides of an issue, they strongly support one perspective. 

Characteristics of Argumentative Essay

  • Clear Thesis: It should have a clear thesis statement to state the writer's position.
  • Balanced Presentation: An argumentative essay addresses opposing views.
  • Evidence: It relies on credible and relevant evidence.
  • Logical Reasoning: The essay presents arguments coherently and logically.
  • Persuasive Techniques: It uses persuasive techniques like ethos, pathos, and logos effectively.
  • Introduction: The introduction introduces the topic and thesis, engaging the reader's interest.
  • Body: The body paragraphs present arguments with supporting evidence.
  • Counterargument: It addresses opposing viewpoints and refutes them.
  • Conclusion: The conclusion summarizes key points and reinforces the thesis, leaving a strong impression.

Argumentative Essay Example

Before beginning the writing process, it is better to go through some expertly crafted argumentative essay examples . This approach enables you to grasp the argumentative essay outline and writing style more effectively.

Descriptive Essay

A descriptive essay is a form of writing that aims to immerse readers in a sensory-rich experience. Unlike informational or persuasive essays, its primary goal is to vividly depict a person, place, object, event, or experience.   The descriptive essay must evoke the senses and emotions of the reader. In simple terms, the reader should see what you saw and feel what you felt. To make it better, you can use several literary devices such as;

  • Alliteration

All of them help in making the experience and your essay better.

Key Characteristics 

  • Sensory Detail: Descriptive essays appeal to the five senses to create a multisensory experience.
  • Vivid Imagery: They use figurative language and descriptive adjectives to bring the narrative to life.
  • Emotional Connection: These essays often aim to establish an emotional bond between the reader and the subject.
  • Structured Approach: They typically follow an introduction-body-conclusion structure.
  • Introduction: Introduces the subject and purpose, sometimes with a thesis statement.
  • Body Paragraphs: Focus on specific aspects or details using sensory language and vivid descriptions.
  • Conclusion: Summarizes the central theme and leaves a lasting impression.

Descriptive Essay Example

Creating a perfect descriptive essay for an assignment is not difficult if you go through some expert descriptive essay examples first. 

Need more examples? Read our Descriptive Essay Examples and Writing Tips blog to get inspired!

Expository Essay

An expository essay is a type of writing that provides clear and objective explanations of a topic without expressing personal opinions. It aims to inform and educate by presenting factual information and analysis.

Therefore, it is important that you make a focused outline and stick to it throughout the process. 

An expository essay incorporates a wide array of essays such as:

  • Cause and effect essays
  • Process essays
  • Analytical essays
  • Compare and contrast essays

Key Characteristics

  • Objective Presentation: Expository writing maintains an impartial tone, avoiding personal biases.
  • Informativeness: They focus on explaining complex ideas or processes in a straightforward manner.
  • Structured: These essays follow a clear structure with an introduction, body paragraphs, and a conclusion.
  • Use of Evidence: They rely on credible evidence, facts, and examples to support the topic.
  • Introduction: Introduces the topic and often includes a thesis statement.
  • Body Paragraphs: Each paragraph focuses on a specific aspect and provides explanations and evidence.
  • Conclusion: Restates the main idea and summarizes key points.

Expository Essay Example

Looking for more sample essays? Check out our Expository Essay Examples blog and take inspiration from a range of expository essays!

Narrative Essay

A narrative essay is a type of academic writing that tells a story or recounts a personal experience. Unlike other essays, its primary purpose is to engage and entertain the reader through storytelling.

  • Narrative Structure: Follows a chronological sequence with an introduction, body, climax, and conclusion.
  • First-Person Perspective: Typically written from the first-person point of view (e.g., "I" and "we") , sharing personal experiences and emotions.
  • Vivid Description: Relies on descriptive language and imagery to create a clear picture of events, characters, and settings.
  • Emotional Connection: Aims to establish an emotional bond with the reader by conveying the writer's thoughts and feelings.
  • Introduction: Sets the stage and introduces the central theme or problem.
  • Body: Presents events or experiences in chronological order with sensory details.
  • Climax: Often includes a central event or turning point.
  • Conclusion: Reflects on the narrative, offering insights, lessons, or resolution.

Narrative Essay Example

Wondering how to get your story into an interesting narrative? Learn the best way to write a perfect narrative essay with the help of expert narrative essay examples. 

For more examples visit our blog on narrative essay examples .

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Other Essay Types

In addition to the major types of essays discussed earlier, there are several other specialized types that cater to specific audiences. These essays provide diverse avenues for writers to communicate their ideas effectively. 

We will go through these essay types here.

Persuasive Essay

A persuasive essay is another type of academic essay. In this essay type, the writer utilizes logic and reasoning to show one’s idea is more convincing than another idea. 

In writing a persuasive essay, the main aim is to persuade the reader to accept a certain point of view. The presented argument or claim must use solid evidence and sound reasoning by stating facts, examples, and quotes. 

Persuasive Essay Example

Since persuasive essays are the most common type of essay, it is essential to get familiar with their writing style. For that, here is an interesting persuasive essay example that you can explore for your better understanding. 

Read our persuasive essay examples blog for more samples!

Analytical Essay

An analytical essay is a type of academic essay in which the writer analyzes a topic bit by bit. Writing an analytical essay is not about convincing readers of your point of view. But wanting readers to agree with what you have written. 

So, there is no need to use strong persuasive language in an analytical essay. Rather you should aim to provide enough analysis to make sure your argument is clear to the readers. 

Analytical Essay Example

Let’s take a look at a sample analytical essay: 

Read our analytical essay examples blog if you are looking for more sample essays!

Reflective Essay

A reflective essay type of essay requires you to examine your personal experiences through self-reflection. In the process of writing a reflective essay, you provide insight into what you have gained from those experiences. 

What makes reflective essays different from other essay types is the fact that it examine the past experience from the present. Reflective essays take the reader through a journey of self-growth. 

Reflective Essay Example

The following reflective essay example will help you get a clear idea of how to structure your analytical essay. 

Rhetorical Analysis Essay

It is a form of a textual analysis essay in which the student examines and analyzes a persuasive text. It is like an essay, speech, or visual art and analyzes the rhetorical devices used in it. Writing a rhetorical analysis essay is different from writing other essays because it will be more than adding facts only.

Rhetorical Analysis Essay Example

Here is a rhetorical analysis essay example that will help you learn better. 

Check out our rhetorical analysis essay examples blog for more samples!

Literary Analysis Essay

A literary analysis essay is based on close reading and analysis of a work of literature like poetry and novel. It identifies different literary factors like themes, setting,  characters, setting, and the kind of language used in it. A literary analysis essay has the same 5 paragraphs as any other essay but the main subject and topic are different.

Literary Analysis Essay Example

Need help with your literary analysis essay? Below is a sample essay to help you understand better.

Summing it Up! Now you know what are the different types of essays in academic writing that you are most likely to get assigned. However, if you still find it difficult to compose your essay, leave your piece of writing to our experts. 

Whether you need an argumentative essay, narrative essay,  descriptive essay, or expository essay we are here to help. Our expertise extends to all types of essays, ensuring that your academic writing needs are met with precision and excellence.

Request essay help today and let our experts assist you in writing A+ grade essays within your specified timeline! 

Frequently Asked Questions

What is the most important element in any essay.

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A thesis statement is the most important part of any essay. Other than the research itself, the thesis statement is the most important part of an essay or research paper. A thesis statement summarizes the main point and essence of the argument.

What type of essay is most common at university?

Usually, university students get argumentative kinds of essays. No matter what kind of essay you write, you will need to develop an argument.

Here are some kinds of essays and the kind of arguments added to them. 

  • Analysis and interpretation of literary texts are discussed in literary analysis essays. 
  • The importance of a particular event or theory is analyzed in a history argumentative essay. 
  • A political theory is examined in a political argumentative essay. 

Besides, there are a number of different kinds of argumentative and analysis essays.

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Nova A.

Nova Allison is a Digital Content Strategist with over eight years of experience. Nova has also worked as a technical and scientific writer. She is majorly involved in developing and reviewing online content plans that engage and resonate with audiences. Nova has a passion for writing that engages and informs her readers.

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Example of a Great Essay | Explanations, Tips & Tricks

Published on February 9, 2015 by Shane Bryson . Revised on July 23, 2023 by Shona McCombes.

This example guides you through the structure of an essay. It shows how to build an effective introduction , focused paragraphs , clear transitions between ideas, and a strong conclusion .

Each paragraph addresses a single central point, introduced by a topic sentence , and each point is directly related to the thesis statement .

As you read, hover over the highlighted parts to learn what they do and why they work.

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Table of contents

Other interesting articles, frequently asked questions about writing an essay, an appeal to the senses: the development of the braille system in nineteenth-century france.

The invention of Braille was a major turning point in the history of disability. The writing system of raised dots used by visually impaired people was developed by Louis Braille in nineteenth-century France. In a society that did not value disabled people in general, blindness was particularly stigmatized, and lack of access to reading and writing was a significant barrier to social participation. The idea of tactile reading was not entirely new, but existing methods based on sighted systems were difficult to learn and use. As the first writing system designed for blind people’s needs, Braille was a groundbreaking new accessibility tool. It not only provided practical benefits, but also helped change the cultural status of blindness. This essay begins by discussing the situation of blind people in nineteenth-century Europe. It then describes the invention of Braille and the gradual process of its acceptance within blind education. Subsequently, it explores the wide-ranging effects of this invention on blind people’s social and cultural lives.

Lack of access to reading and writing put blind people at a serious disadvantage in nineteenth-century society. Text was one of the primary methods through which people engaged with culture, communicated with others, and accessed information; without a well-developed reading system that did not rely on sight, blind people were excluded from social participation (Weygand, 2009). While disabled people in general suffered from discrimination, blindness was widely viewed as the worst disability, and it was commonly believed that blind people were incapable of pursuing a profession or improving themselves through culture (Weygand, 2009). This demonstrates the importance of reading and writing to social status at the time: without access to text, it was considered impossible to fully participate in society. Blind people were excluded from the sighted world, but also entirely dependent on sighted people for information and education.

In France, debates about how to deal with disability led to the adoption of different strategies over time. While people with temporary difficulties were able to access public welfare, the most common response to people with long-term disabilities, such as hearing or vision loss, was to group them together in institutions (Tombs, 1996). At first, a joint institute for the blind and deaf was created, and although the partnership was motivated more by financial considerations than by the well-being of the residents, the institute aimed to help people develop skills valuable to society (Weygand, 2009). Eventually blind institutions were separated from deaf institutions, and the focus shifted towards education of the blind, as was the case for the Royal Institute for Blind Youth, which Louis Braille attended (Jimenez et al, 2009). The growing acknowledgement of the uniqueness of different disabilities led to more targeted education strategies, fostering an environment in which the benefits of a specifically blind education could be more widely recognized.

Several different systems of tactile reading can be seen as forerunners to the method Louis Braille developed, but these systems were all developed based on the sighted system. The Royal Institute for Blind Youth in Paris taught the students to read embossed roman letters, a method created by the school’s founder, Valentin Hauy (Jimenez et al., 2009). Reading this way proved to be a rather arduous task, as the letters were difficult to distinguish by touch. The embossed letter method was based on the reading system of sighted people, with minimal adaptation for those with vision loss. As a result, this method did not gain significant success among blind students.

Louis Braille was bound to be influenced by his school’s founder, but the most influential pre-Braille tactile reading system was Charles Barbier’s night writing. A soldier in Napoleon’s army, Barbier developed a system in 1819 that used 12 dots with a five line musical staff (Kersten, 1997). His intention was to develop a system that would allow the military to communicate at night without the need for light (Herron, 2009). The code developed by Barbier was phonetic (Jimenez et al., 2009); in other words, the code was designed for sighted people and was based on the sounds of words, not on an actual alphabet. Barbier discovered that variants of raised dots within a square were the easiest method of reading by touch (Jimenez et al., 2009). This system proved effective for the transmission of short messages between military personnel, but the symbols were too large for the fingertip, greatly reducing the speed at which a message could be read (Herron, 2009). For this reason, it was unsuitable for daily use and was not widely adopted in the blind community.

Nevertheless, Barbier’s military dot system was more efficient than Hauy’s embossed letters, and it provided the framework within which Louis Braille developed his method. Barbier’s system, with its dashes and dots, could form over 4000 combinations (Jimenez et al., 2009). Compared to the 26 letters of the Latin alphabet, this was an absurdly high number. Braille kept the raised dot form, but developed a more manageable system that would reflect the sighted alphabet. He replaced Barbier’s dashes and dots with just six dots in a rectangular configuration (Jimenez et al., 2009). The result was that the blind population in France had a tactile reading system using dots (like Barbier’s) that was based on the structure of the sighted alphabet (like Hauy’s); crucially, this system was the first developed specifically for the purposes of the blind.

While the Braille system gained immediate popularity with the blind students at the Institute in Paris, it had to gain acceptance among the sighted before its adoption throughout France. This support was necessary because sighted teachers and leaders had ultimate control over the propagation of Braille resources. Many of the teachers at the Royal Institute for Blind Youth resisted learning Braille’s system because they found the tactile method of reading difficult to learn (Bullock & Galst, 2009). This resistance was symptomatic of the prevalent attitude that the blind population had to adapt to the sighted world rather than develop their own tools and methods. Over time, however, with the increasing impetus to make social contribution possible for all, teachers began to appreciate the usefulness of Braille’s system (Bullock & Galst, 2009), realizing that access to reading could help improve the productivity and integration of people with vision loss. It took approximately 30 years, but the French government eventually approved the Braille system, and it was established throughout the country (Bullock & Galst, 2009).

Although Blind people remained marginalized throughout the nineteenth century, the Braille system granted them growing opportunities for social participation. Most obviously, Braille allowed people with vision loss to read the same alphabet used by sighted people (Bullock & Galst, 2009), allowing them to participate in certain cultural experiences previously unavailable to them. Written works, such as books and poetry, had previously been inaccessible to the blind population without the aid of a reader, limiting their autonomy. As books began to be distributed in Braille, this barrier was reduced, enabling people with vision loss to access information autonomously. The closing of the gap between the abilities of blind and the sighted contributed to a gradual shift in blind people’s status, lessening the cultural perception of the blind as essentially different and facilitating greater social integration.

The Braille system also had important cultural effects beyond the sphere of written culture. Its invention later led to the development of a music notation system for the blind, although Louis Braille did not develop this system himself (Jimenez, et al., 2009). This development helped remove a cultural obstacle that had been introduced by the popularization of written musical notation in the early 1500s. While music had previously been an arena in which the blind could participate on equal footing, the transition from memory-based performance to notation-based performance meant that blind musicians were no longer able to compete with sighted musicians (Kersten, 1997). As a result, a tactile musical notation system became necessary for professional equality between blind and sighted musicians (Kersten, 1997).

Braille paved the way for dramatic cultural changes in the way blind people were treated and the opportunities available to them. Louis Braille’s innovation was to reimagine existing reading systems from a blind perspective, and the success of this invention required sighted teachers to adapt to their students’ reality instead of the other way around. In this sense, Braille helped drive broader social changes in the status of blindness. New accessibility tools provide practical advantages to those who need them, but they can also change the perspectives and attitudes of those who do not.

Bullock, J. D., & Galst, J. M. (2009). The Story of Louis Braille. Archives of Ophthalmology , 127(11), 1532. https://​​archophthalmol.2009.286.

Herron, M. (2009, May 6). Blind visionary. Retrieved from https://​​content/​articles/2009/05/​blind-visionary/.

Jiménez, J., Olea, J., Torres, J., Alonso, I., Harder, D., & Fischer, K. (2009). Biography of Louis Braille and Invention of the Braille Alphabet. Survey of Ophthalmology , 54(1), 142–149. https://​​j.survophthal.2008.10.006.

Kersten, F.G. (1997). The history and development of Braille music methodology. The Bulletin of Historical Research in Music Education , 18(2). Retrieved from https://​​stable/40214926.

Mellor, C.M. (2006). Louis Braille: A touch of genius . Boston: National Braille Press.

Tombs, R. (1996). France: 1814-1914 . London: Pearson Education Ltd.

Weygand, Z. (2009). The blind in French society from the Middle Ages to the century of Louis Braille . Stanford: Stanford University Press.

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The Motivated Ignorance of Trump Supporters

They can’t claim they didn’t know.

flags at a Trump rally

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Produced by ElevenLabs and News Over Audio (NOA) using AI narration.

O n the morning of August 8, 2022 , 30 FBI agents and two federal prosecutors conducted a court-authorized search of Mar-a-Lago, Donald Trump’s Palm Beach, Florida, estate. The reason for the search, according to a 38-count indictment , was that after leaving office Trump mishandled classified documents, including some involving sensitive nuclear programs, and then obstructed the government’s efforts to reclaim them.

On the day before the FBI obtained the search warrant, one of the agents on the case sent an email to his bosses, according to The New York Times . “The F.B.I. intends for the execution of the warrant to be handled in a professional, low key manner,” he wrote, “and to be mindful of the optics of the search.” It was, and they were.

Over the course of 10 hours, the Times reported, “there was little drama as [agents] hauled away a trove of boxes containing highly sensitive state secrets in three vans and a rented Ryder box truck.”

On the day of the search, Trump was out of the state. The club at Mar-a-Lago was closed. Agents alerted one of Trump’s lawyers in advance of the search. And before the search, the FBI communicated with the Secret Service “to make sure we could get into Mar-a-Lago with no issues,” according to the testimony of former Assistant FBI Director Steven D’Antuono. It wasn’t a “show of force,” he said. “I was adamant about that, and that was something we all agreed on.”

The search warrant itself included a standard statement from the Department of Justice’s policy on the use of deadly force. There was nothing exceptional about it. But that didn’t prevent Trump or his supporters from claiming that President Joe Biden and federal law-enforcement agents had been involved in a plot to assassinate the former president.

In a fundraising appeal, Trump wrote,

BIDEN’S DOJ WAS AUTHORIZED TO SHOOT ME! It’s just been revealed that Biden’s DOJ was authorized to use DEADLY FORCE for their DESPICABLE raid in Mar-a-Lago. You know they’re just itching to do the unthinkable … Joe Biden was locked & loaded ready to take me out & put my family in danger.

On May 23, Trump publicly claimed that the Department of Justice “authorized the use of ‘deadly force’ in their Illegal, UnConstitutional, and Un-American RAID of Mar-a-Lago, and that would include against our Great Secret Service, who they thought might be ‘in the line of fire.’”

Read: The two-time Trump voters who have had enough

Trump supporters echoed those claims, as he knew they would. Steve Bannon, one of the architects of the MAGA movement, said , “This was an attempted assassination attempt on Donald John Trump or people associated with him. They wanted a gunfight.” Right-wing radio hosts stoked one another’s fury, claiming that there’s nothing Trump critics won’t do to stop him, up to and including attempting to assassinate him and putting the lives of his Secret Service detail in danger.

The statement by Trump went beyond inflaming his supporters; it created a mindset that moved them closer to violence, the very same mindset that led thousands of them to attack the Capitol on January 6 and threaten to hang Vice President Mike Pence. Which is why Special Counsel Jack Smith filed a motion asking the judge overseeing Trump’s classified-documents case to block him from making public statements that could put law enforcement in danger. “Those deceptive and inflammatory assertions irresponsibly put a target on the backs of the FBI agents involved in this case, as Trump well knows,” he wrote.

M otivated ignorance refers to willfully blinding oneself to facts. It’s choosing not to know. In many cases, for many people, knowing the truth is simply too costly, too psychologically painful, too threatening to their core identity. Nescience is therefore incentivized; people actively decide to remain in a state of ignorance. If they are presented with strong arguments against a position they hold, or compelling evidence that disproves the narrative they embrace, they will reject them. Doing so fends off the psychological distress of the realization that they’ve been lying to themselves and to others.

Motivated ignorance is a widespread phenomenon; most people, to one degree or another, employ it. What matters is the degree to which one embraces it, and the consequences of doing so. In the case of MAGA world, the lies that Trump supporters believe, or say they believe, are obviously untrue and obviously destructive. Since 2016 there’s been a ratchet effect, each conspiracy theory getting more preposterous and more malicious. Things that Trump supporters wouldn’t believe or accept in the past have since become loyalty tests. Election denialism is one example. The claim that Trump is the target of “lawfare,” victim to the weaponization of the justice system, is another.

I have struggled to understand how to view individuals who have not just voted for Trump but who celebrate him, who don’t merely tolerate him but who constantly defend his lawlessness and undisguised cruelty. How should I think about people who, in other domains of their lives, are admirable human beings and yet provide oxygen to his malicious movement? How complicit are people who live in an epistemic hall of mirrors and have sincerely—or half-sincerely—convinced themselves they are on the side of the angels?

Throughout my career I’ve tried to resist the temptation to make unwarranted judgments about the character of people based on their political views. For one thing, it’s quite possible my views on politics are misguided or distorted, so I exercise a degree of humility in assessing the views of others. For another, I know full well that politics forms only a part of our lives, and not the most important part. People can be personally upstanding and still be wrong on politics.

But something has changed for me in the Trump era. I struggle more than I once did to wall off a person’s character from their politics when their politics is binding them to an unusually—and I would say undeniably—destructive person. The lies that MAGA world parrots are so manifestly untrue, and the Trump ethic is so manifestly cruel, that they are difficult to set aside.

If a person insists, despite the overwhelming evidence, that Trump was the target of an assassination plot hatched by Biden and carried out by the FBI, this is more than an intellectual failure; it is a moral failure, and a serious one at that. It’s only reasonable to conclude that such Trump supporters have not made a good-faith effort to understand what is really and truly happening. They are choosing to live within the lie, to invoke the words of the former Czech dissident and playwright Vaclav Havel.

One of the criteria that need to be taken into account in assessing the moral culpability of people is how absurd the lies are that they are espousing; a second is how intentionally they are avoiding evidence that exposes the lies because they are deeply invested in the lie; and a third is is how consequential the lie is.

It’s one thing to embrace a conspiracy theory that is relevant only to you and your tiny corner of the world. It’s an entirely different matter if the falsehood you’re embracing and promoting is venomous, harming others, and eroding cherished principles, promoting violence and subverting American democracy.

I n his book The Bible Told Them So: How Southern Evangelicals Fought to Preserve White Supremacy , J. Russell Hawkins tells the story of a June 1963 gathering of more than 200 religious leaders in the White House. President John F. Kennedy was trying to rally their support for civil-rights legislation.

Among those in attendance was Albert Garner, a Baptist minister from Florida, who told Kennedy that many southern white Christians held “strong moral convictions” on racial integration. It was, according to Garner, “against the will of their Creator.”

“Segregation is a principle of the Old Testament,” Garner said, adding, “Prior to this century neither Christianity nor any denomination of it ever accepted the integration philosophy.”

Two months later, in Hanahan, South Carolina, members of a Southern Baptist church—they described themselves as “Christ centered” and “Bible believing”—voted to take a firm stand against civil-rights legislation.

“The Hanahan Baptists were not alone,” according to Hawkins. “Across the South, white Christians thought the president was flaunting Christian orthodoxy in pursuing his civil rights agenda.” Kennedy “simply could not comprehend the truth Garner was communicating: based on their religious beliefs, southern white Christians thought integration was evil.”

A decade earlier, the Reverend Carey Daniel, pastor of First Baptist Church in West Dallas, Texas, had delivered a sermon titled “ God the Original Segregationist ,” in response to the 1954 Supreme Court decision in Brown v. Board of Education . It became influential within pro-segregationist southern states. Daniel later became president of the Central Texas Division of the Citizens Council of America for Segregation, which asked for a boycott of all businesses, lunch counters included, that served Black patrons. In 1960, Daniel attacked those “trying to destroy the white South by breaking the color line, thus giving aid and comfort to our Communist enemies.”

Now ask yourself this: Did the fierce advocacy on behalf of segregation, and the dehumanization of Black Americans, reflect in any meaningful way on the character of those who advanced such views, even if, say, they volunteered once a month at a homeless shelter and wrote a popular commentary on the Book of Romans? Readers can decide whether MAGA supporters are better or worse than Albert Garner and Carey Daniel. My point is that all of us believe there’s some place on the continuum in which the political choices we make reflect on our character. Some movements are overt and malignant enough that to willingly be a part of them becomes ethically problematic.

Read: The voters who don’t really know Trump

This doesn’t mean those in MAGA world can’t be impressive people in other domains of life, just like critics of Trump may act reprehensibly in their personal lives and at their jobs. I’ve never argued, and I wouldn’t argue today, that politics tells us the most important things about a person’s life. Trump supporters and Trump critics alike can brighten the lives of others, encourage those who are suffering, and demonstrate moments of kindness and grandeur.

I understand, too, if their moral convictions keep them from voting for Joe Biden.

But it would be an affectation for me, at least, to pretend that in this particular circumstance otherwise good people, in joining the MAGA movement, in actively advocating on its behalf, and in planning to cast a vote for Trump, haven’t—given all we know—done something grievously wrong.

Some of them are cynical and know better; others are blind to the cultlike world to which they belong. Still others have convinced themselves that Trump, although flawed, is the best of bad options. It’s a “binary choice,” they say, and so they have talked themselves into supporting arguably the most comprehensively corrupt man in the history of American politics, certainly in presidential politics.

Whichever justification applies, they are giving not just their vote but their allegiance to a man and movement that have done great harm to our country and its ideals, and which seek to inflict even deeper wounds in the years ahead. Many of them are self-proclaimed evangelicals and fundamentalists, and they are also doing inestimable damage to the Christian faith they claim is central to their lives. That collaboration needs to be named. A generation from now, and probably sooner, it will be obvious to everyone that Trump supporters can’t claim they didn’t know.


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types of essay with example pdf

Writing a eulogy is a meaningful way to celebrate the life of a loved one. It offers an opportunity to reflect on their unique qualities, share personal memories, and express gratitude for the moments you shared. Crafting a thoughtful eulogy can provide comfort and help preserve their legacy.

Many elements and components that go into a person’s funeral when they have just recently passed from their lives. One of the most important components is the eulogy.

What Is a Eulogy?

A eulogy is a speech or written tribute that honors and remembers someone who has passed away. It is typically delivered during a funeral or memorial service by a close friend, family member, or clergy. A eulogy highlights the deceased’s life, achievements, and character, offering comfort and reflection for those grieving.

Eulogy Examples for Father

1. personal and heartfelt.

Introduction Good afternoon, everyone. My name is [Your Name], and I am honored to stand before you today to speak about my father, [Father’s Name]. Body Dad was the kind of person who could light up a room with his smile. He had an incredible sense of humor, always finding a way to make us laugh, even in the toughest times. One of my favorite memories of Dad is our Sunday morning fishing trips. He taught me patience and the value of spending time together. Dad was also a man of great integrity. He worked tirelessly to provide for our family, always ensuring we had everything we needed. He was my role model, teaching me the importance of hard work and dedication. Conclusion Thank you all for being here to honor my father. Though he may no longer be with us, his spirit lives on in the lessons he taught us and the love he showed us. Let’s remember Dad not with sadness, but with gratitude for the amazing person he was.

2. Reflective and Poetic

Introduction Hello everyone. My name is [Your Name], and today I have the honor of sharing a few words about my father, [Father’s Name]. Body Dad was a man of quiet strength and endless wisdom. He had a way of turning simple moments into cherished memories. One such memory is the time we spent under the stars, where he would tell me stories about the constellations. His love for the universe was infectious, and it inspired me to always look up and dream big. In the words of Maya Angelou, “People will forget what you said, people will forget what you did, but people will never forget how you made them feel.” Dad made everyone feel valued and loved. His kindness and compassion were his greatest gifts to the world. Conclusion As we say goodbye to Dad, let us carry forward his legacy of love, kindness, and endless curiosity. Thank you for being here to celebrate his life.

3. Celebratory and Light-hearted

Introduction Good afternoon. I’m [Your Name], and today I’d like to share some joyful memories of my father, [Father’s Name]. Body Dad was the life of the party. He had a knack for making everyone around him feel at ease with his jokes and infectious laughter. One Christmas, he dressed up as Santa Claus, much to the delight of all the kids. It was moments like these that showcased his playful spirit and boundless energy. But beyond his humor, Dad was a man of great wisdom. He always knew just what to say to guide us through life’s challenges. His advice, “Always face the world with a smile,” is something I carry with me every day. Conclusion Thank you all for joining us to celebrate Dad’s life. He may no longer be with us in person, but his laughter, wisdom, and love will continue to resonate within us. Let’s honor his memory by embracing the joy and humor he brought into our lives.

Eulogy Examples for Family Member

1. eulogy for a mother.

Introduction Good afternoon, everyone. My name is Emily, and today I have the honor of speaking about my mother, Linda Johnson. Body Mom was the heart and soul of our family. Her love and warmth touched everyone she met. I remember how she would always have a home-cooked meal ready for us, no matter how busy she was. Her cooking was an expression of her love and care, and those meals brought us together as a family. Her famous apple pie was a staple at every family gathering, and it always brought a smile to our faces. Mom was also an incredibly strong and resilient woman. She faced life’s challenges with grace and determination, teaching us the importance of perseverance and hope. When Dad passed away, she held us together, showing us what true strength looked like. Her wisdom and guidance were our pillars of strength, and her advice was something we always cherished. Conclusion Thank you all for being here to honor my mother. Though she is no longer with us, her love, strength, and wisdom will continue to guide us. Let us celebrate her life and the beautiful memories she left behind. We will carry her legacy in our hearts forever.

2. Eulogy for a Grandparent

Introduction Hello everyone. My name is Michael, and I am grateful to share some words about my grandfather, William Thompson. Body Grandpa was a storyteller. His tales of the old days were captivating and filled with life lessons. I’ll never forget the afternoons spent on his porch, listening to his stories about growing up during the Great Depression and his adventures as a young man. His stories were not just entertaining; they were filled with lessons about resilience and gratitude. Grandpa had a gentle spirit and a kind heart. He always had time for us grandchildren, teaching us about patience, respect, and the value of hard work. His garden was his pride and joy, and he spent hours teaching us how to nurture it, just as he nurtured us. The tomatoes we grew together always tasted sweeter because they were grown with his love and care. Conclusion Thank you all for joining us to remember my grandfather. His stories, kindness, and love will forever be in our hearts. Let’s honor his memory by living the values he taught us and sharing his stories with future generations.

3. Eulogy for a Sibling

Introduction Good afternoon. I’m Sarah, and today I want to share some memories of my beloved brother, David Anderson. Body David was my best friend and confidant. We shared countless laughs, secrets, and adventures. One of my favorite memories is when we took that spontaneous road trip to the Grand Canyon. We had no plans, just a sense of adventure and the open road ahead of us. It was one of the most memorable experiences of my life. David had a vibrant spirit and a compassionate heart. He was always there for me, offering support and encouragement. He volunteered at the local animal shelter, and his love for animals was evident in everything he did. His kindness extended beyond our family, touching the lives of many who were fortunate enough to know him. Conclusion Thank you all for being here to celebrate my brother’s life. Though he is no longer with us, his spirit, laughter, and love will always be a part of us. Let’s keep his memory alive by sharing the joy and compassion he brought into the world. We will continue to live our lives in a way that would make David proud.

Eulogy Examples for a Friend

1. eulogy for a childhood friend.

Introduction Good afternoon, everyone. My name is Sarah, and I am honored to share some memories of my dear friend, Emily Turner, who I’ve known since we were children. Body Emily and I met in kindergarten, and from that moment, we were inseparable. We shared countless adventures, from building forts in the backyard to our first day of high school. One of my favorite memories is the summer we spent camping with our families. We stayed up late, whispering secrets and dreaming about our futures. Emily’s laughter was infectious, and her adventurous spirit made every moment unforgettable. Emily was not only a wonderful friend but also a kind and generous person. She volunteered at the local animal shelter, showing her love and compassion for animals. Her dedication to helping others was inspiring, and she always encouraged me to be the best version of myself. Her kindness touched everyone she met, and she had a unique ability to make people feel special. Conclusion Thank you all for being here to honor Emily’s memory. Though she is no longer with us, her spirit will live on in the cherished memories we all share. Let’s remember Emily with love and gratitude for the joy she brought into our lives. We will carry her adventurous spirit and kind heart with us always.

2. Eulogy for a College Friend

Introduction Hello everyone. My name is Jason, and I have the privilege of speaking about my dear friend, Mark Johnson, who I met during our college years. Body Mark and I met during our freshman year at university, and we quickly became best friends. We bonded over our shared love for music and late-night study sessions. One of my fondest memories is when we decided to form a band. Our performances may not have been perfect, but the fun we had and the bond we created were priceless. Mark was a loyal and supportive friend. He was always there to lend an ear or offer a helping hand. When I was going through a tough time, Mark was the one who stood by me, providing unwavering support and encouragement. His sense of humor and positive outlook on life were truly remarkable, and he had a way of lifting the spirits of everyone around him. Conclusion Thank you all for coming to remember Mark. His friendship, loyalty, and humor made a lasting impact on all of us. Let’s honor his memory by cherishing the moments we shared and continuing to support one another, just as Mark would have wanted. We will carry his positive spirit with us in our hearts.

3. Eulogy for a Work Friend

Introduction Good afternoon. I’m Lisa, and today I want to share some memories of my colleague and dear friend, Karen Smith. Body Karen and I worked together for over a decade, and during that time, she became much more than a coworker—she became a true friend. We shared many laughs, challenges, and successes at work. One memory that stands out is when we collaborated on a major project. Despite the long hours and stress, Karen’s unwavering dedication and infectious enthusiasm made it an enjoyable and rewarding experience. Karen was an incredible friend, always ready with a smile and a kind word. She had a unique ability to make everyone feel valued and appreciated. Outside of work, Karen was passionate about community service, dedicating her time to various charitable organizations. Her generosity and compassion were evident in everything she did, and she inspired us all to give back to our communities. Conclusion Thank you all for being here to celebrate Karen’s life. Her dedication, kindness, and friendship will always be remembered. Let’s honor her memory by continuing to support and uplift each other, just as Karen did. We will carry her spirit of generosity and compassion with us always.

Eulogy Examples for Grandmother

1. eulogy for a grandmother: loving and nurturing.

Introduction Good afternoon, everyone. My name is Emily, and today I have the honor of speaking about my beloved grandmother, Helen Smith. Body Grandma Helen was the epitome of love and warmth. She had an incredible ability to make everyone feel at home. Her kitchen was the heart of our family gatherings, filled with the aroma of her delicious cooking and the sound of laughter. One of my fondest memories is baking cookies with her every holiday season. She taught me the perfect recipe, but more importantly, she taught me the value of patience and love. Grandma had a nurturing spirit that extended beyond our family. She was always ready to help a neighbor in need or offer a kind word to a stranger. Her generosity knew no bounds, and she made a positive impact on everyone she met. She volunteered at the local community center, sharing her love and wisdom with others. Conclusion Thank you all for being here to honor Grandma Helen. Though she is no longer with us, her spirit lives on in the love and kindness she shared. Let’s celebrate her life by continuing to spread the warmth and generosity she embodied every day.

2. Eulogy for a Grandmother: Inspirational and Wise

Introduction Hello everyone. My name is Michael, and I am grateful to share some words about my grandmother, Margaret Thompson. Body Grandma Margaret was a source of inspiration and wisdom. She had a wealth of knowledge that she shared generously with all of us. I remember the countless afternoons spent in her garden, where she taught me about plants and the importance of nurturing growth. Her garden was a reflection of her life—beautiful, diverse, and full of love. Grandma had an incredible resilience that inspired us all. She faced life’s challenges with grace and determination. Her stories of overcoming obstacles during her youth were both humbling and motivating. She taught us that with hard work and perseverance, anything is possible. Her advice and life lessons will remain with us forever. Conclusion Thank you all for joining us to celebrate Grandma Margaret’s life. Let’s honor her memory by embracing the lessons she taught us and living with the same strength and determination she exemplified. Her wisdom will continue to guide us, and her love will forever be in our hearts.

3. Eulogy for a Grandmother: Joyful and Fun-loving

Introduction Good afternoon. I’m Sarah, and today I want to share some joyful memories of my grandmother, Dorothy Johnson. Body Grandma Dorothy was the life of every family gathering. She had an infectious laugh and a playful spirit that made every moment special. One of my favorite memories is our annual family game nights. Grandma was always the most competitive, but also the most fun. Her joy and enthusiasm brought our family closer together. Grandma had a talent for making even the simplest occasions feel like a celebration. She loved to dance, and she would often turn on music and dance around the living room, inviting us all to join her. Her energy and zest for life were truly remarkable and left a lasting impression on all of us. Conclusion Thank you all for being here to celebrate Grandma Dorothy’s life. Let’s honor her by embracing the joy and fun she brought into our lives. Let’s dance, laugh, and create beautiful memories, just as she did. Her spirit will continue to light up our lives and bring us together.

Eulogy Examples for Grandfather

1. eulogy for a grandfather: wise and inspirational.

Introduction Good afternoon, everyone. My name is John, and today I have the privilege of sharing some words about my beloved grandfather, William Thompson. Body Grandpa William was a beacon of wisdom and inspiration in our lives. His stories about growing up during challenging times were filled with life lessons that have shaped who I am today. I remember sitting by his side as he recounted tales of his youth, each story more fascinating than the last. His ability to find silver linings in difficult situations taught us resilience and optimism. Grandpa had an incredible work ethic and a passion for learning. He believed in the power of education and encouraged us to pursue our dreams relentlessly. His favorite saying was, “Knowledge is the greatest treasure you can give yourself,” and he lived by these words every day. His dedication to personal growth inspired everyone around him. Conclusion Thank you all for being here to celebrate Grandpa William’s life. Though he is no longer with us, his wisdom and teachings will guide us forever. Let’s honor his memory by continuing to learn, grow, and face life’s challenges with the same strength and determination he exemplified.

2. Eulogy for a Grandfather: Loving and Gentle

Introduction Hello everyone. My name is Michael, and I am honored to speak about my grandfather, Robert Carter, who was a source of endless love and kindness in our lives. Body Grandpa Robert was a gentle soul with a heart full of love. He had a unique way of making everyone feel special and valued. I have fond memories of the times we spent fishing at the lake. Those quiet moments, filled with his stories and laughter, were some of the best times of my life. His patience and kindness taught me the importance of appreciating the simple joys in life. Grandpa’s love for his family was evident in everything he did. He was always there to offer a comforting hug or a word of encouragement. His support was unwavering, and he made sure we knew how much he cared. His legacy of love is something that we will cherish and carry forward in our own lives. Conclusion Thank you all for coming to celebrate Grandpa Robert’s life. His love and kindness touched all of us deeply. Let’s honor his memory by showing the same love and compassion to those around us, just as he did every day of his life. His gentle spirit will continue to inspire us.

3. Eulogy for a Grandfather: Adventurous and Fun-loving

Introduction Good afternoon. I’m Sarah, and today I want to share some joyful memories of my grandfather, Thomas Green, who brought so much fun and adventure into our lives. Body Grandpa Thomas was the epitome of an adventurous spirit. He had a zest for life that was truly infectious. One of my favorite memories is the summer we spent exploring national parks. Grandpa had a knack for turning every trip into an adventure, filled with stories around the campfire and hikes that took us to breathtaking places. His love for the great outdoors instilled in us a deep appreciation for nature. Grandpa’s sense of humor and playful nature made every moment with him memorable. He was always the one to start a game or tell a joke, bringing laughter and joy to our family gatherings. His ability to find joy in every situation was a lesson in itself, teaching us to approach life with positivity and a light heart. Conclusion Thank you all for being here to celebrate Grandpa Thomas’s life. Let’s honor his adventurous spirit by seeking out new experiences and finding joy in the world around us. His laughter and love for life will continue to echo in our hearts, inspiring us to live fully and joyfully.

More Eulogy Templates & Examples in PDF

1. meaningful eulogy.

Meaningful Eulogy

2. Eulogy Format

Eulogy Format

3. Eulogy Template

Eulogy Template

4. Eulogy Transcript

Eulogy Transcript of President Eulogy

5. Eulogy Template in PDF

Eulogy Template in PDF

6. Sample Eulogy

Sample Eulogy

7. Short Eulogy

Short Eulogy

8. Printable Eulogy Example

Printable Eulogy Example

9. Sample Eulogy Examples

Sample Eulogy Examples

10. Draft Eulogy Template

Draft Eulogy Template

Types of Eulogy

Eulogies come in various forms, each tailored to honor the deceased in a unique way. Here are the main types:

  • Personal Eulogy : A heartfelt speech delivered by a close family member or friend, sharing personal anecdotes and memories.
  • Formal Eulogy : Often given by a clergy member or officiant, focusing on the deceased’s life achievements and character.
  • Celebratory Eulogy : Emphasizes celebrating the deceased’s life, highlighting joyous moments and achievements.
  • Poetic Eulogy : Incorporates poems, verses, or literary references that were significant to the deceased or reflect their life.
  • Biographical Eulogy : Provides a detailed account of the deceased’s life history, including milestones and accomplishments.
  • Collaborative Eulogy : Multiple people contribute to the eulogy, sharing different perspectives and stories about the deceased.

Eulogy vs. Obituary

Eulogy vs. Obituary

Celebrate and honor the deceased’s lifeAnnounce death and provide life summary
Personal anecdotes, memories, and tributesFactual details, life milestones, and service information
Reflective, emotional, often personalInformative, respectful
Typically longer, 5-10 minutes spokenUsually shorter, concise
Family, friends, attendees at a funeral or memorialGeneral public, community
Delivered during the funeral or memorial servicePublished soon after death, before funeral
Emotional impact, personal connectionBiographical details, public announcement
Speech or written tributeWritten notice in newspapers or online
Often involves personal stories and reflectionsTypically involves factual reporting
Usually written by a close friend or family memberOften written by family or funeral home

How to Deliver a Eulogy

Delivering a eulogy can be an emotional and challenging task. Here are steps to help you prepare and deliver a meaningful tribute:


  • Talk to family and friends to collect stories and memories.
  • Reflect on your own experiences with the deceased.
  • Create an outline with an introduction, body, and conclusion.
  • Include personal anecdotes, significant achievements, and cherished memories.
  • Keep it brief, aiming for 5-10 minutes.
  • Start with a strong opening that captures attention.
  • Use clear and simple language.
  • End with a heartfelt conclusion that offers comfort.
  • Practice reading the eulogy aloud multiple times.
  • Time yourself to ensure it’s within the desired length.
  • Adjust for clarity and flow.
  • Share the eulogy with a trusted friend or family member for feedback.
  • Make necessary revisions.
  • Take deep breaths to manage your emotions.
  • Have a glass of water nearby.
  • Use a steady and measured pace.
  • Enunciate your words to ensure everyone can hear.
  • Bring a printed copy of the eulogy.
  • Highlight key points to stay on track.
  • Make eye contact occasionally.
  • Acknowledge the emotions in the room.

How to Start a Eulogy

Beginning a eulogy can be challenging. Here are effective ways to start a eulogy, ensuring it captures attention and sets the tone for a meaningful tribute:

1. Introduce Yourself

  • Example : “Good afternoon, everyone. My name is John, and I had the honor of being Jane’s friend for over 20 years.”

2. Express Gratitude

  • Example : “Thank you all for being here today to celebrate the life of our beloved Jane.”

3. Share a Personal Anecdote

  • Example : “One of my earliest memories of Jane is from our college days when she helped me through a tough exam week with her endless humor and encouragement.”

4. Quote a Relevant Verse or Poem

  • Example : “As Robert Frost once said, ‘In three words I can sum up everything I’ve learned about life: it goes on.’ Jane truly embodied this sentiment.”

5. Highlight a Unique Trait or Accomplishment

  • Example : “Jane had an incredible knack for making everyone around her feel special. Her ability to listen and empathize was unparalleled.”

6. Set the Tone with a Reflective Statement

  • Example : “Today, we gather not just to mourn Jane’s passing but to celebrate the incredible life she lived and the legacy she leaves behind.”

How to End a Eulogy

Concluding a eulogy can leave a lasting impression. Here are ways to close your eulogy effectively, ensuring it resonates with your audience:

1. Express Gratitude

  • Example : “Thank you all for being here today to honor and remember Jane.”

2. Summarize the Deceased’s Impact

  • Example : “Jane’s kindness and generosity touched everyone she met, and her legacy will continue to inspire us all.”

3. Share a Final Anecdote or Memory

  • Example : “I will always remember Jane’s laughter and the way she made every moment brighter. Her spirit will live on in our hearts.”

4. Quote a Meaningful Verse or Poem

  • Example : “As we remember Jane, I’m reminded of a line from Maya Angelou: ‘People will forget what you said, people will forget what you did, but people will never forget how you made them feel.’ Jane made us all feel loved.”

5. Offer Words of Comfort

  • Example : “While we will miss Jane dearly, let’s find comfort in knowing that her love and memories will always be with us.”

6. Call to Action

  • Example : “In honor of Jane, let’s continue to spread the kindness and love she showed us every day.”

How to Write a Eulogy 

To write a eulogy one must keep in mind that the whole speech is a tribute to a person who has recently died. This means that the eulogy will have emotionally-charged content that will not only bring forth the emotions of the listener but also one’s own emotions.

Step 1: Create an Outline for Your Eulogy

Begin by creating an outline or an outline format for your eulogy. The said outline will provide you with the necessary structure you can use to easily form and create your eulogy.

Step 2: Recall any Significant Memories of the Deceased

Start by recalling any significant memories you shared with the deceased that you would like to include in your eulogy. Just be sure to keep in mind the audience that will also hear and listen to your eulogy’s contents.

Step 3: Create the Eulogy

Create and write the eulogy as best you can. Be sure to have a short introduction and conclusion that would succinctly open and close the eulogy.

Step 4: Practice the Eulogy and Edit any Mistakes

It is best to practice the eulogy you created with other loved ones and trusted people, as they will help point out any issues or mistakes in your eulogy

How long should a eulogy be?

Aim for 5-10 minutes, or about 700-1000 words, to keep the audience engaged without overwhelming them.

Who typically gives a eulogy?

Usually, a close family member, friend, or clergy member delivers the eulogy.

What should be included in a eulogy?

Include personal anecdotes, achievements, and cherished memories, reflecting the deceased’s character and impact.

How should I start a eulogy?

Begin by introducing yourself, expressing gratitude for attendees, and sharing a heartfelt memory or quote.

How should I end a eulogy?

Conclude with a summary of the deceased’s impact, express gratitude, and offer words of comfort and hope.

What tone should a eulogy have?

The tone should be respectful and reflective, but it can also include humor and joy, celebrating the person’s life.

How do I handle emotions during a eulogy?

Practice beforehand, take deep breaths, and have a support person ready to step in if needed.

Can I include humor in a eulogy?

Yes, light humor can help celebrate happy memories and bring comfort to the audience, as long as it is respectful.

What is a celebratory eulogy?

A celebratory eulogy focuses on joyful and positive memories, celebrating the deceased’s life rather than mourning their loss.

How can I personalize a eulogy?

Share specific stories, use the deceased’s favorite quotes, and mention unique characteristics that defined their personality.


Text prompt

  • Instructive
  • Professional

10 Examples of Public speaking

20 Examples of Gas lighting

What is generative AI?

A green apple split into 3 parts on a gray background. Half of the apple is made out of a digital blue wireframe mesh.

In the months and years since ChatGPT burst on the scene in November 2022, generative AI (gen AI) has come a long way. Every month sees the launch of new tools, rules, or iterative technological advancements. While many have reacted to ChatGPT (and AI and machine learning more broadly) with fear, machine learning clearly has the potential for good. In the years since its wide deployment, machine learning has demonstrated impact in a number of industries, accomplishing things like medical imaging analysis  and high-resolution weather forecasts. A 2022 McKinsey survey shows that AI adoption has more than doubled  over the past five years, and investment in AI is increasing apace. It’s clear that generative AI tools like ChatGPT (the GPT stands for generative pretrained transformer) and image generator DALL-E (its name a mashup of the surrealist artist Salvador Dalí and the lovable Pixar robot WALL-E) have the potential to change how a range of jobs are performed. The full scope of that impact, though, is still unknown—as are the risks.

Get to know and directly engage with McKinsey's senior experts on generative AI

Aamer Baig is a senior partner in McKinsey’s Chicago office;  Lareina Yee  is a senior partner in the Bay Area office; and senior partners  Alex Singla  and Alexander Sukharevsky , global leaders of QuantumBlack, AI by McKinsey, are based in the Chicago and London offices, respectively.

Still, organizations of all stripes have raced to incorporate gen AI tools into their business models, looking to capture a piece of a sizable prize. McKinsey research indicates that gen AI applications stand to add up to $4.4 trillion  to the global economy—annually. Indeed, it seems possible that within the next three years, anything in the technology, media, and telecommunications space not connected to AI will be considered obsolete or ineffective .

But before all that value can be raked in, we need to get a few things straight: What is gen AI, how was it developed, and what does it mean for people and organizations? Read on to get the download.

To stay up to date on this critical topic, sign up for email alerts on “artificial intelligence” here .

Learn more about QuantumBlack , AI by McKinsey.

Moving illustration of wavy blue lines that was produced using computer code

What every CEO should know about generative AI

What’s the difference between machine learning and artificial intelligence, about quantumblack, ai by mckinsey.

QuantumBlack, McKinsey’s AI arm, helps companies transform using the power of technology, technical expertise, and industry experts. With thousands of practitioners at QuantumBlack (data engineers, data scientists, product managers, designers, and software engineers) and McKinsey (industry and domain experts), we are working to solve the world’s most important AI challenges. QuantumBlack Labs is our center of technology development and client innovation, which has been driving cutting-edge advancements and developments in AI through locations across the globe.

Artificial intelligence is pretty much just what it sounds like—the practice of getting machines to mimic human intelligence to perform tasks. You’ve probably interacted with AI even if you don’t realize it—voice assistants like Siri and Alexa are founded on AI technology, as are customer service chatbots that pop up to help you navigate websites.

Machine learning is a type of artificial intelligence. Through machine learning, practitioners develop artificial intelligence through models that can “learn” from data patterns without human direction. The unmanageably huge volume and complexity of data (unmanageable by humans, anyway) that is now being generated has increased machine learning’s potential , as well as the need for it.

What are the main types of machine learning models?

Machine learning is founded on a number of building blocks, starting with classical statistical techniques  developed between the 18th and 20th centuries for small data sets. In the 1930s and 1940s, the pioneers of computing—including theoretical mathematician Alan Turing—began working on the basic techniques for machine learning. But these techniques were limited to laboratories until the late 1970s, when scientists first developed computers powerful enough to mount them.

Until recently, machine learning was largely limited to predictive models, used to observe and classify patterns in content. For example, a classic machine learning problem is to start with an image or several images of, say, adorable cats. The program would then identify patterns among the images, and then scrutinize random images for ones that would match the adorable cat pattern. Generative AI was a breakthrough. Rather than simply perceive and classify a photo of a cat, machine learning is now able to create an image or text description of a cat on demand.

Circular, white maze filled with white semicircles.

Introducing McKinsey Explainers : Direct answers to complex questions

How do text-based machine learning models work how are they trained.

ChatGPT may be getting all the headlines now, but it’s not the first text-based machine learning model to make a splash. OpenAI’s GPT-3 and Google’s BERT both launched in recent years to some fanfare. But before ChatGPT, which by most accounts works pretty well most of the time (though it’s still being evaluated), AI chatbots didn’t always get the best reviews. GPT-3 is “by turns super impressive and super disappointing,” said New York Times tech reporter Cade Metz in a video where he and food writer Priya Krishna asked GPT-3 to write recipes for a (rather disastrous) Thanksgiving dinner .

The first machine learning models to work with text were trained by humans to classify various inputs according to labels set by researchers. One example would be a model trained to label social media  posts as either positive or negative. This type of training is known as supervised learning because a human is in charge of “teaching” the model what to do.

The next generation of text-based machine learning models rely on what’s known as self-supervised learning. This type of training involves feeding a model a massive amount of text so it becomes able to generate predictions. For example, some models can predict, based on a few words, how a sentence will end. With the right amount of sample text—say, a broad swath of the internet—these text models become quite accurate. We’re seeing just how accurate with the success of tools like ChatGPT.

What does it take to build a generative AI model?

Building a generative AI model has for the most part been a major undertaking, to the extent that only a few well-resourced tech heavyweights have made an attempt . OpenAI, the company behind ChatGPT, former GPT models, and DALL-E, has billions in funding from bold-face-name donors. DeepMind is a subsidiary of Alphabet, the parent company of Google, and even Meta has dipped a toe into the generative AI model pool with its Make-A-Video product. These companies employ some of the world’s best computer scientists and engineers.

But it’s not just talent. When you’re asking a model to train using nearly the entire internet, it’s going to cost you. OpenAI hasn’t released exact costs, but estimates indicate that GPT-3 was trained on around 45 terabytes of text data—that’s about one million feet of bookshelf space, or a quarter of the entire Library of Congress—at an estimated cost of several million dollars. These aren’t resources your garden-variety start-up can access.

What kinds of output can a generative AI model produce?

As you may have noticed above, outputs from generative AI models can be indistinguishable from human-generated content, or they can seem a little uncanny. The results depend on the quality of the model—as we’ve seen, ChatGPT’s outputs so far appear superior to those of its predecessors—and the match between the model and the use case, or input.

ChatGPT can produce what one commentator called a “ solid A- ” essay comparing theories of nationalism from Benedict Anderson and Ernest Gellner—in ten seconds. It also produced an already famous passage describing how to remove a peanut butter sandwich from a VCR in the style of the King James Bible. Image-generating AI models like DALL-E 2 can create strange, beautiful images on demand, like a Raphael painting of a Madonna and child, eating pizza . Other generative AI models can produce code, video, audio, or business simulations .

But the outputs aren’t always accurate—or appropriate. When Priya Krishna asked DALL-E 2 to come up with an image for Thanksgiving dinner, it produced a scene where the turkey was garnished with whole limes, set next to a bowl of what appeared to be guacamole. For its part, ChatGPT seems to have trouble counting, or solving basic algebra problems—or, indeed, overcoming the sexist and racist bias that lurks in the undercurrents of the internet and society more broadly.

Generative AI outputs are carefully calibrated combinations of the data used to train the algorithms. Because the amount of data used to train these algorithms is so incredibly massive—as noted, GPT-3 was trained on 45 terabytes of text data—the models can appear to be “creative” when producing outputs. What’s more, the models usually have random elements, which means they can produce a variety of outputs from one input request—making them seem even more lifelike.

What kinds of problems can a generative AI model solve?

The opportunity for businesses is clear. Generative AI tools can produce a wide variety of credible writing in seconds, then respond to criticism to make the writing more fit for purpose. This has implications for a wide variety of industries, from IT and software organizations that can benefit from the instantaneous, largely correct code generated by AI models to organizations in need of marketing copy. In short, any organization that needs to produce clear written materials potentially stands to benefit. Organizations can also use generative AI to create more technical materials, such as higher-resolution versions of medical images. And with the time and resources saved here, organizations can pursue new business opportunities and the chance to create more value.

We’ve seen that developing a generative AI model is so resource intensive that it is out of the question for all but the biggest and best-resourced companies. Companies looking to put generative AI to work have the option to either use generative AI out of the box or fine-tune them to perform a specific task. If you need to prepare slides according to a specific style, for example, you could ask the model to “learn” how headlines are normally written based on the data in the slides, then feed it slide data and ask it to write appropriate headlines.

What are the limitations of AI models? How can these potentially be overcome?

Because they are so new, we have yet to see the long tail effect of generative AI models. This means there are some inherent risks  involved in using them—some known and some unknown.

The outputs generative AI models produce may often sound extremely convincing. This is by design. But sometimes the information they generate is just plain wrong. Worse, sometimes it’s biased (because it’s built on the gender, racial, and myriad other biases of the internet and society more generally) and can be manipulated to enable unethical or criminal activity. For example, ChatGPT won’t give you instructions on how to hotwire a car, but if you say you need to hotwire a car to save a baby, the algorithm is happy to comply. Organizations that rely on generative AI models should reckon with reputational and legal risks involved in unintentionally publishing biased, offensive, or copyrighted content.

These risks can be mitigated, however, in a few ways. For one, it’s crucial to carefully select the initial data used to train these models to avoid including toxic or biased content. Next, rather than employing an off-the-shelf generative AI model, organizations could consider using smaller, specialized models. Organizations with more resources could also customize a general model based on their own data to fit their needs and minimize biases. Organizations should also keep a human in the loop (that is, to make sure a real human checks the output of a generative AI model before it is published or used) and avoid using generative AI models for critical decisions, such as those involving significant resources or human welfare.

It can’t be emphasized enough that this is a new field. The landscape of risks and opportunities  is likely to change rapidly in coming weeks, months, and years. New use cases are being tested monthly, and new models are likely to be developed in the coming years. As generative AI becomes increasingly, and seamlessly, incorporated into business, society, and our personal lives, we can also expect a new regulatory climate  to take shape. As organizations begin experimenting—and creating value—with these tools, leaders will do well to keep a finger on the pulse of regulation and risk.

Articles referenced include:

  • " Implementing generative AI with speed and safety ,” March 13, 2024, Oliver Bevan, Michael Chui , Ida Kristensen , Brittany Presten, and Lareina Yee
  • “ Beyond the hype: Capturing the potential of AI and gen AI in tech, media, and telecom ,” February 22, 2024, Venkat Atluri , Peter Dahlström , Brendan Gaffey , Víctor García de la Torre, Noshir Kaka , Tomás Lajous , Alex Singla , Alex Sukharevsky , Andrea Travasoni , and Benjamim Vieira
  • “ As gen AI advances, regulators—and risk functions—rush to keep pace ,” December 21, 2023, Andreas Kremer, Angela Luget, Daniel Mikkelsen , Henning Soller , Malin Strandell-Jansson, and Sheila Zingg
  • “ The economic potential of generative AI: The next productivity frontier ,” June 14, 2023, Michael Chui , Eric Hazan , Roger Roberts , Alex Singla , Kate Smaje , Alex Sukharevsky , Lareina Yee , and Rodney Zemmel
  • “ What every CEO should know about generative AI ,” May 12, 2023, Michael Chui , Roger Roberts , Tanya Rodchenko, Alex Singla , Alex Sukharevsky , Lareina Yee , and Delphine Zurkiya
  • “ Exploring opportunities in the generative AI value chain ,” April 26, 2023, Tobias Härlin, Gardar Björnsson Rova , Alex Singla , Oleg Sokolov, and Alex Sukharevsky
  • “ The state of AI in 2022—and a half decade in review ,” December 6, 2022,  Michael Chui ,  Bryce Hall ,  Helen Mayhew , Alex Singla , and Alex Sukharevsky
  • “ McKinsey Technology Trends Outlook 2023 ,” July 20, 2023,  Michael Chui , Mena Issler,  Roger Roberts , and  Lareina Yee  
  • “ An executive’s guide to AI ,” Michael Chui , Vishnu Kamalnath, and Brian McCarthy
  • “ What AI can and can’t do (yet) for your business ,” January 11, 2018,  Michael Chui , James Manyika , and Mehdi Miremadi

This article was updated in April 2024; it was originally published in January 2023.

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  13. PDF This is "Readings: Examples of Essays", chapter 15 from the

    15.1 Introduction to Sample Essays. LEARNING OBJECTIVES. 1. Identify the role of reading in the writing process. 2. Read examples of the rhetorical modes. This chapter contains quality samples of the rhetorical modes described inChapter 10 "Rhetorical Modes". While you read these essays, remember the purpose of the writing and pay attention to ...

  14. Types and Examples of Essays: The Complete List

    1. Expository Essays. These are most likely the types of essays you may encounter and the standard essay style needed for exams. When writing an expository essay, you will go deeper into a subject or issue to develop an idea, analyze supporting data, and then organize an "exposition" on the concept.

  15. Four Types of Essay

    Expository Essay. Informative Writing, Research, Clarity. Explain the causes and effects of climate change, and discuss its impact on the environment and society. Narrative Essay. Storytelling, Narrative Structure, Engagement. Describe a memorable childhood event that had a significant impact on your life.

  16. PDF Components of a Good Essay Intro

    examples and evidence Body: Includes the evidence and support of the paper in addition to the author's ideas Paragraphs must include a topic sentence which relates the discussion back to the thesis statement Logical ordering of ideas: 3 types of order 1. Chronological order---order of time, good for narratives 2.

  17. Example of a Great Essay

    This essay begins by discussing the situation of blind people in nineteenth-century Europe. It then describes the invention of Braille and the gradual process of its acceptance within blind education. Subsequently, it explores the wide-ranging effects of this invention on blind people's social and cultural lives.

  18. PDF Expository Essay Handout SP2020

    If you are writing an expository essay, your thesis statement should explain to the reader what they will learn in your essay. For example: "The United States spends more money on its military budget than all the industrialized nations combined.". "Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) increases the risk of stroke and arterial ...

  19. (PDF) Academic writing: the essay

    The essay is a particular genre of writing that is at the heart of academic writing today. Criteria of excellence in this genre have been identified, and should be observed. All essay. writers ...

  20. PDF Types of Essays and Their Methods

    Essays Inducing Change. • Argument/Persuasion. You will be asked to write all three types of essays—papers that express feelings, explain ideas, or attempt to change a reader's mind. Sometimes essays can use more than one pattern of organization to support a larger purpose. For example, an essay that seeks to compare the presidencies of ...

  21. Free Essay

    Free Essay. Embark on your essay writing journey with our comprehensive guide, rich in diverse essay examples. This guide is crafted to assist students, educators, and writing enthusiasts in mastering the art of essay composition. From structure to style, it covers all facets of essay writing, supplemented with illustrative essay examples for ...

  22. PDF Essay Exams: Common Question Types

    Essay Type This type of essay should be fully thought out and developed in as much detail as you have time for. ... Use specific examples from each version to argue which version is better. 2. Define what is meant by "freedom of the press." 3. Argue whether computers will or will not simulate most aspects of human intelligence in the

  23. Types of Essays

    The document discusses four major types of essays: 1. Narrative essays involve telling a story from the writer's experience in an engaging way. 2. Descriptive essays paint a picture with words by describing a person, place, object, or memory in a vivid, emotive manner. 3. Expository essays present a balanced analysis and explanation of a topic using facts, examples, and statistics without ...

  24. Thesis

    Thesis Examples for Essays 1: Persuasive Essay. Topic: "The Importance of Renewable Energy" Thesis Statement: Governments around the world should invest heavily in renewable energy sources like solar and wind power to reduce dependency on fossil fuels, combat climate change, and create sustainable job opportunities. 2: Analytical Essay

  25. The Motivated Ignorance of Trump Supporters

    Election denialism is one example. The claim that Trump is the target of "lawfare," victim to the weaponization of the justice system, is another.

  26. Eulogy

    Types of Eulogy. Eulogies come in various forms, each tailored to honor the deceased in a unique way. Here are the main types: Personal Eulogy: A heartfelt speech delivered by a close family member or friend, sharing personal anecdotes and memories.; Formal Eulogy: Often given by a clergy member or officiant, focusing on the deceased's life achievements and character.

  27. What Is Artificial Intelligence? Definition, Uses, and Types

    What is artificial intelligence? Artificial intelligence (AI) is the theory and development of computer systems capable of performing tasks that historically required human intelligence, such as recognizing speech, making decisions, and identifying patterns. AI is an umbrella term that encompasses a wide variety of technologies, including machine learning, deep learning, and natural language ...

  28. What is ChatGPT, DALL-E, and generative AI?

    This type of training involves feeding a model a massive amount of text so it becomes able to generate predictions. For example, some models can predict, based on a few words, how a sentence will end. With the right amount of sample text—say, a broad swath of the internet—these text models become quite accurate.