Effects of Economic and Financial Crime on the Government Budget and the Quality of Public Services

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  • Rita Remeikienė 2 &
  • Ligita Gaspareniene   ORCID: orcid.org/0000-0002-5535-6552 2  

Part of the book series: Contributions to Finance and Accounting ((CFA))

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The chapter analyses the impact of economic and financial crimes, such as money laundering, corruption, tax evasion, informal employment/entrepreneurship, cybercrime, illicit financial flows, on the state budget and the quality of public services, and what measures would help control the negative effects of the considered phenomena. The analysis of scientific literature leads to the conclusion that the use of digital technologies (artificial intelligence, cloud computing, interactive information sharing methods) at the control-state, control-enterprise, and control-society levels is seen as one of the solutions to reduce the volume of economic and financial crimes and increase the government budget revenue. E-government is one of the modern concepts, a new basis for the effective provision of public services to citizens and businesses. Modern ICTs improve the performance competence of public institutions, allow to establish particular compliance units that mediate the relationship between the government and society, and help achieve the required efficiency by ensuring cohesion among the structural components of the public service provision.

  • Money laundering
  • Shadow economy
  • Tax evasion
  • Informal employment
  • Government budget
  • Public services

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Remeikienė, R., Gaspareniene, L. (2023). Effects of Economic and Financial Crime on the Government Budget and the Quality of Public Services. In: Achim, M.V. (eds) Economic and Financial Crime, Sustainability and Good Governance. Contributions to Finance and Accounting. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-34082-6_8

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Data Science perspectives on Economic Crime

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Economic crimes including corruption, fraud, collusion, and tax evasion impose significant costs to societies all around the world. Beyond their direct economic costs, these behaviors reduce mutual trust and cohesion in society. The erosion of these fundamental elements of a healthy society is hypothesized to contribute to growing inequality and the strengthening of political populism. Altogether there are significant incentives to study economic crimes. However, until recently, its investigation remained largely the preserve of law enforcement, which has resources to investigate only a tiny minority of cases.

Researchers now have more data than ever to investigate these phenomena, but face several unique challenges. The lack of unbiased ground-truth data hinders the straightforward application of machine learning. Publicly available data often contains only suggestive traces of illegal activity. Though economic crimes are increasingly international, data availability and quality varies highly across borders. Despite these difficulties, recent years have witnessed a remarkable increase in scientific activity in this area. Studying economic crime from a data science perspective offers unique insights and can inform the design of novel solutions. The results of such research are of eminent interest to governments, law enforcement, organizations, companies and civil society watchdogs. In light of this recent activity, there is a need to survey the field, to reflect on progress, shortcomings, and open problems, and to highlight promising new methods.

In this special issue, we gather research that highlights novel applications of data science to the problems and challenges of economic crime. We also welcome data-critical studies and mixed-methods papers, recognizing that data-driven methods complement rather than substitute for other approaches.

Topics of interest include, but are not limited to: - Estimating levels and trends of economic crimes using open source data - Corruption in public procurement - Collusion and cartels - Network science perspectives on economic crime - Agent-based models of economic crime - Detecting fraud in transaction data - Critical perspectives on the application of data science to economic crime (i.e. pitfalls and biases of predictive policing and profiling) - Data-driven analyses of organized crime and mafia-type groups - Tax evasion and money laundering - Terrorist financing - The political organization of economic crimes - Lobbying networks and political favoritism - Social and communication networks of criminal conspiracies - Transactions on the darknet and the role of crypto-currency in economic crime - Data-driven journalism and OSINT perspectives on economic crime - Novel datasets for measuring and tracking economic crime - Mixed-methods approaches to studying economic crime

Lead Guest Editor

Johannes Wachs Vienna University of Economics and Business, & Complexity Science Hub Vienna, Austria

Guest Editors

Janos Kertesz Department of Network and Data Science, Central European University, Vienna, Austria

Mihaly Fazekas School of Public Policy, Central European University, Vienna, Austria

Elizabeth David-Barrett Department of Politics/Centre for the Study of Corruption, University of Sussex, UK

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What Do Recent Studies Say About Crime and Policing? Part 1

Crime plays a major role in the well-being of a community. It can influence where people live, where businesses locate and how local economies perform. Identifying causal effects, however, is difficult for a number of reasons. Still, a considerable amount of recent economic literature examines many aspects of crime. Part one of our Economic Brief series focuses on the impact of crime on communities, the relationship between crime and policing and how policing affects deterrence.

One of our goals as a Research Department in a Regional Fed is to better understand and offer constructive solutions to issues that our District's residents face. This is especially important for the economic vitality of both individuals and our communities.

A force that looms large is crime. At a high level, crime and policing matter for where people live, how local economies perform, how healthy cities are and what differences exist between rural and urban areas in our District and beyond. In this two-part Economic Brief , we review recent literature that examines crime, policing and community well-being as well as connections among the three. In this first part, we focus on four areas:

  • Measuring crime
  • Crime control policies
  • The relationship between crime and policing
  • The deterrence effects of policing

Measuring Crime

Before we begin our review of the literature, it's important to discuss how crime is measured, as this can impact studies and their results. When gauging crime, most studies rely primarily on crime measurements provided by local police departments as part of the FBI's Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) Program . This reliance is understandable. These data have been compiled and categorized for decades (the UCR program started in 1930), and this information is readily available at the local level. 1 The data, however, are subject to well-known limitations. 2

One such limitation is that crime data reliably measure crime activity only as long as resident and police reporting behaviors remain consistent over time. If reporting changes over time, crime statistics may not consistently reflect crime levels and would require supplemental information to provide more accurate measures of criminal activity and of policing effectiveness.

Data on crimes reported by victims — separate from police reports — are one supplemental source. The National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) is an annual, nationally representative survey that provides information on:

  • Nonfatal personal crimes, such as rape/sexual assault, robbery, aggravated/simple assault and personal larceny
  • Household property crimes, such as burglary/trespassing for the purpose of shoplifting, and motor vehicle and other theft

The NCVS also asks if these crimes were reported to the police. However, a shortcoming of these data is that they are not representative at the local level.

Recently, several law enforcement agencies have made their crime statistics openly available through online portals as part of the Police Data Initiative (PDI) . While the UCR not only gathers data from various agencies, but also attempts to make them uniform and comparable, data reporting through the PDI follows the submitting agency's own criteria and includes more data on a wider variety of crimes than the UCR. Currently, 130 U.S. police agencies participate.

These data may be used along with officially reported crime statistics to identify changes in reporting behavior as well as police behavior: The number of crimes that the police themselves notice and report may serve as a proxy of police engagement (or "effort") and may not closely align with police numbers.

Crime Control Policies and Community Well-Being

Crime limits the ability of cities and neighborhoods to prosper by negatively affecting the quality of life of residents, causing people to leave the city and generating social and economic decline. Understanding the effectiveness of crime control policies is, therefore, key for communities.

The impact of crime on neighborhoods has been heavily researched. The literature shows that crime (especially violent crime) negatively affects neighborhood growth, increases racial segregation and lowers housing prices. 3

Furthermore, affluent residents are very sensitive to crime: They are willing to pay (relatively) more for housing at locations where this problem is less severe. Due to generally high crime rates in central cities, higher-income households tend to locate in the suburbs, as seen in a 1979 paper by William Frey and a 1999 paper by Julie Berry Cullen and Steven Levitt . And a 2005 paper by Arthur O'Sullivan noted that income segregation occurs to the extent that high-income residents are willing to pay more to reside at places with lower crime rates.

At the same time, an unsafe and more dangerous local environment can have significant impact on residents' incomes and opportunities as well. A substantial amount of research suggests that neighborhoods and the social interactions within them influence individuals' economic opportunities later in life. Growing up in neighborhoods with high levels of violent crime affects individuals' criminal behavior and reduces upward mobility, as noted in a 2018 paper by Raj Chetty and Nathaniel Hendren and a 2017 paper by Patrick Sharkey and Gerard Torrats-Espinosa . Peer effects may also reinforce income and racial segregation, leading to further deterioration of the local environment.

Crime also has a significant impact on where businesses operate, which can directly affect neighborhood opportunities and well-being. For example, a 2010 paper by Stuart Rosenthal and Amanda Ross showed that retailers and entrepreneurs choose nonviolent environments when deciding where to establish their operations.

Relationship Between Crime and Policing

With crime having so many impacts on community well-being, a natural question may be: To what extent can police reduce crime? Several papers attempt to quantitatively assess how changes in police force size affect crime rates. Identifying such causal effect is, however, extremely challenging for several reasons:

Measurement Error

In general, the number of police and crime are not measured accurately, as noted in a 2018 paper by Aaron Chalfin and Justin McCrary . Moreover, reporting and recording different types of crime are likely affected by the number of active police officers. For example, changes in the size of the police force may affect the police department's propensity to record victim crime. Examples include not having enough police officer staffing to take statements from victims and fully document crime for reporting purposes. 4

Police Intensity

Changes in the intensity of policing are generally not random: Places with more crime tend to have more police, almost certainly in part as a response aimed at mitigating crime.

Deterrence Versus Incapacitation

Criminal justice policies reduce crime through both deterrence and incapacitation:

  • Deterrence implies that a policy change stops individuals from committing crimes they would have otherwise.
  • Incapacitation takes place when offenders are removed from broader society (pretrial detention or incarceration).

More police could act as a deterrent, and since police make arrests during their regular activities, more police could also lead to higher levels of incarceration. Distinguishing between these two effects associated with policing is challenging.

Probability of Arrest

Actual and perceived risks of committing a crime matter, especially when using the number of police to measure deterrence. If the number of police in a community aligns with the number that people think are in the community, then using the number of police to measure the effect of size on deterrence is straightforward. However, if an increase in police numbers doesn't dissuade potential offenders, this approach would not offer sensible conclusions.

Reporting Bias

Studies that use reported crime data to evaluate the effectiveness of policing policies may provide biased results if the reporting and recording of crime is also affected by the policies. A larger police force may encourage residents to report more crimes if residents believe crimes are more likely to be solved. If such bias is present, reported crime rates may increase with the size of the police force, even if the true victimization rate is falling.

Displacing Crime to Other Areas

More police in one area may simply displace crime to other areas. The impact of an increase in police size would therefore depend on the size of the area considered in the analysis and whether it accounts for potential displacement.

Deterrence Effects of Policing

After controlling for most of these issues, the economics literature supports the view that a larger police force generally reduces the index level of crime. The effect seems to be larger for violent crime (especially murder) than for property crime. A 1998 paper by Levitt suggests that the deterrent effect of policing — as opposed to incarceration — appears to be the relatively more important factor, mostly for property crime. Other work that relies on exogenous shocks to police presence finds similar results. 5

Some studies suggest that investments in police may both deter crime and reduce incarceration. Investment in police could therefore be a relatively more efficient means of crime control. A 2019 paper by Chalfin and Jacob Kaplan , for instance, finds that investments in law enforcement are unlikely to markedly increase state prison populations and may even lead to a modest decrease in the number of state prisoners. In other words, the deterrent effects of policing are strong enough to reduce crime, and a lower number of criminals in turn imply less people going to prison.

Certain types of crime — such as drug dealing and shootings — can be highly concentrated in very small areas of cities. "Hot-spot" police tactics — which include a substantial increase in police visibility in those zones — have been shown to reduce crime in those areas, and there is little evidence of a spatial "relocation" or displacement of crime.

Upcoming: Race, Policies and Policing

While these studies generally show that an increase in police results in favorable outcomes, many other factors come into play that could affect these results. One that looms especially large in light of recent events is race. In the second part of this series, we'll examine what the literature says about race in terms of policing and crime reporting. We'll also review studies that have examined various efforts and policies aimed at addressing issues in policing.

Ray Owens and Santiago Pinto are senior economists and policy advisors in the Research Department at the Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond.

Law enforcement agencies representing roughly 95 percent of U.S. population participate in the program.

The annual crime indexes reported by UCR include crimes reported and known to the police, but does not include, for instance, crimes at jails or prisons. Also, these crimes have been recorded and tabulated by local police agencies, allowing them considerable discretion at this stage.

Several papers shows these findings, including a 2001 paper by Edward Glaeser, Jed Kolko and Albert Saiz , a 2010 paper by Keith Ihlanfeldt and Tom Mayock , a 2011 paper by Kelly Bishop and Alvin Murphy , a chapter by Vania Ceccato and Mats Wilhelmsson (PDF) in a 2011 book, a 2012 paper by Devin Pope and Jaren Pope , a 2013 paper by Paolo Buonanno, Daniel Montolio and Josep Maria Raya-Vílchez , a 2013 paper by Joshua Congdon-Hohman and a 2016 paper by Patrick Bayer, Robert McMillan, Alvin Murphy and Christopher Timmins .

A few studies (for instance, a 2012 paper by Ben Vollaard and Joseph Hamed ) conclude that the impact of measurement error in police statistics is large and cannot be ignored when assessing the impact of police size on crime.

This work includes a 2004 paper by Rafael Di Tella and Ernesto Schargrodsky (which uses a 1994 terrorist attack on the main Jewish center in Buenos Aires, Argentina, as the exogenous shock), a 2005 paper by Jonathan Klick and Alexander Tabarrok (which measures the effects of changes in the terror alert levels on police presence in Washington, D.C.) and a 2019 paper by Steven Mello (which uses the increased funding for the Community Oriented Policing Services hiring grant program from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act).

This article may be photocopied or reprinted in its entirety. Please credit the authors, source, and the Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond and include the italicized statement below.

V iews expressed in this article are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond or the Federal Reserve System.

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The Economics of Crime

To think of crime in terms of risk and rewards, punishment and incentives has a long lineage. Jeremy Bentham in his 1830 book The Rationale for Punishment already applied utilitarian logic to the sanctions applied to criminal offenders. In economics itself, research in earnest began with the seminal work by Becker in the 1960s. His and other early work was mostly theoretical. Since then, a rich empirical literature has evolved looking at the social, cultural and economic determinants and consequences of crime, as well as the factors driving punishments. In this virtual issue, we showcase some of the latest thinking on the economics of crime, published in recent years in The Economic Journal . The range of articles published spans the entire globe, from post-riots London to Vietnam, China and the US; it looks at determinants of crime ranging from school leaving ages, drinking laws, and sex ratios to military conscription; and it highlights policy-relevant insights, such as in the link between medical marijuana laws and US crime rates.

Wet Laws, Drinking Establishments and Violent Crime Volume 128, Issue 611 D. Mark Anderson, Benjamin Crost, and Daniel I. Rees 

A Jury of  Her  Peers: The Impact of the First Female Jurors on Criminal Convictions Volume 129, Issue 618 Shamena Anwar, Patrick Bayer, and Randi Hjalmarsson

Firm Growth and Corruption: Empirical Evidence from Vietnam Volume 129, Issue 618 Jie Bai, Seema Jayachandran, Edmund J Malesky, and Benjamin A Olken

Crime Deterrence: Evidence from the London 2011 Riots Volume 124, Issue 576 Brian Bell, Laura Jaitman, and Stephen Machin 

China's Sex Ratio and Crime: Behavioural Change or Financial Necessity? Volume 129, Issue 618 Lisa Cameron, Xin Meng, and Dandan Zhang

Homelessness and Crime: Do Your Friends Matter? Volume 127, Issue 602 Lucia Corno 

Is Legal Pot Crippling Mexican Drug Trafficking Organisations? The Effect of Medical Marijuana Laws on US Crime Volume 129, Issue 617 Evelina Gavrilova, Takuma Kamada, and Floris Zoutman

The Causal Effect of Military Conscription on Crime   Volume 129, Issue 622 Randi Hjalmarsson and Matthew J Lindquist

Victimisation, Well‐being and Compensation: Using Panel Data to Estimate the Costs of Violent Crime Volume 128, Issue 611 David W. Johnston, Michael A. Shields, and Agne Suziedelyte 

School Starting Age and The Crime‐Age Profile Volume 127, Issue 602 Rasmus Landersø, Helena Skyt Nielsen, and Marianne Simonsen 

Optimising Criminal Behaviour and the Disutility of Prison Volume 129, Issue 619 Giovanni Mastrobuoni and  David A Rivers

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I Research Economic Crime and Hang Out With Mexican Cartels

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United States Sentencing Commission

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Symposium on Economic Crime

research on economic crimes

SEPTEMBER 18–19, 2013 JOHN JAY COLLEGE OF CRIMINAL JUSTICE NEW YORK, NY

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Number of §2B1.1 Cases in Each Federal Judicial District With Mean and Median Loss Amounts

Federal Judicial Districts in Decreasing Order of §2B1.1 Median Loss Amount

Sentencing and Guideline Application Information For §2B1.1 Offenders

Plenary Session II – Presentation on Prospective of Crime Victims Stakeholders

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The Economic Challenges of Crime & Incarceration in the United States

Melissa s. kearney melissa s. kearney nonresident senior fellow - economic studies , center for economic security and opportunity , the hamilton project @kearney_melissa.

December 22, 2014

High rates of crime and incarceration impose tremendous costs on society, with lasting negative effects on individuals, families, and communities. Crime rates in the United States have been falling steadily, but still constitute a serious economic and social challenge. At the same time, both crime scholars and policymakers alike question whether incarceration rates in the United States are too high. With more than 700 out of every 100,000 people incarcerated, we must ask whether the social costs exceed the social benefits, for non-violent criminals in particular. Earlier this year, The Hamilton Project released a set of economic facts about crime and incarceration in the United States that underscore the magnitude of the challenges and frame the issue through an economic lens.

While there is significant policy focus on America’s incarceration policies, it is also important to consider that crime continues to be a focus of concern for policymakers, particularly at state and local levels. In addition to private spending by households and businesses, public spending on fighting crime, including the costs of incarceration, policing, and judicial and legal services is substantial. There are also tremendous social costs, including the tangible costs of victimization, such as medical costs and lost earnings, as well as intangible costs, such as pain and suffering.

In addition, crime and incarceration disproportionately impact low-income individuals and communities, raising concerns about impeded upward mobility and a perpetuation of inequality. Indeed, previous work on this topic shows that victimization rates for all types of personal crimes are significantly higher for individuals living in low-income households. In 2008 — the latest year for which data are available — the victimization rate for all personal crimes among individuals with family incomes of less than $15,000 was over three times the rate of individuals with family incomes of $75,000 or more. The most prevalent personal crimes for low-income victims are assault and acts of attempted violence, at 33 victims and 28 victims per 1,000 persons age twelve or older, respectively.

Crime also stymies economic growth. For example, exposure to violence can inhibit effective schooling and other developmental outcomes (Burdick-Will 2013; Sharkey et al. 2012). Crime can induce citizens to migrate: economists estimate that each crime reduces a city’s population by approximately one person and each homicide reduces a city’s population by 70 (Cullen and Levitt 1999; Ludwig and Cook 2000). To the extent that migration diminishes a locality’s tax and consumer base, crime-fueled departures can threaten cities’ ability to effectively educate children, provide social services, and maintain a vibrant local economy.

The good news is that crime rates in the United States have been falling steadily since the 1990s, reversing an upward trend from the 1960s through the 1980s. There does not appear to be a consensus view among scholars about how to account for the overall sharp decline, but contributing factors include increased policing, rising incarceration rates, and the waning of the “crack epidemic” that was prevalent in the 1980s and early 1990s.

Despite the ongoing decline in crime, incarceration rates in the United States remain at historically unprecedented levels. High incarceration rates can have profound effects on disadvantaged communities. Research has shown that incarceration may impede employment and marriage prospects among former inmates, increase poverty depth and behavioral problems among their children, and amplify the spread of communicable diseases among disproportionately impacted communities (Raphael 2007). In particular, these effects are especially harmful for particular demographic groups — often young minority males — who struggle to gain employment or lead productive lives post-incarceration. In addition, high rates of incarceration are expensive for both federal and state governments. On average, it costs over $29,000 each year to house an inmate in federal prison (James 2013). In total, the United States spent over $80 billion on corrections expenditures, with over 90 percent of these expenditures coming from state and local levels (DOJ n.d.b.).

To explore potential policy responses to the challenges of crime and mass incarceration in the United States, The Hamilton Project has hosted two forums and released three policy proposals focused on keeping disadvantaged youth from engaging in violence and entering the juvenile justice system, reducing incarceration rates for non-violent criminals through sentencing reform , and supporting the formerly-incarcerated as they leave the criminal justice system and work to re-engage with the labor force and their communities.

The passage of the statewide ballot initiative, Proposition 47, in California last November was symbolic of a national effort to reform incarceration policies, and perhaps reflected a broad recognition of the costs that incarceration imposes on society. The statewide initiative reduces penalties for illicit drug use and petty theft; more specifically, it reclassifies possession of heroin, methamphetamine and other illegal drugs, and theft of $950 or less, as misdemeanors in California. Following its passage, California will become the first state to “de-felonize” all drug use, opening the door for similar efforts in other states. The passage of Proposition 47 may signal that policymakers and the public alike are open to pragmatic reforms to reduce both crime and incarceration in the United States.

In earlier, related work, The Hamilton Project released a policy memo emphasizing a number of challenges facing low-income families in this country. That memo noted that nearly 20 percent of American families with children are officially classified as living in poverty—which for a family of two adults and two children means having an annual income of less than $24,000—and an additional 30 percent have sufficiently low income that they live with many of the same stressors that come from being poor. That memo also underscored the challenge of food insecurity facing many Americans: 22 percent of our nation’s children live in households in which parents worry about having enough food to feed their family. An earlier Hamilton Project policy memo focused on the limited economic mobility for low-income individuals, citing work showing that a child born to the lowest income quintile, or to the poorest fifth of parents, has a 43 percent chance of remaining in that income quintile, or being very poor, as an adult.

Last summer, The Hamilton Project released a volume of 14 proposals to help address poverty in America . The volume sets forward a multi-faceted approach to tackling poverty, ranging from new approaches to promoting early childhood education , supporting disadvantaged youth , building skills , and improving safety net and work support . Policies that lift more Americans out of poverty have the potential to profoundly impact rates of crime and incarceration. These issues are all interrelated.

A founding principle of The Hamilton Project’s economic strategy is that long-term prosperity is best achieved by fostering economic growth and broad participation in that growth. Elevated rates of crime and incarceration directly work against these principles, marginalizing individuals and devastating affected families and communities, both socially and economically.

The Hamilton Project

March 29, 2024

Ben Harris, Liam Marshall

The Brookings Institution, Washington DC

10:00 am - 11:30 am EDT

research on economic crimes

AP-NORC Poll: American Attitudes Toward Immigration’s Impact Show Concern Over Risks

A recent AP-NORC poll highlights growing concerns among Americans, particularly Republicans, about legal immigrants committing crimes in the United States. While many acknowledge that immigrants provide economic and cultural benefits to the country, the perception of these benefits has declined in comparison to previous years.

The Associated Press-NORC Center for Public Affairs Research poll indicates that Americans perceive a decrease in the major benefits provided by legal immigrants to the American economy and culture, alongside an increase in the perceived risks, including the potential for crime. Approximately 40% of Americans see the expertise of skilled workers in science and technology as a major benefit for American companies, while 38% believe that legal immigrants significantly enrich American culture and values.

These figures show a downturn from 2017 when 59% viewed the contribution of skilled immigrant workers as a major benefit and half saw a major cultural benefit from legal immigrants. On the contrary, the belief that legal immigrants pose a major risk of committing crimes in the U.S. has risen from 19% to 32% since 2017.

Republican concern has fueled much of this shift, with 41% of Republicans now viewing legal immigration as a major risk for crime, up from 20% in 2017. Bob Saunders, an independent from New Jersey, distinguishes between legal and illegal immigration, emphasizing the need for background checks and orderly legal processes. Other Republicans, like Amber Pierce from Texas, worry about the strain immigrants could place on government services.

Meanwhile, Democrats tend more to perceive the benefits of immigration, although even within this group, optimism has waned since 2017. Democrats, like Amy Wozniak from Indiana, recognize the plight of migrants seeking a better life, similar to many of America’s ancestral immigrants.

Partisan divides extend to opinions on the nation’s diversity, with a majority of Democrats considering it a source of strength, compared to a smaller fraction of Republicans and Independents. Nevertheless, U.S. adults generally agree that immigration has greatly changed the country over the past five years, more so than their local communities or states.

Cross-party consensus exists on certain immigration policies, such as hiring more Border Patrol agents, a measure preferred across party lines. Opinions diverge more sharply on other solutions, such as building a wall or reducing asylum seeker allowances. Funding has been secured for additional Border Patrol agents, but immigration courts continue to face backlogs with no substantial progress in acquiring more immigration judges.

The poll, conducted between March 21-25, 2024, included 1,282 adults and has a margin of sampling error of plus or minus 3.8 percentage points.

FAQ Section

What is the ap-norc poll.

The AP-NORC Poll is a survey conducted by The Associated Press-NORC Center for Public Affairs Research, which gathers information about public opinion on various topics, in this case, attitudes towards immigration in the United States.

How has American perception of immigration’s benefits vs. risks changed?

American perception has shifted toward viewing immigration as less beneficial and more risky, with a particular increase in concern over the potential for committing crimes.

What are the bipartisan points of agreement on immigration policy?

Bipartisan agreement exists on the need to hire more Border Patrol agents. Other measures, like hiring more immigration judges and court personnel, are also widely supported.

Are Democrats and Republicans aligned in their views on immigration?

No, there are notable divides between Democrats and Republicans on immigration. Generally, Republicans are more concerned with risks, while Democrats see more benefits.

How does this poll reflect partisan perspectives on diversity?

Democrats overwhelmingly view the country’s diversity as a strength, while Republicans and Independents are less likely to hold this view.

Conclusion Section

The AP-NORC poll reveals that American attitudes toward immigration are complex and nuanced, with a significant partisan divide in the perception of both the risks and benefits. Amidst the changing public opinion, there seems to be an inclination towards more enforcement and security measures, albeit with bipartisan support for effective immigration management through the hiring of more Border Patrol agents. This range of views reflects the ongoing debate over immigration policy in the United States and underscores the challenges facing lawmakers as they seek common ground on this contentious issue.

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CAMPUS NEWS: MARCH 27, 2024

Real estate seminar, uno presents the 2024 dr. ivan miestchovich economic outlook & real estate forecast seminar on april 9.

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The 33rd annual Dr. Ivan Miestchovich Economic Outlook & Real Estate Forecast Seminar for New Orleans will be held April 9 at the University of New Orleans.

The 33rd annual Dr. Ivan Miestchovich Economic Outlook & Real Estate Forecast Seminar for New Orleans will be held April 9 at the University of New Orleans.

The University of New Orleans Institute for Economic Development & Real Estate Research will host the 33rd annual Dr. Ivan Miestchovich Economic Outlook & Real Estate Forecast Seminar for metropolitan New Orleans on Tuesday, April 9 from 9 a.m.-1 p.m. in the Sen. Ted Hickey Ballroom, located in the University Center of the University of New Orleans.

Seminar moderator Robert Penick, director of the UNO Institute for Economic Development & Real Estate Research, will provide opening remarks at 9 a.m.

At 9:10 a.m., Ali Bustamante, director of the UNO Division of Business and Economic Research, will moderate a discussion about the New Orleans metro economy with Louis David, president and CEO of the New Orleans Business Alliance, and Jerry Bologna, president and CEO of JEDCO.

At 9:50 a.m., Yvette Green, associate professor and chair of the Kabacoff School of Hotel, Restaurant and Tourism Administration, will lead a conversation about hospitality and tourism with Tom Leonard, president and CEO of HRI Hospitality; Beau Box, president and CEO of Beau Box Real Estate; and Octavio Mantilla, co-owner of BRG Hospitality.

At 10:30 a.m., Ron Henderson, deputy commissioner for consumer advocacy, will deliver remarks on behalf of the Louisiana Department of Insurance.

At 11:20 a.m., moderator Dan Mills, CEO of the Homebuilders Association of Greater New Orleans, will lead a discussion about the residential real estate market with Larry Schedler, president of Larry Schedler & Associates, Inc.; Craig Mirambell, CEO of Mirambell Realty; and Annie Clark, chief programs officer of Finance New Orleans. They will address multi-family properties, single family properties and affordable housing.

At 12:05 p.m., Michael Valleskey, associate research director of CBRE, Inc. will provide a national and regional overview of the commercial real estate market.

The event will conclude at 12:25 p.m. with a discussion about the metropolitan New Orleans real estate market moderated by Patrick Beard, corporate services advisor for NAI/Latter & Blum. Panelists include Jackie Dadakis, CEO of Green Coast Enterprises; Jeffrey Lahasky, president of the Lahasky Investment Group; and Andrew Marcus, real estate development and leasing with PMG Leasing.

All attendees are encouraged to pre-register by Tuesday, April 2. General admission is $50. Attendee check-in and networking begin at 8:30 a.m. Louisiana Real Estate Commission and Louisiana Appraisal Board continuing education hours (4) have been applied for.

UNO faculty, staff and students may attend for free, but must pre-register as well. Please visit realestate.uno.edu for more details and registration information.

The University of New Orleans and Bernhard announced the completion of a state-of-the-art solar array on the University’s campus Wednesday, March 27, which will offset UNO’s annual electric consumption.

University of New Orleans Partners With Bernhard to Launch Innovative Solar Array Installation

Carol Gelderman, former English professor and author known for her prolific writings, died March 8, 2024.

In Memoriam: English Professor and Author Carol Gelderman

UNO doctoral student Krystyn Dupree accepts her student research grant award at the American College Counseling Association’s annual meeting.

Doctoral Student Wins Counseling Association Research Grant

COMMENTS

  1. Economic crime, economic criminology, and serious crimes for economic gain: On the conceptual and disciplinary (dis)order of the object of study

    That said, interdisciplinary research on economic crime that pursues a more integrative, collaborative or multi-dimensional logic should be appealing to all of us researching economic crime in order to build fuller explanatory accounts of economic crime and its control by bringing together experts from different disciplines and enabling any ...

  2. What Does Federal Economic Crime Really Look Like?

    Key Findings. The economic crime guideline (§2B1.1) accounts for approximately ten percent of the federal caseload and encompasses a wide variety of conduct. Embezzlement and theft offenders consistently accounted for about one-quarter of all economic crime offenders, ranging from 24.6 to 28.3 percent during the five years studied.

  3. Full article: The Changing Face of Financial Crime: New Technologies

    Financial crime is a growing crime problem throughout the world. It is a trillion-dollar industry that takes an enormous social and economic toll on the lives it touches. The primary goal of this special issue was to explore the many dimensions of financial crime from the perspectives of victims (both individual and organizational) and offenders.

  4. Effects of Economic and Financial Crime on the Government ...

    The negative/destructive impact of economic and financial crimes on national budgets is confirmed by the vast majority of previous studies. McDowell (), who analysed the social and economic effects of money laundering, notes that money laundering significantly reduces government tax revenue.This means that it becomes more difficult for national governments to collect planned budget revenue.

  5. (PDF) What is 'economic' about 'economic crime'?

    Economic crime is that criminal behaviour whose effects disrupt or damage economic. done, for example, by means of an enumeration, as in the instructions issued. to the Swedish Economic Crimes ...

  6. Addressing the Effects of Economic Crime: Turning Vision into Strategy

    Fighting economic crime should not be a political issue, nor something that divides political opinion. Economic crime - from fraud against an individual, to professional service providers that abuse their trusted position to launder the proceeds of corruption, kleptocracy and money used to subvert democracy - should be a unifying foe.

  7. Data Science perspectives on Economic Crime

    Studying economic crime from a data science perspective offers unique insights and can inform the design of novel solutions. The results of such research are of eminent interest to governments, law enforcement, organizations, companies and civil society watchdogs. In light of this recent activity, there is a need to survey the field, to reflect ...

  8. The UK's Economic Crime Plan 2: Progress, Pitfalls and Prospects

    The UK's second Economic Crime Plan is on the right path, but the jury is out on whether it will achieve sustainable and long-lasting outcomes. ... Research Fellow. Centre for Financial Crime and Security Studies. View profile. Tackling the threat: cutting fraud is a central pillar of the Economic Crime Plan 2. Image: Nikish Hiraman / Adobe Stock

  9. Tackling economic crime

    The global framework for fighting financial crime. The amount of money laundered each year is estimated to range from 2 to 5% of global GDP, equaling nearly €1.87 trillion annually. The scale of the problem and its impact are immense - but it's not for want of investment. Research.

  10. Full article: Revisiting the economic theory of crime A state-level

    The economic theory of crime tends to suggest that deterrence variables have a significant impact on crime rates in a society. From an economic perspective, criminals are rational economic agents who weigh the likelihood of being arrested and apprehended before committing a crime. ... Economic Research-Ekonomska Istraživanja, 30(1), 91-111 ...

  11. What Do Recent Studies Say About Crime and Policing? Part 1

    Part 1. Crime plays a major role in the well-being of a community. It can influence where people live, where businesses locate and how local economies perform. Identifying causal effects, however, is difficult for a number of reasons. Still, a considerable amount of recent economic literature examines many aspects of crime.

  12. PDF What Does Federal Economic Crime Really Look Like?

    • The economic crime guideline (§2B1.1) accounts for approximately ten percent of the federal caseload and encompasses a wide variety of conduct. • Embezzlement and theft offenders consistently accounted for about one-quarter of all economic crime offenders, ranging from 24.6 to 28.3 percent during the five years studied.

  13. The Economics of Crime

    The Economics of Crime. in Virtual Issues. To think of crime in terms of risk and rewards, punishment and incentives has a long lineage. Jeremy Bentham in his 1830 book The Rationale for Punishment already applied utilitarian logic to the sanctions applied to criminal offenders. In economics itself, research in earnest began with the seminal ...

  14. I Research Economic Crime and Hang Out With Mexican Cartels

    I Research Economic Crime and Hang Out With Mexican Cartels. Bertrand Monnet is a professor, but his field work is a little... unusual. KK. by Kev Kharas. January 22, 2024, 6:36am. Share. Bertrand ...

  15. Symposium on Economic Crime

    The Commission collects, analyzes, and disseminates a broad array of information on federal crime and sentencing practices. In this section, you will find a comprehensive collection of research and data reports published on sentencing issues and other areas of federal crime.

  16. The Impact of Economic Activity on Criminal Behavior

    Executive Summary. According to economic theory, crime should decrease as economic growth and opportunity improve. That's because the incentive to engage in illegal activity decreases as legal avenues of earning income become more fruitful. However, there are documented cases where economic growth has led to higher crime rates.

  17. Ten Economic Facts about Crime and Incarceration in the ...

    This Hamilton Project policy memo provides ten economic facts highlighting recent trends in crime and incarceration in the United States. Specifically, it explores the characteristics of criminal ...

  18. (PDF) The economic theory of crime: the history and presence of

    The economic theory of crime: the history and presence of criminal thought in economic science and its gaps , en Iberian Journal of the History of Economic Thought 9(2), 139-145.

  19. Economics of Crime

    The Crime Working Group studies economic elements of the causes and consequences of crime, with particular emphasis on interventions in the criminal justice system and elsewhere that may lower crime rates. Jens Ludwig is the Edwin A. and Betty L. Bergman Distinguished Service Professor at the ...

  20. The Economic Challenges of Crime & Incarceration in the ...

    Crime rates in the United States have been falling steadily, but still constitute a serious economic and social challenge. At the same time, both crime scholars and policymakers alike question ...

  21. AP-NORC Poll: American Attitudes Toward Immigration's Impact ...

    A recent AP-NORC poll highlights growing concerns among Americans, particularly Republicans, about legal immigrants committing crimes in the United States. While many acknowledge that immigrants ...

  22. UNO Presents the 2024 Dr. Ivan Miestchovich Economic Outlook & Real

    The University of New Orleans Institute for Economic Development & Real Estate Research will host the 33rd annual Dr. Ivan Miestchovich Economic Outlook & Real Estate Forecast Seminar for metropolitan New Orleans on Tuesday, April 9 from 9 a.m.-1 p.m. in the Sen. Ted Hickey Ballroom, located in the University Center of the University of New Orleans. Seminar moderator Robert Penick, director of ...