200+ Action Research Topics for B.Ed Students [Updated 2024]

Action Research Topics for B.Ed Students

Starting your B.Ed journey is exciting for future teachers. One crucial aspect of this academic pursuit is action research – a dynamic process that bridges theory and practice, allowing students to delve into real-world educational challenges. In this blog, we will explore the significance of action research topics for b.ed students, shed light on the criteria for selecting engaging topics, and provide a comprehensive list of actionable research ideas.

Understanding Action Research in B.Ed

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Action research is not merely a theoretical concept; it’s a practical approach that encourages educators to actively engage in systematic inquiry to improve teaching and learning. In the context of B.Ed programs, it serves as a bridge between academic knowledge and the challenges faced in actual classrooms. 

This methodology empowers future educators to become reflective practitioners, constantly refining their teaching strategies based on evidence and experience.

How to Select Action Research Topics?

Selecting action research topics is a crucial step that can significantly impact the success and relevance of your research. Here’s a simplified guide on how to choose action research topics:

  • Identify Your Passion and Interests:
  • Consider what aspects of education or teaching excite you the most.
  • Reflect on your own experiences as a student or any challenges you’ve observed in educational settings.
  • Align with B.Ed Curriculum:
  • Ensure your chosen topic aligns with the curriculum of your B.Ed program.
  • Examine your course materials and note any places where you can put theoretical ideas to use in practical situations.
  • Address Current Educational Issues:
  • Keep informed on contemporary issues and developments in education.
  • Choose a topic that addresses a relevant and pressing issue in the field, contributing to ongoing discussions.
  • Consider Feasibility:
  • Assess the feasibility of your research topic within the constraints of time and resources.
  • Ensure that the scope of your research is manageable and can be realistically implemented.
  • Potential for Impact:
  • Evaluate the potential impact of your research on teaching and learning.
  • Aim for topics that have practical implications and can bring about positive changes in educational practices.
  • Consult with Mentors and Instructors:
  • Seek guidance from your mentors, instructors, or advisors.
  • Discuss your ideas with them to receive valuable insights and suggestions for refining your research topic.
  • Brainstorm and Research:
  • Make a list of possible subjects that fit the above-mentioned requirements and correspond with your interests.
  • Conduct preliminary research to ensure there is enough existing literature and resources to support your chosen topic.
  • Narrow Down Your Options:
  • Evaluate each potential topic based on relevance, feasibility, and potential impact.
  • Narrow down your options to one or two topics that best meet the criteria and align with your goals.
  • Ensure Personal Connection:
  • Select a subject that speaks to you personally. Your passion and commitment to the subject will enhance the quality of your research.
  • Get Feedback:
  • Share your shortlisted topics with peers, mentors, or classmates.
  • Gather feedback to ensure your chosen topic is well-received and has support within your academic community.

200+ Action Research Topics for B.Ed Students: Category Wise

Classroom management and discipline.

  • The impact of positive reinforcement on student behavior.
  • Strategies for managing disruptive behavior in the classroom.
  • The effectiveness of peer mediation in resolving conflicts among students.
  • Creating a culturally responsive approach to classroom discipline.
  • Investigating the influence of classroom layout on student behavior.
  • Implementing restorative justice practices in schools.
  • Examining the role of teacher-student relationships in classroom discipline.
  • Assessing the impact of mindfulness practices on student behavior.

Teaching Strategies and Methods

  • Differentiating instruction to meet diverse learning needs.
  • The effectiveness of project-based learning in enhancing student engagement.
  • Exploring flipped classroom models in B.Ed teaching.
  • Investigating the impact of cooperative learning strategies.
  • Adapting teaching methods for students with diverse learning styles.
  • The use of educational technology in improving learning outcomes.
  • The impact of inquiry-based learning on critical thinking skills.
  • Exploring the effectiveness of outdoor education.

Student Engagement and Motivation

  • Investigating factors influencing student motivation in mathematics.
  • The role of extracurricular activities in promoting student engagement.
  • Strategies for fostering a growth mindset in students.
  • Enhancing student motivation through gamification in education.
  • Investigating the impact of teacher enthusiasm on student motivation.
  • The role of peer collaboration in increasing student engagement.
  • Examining the impact of culturally relevant teaching on student motivation.
  • Strategies for motivating unmotivated students in the classroom.

Assessment and Evaluation

  • The impact of formative assessment on student learning outcomes.
  • Investigating the effectiveness of self-assessment in student evaluation.
  • Strategies for reducing bias in assessment and grading.
  • Exploring alternative methods for assessing student creativity.
  • The impact of standardized testing on student stress levels.
  • Designing authentic assessments for real-world application.
  • Investigating the role of feedback in student performance improvement.
  • Strategies for promoting self-regulated learning through assessment.

Inclusive Education

  • The effectiveness of inclusive classrooms in promoting diversity.
  • Strategies for supporting students with learning disabilities.
  • Investigating the impact of inclusive education on peer relationships.
  • Creating an inclusive curriculum for students with diverse needs.
  • The role of teacher attitudes in promoting inclusive practices.
  • Strategies for addressing unconscious bias in the classroom.
  • The impact of inclusive education on the social-emotional development of students.
  • Designing inclusive assessments for all learners.

Parent and Community Involvement

  • The role of parental involvement in student academic achievement.
  • Strategies for enhancing communication between teachers and parents.
  • Investigating the impact of community partnerships on student success.
  • Creating a positive home-school connection for student support.
  • Strategies for involving parents in students’ homework and study routines.
  • The role of community resources in addressing student needs.
  • Examining the impact of parent-teacher conferences on student performance.
  • Strategies for involving parents in school decision-making.

English Language Learning (ELL)

  • The impact of language immersion programs on ELL student outcomes.
  • Strategies for supporting ELL students in mainstream classrooms.
  • Investigating the effectiveness of bilingual education programs.
  • Creating a culturally responsive approach to teaching English.
  • The role of technology in supporting ELL students.
  • Strategies for promoting language development in ELL students.
  • Exploring the impact of teacher attitudes on ELL student success.
  • The effectiveness of language support programs for ELL students.

Special Education

  • Strategies for promoting inclusive practices in special education.
  • Investigating the impact of assistive technology on student learning.
  • Creating individualized education plans (IEPs) for student success.
  • The role of teacher collaboration in supporting special education students.
  • Strategies for addressing behavioral challenges in special education settings.
  • The impact of inclusive classrooms on students with autism spectrum disorders.
  • Investigating the effectiveness of speech and language therapy in schools.
  • Creating sensory-friendly environments for special education students.

Educational Leadership

  • The impact of distributed leadership on school culture.
  • Strategies for fostering teacher leadership in schools.
  • Investigating the role of school leadership in teacher retention.
  • Creating a positive school climate through effective leadership.
  • The impact of professional development on leadership skills.
  • Strategies for promoting shared decision-making in schools.
  • Investigating the role of emotional intelligence in educational leadership.
  • The effectiveness of mentorship programs for new teachers.

Classroom Environment

  • Investigating the impact of classroom aesthetics on student well-being.
  • Strategies for creating a positive and inclusive classroom climate.
  • The role of flexible seating arrangements in student engagement.
  • Designing a culturally responsive classroom environment.
  • Investigating the impact of classroom lighting on student focus.
  • Strategies for promoting a sense of belonging in the classroom.
  • The effectiveness of incorporating nature in the classroom.
  • Investigating the role of classroom layout on collaborative learning.

Technology Integration

  • Strategies for integrating digital literacy skills into the curriculum.
  • Investigating the impact of virtual reality in educational settings.
  • Creating a responsible approach to social media use in education.
  • The role of online platforms in promoting student collaboration.
  • Strategies for addressing the digital divide in schools.
  • Investigating the impact of blended learning on student outcomes.
  • The effectiveness of gamified learning apps in the classroom.
  • Exploring the use of artificial intelligence in education.

Professional Development

  • Strategies for promoting ongoing professional development for teachers.
  • Investigating the impact of peer mentoring on teacher effectiveness.
  • The role of teacher collaboration in professional growth.
  • Designing effective workshops for teacher skill enhancement.
  • Investigating the impact of reflective practices on teacher development.
  • Strategies for addressing burnout and promoting teacher well-being.
  • The role of action research in teacher professional development.
  • The effectiveness of online professional development courses.

Literacy Development

  • Investigating the impact of reading interventions on struggling readers.
  • Strategies for promoting literacy across subject areas.
  • The role of parental involvement in promoting early literacy.
  • Exploring the impact of storytelling on language development.
  • Strategies for addressing literacy challenges in diverse student populations.
  • The effectiveness of using technology in literacy instruction.
  • Investigating the impact of library programs on student reading habits.
  • Promoting a love for reading through innovative literacy initiatives.

Mathematics Education

  • Strategies for promoting conceptual understanding in mathematics.
  • Investigating the impact of real-world applications in math instruction.
  • The role of formative assessment in improving math performance.
  • Designing effective math interventions for struggling students.
  • Investigating the impact of technology in mathematics education.
  • Strategies for promoting a growth mindset in math learning.
  • The effectiveness of collaborative learning in math classrooms.
  • Investigating the role of teacher enthusiasm in math engagement.

Science Education

  • Strategies for promoting hands-on learning in science classrooms.
  • Investigating the impact of outdoor education on science understanding.
  • The role of inquiry-based learning in science education.
  • Designing effective science experiments for student engagement.
  • Investigating the impact of STEM programs on student interest.
  • Strategies for promoting environmental education in schools.
  • The effectiveness of science fairs in promoting scientific inquiry.
  • Investigating the role of teacher modeling in science instruction.

Social Studies Education

  • Strategies for promoting critical thinking in social studies.
  • Investigating the impact of project-based learning in social studies.
  • The role of cultural sensitivity in social studies curriculum.
  • Designing effective field trips for social studies education.
  • Investigating the impact of current events in social studies instruction.
  • Strategies for addressing bias in social studies textbooks.
  • The effectiveness of using primary sources in social studies classes.
  • Investigating the role of debate in social studies learning.

Arts Education

  • Strategies for integrating the arts into STEM education.
  • Investigating the impact of arts education on overall academic achievement.
  • The role of arts education in promoting creativity and innovation.
  • Designing effective arts programs for students with diverse abilities.
  • Investigating the impact of music education on cognitive development.
  • Strategies for promoting inclusivity in arts education.
  • The effectiveness of drama and theater in enhancing student communication skills.
  • Investigating the role of visual arts in fostering cultural awareness.

Physical Education

  • Strategies for promoting lifelong fitness habits in students.
  • Investigating the impact of physical education on academic performance.
  • The role of technology in enhancing physical education classes.
  • Designing effective physical education programs for students with disabilities.
  • Investigating the impact of outdoor activities on physical and mental well-being.
  • Strategies for promoting teamwork and cooperation in physical education.
  • The effectiveness of mindfulness practices in physical education.
  • Investigating the role of physical activity in reducing stress among students.

Health Education

  • Strategies for promoting health literacy in schools.
  • Investigating the impact of nutrition education on student habits.
  • The role of mental health education in schools.
  • Designing effective sex education programs for diverse student populations.
  • Investigating the impact of mindfulness practices on student well-being.
  • Strategies for addressing substance abuse education in schools.
  • The effectiveness of peer-led health education programs.
  • Investigating the role of physical activity in promoting overall health.

Environmental Education

  • Strategies for promoting environmental literacy in schools.
  • Investigating the impact of outdoor education on environmental awareness.
  • The role of sustainability education in the curriculum.
  • Designing effective environmental science programs.
  • Investigating the impact of school gardens on student learning.
  • Strategies for promoting eco-friendly practices in schools.
  • The effectiveness of community-based environmental projects.
  • Investigating the role of technology in environmental education.

Early Childhood Education

  • Strategies for promoting play-based learning in early childhood.
  • Investigating the impact of parental involvement in early education.
  • The role of early literacy development in overall academic success.
  • Designing effective transition programs for kindergarten readiness.
  • Investigating the impact of technology in early childhood classrooms.
  • Strategies for promoting social-emotional development in young children.
  • The effectiveness of inclusive practices in early childhood education.
  • Investigating the role of outdoor play in early childhood development.

Higher Education

  • Strategies for promoting student engagement in college classrooms.
  • Investigating the impact of online learning on student outcomes.
  • The role of mentorship programs in supporting college students.
  • Designing effective study skills programs for university success.
  • Investigating the impact of student support services on retention.
  • Strategies for addressing mental health challenges in higher education.
  • The effectiveness of peer-led tutoring programs.
  • Investigating the role of technology in higher education.

Educational Policy and Reform

  • Strategies for promoting teacher involvement in policy development.
  • Investigating the impact of standardized testing on educational equity.
  • The role of teacher evaluation systems in promoting professional growth.
  • Designing effective professional development policies for educators.
  • Investigating the impact of inclusive education policies on student outcomes.
  • Strategies for addressing school funding disparities.
  • The effectiveness of school choice programs in improving education.
  • Investigating the role of community involvement in educational policy.

Global Education

  • Strategies for promoting global citizenship in classrooms.
  • Investigating the impact of international exchange programs on student perspectives.
  • The role of technology in connecting students globally.
  • Designing effective multicultural education programs.
  • Investigating the impact of global issues in the curriculum.
  • Strategies for promoting cultural competence in teacher education.
  • The effectiveness of language immersion programs in promoting global awareness.
  • Investigating the role of service learning in global education.

Teacher Well-being

  • Strategies for promoting teacher well-being and mental health.
  • Investigating the impact of work-life balance on teacher effectiveness.
  • The role of professional development in reducing teacher burnout.
  • Designing effective stress management programs for educators.
  • Investigating the impact of school leadership on teacher job satisfaction.
  • Strategies for addressing teacher turnover in schools.
  • The effectiveness of mindfulness practices in reducing teacher stress.
  • Investigating the role of supportive school environments in teacher well-being .

Steps to Conduct Action Research in B.Ed

To embark on a successful action research journey, B.Ed students should follow a structured process:

  • Formulating a Clear Research Question: Clearly define the problem or challenge you aim to address.
  • Conducting a Literature Review: Explore existing research to inform and contextualize your study.
  • Designing the Research Methodology: Plan the research approach, including data collection methods and analysis.
  • Collecting and Analyzing Data: Gather relevant data and analyze it to draw meaningful conclusions.
  • Drawing Conclusions and Making Recommendations: Synthesize your findings and propose actionable recommendations.

Benefits of Action Research Topics for B.Ed Students

Engaging in action research offers numerous benefits for B.Ed students:

  • Professional Development Opportunities: Action research enhances educators’ professional growth by fostering a reflective and iterative approach to teaching.
  • Enhancing Problem-Solving and Critical Thinking Skills: Students develop strong problem-solving and critical thinking skills as they navigate real-world educational challenges.
  • Contributing to the Improvement of Teaching Practices: Action research enables educators to actively contribute to the continuous improvement of teaching practices within their classrooms and beyond.

In conclusion, action research is a powerful tool that empowers B.Ed students to bridge the gap between theory and practice. By carefully selecting relevant and engaging topics, students can embark on a transformative journey that not only enhances their academic experience but also contributes to the broader field of education. 

As we encourage B.Ed students to explore and engage in meaningful Action Research Topics for B.Ed Students, we pave the way for a future generation of educators committed to continuous improvement and excellence in teaching.

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181+ Good Action Research Topics For B.Ed Students In 2024-25

181+ Good Action Research Topics For B.Ed Students In 2024-25

Interested in learning about Action Research Topics for B.Ed Students? B.Ed students use Action Research to connect classroom ideas with practical teaching methods, making learning more exciting. 

This research helps teachers explore and improve their teaching approaches, ensuring constant progress. Our guide covers a range of engaging topics, such as creative teaching methods and better ways to manage classrooms. 

These Action Research Topics for B.Ed students are designed to encourage thinking, improve teaching skills, and contribute to making education even better.

Must Know: Public Administration Research Topics

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What Is Action Research Topics?

What are Action Research Topics? These topics are about B.Ed students doing practical studies to make their teaching better. They look at real classroom issues and find practical solutions for improved education. Instead of just learning theories, B.Ed students actively research and try out better ways to teach. 

Action Research Topics cover different parts of teaching, from fun methods to managing classrooms well. This way of learning encourages hands-on experiences and ongoing improvement in teaching, benefiting both teachers and students.

How Do I Find An Action Research Topic, And How Do I Learn From It?

Wondering how to pick a topic for Action Research and make the most of it? Start by looking at your classroom and finding things that could be better. Think about the problems you and your students face. Once you have a topic, find simple and practical solutions.

To learn from your Action Research, follow these steps:

How Do I Find An Action Research Topic, And How Do I Learn From It?

  • Gather Information: Collect data about your topic, like student performance, feedback, or observations.
  • Think About It: Look at the data and think about what it tells you about your teaching and the learning environment.
  • Make Changes: Based on what you find, make small, easy changes to how you teach.
  • Check: See if your changes help. What did you learn from trying new things?
  • Talk To Others: Share what you found with your friends at work. They might have good ideas, too.

Remember, the goal is to get better, so don’t be afraid to change things if necessary.

List of 181+ Good Action Research Topics For B.Ed Students

Here’s a diverse list of 200 Action Research Topics categorized across various educational levels and fields:

Best Action Research Topics For Early Childhood Education (Preschool/Kindergarten)

  • Enhancing Social Skills Development in Preschoolers
  • Promoting Early Literacy Skills through Play-Based Learning
  • Investigating the Impact of Outdoor Education on Preschool Learning
  • Strategies for Managing Challenging Behaviors in Kindergarten Classrooms
  • Implementing Multisensory Learning Approaches in Early Childhood Education

Latest Action Research Topics For Elementary School

  • Exploring Differentiated Instruction Techniques for Elementary Math
  • Fostering Creativity and Imagination in Elementary Art Education
  • Investigating the Benefits of Storytelling in Language Arts for Elementary Students
  • Promoting STEM Education in Elementary Science Classes
  • Strategies for Enhancing Physical Education in Elementary Schools

Great Action Research Topics For Middle School

  • Addressing Bullying and Peer Conflict Resolution Strategies
  • Implementing Character Education Programs in Middle Schools
  • Investigating the Impact of Technology Integration in Middle School Curriculum
  • Enhancing Critical Thinking Skills in Middle School Social Studies
  • Strategies for Supporting Emotional Well-being in Middle School Students

Cool Action Research Topics For High School

  • Exploring Project-Based Learning in High School Mathematics
  • Investigating the Effects of Mindfulness Practices on High School Students
  • Promoting Career Readiness Skills through High School Vocational Programs
  • Strategies for Preventing High School Dropout Rates
  • Enhancing College Readiness Skills in High School English Classes

Most Interesting Action Research Topics For College Students

  • Investigating Study Habits and Academic Performance Among College Students
  • Promoting Mental Health Awareness and Support Services on College Campuses
  • Exploring the Impact of Peer Mentoring Programs for College Freshmen
  • Strategies for Improving Time Management Skills for College Students
  • Investigating the Role of Experiential Learning in College STEM Education

Top Rated Action Research Topics For B.Ed Students

  • Enhancing Research Skills and Methodologies in Graduate Programs
  • Investigating the Effects of Online Learning on Graduate Student Engagement
  • Promoting Work-Life Balance Strategies for Graduate Students
  • Exploring the Impact of Faculty Mentorship on Graduate Student Success
  • Strategies for Enhancing Dissertation Writing and Completion Rates

Special Education Action Research Topics For B.Ed Students

  • Investigating Inclusive Classroom Practices for Students with Disabilities
  • Exploring Assistive Technology Tools for Students with Special Needs
  • Promoting Social Skills Development in Special Education Settings
  • Strategies for Supporting Neurodiverse Learners in the Classroom
  • Enhancing Communication Skills for Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

English Language Learners (ELL/ESL) Action Research Topics For Students

  • Investigating Language Acquisition Strategies for English Language Learners
  • Exploring Culturally Responsive Teaching Practices for ELL Students
  • Promoting Language Development Through Storytelling and Drama Activities
  • Strategies for Integrating Language Support in Content-Area Instruction
  • Enhancing Academic Vocabulary Acquisition for ELL Students

Science Education Action Research Topics For B.Ed Students

  • Investigating Inquiry-Based Learning Approaches in Science Education
  • Exploring Environmental Education Strategies for Science Classrooms
  • Promoting Hands-On Learning in Chemistry and Physics Education
  • Strategies for Integrating STEM Education Across the Curriculum
  • Enhancing Science Literacy Skills Through Project-Based Learning

Mathematics Education

  • Investigating Problem-Solving Strategies in Mathematics Education
  • Exploring Differentiated Instruction in Math Classrooms
  • Promoting Real-World Applications of Mathematics
  • Strategies for Improving Math Anxiety Among Students
  • Enhancing Conceptual Understanding in Algebra and Geometry Education

Social Studies Education

  • Investigating Historical Inquiry-Based Learning in Social Studies
  • Exploring Global Citizenship Education Strategies
  • Promoting Civic Engagement and Service Learning in Social Studies
  • Strategies for Teaching Controversial Topics in History Classrooms
  • Enhancing Critical Thinking Skills in Geography Education

Arts Education

  • Investigating Arts Integration Across the Curriculum
  • Exploring Creativity and Innovation in Visual Arts Education
  • Promoting Cultural Diversity Through Music Education
  • Strategies for Integrating Drama and Theater Arts in Education
  • Enhancing Media Literacy Skills in Digital Arts Education

Physical Education

  • Investigating the Impact of Physical Activity on Academic Performance
  • Exploring Health Education and Wellness Programs
  • Promoting Inclusive Physical Education for Students with Disabilities
  • Strategies for Integrating Technology in Physical Education Classes
  • Enhancing Motor Skills Development in Early Childhood Physical Education

Educational Technology

  • Investigating the Use of Gamification in Educational Technology
  • Exploring Blended Learning Models in Technology Integration
  • Promoting Digital Citizenship and Internet Safety Skills
  • Strategies for Implementing Flipped Classroom Approaches
  • Enhancing Accessibility and Universal Design in Educational Technology

Teacher Professional Development

  • Investigating Effective Strategies for Teacher Collaboration and PLCs
  • Exploring Reflective Practice and Action Research in Teacher PD
  • Promoting Culturally Responsive Teaching Training for Educators
  • Strategies for Supporting New Teacher Induction and Mentoring Programs
  • Enhancing Teacher Well-being and Burnout Prevention Strategies

Curriculum Development

  • Investigating Curriculum Mapping and Alignment Strategies
  • Exploring Interdisciplinary Curriculum Design Models
  • Promoting Project-Based Learning Across Subject Areas
  • Strategies for Integrating Social-Emotional Learning (SEL) into the Curriculum
  • Enhancing Differentiated Instruction in Curriculum Planning

Assessment and Evaluation

  • Investigating Formative Assessment Strategies for Student Feedback
  • Exploring Authentic Assessment Methods in Education
  • Promoting Fair and Equitable Grading Practices
  • Strategies for Implementing Standards-Based Assessment and Reporting
  • Enhancing Data-Driven Decision Making in Education

Classroom Management

  • Investigating Positive Behavior Intervention and Support (PBIS) Strategies
  • Exploring Restorative Justice Practices in Classroom Discipline
  • Promoting Student-Centered Classroom Management Approaches
  • Strategies for Building Positive Teacher-Student Relationships
  • Enhancing Time Management and Organization Skills for Teachers

Literacy Education

  • Investigating Phonics Instruction Strategies in Early Literacy
  • Exploring Comprehension Strategies for Reading Fluency
  • Promoting Writing Workshop Approaches in Language Arts
  • Strategies for Differentiating Reading Instruction for Diverse Learners
  • Enhancing Literacy Skills Through Multimodal Texts and Digital Literacy

Gifted Education

  • Investigating Enrichment and Acceleration Strategies for Gifted Students
  • Exploring Talent Development and Creativity in Gifted Education
  • Promoting Social and Emotional Support for Gifted Learners
  • Strategies for Differentiating Instruction in Gifted Education Programs
  • Enhancing Critical Thinking and Problem-Solving Skills for Gifted Learners

Career and Technical Education (CTE)

  • Investigating Industry-Driven CTE Programs and Pathways
  • Exploring Work-Based Learning Experiences for Career Readiness
  • Promoting Entrepreneurship Education in CTE Curriculum
  • Strategies for Integrating STEM Skills into CTE Programs
  • Enhancing Industry Certifications and Credentialing in CTE

Environmental Education

  • Investigating Environmental Stewardship and Sustainability Education
  • Exploring Outdoor and Experiential Learning in Environmental Education
  • Promoting Environmental Justice and Advocacy
  • Strategies for Integrating Climate Change Education into the Curriculum
  • Enhancing Environmental Literacy Through Community Partnerships
  • Investigating the Impact of Nature-Based Education on Student Well-being
  • Exploring Eco-friendly Practices in School Operations and Facilities
  • Promoting Conservation Education and Wildlife Preservation Awareness
  • Strategies for Implementing Green Initiatives in Educational Institutions
  • Enhancing Student-led Environmental Action Projects in Schools

Early Intervention Education

  • Investigating Early Intervention Strategies for At-Risk Students
  • Exploring Play-Based Learning for Early Childhood Development
  • Promoting Social-Emotional Skills in Early Intervention Programs
  • Strategies for Addressing Learning Disabilities in Early Education
  • Enhancing Parental Involvement in Early Intervention Education

Multicultural Education

  • Investigating Culturally Responsive Teaching in Multicultural Classrooms
  • Exploring Global Citizenship Education and Cross-Cultural Understanding
  • Promoting Diversity and Inclusion Initiatives in Educational Settings
  • Strategies for Fostering Intercultural Competence Among Students
  • Enhancing Bilingual Education Programs and Language Acquisition

Classroom Technology Integration

  • Investigating the Impact of Interactive Whiteboards on Classroom Learning
  • Exploring the Use of Educational Apps for Student Engagement
  • Promoting Digital Citizenship and Online Safety Education
  • Strategies for Flipping the Classroom Using Online Resources
  • Enhancing Virtual Reality (VR) and Augmented Reality (AR) in Education

Social-Emotional Learning (SEL)

  • Investigating SEL Programs for Emotional Intelligence Development
  • Exploring Mindfulness Practices in Social-Emotional Learning
  • Promoting Conflict Resolution Skills in SEL Curriculum
  • Strategies for Fostering Empathy and Compassion Among Students
  • Enhancing Resilience and Coping Skills Through SEL Initiatives

Restorative Justice in Education

  • Investigating Restorative Circles for Conflict Resolution in Schools
  • Exploring Restorative Practices in Disciplinary Actions
  • Promoting Community-Building Through Restorative Justice
  • Strategies for Implementing Restorative Justice in Diverse Settings
  • Enhancing Restorative Justice Training for Educators and Students

Inclusive Education

  • Exploring Universal Design for Learning (UDL) in Inclusive Education
  • Promoting Peer Support and Collaboration in Inclusive Settings
  • Strategies for Differentiating Instruction for Diverse Learning Needs
  • Enhancing Accessibility and Accommodations in Inclusive Classrooms

Positive Psychology in Education

  • Investigating Positive Education Programs for Student Well-being
  • Exploring Strengths-Based Approaches in Positive Psychology
  • Promoting Gratitude and Mindfulness Practices in Schools
  • Strategies for Fostering a Positive School Climate and Culture
  • Enhancing Positive Teacher-Student Relationships

Inquiry-Based Learning

  • Investigating Inquiry-Based Science Education in Elementary Schools
  • Exploring Project-Based Inquiry in High School Humanities Classes
  • Promoting Student-Led Inquiry Projects Across Subjects
  • Strategies for Incorporating Inquiry-Based Learning in Mathematics
  • Enhancing Critical Thinking Through Inquiry-Based Learning

Cooperative Learning

  • Investigating Cooperative Learning Strategies in Elementary Math
  • Exploring Group Projects for Cooperative Learning in High School
  • Promoting Collaborative Problem-Solving Skills in Teams
  • Strategies for Facilitating Effective Group Discussions
  • Enhancing Peer Collaboration in Science and Social Studies Classes

Experiential Learning

  • Investigating Experiential Learning in Outdoor Education Programs
  • Exploring Service-Learning Projects for Civic Engagement
  • Promoting Field Trips and Educational Excursions
  • Strategies for Integrating Real-World Experiences into the Curriculum
  • Enhancing Internship Programs for College and Graduate Students

Motivation in Education

  • Investigating Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation in the Classroom
  • Exploring Goal-Setting Strategies for Student Achievement
  • Promoting Growth Mindset and Resilience in Learning
  • Strategies for Recognizing and Rewarding Student Efforts
  • Enhancing Motivational Strategies for Different Learning Styles

Outdoor Education

  • Investigating Outdoor Classroom Spaces and Natural Learning Environments
  • Exploring Wilderness Education and Outdoor Adventure Programs
  • Promoting Environmental Education through Outdoor Activities
  • Strategies for Integrating Gardening and Sustainable Practices
  • Enhancing Team-Building and Leadership Skills in Outdoor Education

Peer Mentoring in Education

  • Investigating Peer Tutoring Programs for Academic Support
  • Exploring Cross-Age Peer Mentoring in Elementary Schools
  • Promoting Peer Mentoring for Social and Emotional Well-being
  • Strategies for Building Peer Relationships in Inclusive Settings
  • Enhancing Peer Mentorship Programs in Higher Education

Educational Leadership

  • Investigating Transformational Leadership in School Administration
  • Exploring Distributed Leadership Models in Educational Institutions
  • Promoting Ethical Leadership Practices in Educational Settings
  • Strategies for Building a Positive School Culture and Climate
  • Enhancing Professional Development for School Leaders

How Should I Start With Action Research?

Starting with action research involves several key steps. Here’s a simple guide to help you begin:

  • Look at your classroom and choose something you want to make better, like how students participate or behave.
  • Turn your idea into a simple question. For example, “How can I get students to talk more during class?”
  • Look for books or articles about your topic to learn what others have done.
  • Decide what you’ll do to improve things in your classroom, like trying new activities or changing the way you teach.
  • Put your plan into action in your classroom and see how it goes.
  • Write down what happens as you try out your plan, like what works well and what doesn’t.
  • Take a good look at your notes to see what worked and what didn’t.
  • Spend some time thinking about what you learned from trying out your plan.
  • Share what you found with other teachers so they can learn from your experience too.
  • Decide if you want to try something else or make changes based on what you learned. Then, start the process again.

Most Recent Action Research Topics For B.Ed Students PDF

Here are the most interesting action research topics for B.Ed students: 

What Are Some Examples Of Action Research And Applied Research?

Exploring different types of research can be simpler than you think! Action research involves teachers trying new ideas in the classroom, while applied research looks at bigger questions, like how technology affects learning.

In closing, exploring Action Research topics for B.Ed students is like opening the door to improving teaching methods. By looking into things like making classes more interesting, finding better ways to handle behavior, or trying out new teaching approaches, educators continuously get better at what they do. 

This mix of learning theories and hands-on practice helps teachers not only improve their teaching skills but also contribute to the ongoing changes in education. 

B.Ed students, in exploring these topics, not only get better at teaching but also add to the growing pool of knowledge that helps create a lively and effective learning experience for everyone.

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4 Preparing for Action Research in the Classroom: Practical Issues


  • What sort of considerations are necessary to take action in your educational context?
  • How do you facilitate an action plan without disrupting your teaching?
  • How do you respond when the unplanned happens during data collection?

An action research project is a practical endeavor that will ultimately be shaped by your educational context and practice. Now that you have developed a literature review, you are ready to revise your initial plans and begin to plan your project. This chapter will provide some advice about your considerations when undertaking an action research project in your classroom.

Maintain Focus

Hopefully, you found a lot a research on your topic. If so, you will now have a better understanding of how it fits into your area and field of educational research. Even though the topic and area you are researching may not be small, your study itself should clearly focus on one aspect of the topic in your classroom. It is important to maintain clarity about what you are investigating because a lot will be going on simultaneously during the research process and you do not want to spend precious time on erroneous aspects that are irrelevant to your research.

Even though you may view your practice as research, and vice versa, you might want to consider your research project as a projection or megaphone for your work that will bring attention to the small decisions that make a difference in your educational context. From experience, our concern is that you will find that researching one aspect of your practice will reveal other interconnected aspects that you may find interesting, and you will disorient yourself researching in a confluence of interests, commitments, and purposes. We simply want to emphasize – don’t try to research everything at once. Stay focused on your topic, and focus on exploring it in depth, instead of its many related aspects. Once you feel you have made progress in one aspect, you can then progress to other related areas, as new research projects that continue the research cycle.

Identify a Clear Research Question

Your literature review should have exposed you to an array of research questions related to your topic. More importantly, your review should have helped identify which research questions we have addressed as a field, and which ones still need to be addressed . More than likely your research questions will resemble ones from your literature review, while also being distinguishable based upon your own educational context and the unexplored areas of research on your topic.

Regardless of how your research question took shape, it is important to be clear about what you are researching in your educational context. Action research questions typically begin in ways related to “How does … ?” or “How do I/we … ?”, for example:

Research Question Examples

  • How does a semi-structured morning meeting improve my classroom community?
  • How does historical fiction help students think about people’s agency in the past?
  • How do I improve student punctuation use through acting out sentences?
  • How do we increase student responsibility for their own learning as a team of teachers?

I particularly favor questions with I or we, because they emphasize that you, the actor and researcher, will be clearly taking action to improve your practice. While this may seem rather easy, you need to be aware of asking the right kind of question. One issue is asking a too pointed and closed question that limits the possibility for analysis. These questions tend to rely on quantitative answers, or yes/no answers. For example, “How many students got a 90% or higher on the exam, after reviewing the material three times?

Another issue is asking a question that is too broad, or that considers too many variables. For example, “How does room temperature affect students’ time-on-task?” These are obviously researchable questions, but the aim is a cause-and-effect relationship between variables that has little or no value to your daily practice.

I also want to point out that your research question will potentially change as the research develops. If you consider the question:

As you do an activity, you may find that students are more comfortable and engaged by acting sentences out in small groups, instead of the whole class. Therefore, your question may shift to:

  • How do I improve student punctuation use through acting out sentences, in small groups ?

By simply engaging in the research process and asking questions, you will open your thinking to new possibilities and you will develop new understandings about yourself and the problematic aspects of your educational context.

Understand Your Capabilities and Know that Change Happens Slowly

Similar to your research question, it is important to have a clear and realistic understanding of what is possible to research in your specific educational context. For example, would you be able to address unsatisfactory structures (policies and systems) within your educational context? Probably not immediately, but over time you potentially could. It is much more feasible to think of change happening in smaller increments, from within your own classroom or context, with you as one change agent. For example, you might find it particularly problematic that your school or district places a heavy emphasis on traditional grades, believing that these grades are often not reflective of the skills students have or have not mastered. Instead of attempting to research grading practices across your school or district, your research might instead focus on determining how to provide more meaningful feedback to students and parents about progress in your course. While this project identifies and addresses a structural issue that is part of your school and district context, to keep things manageable, your research project would focus the outcomes on your classroom. The more research you do related to the structure of your educational context the more likely modifications will emerge. The more you understand these modifications in relation to the structural issues you identify within your own context, the more you can influence others by sharing your work and enabling others to understand the modification and address structural issues within their contexts. Throughout your project, you might determine that modifying your grades to be standards-based is more effective than traditional grades, and in turn, that sharing your research outcomes with colleagues at an in-service presentation prompts many to adopt a similar model in their own classrooms. It can be defeating to expect the world to change immediately, but you can provide the spark that ignites coordinated changes. In this way, action research is a powerful methodology for enacting social change. Action research enables individuals to change their own lives, while linking communities of like-minded practitioners who work towards action.

Plan Thoughtfully

Planning thoughtfully involves having a path in mind, but not necessarily having specific objectives. Due to your experience with students and your educational context, the research process will often develop in ways as you expected, but at times it may develop a little differently, which may require you to shift the research focus and change your research question. I will suggest a couple methods to help facilitate this potential shift. First, you may want to develop criteria for gauging the effectiveness of your research process. You may need to refine and modify your criteria and your thinking as you go. For example, we often ask ourselves if action research is encouraging depth of analysis beyond my typical daily pedagogical reflection. You can think about this as you are developing data collection methods and even when you are collecting data. The key distinction is whether the data you will be collecting allows for nuance among the participants or variables. This does not mean that you will have nuance, but it should allow for the possibility. Second, criteria are shaped by our values and develop into standards of judgement. If we identify criteria such as teacher empowerment, then we will use that standard to think about the action contained in our research process. Our values inform our work; therefore, our work should be judged in relation to the relevance of our values in our pedagogy and practice.

Does Your Timeline Work?

While action research is situated in the temporal span that is your life, your research project is short-term, bounded, and related to the socially mediated practices within your educational context. The timeline is important for bounding, or setting limits to your research project, while also making sure you provide the right amount of time for the data to emerge from the process.

For example, if you are thinking about examining the use of math diaries in your classroom, you probably do not want to look at a whole semester of entries because that would be a lot of data, with entries related to a wide range of topics. This would create a huge data analysis endeavor. Therefore, you may want to look at entries from one chapter or unit of study. Also, in terms of timelines, you want to make sure participants have enough time to develop the data you collect. Using the same math example, you would probably want students to have plenty of time to write in the journals, and also space out the entries over the span of the chapter or unit.

In relation to the examples, we think it is an important mind shift to not think of research timelines in terms of deadlines. It is vitally important to provide time and space for the data to emerge from the participants. Therefore, it would be potentially counterproductive to rush a 50-minute data collection into 20 minutes – like all good educators, be flexible in the research process.

Involve Others

It is important to not isolate yourself when doing research. Many educators are already isolated when it comes to practice in their classroom. The research process should be an opportunity to engage with colleagues and open up your classroom to discuss issues that are potentially impacting your entire educational context. Think about the following relationships:

Research participants

You may invite a variety of individuals in your educational context, many with whom you are in a shared situation (e.g. colleagues, administrators). These participants may be part of a collaborative study, they may simply help you develop data collection instruments or intervention items, or they may help to analyze and make sense of the data. While the primary research focus will be you and your learning, you will also appreciate how your learning is potentially influencing the quality of others’ learning.

We always tell educators to be public about your research, or anything exciting that is happening in your educational context, for that matter. In terms of research, you do not want it to seem mysterious to any stakeholder in the educational context. Invite others to visit your setting and observe your research process, and then ask for their formal feedback. Inviting others to your classroom will engage and connect you with other stakeholders, while also showing that your research was established in an ethic of respect for multiple perspectives.

Critical friends or validators

Using critical friends is one way to involve colleagues and also validate your findings and conclusions. While your positionality will shape the research process and subsequently your interpretations of the data, it is important to make sure that others see similar logic in your process and conclusions. Critical friends or validators provide some level of certification that the frameworks you use to develop your research project and make sense of your data are appropriate for your educational context. Your critical friends and validators’ suggestions will be useful if you develop a report or share your findings, but most importantly will provide you confidence moving forward.

Potential researchers

As an educational researcher, you are involved in ongoing improvement plans and district or systemic change. The flexibility of action research allows it to be used in a variety of ways, and your initial research can spark others in your context to engage in research either individually for their own purposes, or collaboratively as a grade level, team, or school. Collaborative inquiry with other educators is an emerging form of professional learning and development for schools with school improvement plans. While they call it collaborative inquiry, these schools are often using an action research model. It is good to think of all of your colleagues as potential research collaborators in the future.

Prioritize Ethical Practice

Try to always be cognizant of your own positionality during the action research process, its relation to your educational context, and any associated power relation to your positionality. Furthermore, you want to make sure that you are not coercing or engaging participants into harmful practices. While this may seem obvious, you may not even realize you are harming your participants because you believe the action is necessary for the research process.

For example, commonly teachers want to try out an intervention that will potentially positively impact their students. When the teacher sets up the action research study, they may have a control group and an experimental group. There is potential to impair the learning of one of these groups if the intervention is either highly impactful or exceedingly worse than the typical instruction. Therefore, teachers can sometimes overlook the potential harm to students in pursuing an experimental method of exploring an intervention.

If you are working with a university researcher, ethical concerns will be covered by the Institutional Review Board (IRB). If not, your school or district may have a process or form that you would need to complete, so it would beneficial to check your district policies before starting. Other widely accepted aspects of doing ethically informed research, include:

Confirm Awareness of Study and Negotiate Access – with authorities, participants and parents, guardians, caregivers and supervisors (with IRB this is done with Informed Consent).

  • Promise to Uphold Confidentiality – Uphold confidentiality, to your fullest ability, to protect information, identity and data. You can identify people if they indicate they want to be recognized for their contributions.
  • Ensure participants’ rights to withdraw from the study at any point .
  • Make sure data is secured, either on password protected computer or lock drawer .

Prepare to Problematize your Thinking

Educational researchers who are more philosophically-natured emphasize that research is not about finding solutions, but instead is about creating and asking new and more precise questions. This is represented in the action research process shown in the diagrams in Chapter 1, as Collingwood (1939) notes the aim in human interaction is always to keep the conversation open, while Edward Said (1997) emphasized that there is no end because whatever we consider an end is actually the beginning of something entirely new. These reflections have perspective in evaluating the quality in research and signifying what is “good” in “good pedagogy” and “good research”. If we consider that action research is about studying and reflecting on one’s learning and how that learning influences practice to improve it, there is nothing to stop your line of inquiry as long as you relate it to improving practice. This is why it is necessary to problematize and scrutinize our practices.

Ethical Dilemmas for Educator-Researchers

Classroom teachers are increasingly expected to demonstrate a disposition of reflection and inquiry into their own practice. Many advocate for schools to become research centers, and to produce their own research studies, which is an important advancement in acknowledging and addressing the complexity in today’s schools. When schools conduct their own research studies without outside involvement, they bypass outside controls over their studies. Schools shift power away from the oversight of outside experts and ethical research responsibilities are shifted to those conducting the formal research within their educational context. Ethics firmly grounded and established in school policies and procedures for teaching, becomes multifaceted when teaching practice and research occur simultaneously. When educators conduct research in their classrooms, are they doing so as teachers or as researchers, and if they are researchers, at what point does the teaching role change to research? Although the notion of objectivity is a key element in traditional research paradigms, educator-based research acknowledges a subjective perspective as the educator-researcher is not viewed separately from the research. In action research, unlike traditional research, the educator as researcher gains access to the research site by the nature of the work they are paid and expected to perform. The educator is never detached from the research and remains at the research site both before and after the study. Because studying one’s practice comprises working with other people, ethical deliberations are inevitable. Educator-researchers confront role conflict and ambiguity regarding ethical issues such as informed consent from participants, protecting subjects (students) from harm, and ensuring confidentiality. They must demonstrate a commitment toward fully understanding ethical dilemmas that present themselves within the unique set of circumstances of the educational context. Questions about research ethics can feel exceedingly complex and in specific situations, educator- researchers require guidance from others.

Think about it this way. As a part-time historian and former history teacher I often problematized who we regard as good and bad people in history. I (Clark) grew up minutes from Jesse James’ childhood farm. Jesse James is a well-documented thief, and possibly by today’s standards, a terrorist. He is famous for daylight bank robberies, as well as the sheer number of successful robberies. When Jesse James was assassinated, by a trusted associate none-the-less, his body travelled the country for people to see, while his assailant and assailant’s brother reenacted the assassination over 1,200 times in theaters across the country. Still today in my hometown, they reenact Jesse James’ daylight bank robbery each year at the Fall Festival, immortalizing this thief and terrorist from our past. This demonstrates how some people saw him as somewhat of hero, or champion of some sort of resistance, both historically and in the present. I find this curious and ripe for further inquiry, but primarily it is problematic for how we think about people as good or bad in the past. Whatever we may individually or collectively think about Jesse James as a “good” or “bad” person in history, it is vitally important to problematize our thinking about him. Talking about Jesse James may seem strange, but it is relevant to the field of action research. If we tell people that we are engaging in important and “good” actions, we should be prepared to justify why it is “good” and provide a theoretical, epistemological, or ontological rationale if possible. Experience is never enough, you need to justify why you act in certain ways and not others, and this includes thinking critically about your own thinking.

Educators who view inquiry and research as a facet of their professional identity must think critically about how to design and conduct research in educational settings to address respect, justice, and beneficence to minimize harm to participants. This chapter emphasized the due diligence involved in ethically planning the collection of data, and in considering the challenges faced by educator-researchers in educational contexts.

Planning Action

After the thinking about the considerations above, you are now at the stage of having selected a topic and reflected on different aspects of that topic. You have undertaken a literature review and have done some reading which has enriched your understanding of your topic. As a result of your reading and further thinking, you may have changed or fine-tuned the topic you are exploring. Now it is time for action. In the last section of this chapter, we will address some practical issues of carrying out action research, drawing on both personal experiences of supervising educator-researchers in different settings and from reading and hearing about action research projects carried out by other researchers.

Engaging in an action research can be a rewarding experience, but a beneficial action research project does not happen by accident – it requires careful planning, a flexible approach, and continuous educator-researcher reflection. Although action research does not have to go through a pre-determined set of steps, it is useful here for you to be aware of the progression which we presented in Chapter 2. The sequence of activities we suggested then could be looked on as a checklist for you to consider before planning the practical aspects of your project.

We also want to provide some questions for you to think about as you are about to begin.

  • Have you identified a topic for study?
  • What is the specific context for the study? (It may be a personal project for you or for a group of researchers of which you are a member.)
  • Have you read a sufficient amount of the relevant literature?
  • Have you developed your research question(s)?
  • Have you assessed the resource needed to complete the research?

As you start your project, it is worth writing down:

  • a working title for your project, which you may need to refine later;
  • the background of the study , both in terms of your professional context and personal motivation;
  • the aims of the project;
  • the specific outcomes you are hoping for.

Although most of the models of action research presented in Chapter 1 suggest action taking place in some pre-defined order, they also allow us the possibility of refining our ideas and action in the light of our experiences and reflections. Changes may need to be made in response to your evaluation and your reflections on how the project is progressing. For example, you might have to make adjustments, taking into account the students’ responses, your observations and any observations of your colleagues. All this is very useful and, in fact, it is one of the features that makes action research suitable for educational research.

Action research planning sheet

In the past, we have provided action researchers with the following planning list that incorporates all of these considerations. Again, like we have said many times, this is in no way definitive, or lock-in-step procedure you need to follow, but instead guidance based on our perspective to help you engage in the action research process. The left column is the simplified version, and the right column offers more specific advice if need.

Figure 4.1 Planning Sheet for Action Research

Action Research Copyright © by J. Spencer Clark; Suzanne Porath; Julie Thiele; and Morgan Jobe is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License , except where otherwise noted.

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Q: What is an action research report and how is it written?

Asked on 16 Aug, 2019

Action research is any research that is conducted by professionals in a specific field with the aim of promoting continuous reflection and improvement. This can be performed in professional fields such as medicine, nursing, psychology, sociology, education, etc. Action research is particularly popular in the field of education. Teachers often engage in it when they want to test the effectiveness of different teaching methods to facilitate learning among their students.

To be able to write an effective action research report, you first need to understand the process that is followed when conducting action research. Generally, you begin by identifying a research problem and then narrow it down to a research question that is feasible for you to study. You then devise an action plan that you think will address your research question. This will involve collecting data and evidence to support your plan. The commonly used techniques to collect data for action research are observation of individual/group behavior, questionnaires, surveys, video/audio recordings, peer feedback, field notes, work samples of participants, etc. Once you have selected your method and started analyzing the data, you might come up with a more effective plan. You might then want to introduce changes into your plan and start observing your participants again, or you might just come up with a more effective solution or next steps that can be implemented. Thus, action research is often a cyclical process.

The action research report that you write is based on this process. Typically, an action research report is written in the same way as you would write an original research article. However, you need to ensure that your report has the following components:

  • The context or background
  • Literature review
  • Statement of research focus
  • Action plan and its implementation
  • Data collection methods
  • Research findings including data analysis and interpretation
  • Reflection and implications
  • Next steps/Plan for further action


  • Linking Research to Action: A Simple Guide to Writing an Action Research Report
  • Suggestions for Writing the Action Research Report
  • Master in teaching English as a foreign language:  Guidelines for  writing an action research project

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Linking Research to Action: A Simple Guide to Writing an Action Research Report

What Is Action Research, and Why Do We Do It?

Action research is any research into practice undertaken by those involved in that practice, with the primary goal of encouraging continued reflection and making improvement. It can be done in any professional field, including medicine, nursing, social work, psychology, and education. Action research is particularly popular in the field of education. When it comes to teaching, practitioners may be interested in trying out different teaching methods in the classroom, but are unsure of their effectiveness. Action research provides an opportunity to explore the effectiveness of a particular teaching practice, the development of a curriculum, or your students’ learning, hence making continual improvement possible. In other words, the use of an interactive action-and-research process enables practitioners to get an idea of what they and their learners really do inside of the classroom, not merely what they think they can do. By doing this, it is hoped that both the teaching and the learning occurring in the classroom can be better tailored to fit the learners’ needs.

You may be wondering how action research differs from traditional research. The term itself already suggests that it is concerned with both “action” and “research,” as well as the association between the two. Kurt Lewin (1890-1947), a famous psychologist who coined this term, believed that there was “no action without research; no research without action” (Marrow, 1969, p.163). It is certainly possible, and perhaps commonplace, for people to try to have one without the other, but the unique combination of the two is what distinguishes action research from most other forms of enquiry. Traditional research emphasizes the review of prior research, rigorous control of the research design, and generalizable and preferably statistically significant results, all of which help examine the theoretical significance of the issue. Action research, with its emphasis on the insider’s perspective and the practical significance of a current issue, may instead allow less representative sampling, looser procedures, and the presentation of raw data and statistically insignificant results.

What Should We Include in an Action Research Report?

The components put into an action research report largely coincide with the steps used in the action research process. This process usually starts with a question or an observation about a current problem. After identifying the problem area and narrowing it down to make it more manageable for research, the development process continues as you devise an action plan to investigate your question. This will involve gathering data and evidence to support your solution. Common data collection methods include observation of individual or group behavior, taking audio or video recordings, distributing questionnaires or surveys, conducting interviews, asking for peer observations and comments, taking field notes, writing journals, and studying the work samples of your own and your target participants. You may choose to use more than one of these data collection methods. After you have selected your method and are analyzing the data you have collected, you will also reflect upon your entire process of action research. You may have a better solution to your question now, due to the increase of your available evidence. You may also think about the steps you will try next, or decide that the practice needs to be observed again with modifications. If so, the whole action research process starts all over again.

In brief, action research is more like a cyclical process, with the reflection upon your action and research findings affecting changes in your practice, which may lead to extended questions and further action. This brings us back to the essential steps of action research: identifying the problem, devising an action plan, implementing the plan, and finally, observing and reflecting upon the process. Your action research report should comprise all of these essential steps. Feldman and Weiss (n.d.) summarized them as five structural elements, which do not have to be written in a particular order. Your report should:

  • Describe the context where the action research takes place. This could be, for example, the school in which you teach. Both features of the school and the population associated with it (e.g., students and parents) would be illustrated as well.
  • Contain a statement of your research focus. This would explain where your research questions come from, the problem you intend to investigate, and the goals you want to achieve. You may also mention prior research studies you have read that are related to your action research study.
  • Detail the method(s) used. This part includes the procedures you used to collect data, types of data in your report, and justification of your used strategies.
  • Highlight the research findings. This is the part in which you observe and reflect upon your practice. By analyzing the evidence you have gathered, you will come to understand whether the initial problem has been solved or not, and what research you have yet to accomplish.
  • Suggest implications. You may discuss how the findings of your research will affect your future practice, or explain any new research plans you have that have been inspired by this report’s action research.

The overall structure of your paper will actually look more or less the same as what we commonly see in traditional research papers.

What Else Do We Need to Pay Attention to?

We discussed the major differences between action research and traditional research in the beginning of this article. Due to the difference in the focus of an action research report, the language style used may not be the same as what we normally see or use in a standard research report. Although both kinds of research, both action and traditional, can be published in academic journals, action research may also be published and delivered in brief reports or on websites for a broader, non-academic audience. Instead of using the formal style of scientific research, you may find it more suitable to write in the first person and use a narrative style while documenting your details of the research process.

However, this does not forbid using an academic writing style, which undeniably enhances the credibility of a report. According to Johnson (2002), even though personal thoughts and observations are valued and recorded along the way, an action research report should not be written in a highly subjective manner. A personal, reflective writing style does not necessarily mean that descriptions are unfair or dishonest, but statements with value judgments, highly charged language, and emotional buzzwords are best avoided.

Furthermore, documenting every detail used in the process of research does not necessitate writing a lengthy report. The purpose of giving sufficient details is to let other practitioners trace your train of thought, learn from your examples, and possibly be able to duplicate your steps of research. This is why writing a clear report that does not bore or confuse your readers is essential.

Lastly, You May Ask, Why Do We Bother to Even Write an Action Research Report?

It sounds paradoxical that while practitioners tend to have a great deal of knowledge at their disposal, often they do not communicate their insights to others. Take education as an example: It is both regrettable and regressive if every teacher, no matter how professional he or she might be, only teaches in the way they were taught and fails to understand what their peer teachers know about their practice. Writing an action research report provides you with the chance to reflect upon your own practice, make substantiated claims linking research to action, and document action and ideas as they take place. The results can then be kept, both for the sake of your own future reference, and to also make the most of your insights through the act of sharing with your professional peers.

Feldman, A., & Weiss, T. (n.d.). Suggestions for writing the action research report . Retrieved from

Johnson, A. P. (2002). A short guide to action research . Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

Marrow, A. J. (1969). The practical theorist: The life and work of Kurt Lewin . New York, NY: Basic Books.

Tiffany Ip is a lecturer at Hong Kong Baptist University. She gained a PhD in neurolinguistics after completing her Bachelor’s degree in psychology and linguistics. She strives to utilize her knowledge to translate brain research findings into practical classroom instruction.

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Action Research: What it is, Stages & Examples

Action research is a method often used to make the situation better. It combines activity and investigation to make change happen.

The best way to get things accomplished is to do it yourself. This statement is utilized in corporations, community projects, and national governments. These organizations are relying on action research to cope with their continuously changing and unstable environments as they function in a more interdependent world.

In practical educational contexts, this involves using systematic inquiry and reflective practice to address real-world challenges, improve teaching and learning, enhance student engagement, and drive positive changes within the educational system.

This post outlines the definition of action research, its stages, and some examples.

Content Index

What is action research?

Stages of action research, the steps to conducting action research, examples of action research, advantages and disadvantages of action research.

Action research is a strategy that tries to find realistic solutions to organizations’ difficulties and issues. It is similar to applied research.

Action research refers basically learning by doing. First, a problem is identified, then some actions are taken to address it, then how well the efforts worked are measured, and if the results are not satisfactory, the steps are applied again.

It can be put into three different groups:

  • Positivist: This type of research is also called “classical action research.” It considers research a social experiment. This research is used to test theories in the actual world.
  • Interpretive: This kind of research is called “contemporary action research.” It thinks that business reality is socially made, and when doing this research, it focuses on the details of local and organizational factors.
  • Critical: This action research cycle takes a critical reflection approach to corporate systems and tries to enhance them.

All research is about learning new things. Collaborative action research contributes knowledge based on investigations in particular and frequently useful circumstances. It starts with identifying a problem. After that, the research process is followed by the below stages:


Stage 1: Plan

For an action research project to go well, the researcher needs to plan it well. After coming up with an educational research topic or question after a research study, the first step is to develop an action plan to guide the research process. The research design aims to address the study’s question. The research strategy outlines what to undertake, when, and how.

Stage 2: Act

The next step is implementing the plan and gathering data. At this point, the researcher must select how to collect and organize research data . The researcher also needs to examine all tools and equipment before collecting data to ensure they are relevant, valid, and comprehensive.

Stage 3: Observe

Data observation is vital to any investigation. The action researcher needs to review the project’s goals and expectations before data observation. This is the final step before drawing conclusions and taking action.

Different kinds of graphs, charts, and networks can be used to represent the data. It assists in making judgments or progressing to the next stage of observing.

Stage 4: Reflect

This step involves applying a prospective solution and observing the results. It’s essential to see if the possible solution found through research can really solve the problem being studied.

The researcher must explore alternative ideas when the action research project’s solutions fail to solve the problem.

Action research is a systematic approach researchers, educators, and practitioners use to identify and address problems or challenges within a specific context. It involves a cyclical process of planning, implementing, reflecting, and adjusting actions based on the data collected. Here are the general steps involved in conducting an action research process:

Identify the action research question or problem

Clearly define the issue or problem you want to address through your research. It should be specific, actionable, and relevant to your working context.

Review existing knowledge

Conduct a literature review to understand what research has already been done on the topic. This will help you gain insights, identify gaps, and inform your research design.

Plan the research

Develop a research plan outlining your study’s objectives, methods, data collection tools, and timeline. Determine the scope of your research and the participants or stakeholders involved.

Collect data

Implement your research plan by collecting relevant data. This can involve various methods such as surveys, interviews, observations, document analysis, or focus groups. Ensure that your data collection methods align with your research objectives and allow you to gather the necessary information.

Analyze the data

Once you have collected the data, analyze it using appropriate qualitative or quantitative techniques. Look for patterns, themes, or trends in the data that can help you understand the problem better.

Reflect on the findings

Reflect on the analyzed data and interpret the results in the context of your research question. Consider the implications and possible solutions that emerge from the data analysis. This reflection phase is crucial for generating insights and understanding the underlying factors contributing to the problem.

Develop an action plan

Based on your analysis and reflection, develop an action plan that outlines the steps you will take to address the identified problem. The plan should be specific, measurable, achievable, relevant, and time-bound (SMART goals). Consider involving relevant stakeholders in planning to ensure their buy-in and support.

Implement the action plan

Put your action plan into practice by implementing the identified strategies or interventions. This may involve making changes to existing practices, introducing new approaches, or testing alternative solutions. Document the implementation process and any modifications made along the way.

Evaluate and monitor progress

Continuously monitor and evaluate the impact of your actions. Collect additional data, assess the effectiveness of the interventions, and measure progress towards your goals. This evaluation will help you determine if your actions have the desired effects and inform any necessary adjustments.

Reflect and iterate

Reflect on the outcomes of your actions and the evaluation results. Consider what worked well, what did not, and why. Use this information to refine your approach, make necessary adjustments, and plan for the next cycle of action research if needed.

Remember that participatory action research is an iterative process, and multiple cycles may be required to achieve significant improvements or solutions to the identified problem. Each cycle builds on the insights gained from the previous one, fostering continuous learning and improvement.

Explore Insightfully Contextual Inquiry in Qualitative Research

Here are two real-life examples of action research.

Action research initiatives are frequently situation-specific. Still, other researchers can adapt the techniques. The example is from a researcher’s (Franklin, 1994) report about a project encouraging nature tourism in the Caribbean.

In 1991, this was launched to study how nature tourism may be implemented on the four Windward Islands in the Caribbean: St. Lucia, Grenada, Dominica, and St. Vincent.

For environmental protection, a government-led action study determined that the consultation process needs to involve numerous stakeholders, including commercial enterprises.

First, two researchers undertook the study and held search conferences on each island. The search conferences resulted in suggestions and action plans for local community nature tourism sub-projects.

Several islands formed advisory groups and launched national awareness and community projects. Regional project meetings were held to discuss experiences, self-evaluations, and strategies. Creating a documentary about a local initiative helped build community. And the study was a success, leading to a number of changes in the area.

Lau and Hayward (1997) employed action research to analyze Internet-based collaborative work groups.

Over two years, the researchers facilitated three action research problem -solving cycles with 15 teachers, project personnel, and 25 health practitioners from diverse areas. The goal was to see how Internet-based communications might affect their virtual workgroup.

First, expectations were defined, technology was provided, and a bespoke workgroup system was developed. Participants suggested shorter, more dispersed training sessions with project-specific instructions.

The second phase saw the system’s complete deployment. The final cycle witnessed system stability and virtual group formation. The key lesson was that the learning curve was poorly misjudged, with frustrations only marginally met by phone-based technical help. According to the researchers, the absence of high-quality online material about community healthcare was harmful.

Role clarity, connection building, knowledge sharing, resource assistance, and experiential learning are vital for virtual group growth. More study is required on how group support systems might assist groups in engaging with their external environment and boost group members’ learning. 

Action research has both good and bad points.

  • It is very flexible, so researchers can change their analyses to fit their needs and make individual changes.
  • It offers a quick and easy way to solve problems that have been going on for a long time instead of complicated, long-term solutions based on complex facts.
  • If It is done right, it can be very powerful because it can lead to social change and give people the tools to make that change in ways that are important to their communities.


  • These studies have a hard time being generalized and are hard to repeat because they are so flexible. Because the researcher has the power to draw conclusions, they are often not thought to be theoretically sound.
  • Setting up an action study in an ethical way can be hard. People may feel like they have to take part or take part in a certain way.
  • It is prone to research errors like selection bias , social desirability bias, and other cognitive biases.

LEARN ABOUT: Self-Selection Bias

This post discusses how action research generates knowledge, its steps, and real-life examples. It is very applicable to the field of research and has a high level of relevance. We can only state that the purpose of this research is to comprehend an issue and find a solution to it.

At QuestionPro, we give researchers tools for collecting data, like our survey software, and a library of insights for any long-term study. Go to the Insight Hub if you want to see a demo or learn more about it.


Frequently Asked Questions(FAQ’s)

Action research is a systematic approach to inquiry that involves identifying a problem or challenge in a practical context, implementing interventions or changes, collecting and analyzing data, and using the findings to inform decision-making and drive positive change.

Action research can be conducted by various individuals or groups, including teachers, administrators, researchers, and educational practitioners. It is often carried out by those directly involved in the educational setting where the research takes place.

The steps of action research typically include identifying a problem, reviewing relevant literature, designing interventions or changes, collecting and analyzing data, reflecting on findings, and implementing improvements based on the results.


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International Education and Research Journal - IERJ


  • Dr. Vijay Luxmi Mishra Assistant proffesor (M.Ed.) C.R.D.A.M.P.G. College, Gorakhpur

Action research is such a process by which B.Ed. pupil teacher attempt to study their problems scientifically in order to guide, correct and evaluate their decision and action  There are two important components of action research:(1) the consumer are the researches and (2) the research take place where there is a felt need of a solution of a problem and when the results can be put in practice.

The steps in action research are – identification of a problem area, the selection of a specific problem and the formulation of a hypothesis, the accumulation of evidence, the inference from this evidence and the continuous retesting.

The importance of action research that its lies in the fact that this helps in finding quick solutions of immediate problems which search by b.ed. Students , administrator and teacher. Action research is a way to find problems and their solution S.M. Corey has developed this research technique. Objectives of action research are – process in school practice, progress of a teacher, improvement or curriculum, increase in knowledge of administrator or inspector. Need, interest, discipline, social problems, learning problem, curriculum and teachers are the field of action research. There are various steps of action research such as specific problem .Causes, hypotheses, experiment and conclusion. Outline the action research is also mentioned. Action research has been proven most beneficial in the field of diagnostic education.  

- N.R.Saxena, Mishre B.K. Teacher Education, R. Lal Book depot. R.K.Mohanti( 2005) Meerut.

-Mathur, dr. S.S. (2007/08) Educational psychology , Agarwal publications, Agara

-Bhatnagar suresh, Advance Eeducational Psychology R.Lal Saxena Anamika (2005) Book Depot Meerut.

-Pandey,K.P.(2010), fundamentals of educational research ,vishvidyalaya prakashan,Varanasi

- Pandey K.P., Emerging Trends in Education ,Association for Innovative Education ,voll.2 , number 2 , February 2012, pg.1-8

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Action Research Project for B.Ed Students in Social Science

Are you looking for an action research project for B.ed students in social science ? In this article, we will provide an action research project for b.ed students in social science.

Action Research Project for B.Ed Students in English

  • Action Research on Reading Problems
  • Is Grammarly Worth It For B.Ed Students

Social science can be regarded as one of the important areas of the educational field. The main aspects of social science are to study the human relationship. Social science is the subject of a unique combination of various subjects like History, Political science, Geography, Economics, Civics, and  Sociology. It covers all the human activities in various fields.


The beginning of the tradition of social science has been one of the major development of the story of their own could get recognition as a social service only in the 19 th century. Thinkers and writers such as Herodotus, Aristotle, Manu,  Kautilya’s Arthasastra, and many others had written treaties on different areas of social science more than 2000 years ago.

Social science is a common core subject for all primary, lower secondary, and upper secondary educational programs. Learning in the subject, therefore, made as relevant as possible for pupils by adapting the subject to the different educational programs.


Action research is a philosophy and methodology of research generally applied in social science. It seeks transformative change through the simultaneous process of taking action and doing research, which is linked together by critical reflection.

Kurt Lewin, a professor at MIT, first coined the term, “action research” in 1944.In his 1946 paper “Action Research and Minority Problems” he described action research as “a comparative research on the conditions  and effects of various forms of social action” that uses “a spiral of steps, each of which is composed of a circle of planning, action and fact-finding about the result of the action”

Dennis Agyei (2019) Takoradi  Technical University, defines Action Research as a type of research for practitioners to acquire and help in the field of work in order to solve a problem. Action research practitioners reflect upon the consequences of their own questions, beliefs,  assumptions, and practices with the goals of understanding, developing, and improving social practices.

Action research enlists others and works to create a democratic sharing of voice to achieve a deeper understanding of collective actions. It is a process of sharing findings with the community of researchers. This can be done in many ways, in journals, on websites, in books, in videos or at conferences.

Action research involves actively participating in a change situation, often via an existing organization, whilst simultaneously conducting research. It can also be undertaken by a larger organization or institution, assisted or guided by professional researchers, with the aim of improving their strategies, practices and knowledge of the environments within which they practice.

As designers and stakeholders, researchers work with others to propose a new course of action to help their community improve its work practices. Depending upon the nature of the people involved in the action research as well as person(s) organizing it, there are different ways of describing action research.

  • Collaborative Action Research
  • Participatory Action Research
  • Community-Based Action Research
  • Youth Action Research
  • Action Research and Action learning
  • Participatory Action Learning and Action Research
  • Collective Action Research
  • Action Science
  • Living theory Action Research


Social science is a very important and academic discipline concerned with the study of the social life of human groups including Economics, History, Geography, Civics, Psychology, and Sociology, etc.

The beginning of the tradition of social science has been one of the major development of  the story of their own could get the recognition as social science only in the 19 th century.

Social science is a major category of academic discipline with society and relationship among individuals within a society in terms has many branches each of which is considered social science in a wider sense social science also includes some field of humanities.

Social science traces for the children the fascinating story of how man has developed through age; how his/her life has been influenced by the environment, how our institutions have grown out of the past, how man has struggled with this environment in the past how he/she struggling today, man used or misused his/her power and resources and above all the essential unity of civilization.

Social science aims at breaking the habit of putting knowledge into water-tight compartments, leveled history, Geography, Civics, Economics and Political science, etc.

Social science includes that material which is conductive to the development of a well informed, intelligent person who is capable of comprehending property the current problems is keen to except responsibilities as a citizen for the welfare of all and has developed insights skills and moral qualities which are so essential and desirable in a democratic society.

As society becomes more complex and advances in technology man constructed social science. A lot of innovation emanated different perspectives some of such innovation includes, change in shelter, transportation ,use of products, culture, social institutions socialization and change in education.

In other sense to cope up with the changes/innovation in social science, the subject was introduced to secondary school  curriculum.  Hence, secondary schools are the level where rudiments of social science are taught.

This study is therefore aimed at looking into problems of low achievements in social sciences with a view to providing solutions to them. It is the purpose of the research that recommendation that would be made based on the findings would help to overcome the situation.

Chiodo and Byford (2004) wrote that an attitude persists among many students that social science classes are dull, boring, and irrelevant to their lives. Many educators are pressured into teaching curriculum that has narrowed to meet the demand of high-stakes testing.

High-stakes testing; especially in social science creates a curriculum that focuses on root memorization of fact and the thought that social science classes are the education of historical fact. Bigelow,1999; Pahl,2003; Van Hover,2006) Students learn best when they are interested in the content and find the material relevant to their lived experiences. According to the researcher, the focus of their dissertations in practice will analyze the impact of inquiry-based learning in the social studies classroom through an action research study.


This study will help to prevent or decrease the low achievement of social science among the students. Social science is a very important subject. Having low achievement in social science would lead to a failure of adjusting to society.

This study can help the teachers to reflects upon and analysis their way of functioning they can try out innovation practice for their better performance, who work in the field of teaching social science  to avoid poor achievement and to find solution to this problem.

The suggestions and recommendations made in the later part of the study would highlight the areas that need to be given more attention in the teaching and learning of social sciences in secondary school.

The result of the research work would undoubtedly enable the social science teachers to improve the teaching methods and effective use of teaching aids. It would emphasize the need for students to show more interest in the subjects.


The objectives of the research study is to determine the probable cause which influences the problem of low achievement in the subject of social science and to find out some immediate strategies and measures to tackle the problem, particularly to the students of class IX of Guru Nanak Model High School.

The study is aimed at achieving the following objectives

  • To study the problem of poor academic performance in social science among the students of class IX with special reference to XYZ High School.
  • To suggest for the problem by giving some remedial measures.
  • To study the economic condition of the student.
  • 4 . Analyze the implementation of the activities.
  • To find out ways to increase the achievement among the students.


A hypothesis is a tentative prediction of the research. It is a very important aspect of research activity. A hypothesis is considered as the principal instrument in research. The action hypothesis is assumed to improve or minimize the current research problem, with the help of different modern teaching methods, using proper TLM, organizing discussions, by giving remedial measures and proper guide teacher can solve the poor achievement problem.


The selection of proper methods is very important for research work. Methods mean a way of doing something, especially in a systematic way.

The researcher in this project used the quasi method.

The quasi method is used for collecting data. Here data is collected by conducting pre-test and post-test using a question paper.

Advantages of quasi-experimental method-

  • Reactions of test subjects are more likely to be genuine because it is not an artificial research environment.
  • It can be very useful in identifying general trends from the results, especially in social science disciplines.
  • Disadvantages of quasi-experimental method-
  • Human errors also play a key role in the validity of any project as discussed in previous modules.
  • Pre-existing factors and other influences are not taken into account because variables are less controlled in the quasi-experimental method.


A research population is generally a large collection of individuals or objects that is the main focus of a scientific query. It is for the benefit of the population that researches are done. However due to large sizes of the population researchers often cannot test every individual in the population because it is too expensive and time consuming.

The total population of class 9 was 49 in ABC Model High School.

Out  of 49 the researcher  has been taken 8 students for research study as sample of this action research project. The sample of 8 students includes  5 boys and 3 girls.


To obtain the data, the researcher administered a  test (pre-test) as the instrument of the research. In this written test the  49 students were given some questions to do. The answer sheets of the students were collected to facilitate the researcher in identifying correct answers done by the students. Among the 49 students, only 8 students were chosen who were quite literally poor in social science. After post-test, the intervention was done, such as-

First, the questionnaire consists of 10 questions provided to the students assessing the student’s opinions about themselves.

The second was the observation method. With the help of observation, the researcher tried to identify the problem of the students during classroom interaction.

The third, was an interview. The researcher takes interviews of the students individually which helps the researcher to know their problems in social science.


The research was conducted after discussing the detailed plan with the subject teacher and taking permission from the concerned school. First a pre-test was conducted for the population of 49 students, out of which a sample of 8 were selected for research which was then followed by intervention and then a post-test was conducted for the sample.


A pre-test is very essential to carry out the action research. The pre-test is conducted for knowing the achievement of the students. In this study, the researcher tries to find out the responses of the students to find out the problems students legging behind in low achievement in social science. The pre-test on the social science of 25 marks was conducted by the researcher in class 9.

Action Research Project for B.Ed Students in Social Science


Remedial measures refer to the techniques which are adopted by the researcher to remove the difficulties of the students in the teaching-learning process. The researcher identifies those students who perform very poorly in the pre-test.

The researcher has taken some remedial measures to increase the interest level of the students in the class. The researcher distributed some questionnaires to the students to find out the various reasons for low achievement in social science. Extra care and guidance were provided to the students and extra classes were taken by the researcher to get the attention of the students.

Besides these the researcher adopts some other techniques to improve the interest level of the students:

  • Extra classes were taken in free periods.
  • Friendly environment in the classroom.
  • Using appropriate teaching aids.
  • Child-centered teaching in the classroom.
  • Encouraged the students to go to the library to acquire more knowledge.
  • Regular homework was assigned to the students.


After giving remedial measures, the researcher again conducted a post-test on the same topic. A post-test was conducted specially for those selected students who could not perform well in the pre-test.

Action Research Project for B.Ed Students in Social Science


Data analysis is the process of assigning meaning to the collected information and determining the conclusion of the findings. This data often takes the form of records of group discussion and interview but it is not limited to this.

The problem with which researcher  have selected for making the action research report is “A study on Low Achievement in Social Science of the student of class 9”.  To fulfill the objectives of the study regarding this topic researcher has collected some data with the help of a survey method.

The data collected by the researcher in pre-test and post-test were analyzed. The scores were compared to obtain the difference between the two tests. The data analysis of pre-test (table-1) and post-test(table-2)revealed that the students mostly improved.


Interpretation is by no means a mechanical process. It calls for critical examination of the result of one’s analysis in light of all the limitations of his or her data gathering. It is a very important step in the total procedure of research. The process of interpretation is essentially one of starting what the result (findings) show, what do they mean? What is their significance? What is the answer to the original problem?

In the present study, data collected from the teachers and students are tabulated. The percentage is applied as a statistical technique to sort out the strength of each statement. Geographical representation by a bar graph, charts etc is done for certain data.

Action Research Project for B.Ed Students in Social Science


After analysis of the results and post-test, the researcher got some findings about interest of students in learning social science. Those are given below:-

  • It has been observed that most of the time students become inattentive in class due to a lack of proper TLM used by the teacher while teaching social science.
  • It has been observed that proper use of TLM can be helpful in motivating and improving student’s achievement in learning social science.
  • It has been observed that using innovative method, strategies, and techniques of teaching by the teacher while teaching that develops students attention as well as interest in learning.
  • It has been observed that team work can be liked to two compounds almost essential to modern life. It’s the glue which keeps a team together, a bond which promotes strength, unity, reliability and support among the students and providing team work in classroom can be helpful in creating attention of students.


  • Guidance on punctuality and regularity of each student is taken care of by teachers.
  • Value education should include in the syllabus to avoid absenteeism.
  • Teaching methods should improve by the teachers so that the student feels interested to attain the class.
  • The teacher should make the subject matter interesting for the students by using different methods, techniques and strategies during the instruction period.
  • Examples help the student to understand a hard complicated and tough in an easy manner. So, the teacher should give examples during teaching.
  • The teacher should use various audio-visual aids during instruction to motivate the students to pay attention.
  • The teacher should understand the psychological and physical needs and interest of student to pay attention in the class.
  • The teacher should use some modern technology like a projector which is very much helpful to increase the interest of students in learning political science


Social science is an important subject for the student. Social science is a way of thinking , of asking questions, of observing  and appreciating political system, history, economics, civics, geography etc. social  science also provide us the basic human rights and duties. So that the teacher can help children learn by offering them interesting techniques and methods of teaching.

This project is an attempt to study the achievement of the student in the subject of social science as well as to improve school practices. So that the learners derive maximum benefits from school by acquiring knowledge mastering skills and developing competencies and positive attitudes.

It is heartening to note that a range of activities can ensure learners in involvement in their social science subject, make the class interactive and enjoyable. At the same time, we also need to take initiative of slow learners and irregular students in social science acquisition.



So that sums up an action research project for B.ed students in social science. Hope you like it.

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Cancer Research Catalyst The Official Blog of the American Association for Cancer Research

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Home > Cancer Research Catalyst > Cancer Disparities: The Gaps and Encouraging Progress 

Cancer Disparities: The Gaps and Encouraging Progress 

For two years, Oya Gilbert visited a series of doctors as he continued to experience progressively worse episodes of shortness of breath, fatigue, and tremendous pain. Eventually, his doctors labeled him a hypochondriac and started “feeding” him anxiety pills that only made him feel more exhausted. After he got into a minor car accident, he felt like the lack of answers meant his death was likely not far off.  

He decided to increase his life insurance to put his children in a better financial position. After years of wondering, hoping, and searching for an answer, he would finally get one. The insurance company’s doctors discovered the protein markers in his blood and urine that led to his diagnosis of multiple myeloma. He was stunned by the diagnosis, the lack of a cure, and the fact that Black people had double or higher risk of dying from myeloma.   

“I live in a rural area—predominantly White,” Gilbert said. “It’s difficult for doctors to know anything about African Americans if you rarely see them, or maybe have some prejudgments about them. This region is known for prescription addiction. So, they were thinking that’s what I wanted. They just didn’t listen. If they’d listened, I think we could have gotten past a lot of those issues leading up to my diagnosis that just got brushed off.” 

A bar graph showing the percentage of adults who reported to have been treated unfairly or with disrespect by health care providers due to their racial or ethnic background: 18% Black, 12% American Indian/Alaska Native, 11% Hispanic, 10% Asian, and 3% White.

To raise awareness of disparities like these and bring attention to the importance of cancer disparities research in reducing health inequities, the American Association for Cancer Research (AACR) launched its Cancer Disparities Progress Report in 2020. Published every two years, the third edition —which was released May 15, 2024—shares nine patient stories like this one from Gilbert while also diving into the latest statistics to highlight how factors such as race, ethnicity, age, sexual orientation, gender identity, socioeconomic status, and geographic location can factor into the development of cancer and the care of patients.  

Substantial Progress, But Not for Everyone

Substantial progress is being made in the fight against cancer. Overall, the death rate from cancer in the United States fell by 33% between 1991 and 2020 thanks to advances in prevention, screening, and treatment, but not everyone is benefitting from these equally, leading to disparities in cancer death rates between different populations. Black and Indigenous individuals have the highest overall cancer death rates in the United States, despite cancer incidence rates among these populations being lower compared to the white population.

As Gilbert discovered, that is especially true for certain cancer types such as multiple myeloma. It is also the case for prostate cancer, where Black men are twice as likely to die compared to white men, and breast cancer, where Black women are 40% more likely to die even though they have similar incidence rates compared to white women. American Indians or Alaska Natives are more than twice as likely to die from stomach cancer compared to white people. 

These numbers can even be shocking for doctors who are intimately aware of a patient population. Phuong Ho, MD, an emergency room physician, had no idea about the rising incidence of lung cancer in Asian women who don’t smoke—four times higher compared to white women according to one study cited in the report—until she was diagnosed herself. Now she is an advocate for the Asian community and is participating in the Female Asian Never Smokers (FANS) study at the University of California San Francisco.  

“I promote the study to the Asian communities through my friends and family, spreading the word to enroll because we need participation for this important research,” Ho said. “The Asian community, especially, might not have the awareness, health education, or access to medical care to have screening tests done, or even to seek out medical attention.”  

The numbers can also be disheartening to racially and ethnically minoritized patients not only because of the inequalities they show, but also for the lack of detail within data sets that are insufficient in fully capturing the differential cancer burden within heterogeneous populations that have roots in different countries with social and cultural differences. For example, cancer statistics for Asians and Pacific Islanders are often aggregated together. As a native Hawaiian, Melissa Adams, a breast cancer patient, questions why these two groups are being lumped together.

“That does a disservice to everyone in that group,” Adams said. “To put that data all clumped together muddles the numbers.” 

The report calls attention to the fact that collecting disaggregated data can offer a better understanding of the burden of cancer within racial and ethnic minority subpopulations.

Location, Location, Location 

Adams also described the difficulty people in Hawai’i have in getting a second opinion or participating in clinical trials when the doctors they need to see or the trials they want to join are on the mainland. 

“I had to buy plane tickets to go to the mainland,” Adams said when she was seeking another opinion on the next step in her treatment following her double mastectomy. “I still had drains in from my surgery and could not lift anything over my head. I needed help. My boyfriend had to take time off from work. That was a huge burden timewise, financially, and physically.” 

But even smaller differences in location can make a big difference in care. Compared to those living in large metropolitan or urban areas, residents of nonmetropolitan or rural counties were 38% more likely to be diagnosed with and die from lung cancer. And the mortality rate for all cancers combined is 22% higher for residents in disadvantaged neighborhoods compared to advantaged neighborhoods. 

That’s why Robert A. Winn, MD, FAACR , chair of the  AACR Cancer Disparities Progress Report 2024  Steering Committee and director of the Virginia Commonwealth University Massey Comprehensive Cancer Center, says zip code matters. He coined the term “ZNA,” which refers to ZIP code and neighborhood of association, and he emphasizes the importance of considering an individual’s place of residence and other social drivers of health (SDOH) that could lead to inequities in care. 

A wheel showing the various factors that contribute to cancer disparities, including cultural, socioeconomic, biological, psychosocial, clinical, environmental, and behavioral.

“The findings of this report offer a deeper dive into the ‘whole person’ as it relates to the areas outside of medicine that contribute to health inequities: ZNA, institutional and systemic racism, and situational and physical barriers to access, to name a few,” Winn said in a press release. “As we continue to look at cancer incidences and outcomes and cross-check them against these other factors, while having critical conversations that spur meaningful action within our affected communities, our path forward will become clearer. We have seen tremendous progress against cancer in the last few decades, but we must keep fighting to ensure equal access and improved health care delivery for  all  people.” 

Closing Disparity Gaps 

The report highlights many other disparities that need to be addressed—including a higher burden of cancer among sexual and gender minority individuals such as a 76% higher risk of being diagnosed with advanced-stage lung cancer for transgender individuals compared to cisgender individuals—but also identifies areas where progress is being made.  

For example: 

  • The overall cancer mortality gap between Black and white populations has decreased from 33% in 1990 to 11.3% in 2020. 
  • Mortality from prostate cancer declined at a rate 5x higher in non-Hispanic American Indian or Alaska Native men compared to non-Hispanic white men between 2016 and 2020. 
  • Stomach cancer incidence declined more than double the rate in non-Hispanic Asian and Pacific Islander populations compared to non-Hispanic white men between 2015 and 2019. 
  • Mortality from liver cancer in non-Hispanic Black individuals declined more than 7x faster than in non-Hispanic white individuals from 2016 to 2020. 
  • Hispanic women saw a decline in cervical cancer mortality that was 8x times faster compared to non-Hispanic white women from 2011 and 2020. 

An upside down triangle showing the decline in disparity in overall cancer death rate between white and black populations decreasing from 33% in 1990 to 11.3% in 2020.

To build off this progress and to address all disparities still impacting cancer care, Todd Gates, a prostate cancer survivor, said three things are needed.  

“The first one is funding,” Gates explained. “If you are going to get serious about it, provide the funding. The second one is funding … and the third one is funding.” 

Where Further Action Is Needed  

The report concludes with a call to action for policy makers, including some recommendations where additional funding might be the most impactful. For example, the report calls on Congress to appropriate at least $51.3 billion for the National Institutes of Health and at least $7.9 billion for the National Cancer Institute (NCI) in fiscal year 2025. Further, to help better control cancer, investments should be made in screening for early detection and prevention, such as by appropriating $472.4 million for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Division of Cancer Prevention and Control. 

Two other barriers to health equity have been the lack of diversity in biospecimens used to study cancer etiology—which to this point have mostly been based on individuals of European ancestry—and the lack of sociodemographic diversity in cancer clinical trials.  

While several efforts are underway to collect more diverse data sets, including the AACR Project Genomics Evidence Neoplasia Information Exchange® (AACR Project GENIE®), African Cancer Genome Registry, Avanzando Caminos (Leading Pathways) Study, Black Women’s Health Study, Multiethnic Cohort Study, Southern Community Cohort Study, and Women’s Circle of Health Study, the report calls for more initiatives in this area. 

Additionally, even though programs such as the AACR and Bristol Myers Squibb Foundation’s partnership on the Robert A. Winn Diversity in Clinical Trials program and workshop are working to increase access and participation in clinical trials, further efforts are required to continue to close gaps and ensure more representation in trials. 

“Not all the drugs act the same way on everybody,” Winn explained. “Not just because of your race, but the place and space that you also live. We need to do better, and probably will have to come up with new ways of figuring out how to make our trials much more accessible to all people who are suffering with cancers.” 

Greater diversity will also be needed in the cancer research and care workforce, which is something the NCI is striving to increase through its Center to Reduce Cancer Health Disparities, and several other organizations are working to improve by increasing the availability of Science, Technology, Engineering, Mathematics, and Medicine (STEMM) educational and career pathways. 

Finally, the report suggests two other actions: implementing policies to ensure equitable patient care and enacting legislation to eliminate health inequities. 

“In this era of extraordinary scientific progress against cancer, it is crucial that we ensure that no populations or communities are left behind,” Margaret Foti, PhD, MD (hc), chief executive officer of the AACR, said in a press release. “Health equity is a fundamental human right and must be a national priority. We hope that the information and recommendations in this report will inspire collaboration among stakeholders and the necessary support from Congress to tackle these complex issues and eliminate cancer disparities once and for all.” 

On May 15, 2024 the AACR hosted a congressional briefing in Washington, D.C. to unveil the Cancer Disparities Progress Report 2024. A recording of the session is below.

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Industrial Boilers Global Strategic Business Report 2024: Market to Surpass $25 Billion by 2030 as Energy Efficiency Remains Major Cost Driver

May 20, 2024 03:39 ET | Source: Research and Markets Research and Markets

Dublin, May 20, 2024 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- The "Industrial Boilers - Global Strategic Business Report" report has been added to's offering. Global Industrial Boilers Market to Reach $25.8 Billion by 2030 The global market for Industrial Boilers estimated at US$18.4 Billion in the year 2023, is projected to reach a revised size of US$25.8 Billion by 2030, growing at a CAGR of 5% over the analysis period 2023-2030.

The industrial boiler market is characterized by reliable, efficient systems providing a wide range of performance possibilities. Major trends include the growing prominence of smart boilers, which offer reduced emissions, decreased maintenance costs, and improved reliability, driving healthy market growth. Recent market activities show an increasing adoption of advanced technologies, with the global market outlook remaining positive as economic conditions improve.

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Fire-Tube Boilers, one of the segments analyzed in the report, is expected to record 5.5% CAGR and reach US$16.1 Billion by the end of the analysis period. Growth in the Water-Tube Boilers segment is estimated at 4.1% CAGR for the next 7-year period.

Key competitors' market shares are expected to be outlined by 2024, reflecting the competitive landscape. The development of novel smart technologies to monitor boiler water levels and achieve efficiency in fruit and vegetable processing plants highlights the industry's focus on innovation. Sustainability and energy efficiency initiatives are driving boiler replacement projects worldwide, with many opting to retrofit existing boilers with advanced components to enhance performance and meet environmental standards.

The U.S. Market is Estimated at $5.5 Billion, While China is Forecast to Grow at 4.7% CAGR The Industrial Boilers market in the U.S. is estimated at US$5.5 Billion in the year 2023. China, the world's second largest economy, is forecast to reach a projected market size of US$4.5 Billion by the year 2030 trailing a CAGR of 4.7% over the analysis period 2023 to 2030. Among the other noteworthy geographic markets are Japan and Canada, each forecast to grow at 4.9% and 3.8% respectively over the 2023-2030 period. Within Europe, Germany is forecast to grow at approximately 4% CAGR.

Key Attributes:


  • Influencer Market Insights
  • World Market Trajectories
  • Global Economic Update
  • Industrial Boilers: Reliable, Efficient, and Providing an Incredible Level of Performance Possibilities
  • Major Industrial Boiler Trends Summarized
  • Recent Market Activity
  • Global Market Outlook
  • While Fiscal Cliff Concerns Recede to Background, Improving Economy Bodes Well for Market Adoption
  • Industrial Boilers - Global Key Competitors Percentage Market Share in 2024 (E)
  • Competitive Market Presence - Strong/Active/Niche/Trivial for Players Worldwide in 2024 (E)


  • Growing Prominence of Smart Boilers with Reduced Emissions, Decreased Maintenance Costs, and Improved Reliability Drives Healthy Market Growth
  • Novel Smart Technology to Monitor Boiler Water Level
  • Smart Way to Achieve Boiler Efficiency in Fruit/Vegetable Processing Plants
  • Focus on Sustainability and Energy Efficiency Drive Boiler Replacement Initiatives across the World
  • Retrofitting Existing Boilers with Advanced Components
  • Migrating towards Liquid Wood
  • Limiting NOx Emissions
  • Using Fully Metered or Parallel Positioning Systems
  • O2 Trim System and Variable Frequency Fan Drive (VFD)
  • Benefits of Fully Metered or Parallel Positioning Systems
  • Improving Iron and Steel Production Drives Demand for Industrial Boilers
  • Growing Construction Activity Worldwide Boost Prospects for Boilers in Building Materials Production
  • Stability in Global Manufacturing PMI Signals Growth Opportunities
  • Safety Attribute of Water Tube Boilers Drive Higher Adoption than Conventional Fire Tube Boilers
  • Increasing Global Investments on Oil & Gas Infrastructure Provides the Perfect Platform for Market Expansion
  • Superior Attributes of Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) Boilers over Pulverized Coal (PC) Technology Drive Demand
  • Benefits of CFB Boiler Technology
  • CFB Technology's Place in the Global Renewables Landscape
  • CFB Option Provides Optimal Value
  • Asia-Pacific: The CFB Boiler Market with the Highest Growth Potential
  • Spearheaded by China, Waste Heat Boilers Make a Strong Comeback
  • Energy Efficiency Remain Major Cost Driver for Industrial Boilers
  • Fuel Diversification Trend to Strongly Influence Industrial Boiler Market
  • Developing Countries: Primary Drivers of Growth
  • Migration from Coal to Natural Gas Fuel Presents Numerous Challenges
  • Multi-Fuel Boilers Become a Necessity for Optimizing Power Consumption
  • Multi-fuel Operation Poses Challenges for Boiler Operators
  • Heating Equipment in Key High Growth
  • Application Industries
  • Chemical Industry
  • Food Industry
  • Breweries & Distilleries
  • Paper & Pulp Industry
  • Sewer Pipe Rehabilitation
  • Pharmaceuticals
  • Fertilizers
  • Technology Advancements Enhance Boiler Energy Efficiency
  • Condens 7000 F: Innovative Simplification of Commercial Boiler Installations
  • New Innovative Boilers with On-Demand Technology and QSX Program
  • Innovative Digital Efficiency Assistant for Steam Boilers
  • New Boiler Technologies from Bosch
  • Connectivity and Control


  • Babcock & Wilcox Enterprises, Inc. (USA)
  • Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited (BHEL) (India)
  • Bosch Industriekessel GmbH (Germany)
  • Cannon Far East (China)
  • China Western Power Industrial Co., Ltd. (China)
  • Clayton Industries, Inc. (USA)
  • Doosan Power Systems Holdings Limited (UK)
  • GE Power (USA)
  • Wuhan Boiler Co., Ltd. (China)
  • Grundfos A/S (Denmark)
  • Hangzhou Boiler Group Co., Ltd. (China)
  • Harbin Boiler Company Limited (China)
  • IHI Corporation (Japan)
  • Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd. (Japan)
  • LOINTEK (Spain)
  • Mitsubishi Hitachi Power Systems, Ltd. (MHPS) (Japan)
  • Miura Co., Ltd. (Japan)
  • Shanghai Electric Group Company Limited (China)
  • Sichuan Dongfang Boiler Group Co., Ltd. (China)
  • Sumitomo SHI FW (Japan)
  • Taishan Group Taian Boao International Trade Co., Ltd. (China)
  • Takuma Co., Ltd. (Japan)
  • Thermax Limited (India)
  • Danstoker A/S (Denmark)
  • Valmet Oyj (Finland)
  • Victory Energy Operations LLC (USA)

For more information about this report visit

About is the world's leading source for international market research reports and market data. We provide you with the latest data on international and regional markets, key industries, the top companies, new products and the latest trends.

  • Industrial Boilers Market

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Related Links

  • Package Boilers - Global Strategic Business Report
  • Steam Boiler Systems - Global Strategic Business Report
  • Waste Heat Boiler - Global Strategic Business Report

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Senators studied AI for a year. Critics call the result ‘pathetic.’

The 31-page “road map” calls for a $32 billion infusion for AI research and development and asks congressional committees to develop legislation.

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For much of the last year, Senate Majority Leader Charles E. Schumer and a bipartisan group of his colleagues have been huddling with tech CEOs, civil rights leaders and top researchers to develop an “all hands on deck” plan to address the urgent threats posed by artificial intelligence.

This week, the Senate AI Gang, as the group is known, unveiled the fruits of that effort, celebrating a sprawling 31-page road map that calls for billions of new funding in AI research as the “deepest” AI legislative document to date. But consumer advocates are furious about the final product, saying that the document is far too vague about how it will protect people from AI’s harms and that the senators’ initiative is sucking up the oxygen from other efforts to aggressively regulate the technology.

“This road map leads to a dead end,” Evan Greer, the director of Fight for the Future, an advocacy group, said in a statement that called the plan “pathetic” — a criticism echoed by others.

The immediate divisions over the plan bring to the fore the challenges of regulating the swiftly evolving technology in a deeply polarized Congress during an election year. Rather than pursuing a single comprehensive bill, the AI Gang has decided to delegate the legislative work to Senate committees, which are at drastically different stages in their efforts to understand the promise and peril of AI.

Schumer (D-N.Y.) expects that some AI bills could pass the Senate and potentially the House by the end of the year, but he noted that much of this work will extend into the next Congress. But the plan faces an uncertain future next year, as key lawmakers working on tech issues are scheduled to retire and the 2024 elections could reshape the leadership of Congress and the White House. The Senate Rules Committee on Wednesday advanced a trio of bipartisan bills addressing the role of AI in elections, which Schumer noted was one of the most urgent issues facing Congress amid the 2024 elections.

“We’re not going to wait on legislation that addresses every aspect of AI in society,” Schumer said. “If some areas are ready earlier than others, they should go forward.”

Other congressional committees are just beginning their work on artificial intelligence, as major tech companies are plowing forward with ever more advanced systems intended to further entrench the technology in consumers’ lives. On Monday, OpenAI announced a handful of upgrades that will make it easier for people to talk to ChatGPT, drawing comparisons with the 2013 film “Her,” which depicts a human falling in love with a digital voice assistant. On Tuesday, Google announced that it would roll out this week AI-generated answers to the top of everyone’s search results in the United States, transforming the way people access information online.

Lawmakers have repeatedly promised that they will regulate AI with greater urgency than they did with social media. For the last half decade, lawmakers have held numerous hearings and introduced a flurry of bills to address the ways social media allegedly harms children, undermines elections and imperils users’ privacy. But to date, the main social media legislation that Congress has passed is a law that could force a sale or ban of TikTok. With the new roadmap, critics say lawmakers risk repeating the same mistakes.

Tech industry groups were largely supportive of the road map. TechNet, whose members include OpenAI, Google and Meta, said in a statement that the directive “will strengthen America’s global competitiveness in AI and emerging technologies” through providing $32 billion for AI research and development, which will be distributed to the Energy Department, Commerce Department, National Science Foundation, and National Institute of Standards and Technology.

Tony Samp, the head of AI policy at the DLA Piper law firm and former founding director of the Senate AI working group, said the Senate’s process helped raise awareness about AI among lawmakers and helped prompt ideas for how to legislate. DLA Piper, including Samp, has lobbied on behalf of clients including OpenAI, according to federal disclosures.

“There are some who think you can wave a magic wand and Congress could pass comprehensive AI legislation, but that thinking ignores the political realities in the United States, as well as the real objectives of the AI Insight Forums and the road map,” Samp told The Washington Post.

Reggie Babin, a senior counsel at the law firm Akin and a former chief counsel to Schumer, told The Post that the working group succeeded in its goals. Babin has lobbied on behalf of Akin clients, including Adobe, according to federal disclosures.

“The goal of the process was to figure out how to make sure that 80 percent of stakeholders in the middle of this conversation are satisfied while preserving space for continued engagement on all fronts,” he said. “I think the working group hit that mark.”

The lawmakers gathered input for the road map in private sessions dubbed Insight Forums. Over the nine sessions, lawmakers met with executives including OpenAI CEO Sam Altman and Tesla CEO Elon Musk, as well as consumer advocates and civil rights leaders, such as Maya Wiley, the president and CEO of the Leadership Conference on Civil and Human Rights, a Washington-based group that represents a number of civil rights organizations. Liz Shuler, the president of the AFL-CIO who participated in the Insight Forums, called the road map an “important start” to passing AI legislation.

But civil society leaders were frustrated that the road map only made a cursory mention of AI bias, amid widespread concerns that the technology can replicate and exacerbate harmful stereotypes. Nik Marda, a technical lead on AI governance at Mozilla, noted on X that “bias” was mentioned in the road map as many times as “space debris.”

Rashad Robinson, the president of the civil rights group Color of Change, said the report shows Schumer “is not taking AI seriously.” Robinson called for lawmakers to move swiftly to respond to the bias that AI can pose.

Schumer told The Post in a statement that he shares the goals of the advocates.

“Leader Schumer agrees with their goals and we’re going to continue to work closely with them as legislation is written,” said Schumer spokeswoman Allison Biasotti.

Greer said the report reads like industry had outsize influence over the process, and it was written by Altman and other tech lobbyists.

“They heard from experts about the urgency of addressing AI harms and then paid lip service to that while giving industry most of what they want: money and ‘light touch’ regulatory proposals,” Greer told The Post.

The United States’ efforts to regulate AI lag far behind those of the European Union, which last year advanced a wide-ranging AI Act that sets limits on AI based on how risky regulators deem an application to be. The E.U. AI Act, for instance, bans social scoring systems similar to those used in China, and it places transparency requirements on high-risk applications of AI in medical devices or employment settings.

Many observers hoped that the road map would provide clarity on a path forward for Congress to address some of the thorniest issues in AI governance that have divided the tech industry — including the future of copyright law and the growing debate over the regulation of AI models that are open source, or freely available to the public, without the guardrails that OpenAI, Google and Microsoft place on their models. But Schumer’s report doesn’t mention open source, and it largely punts issues of intellectual property rights to government agencies, directing lawmakers to review existing and forthcoming reports from the U.S. Copyright Office and the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office on AI.

In a briefing with reporters Tuesday night, Sen. Todd Young (R-Ind.), a member of the AI Gang, said the report had “a high level of specificity” for a document of its size and scope. But senators acknowledged the report leaves key questions unanswered. The report calls for a $32 billion investment in nondefense AI research and development, but it does not specify how much funding should be directed to the military. The report also leaves key questions about how Congress should regulate consumer privacy in the age of AI to the committees.

“Where vagueness was required to come to an agreement, we embrace vagueness,” Young said.

But that strategy doesn’t work, said Suresh Venkatasubramanian, a Brown University professor who co-authored the White House’s AI Bill of Rights. He participated in the forums and felt as if lawmakers ignored the problems raised during the sessions.

“Embracing vagueness at this point is basically saying the status quo is just fine," he said.

The report “repackages” many issues around AI that have been debated on Capitol Hill for years, and its delivery may prompt some legislators to “yearn for more than just polished reiterations,” said Divyansh Kaushik, a vice president at Beacon Global Strategies, which advises companies on national security issues.

“After almost a year of hearings, briefings and forums, I think members are hungry for tangible, actionable steps and crisp legislative blueprints, something beyond the theoretical … a call for concrete, actionable strategies,” he said. “The real challenge begins now and it’s one for congressional committees: ensuring that this report does more than stir the pot, but rather sparks a sustained drive toward innovative and decisive policymaking to ensure American competitiveness on these critical technologies."

action research report b ed

Blue carbon: The potential of coastal and oceanic climate action

The oceans and coasts are the Earth’s climate regulators. Covering 72 percent of the planet’s surface, they have absorbed around 40 percent of carbon emitted by human activities since 1850. 1 Pierre Friedlingstein et al., “Global carbon budget 2019,” Earth System Science Data , 2019, Volume 11, Number 4. Coastal ecosystems such as mangroves, tidal marshes, and seagrass meadows act as deep carbon reservoirs, while marine ecosystems absorb and sequester greenhouse gases (GHG) through the carbon cycle. 2 International Union for Conservation of Nature issues brief , International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), November 2017. The bad news for humankind is that both oceans and coasts are under pressure, amid atmospheric and marine warming, habitat destruction, pollution, and the impacts of overfishing and industrial activity. These destructive factors are undermining the role of oceanic systems in slowing climate change.

Humankind’s impact on coastal and offshore ecosystems is a double-edged sword. While we are responsible for significant destruction, we also have agency over potential outcomes. Through our efforts, we can avert damage to or restore the oceans. This would increase carbon absorption from the atmosphere and move the world toward the net-zero emissions envisaged by the Paris Agreement on climate change. Companies that are seeking to offset their carbon emissions through voluntary and compliance carbon markets, and in particular those whose activities are connected to the oceans, such as the fishing industry, would have a key role to play in facilitating this process.

One of the key tools to tackle climate change is the carbon markets, through which organizations can trade emissions allowances to achieve reduction targets. The vast majority of funding provided by carbon markets is allocated to so-called nature-based solutions (NBS). These are focused on the protection, restoration, and management of natural and modified ecosystems. On land, the most recognizable NBS is planting of trees to restore forests. In this report, we analyze the potential of so-called blue carbon NBS, which are designed to protect or enhance ecosystems on coasts and in the oceans. We consider three categories of blue carbon solutions, which we rank according to their scientific and economic maturity:

  • Established solutions: We consider blue carbon NBS to be “established” when they meet minimum standards of scientific understanding and implementation potential. These relatively mature solutions are focused on the protection and restoration of mangroves, salt marshes, and seagrass meadows. They are more widely understood than many less mature blue carbon solutions, offer scientifically verifiable levels of carbon abatement, and are amenable to funding through the carbon markets. 3 Carlos M. Duarte and Catherine E. Lovelock, “Dimensions of blue carbon and emerging perspectives,” Biology Letters , 2019, Volume 15, Number 3.
  • Emerging solutions: Emerging solutions are those for which there is an existing body of peer-reviewed research to quantify CO 2 abatement potential, but for which further research is required to align with funding frameworks such as the Core Carbon Principles, published by the Taskforce on Scaling Voluntary Carbon Markets. The emerging category includes the protection and restoration of seaweed forests, extension of seaweed forests, and strategies to reduce bottom trawling.

Nascent solutions: The nascent and potentially largest blue carbon NBS category focuses on the protection or restoration of marine fauna populations. This category is the most challenging in terms of understanding impacts, establishing permanence (preventing leakage), and proving the vital concept of additionality—meaning the benefit would not have accrued anyway, for example, for economic or legal reasons. Fish themselves are not considered a form of carbon sequestration, but they contribute to the effectiveness of the biological carbon pump and therefore to exportation of carbon into the deep sea. Also in the nascent category are reef-based solutions. Healthy reefs may contribute to carbon sequestration through their support for a range of organisms and shell fish.

Due to the scientific challenges around quantification, the nascent category is not yet financeable through carbon markets.

Assessing blue carbon solutions

McKinsey’s new report,  Blue Carbon: The potential of coastal and economic climate action , sizes blue carbon NBS and measures their impacts, costs, and likely access to future funding. It highlights the latest scientific research and leverages McKinsey analysis to estimate abatement or conservation potential on a 2050 timeline. Deep dives on kelp reforestation and bottom trawling show how economies of scale in these emerging solutions could help reduce costs.

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If fully implemented, the established class of solutions would offer 0.4 to 1.2 metric gigatons (Gt) of annual CO 2 abatement, or between 1 and 3 percent of total current annual emissions (Exhibit 1). That potential jumps to approximately 3 GtCO 2 of annual abatement (about 7 percent of total current annual emissions) if the solutions in the emerging category, such as large-scale seaweed farming and bottom-trawling management, were to be fully confirmed and implemented. Nascent solutions might add another 1 to 2 GtCO 2 of annual abatement potential in the longer term, but the science remains highly uncertain. 4 Estimate based on emerging and evolving science and the assumptions we outline in this report; $18/tCO 2 based on opportunity cost of lower-end estimate of bottom trawling impact (approximately 0.4 Gt) in emerging category. If bottom trawling is confirmed at full potential (approximately 1.5 Gt), price viability for large portion of abatement potential could drop to approximately $11/tCO 2 . To put these numbers into context, annual human emissions are currently around 40 GtCO 2 . 5 Myles R. Allen et al., Special report: Global warming of 1.5°C: Summary for policymakers , Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 2018.

Alongside the climate case for blue carbon solutions, there are potentially significant ecosystem benefits. For example, as mangroves recover, fish and marine-fauna populations will expand, supporting both fisheries and nature-based tourism, as well as bolstering coastal protection and filtering runoff. 6 Michael Getzner and Muhammad Shariful Islam, “Ecosystem services of mangrove forests: Results of a meta-analysis of economic values,” International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health , 2020, Volume 17, Number 16.

When it comes to costs, preliminary analysis suggests that around one third of the total abatement potential would be viable below $18 per tCO 2 . This is more than the $5 to $15 per tCO 2 average price paid in the voluntary carbon markets but below the $40 to 100 per tCO 2 paid in the European compliance markets over the past year (February 2021–2022) (Exhibit 2). 7 Voluntary carbon markets offer entities or individuals the opportunity to buy GHG or carbon credits to offset their emissions and to finance the avoidance or reduction of emissions from other sources; the $18 per tCO 2 estimate is based on the opportunity cost of the lower-end estimate of bottom-trawling impact (approximately 0.4Gt) in the emerging category. If bottom trawling is confirmed at full potential (approximately 1.5Gt), price viability for a large portion of abatement potential could drop to approximately $11 per tCO 2 ; Kate Abnett, Nina Chestney, Susanna Twidale, “Europe’s carbon price nears the 100 euro milestone,” Reuters , February 6, 2022.

Significant hurdles

While blue carbon solutions are an increasingly viable option to help companies and organizations get to net zero, many promising ideas face significant hurdles. Scientific research into many solutions remains at an early stage, creating uncertainty over the impacts of abatement. For example, it is scientifically unclear how seaweed farming or avoided bottom trawling reduces atmospheric CO 2 (complex biogeochemical cycles in seawater and ocean currents influence net exchange of CO 2 with the atmosphere 8 Peter Macreadie et al. “The future of blue carbon science,” Nature Communications , 2019, Volume 10, Number 3998. ). In addition, there is insufficient modeling of how terrestrial processes such as agricultural runoff and climate change may impact the ocean’s continued ability to sequester carbon. 9 Peter Macreadie et al. “The future of blue carbon science,”  Nature Communications , 2019, Volume 10, Number 3998.

Beyond scientific uncertainty, matters of coastal and marine law are often complex or opaque. Estuarine and coastal environments, which are subject to national jurisdictions, are often governed by numerous subnational regulatory and administrative regimes. Offshore ocean environments are mainly overseen by the consensus-oriented United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea and UN Environment Programme. However, individual nations retain rights to resources up to 200 nautical miles from their coastlines. Nearer to shore, disputes over land tenure are common. Finally, in many countries, the practical path to implementation is likely to be bumpy. Coastal blue carbon project developers will need to engage with local communities, respecting traditional access and tenure rights and supporting marine-resource stewardship. We show how some organizations are working to tackle challenges in these areas.

Apple’s blue carbon initiative

Despite varying levels of practicality and scientific certainty, there are viable arguments to suggest that blue carbon solutions present a net opportunity. Indeed, companies are starting to roll out projects as part of their journeys toward net-zero emissions. Apple is working with nonprofit Conservation International to preserve a 27,000-acre mangrove forest in Colombia, the first fully accounted carbon offset credit for a mangrove, expected to sequester one million metric tons of CO 2 over its lifetime. Procter & Gamble, meanwhile, has partnered with the same organization to safeguard 31 species of mangroves in the Philippines.

Another tailwind is the ongoing development of methodologies to report and quantify project impacts. In 2020, standards setter Verra published the first blue carbon conservation methodology approved under any major carbon-offset program. The methodology, which is a revision to the VCS REDD+ Methodology Framework (VM0007), adds blue carbon conservation and restoration activities as eligible project types, and is expected to unlock new sources of funding for tidal wetland conservation and restoration. 10 This methodology provides a set of modules for various components of a methodology for reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD). The modules, when used together, quantify GHG emission reductions and removals from avoiding unplanned and planned deforestation and forest degradation. This methodology is applicable to forest lands, forested wetlands, forested peatlands, and tidal wetlands that would be deforested or degraded in the absence of the project activity.

Actions to support funding

There is no escaping the fact that blue carbon solutions are, for the most part, in their infancy. Just a trickle of projects have qualified for carbon markets to date, and there are significant financial, practical, and legal hurdles to scaling in ocean and coastal environments. In short, there are deficits in both supply and demand, resulting in a challenging risk-return profile. That said, the science that supports established blue carbon sequestration is sound, and there is clear opportunity for corporations to consider blue carbon opportunities. Moreover, given their beneficial impact on biodiversity and coastal communities, blue carbon solutions are particularly rich in “cobenefits” beyond their abatement profiles. Therefore, amid narrow pathways toward a 1.5°C outcome, the solutions merit serious consideration across financial markets, corporates, and governments .

Financial markets

As in any nascent technology, a key early requirement is to get to sufficient scale to achieve critical mass. At financial institutions, current investment in blue carbon projects is rooted in a broader mismatch between climate ambition and operational resources. Outside the top tier, many banks and investors lack the strategy and capabilities to commit to a relatively marginal asset class. Ticket sizes tend to be small compared with the effort required, and there is often a gap to cost parity with incumbent technologies. To resolve these challenges, financial institutions need to find ways to layer blue carbon into portfolio allocation frameworks and source the knowledge resources that can help them navigate new markets. Even then, there are doubts around returns profiles and timelines. These present significant barriers that need to be overcome if blue carbon is to become established as an alternative to terrestrial solutions.

Corporate scaling opportunities

Companies looking to offset their carbon emissions face similar challenges to those faced by financial institutions. In comparison with more readily available terrestrial credits, blue carbon offset opportunities may appear high risk, subscale, and expensive. Still, Apple and others have shown there are opportunities, particularly in the established class of solutions. For companies focused on the ocean, such as expedition cruise lines, there is also the chance to align their net-zero programs with their real-world activities. Tackling the challenge of scaling both supply and demand, the recently announced Blue Carbon Buyers Alliance aims to aggregate and educate buyers around a clear demand signal, with members committing to funding or purchasing credits from high-quality blue carbon projects. 11 Blue Carbon Buyers Alliance: Scaling blue carbon markets to conserve and restore coastal ecosystems , Business Alliance to Scale Climate Solutions, 2021. These collective, early mover signals could have a significant impact on supply, potentially bringing down prices in the process.

Project leads and governments

To support financial and corporate initiatives, blue carbon project leads have an important role to play. They must seek out more risk-tolerant financing and then design, pilot, and demonstrate project feasibility. This will establish the track record that will support more capital inflows. To create early momentum, they should share their early successes as widely and as comprehensively as possible.

Finally, governments will be critical in scaling participation and funding. A good blueprint is the work of the US Advanced Research Projects Agency, which is tasked with promoting and funding research into advanced energy technologies. In addition, multilateral and development assistance agencies can fund innovative and scalable programs. Progress at the COP26 summit in Glasgow on drafting the terms of a future structure for carbon markets under the revised Article 6 of the Paris Agreement was a positive step, and more progress is expected over the coming year. Governments could also signal support by including blue carbon solutions in nationally determined contributions (NDCs) under the Paris Agreement. Through these kinds of initiatives, they could nudge blue carbon toward the mainstream, and the world toward a promising new abatement opportunity.

Julien Claes is an associate partner in McKinsey’s Brussels office, Duko Hopman is a partner in the New Jersey office, Gualtiero Jaeger is a consultant in the Miami office, and Matt Rogers is a senior partner emeritus in the Bay Area office.

The authors wish to thank Joe Roman at the University of Vermont, Amy Schmid at Verra, and David Wigan at Perceptive Communications, as well as our McKinsey colleagues Urs Binggeli, Caroline De Vit, Hauke Engel, Kartik Jayaram, Laurent Kinet, Peter Mannion, Sébastien Marlier, Erik Ringvold, Ignus Rocher, Robin Smale, Antoine Stevens, and Matt Stone for their contributions to this article.

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The world’s benchmark climate monitoring station passes a major milestone

  • May 20, 2024
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On May 17, 1974, staff of the new National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration’s Geophysical Monitoring for Climatic Change program took their first atmospheric measurements for what would become one of the most scientifically significant records of humanity’s impact on Earth’s climate.

Since then, NOAA’s Global Monitoring Laboratory’s continuous measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) at the Mauna Loa Observatory have contributed to the longest modern datasets of this important greenhouse gas. NOAA’s daily measurements provide independent observations that complement measurements taken by the University of California San Diego’s Scripps Institution of Oceanography, which started sampling in 1958. The sustained, collaborative effort has helped educate scientists and the public about the relentless rise of CO 2 caused primarily by fossil fuel pollution. 

The concentration of carbon dioxide, or CO 2 , in that first sample was 333.46 parts per million (ppm). This month, as the annual CO 2 cycle peaks, concentrations have been averaging 427 ppm, more than 90 ppm above the 1974 level.  

“The long-term measurements at Mauna Loa have given us an accurate, long-term and unmistakable record of humans’ impact on the only atmosphere we have,” said Vanda Grubišić, director of the Global Monitoring Laboratory (GML).

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This graph shows the full record of monthly mean carbon dioxide measured at Mauna Loa Observatory, Hawaii, by NOAA and the Scripps Institution of Oceanography. Credit: NOAA Global Monitoring Laboratory

Perched high on the barren slopes of the Mauna Loa volcano in the middle of the Pacific Ocean, the observatory protrudes through the strong marine boundary layer temperature inversion that separates the more polluted lower portions of the atmosphere from the much cleaner free troposphere. The 11,135-foot elevation above sea level is ideal for sampling well-mixed air undisturbed by the influence of local pollution sources or vegetation, producing measurements that represent the average state of the atmosphere in the northern hemisphere. 

The characteristics that make the site ideal for measuring CO 2 also provide ideal conditions for a wide variety of other atmospheric research efforts. The observatory’s 10 buildings house instruments that collected up to 250 climatological measurements for NOAA and partner agency scientists and engineers every day before the eruption of the volcano cut off access to the site in November 2022. 

In the beginning

The Mauna Loa Observatory was established by the U.S. Weather Bureau , the precursor to NOAA’s National Weather Service, on June 28th, 1956, but not to monitor climate. Instead, scientists made routine weather observations and studied atmospheric circulation. They also made observations of solar radiation, cosmic radiation, fallout from atomic tests, snow crystals, meteors, the Sun’s corona, even the atmosphere of Mars. 

Charles David Keeling was the first to observe that CO 2 levels rose and fell every year in concert with the seasons, a dynamic which is now known as the Keeling Curve . The highest monthly mean CO 2 value of the year occurs in May, just before plants in the northern hemisphere start to remove large amounts of CO 2 from the atmosphere during the growing season. In the northern fall, winter, and early spring, plants and soils give off CO 2 2 , causing levels to rise through May. 

Keeling was also the first to recognize that despite the seasonal fluctuation, average CO 2 levels were increasing every year. Not only has that trend continued, but the rate of the annual increase has also risen – sharply – in recent decades. (Keeling’s son, geochemist Ralph Keeling, runs the Scripps program at Mauna Loa.)

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This aerial photograph shows the dominant fissure erupting on the Northeast Rift Zone of Mauna Loa, taken at approximately 8 a.m. Hawaii Standard Time on November 29, 2022. Lava fountains were up to 25 m (82 ft) that morning and the vent was feeding the main lava flow to the northeast. Credit: M. Patrick/USGS photo

The volcano awakes

On Nov. 27, 2022, lava flows from the erupting Mauna Loa volcano buried more than a mile of the access road and destroyed power poles, temporarily interrupting all scientific activity at the observatory. NOAA and Scripps scientists were able to quickly set up alternative sampling sites for some measurements, including CO 2 , at Maunakea. 

In 2023, MLO staff visiting the site once a week via helicopter restored limited power to four key observatory buildings by augmenting existing solar generation and adding battery systems. Approximately 33 percent of the atmospheric measurements on the mountain site have been restored, including consistent measurements for greenhouse gases, halocarbons and trace gases, ozone, aerosols and global radiation. Reconstruction of the access road to the observatory is anticipated in 2025.

The Mauna Loa Observatory is one of four NOAA atmospheric baseline observatories strategically situated from the Arctic to the South Pole, each of which collects numerous daily in situ and remote atmospheric and solar measurements. Continuous measurements of atmospheric CO 2 at the Barrow Observatory near the ​​village of Utqiaġvik, Alaska began in July 1973, at the South Pole Atmospheric Research Observatory in January 1975, and at the American Samoa Atmospheric Baseline Observatory in January 1976.

To explore more information about the CO 2 record at Mauna Loa Observatory, visit the GML website’s Trends in CO2 page. 

For more information, contact Theo Stein, NOAA Communications: [email protected]

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Air sampling flasks are lined up on a manifold for intake processing in NOAA's Global Monitoring Laboratory. Credit: Lauren Lipuma, CIRES

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Investments and Policy Reforms Towards Low-Carbon Transition and Resilience are in Azerbaijan’s Economic Interest, says WBG Report

BAKU, November 29, 2023 – Urgent action on climate can help Azerbaijan minimize the risks emerging from the global low-carbon transition and protect the living standards of its people, says the World Bank Group’s Azerbaijan Country Climate and Development Report (CCDR), released today.

The country’s economy is heavily dependent on oil and gas, which account for a third of GDP and 90% of exports. With existing oil reserves dwindling and expected to last another 25 years, comprehensive and effective decarbonization efforts will help diversify the economy and open up new drivers of growth, such as green hydrogen and agriculture.

Azerbaijan is also facing considerable physical risks from climate change. Almost the entire country is prone to both droughts and water scarcity, which are expected to increase in frequency and intensity due to extreme weather events. Meanwhile, its natural wealth is eroding as a result of soil degradation, desertification, and overgrazing, negatively impacting agriculture, while oil and gas extraction have also contributed to land degradation and contamination of water resources.

“Accelerating investments in decarbonization is in Azerbaijan’s interest, regardless of the pace of global decarbonization efforts. Such efforts would also be well aligned with national goals to diversify the economy,” said Rolande Pryce, World Bank Country Director for the South Caucasus . “The CCDR provides a practical pathway for the country to move from setting targets to implementing actions which can protect Azerbaijan’s economy and people from the negative impacts of climate change.”

Although Azerbaijan is a signatory to the Paris Agreement on climate change, it has not yet committed to a domestic net zero target. However, the country has set national targets of reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 35% by 2030 and 40% by 2050 from 1990 levels. While stepping up its commitment to decarbonization, Azerbaijan is not yet on track to achieve its national targets, says the report.

The challenges of decarbonization in Azerbaijan are considerable, given the structure of the national economy. Sectors that are key to the green transition, including energy and water, are dominated by state-owned enterprises, which employ half of the country’s workforce. Charting and implementing a clear decarbonization pathway will require economic diversification and a more vibrant private sector.

The decarbonization and resilience actions outlined in the report will require large investments of an estimated US$44 billion, or about 3.2% of GDP, until 2060, when the global economy goes to net-zero.  A significant share of this cost should be resourced from commercial and private sector financing.

“To drive a low-carbon transition, Azerbaijan will benefit from diversifying its economy away from fossil fuels and harnessing the capital and know-how of the private sector—but time is of the essence. Seizing the opportunities outlined in this report will help the country future-proof its economy and safeguard the population from climate change, ” said Ivana Fernandes Duarte, IFC's Regional Manager for the South Caucasus .

A gradual but steady phase-out of fossil fuel subsidies – a measure already contained in the government’s 2022-2026 strategy – will be key to achieving the transition, especially if accompanied by targeted social protection measures to protect the poorest.

The report sets out a strategic roadmap for a resilient and net zero development pathway for Azerbaijan. Highlights include:

  • Clean energy : Azerbaijan has abundant renewable energy resources, wind and solar, which could be exploited to produce green hydrogen and electricity for exports and domestic use in power generation, industry, and transport. This will require substantial public investment in enabling electricity infrastructure and private investment in renewable energy generation, which could be unlocked also through public-private partnerships (PPPs).
  • Energy efficiency : Energy efficiency is a government priority and efforts in this direction should include a program of energy efficiency in public and private buildings as well as the transport sector. Stricter fuel efficiency and emissions standards, use of electric vehicles, tax incentives and financial support programs should be part of an array of offerings to encourage energy efficiency by the public and commercial users.
  • Agriculture and water : Agriculture is a sector critical to Azerbaijan’s non-oil economy. The sector contributes less than 8% of GDP but accounts for 36% of total employment. However, the sector is highly vulnerable not only to extreme weather events but also to the existing water deficit in the country. Climate-proofing the sector to higher temperatures and lower water availability must include improved irrigation efficiency and the introduction of climate smart agricultural practices to improve productivity while building resilience to climate change and reducing emissions.

“Although they may appear large, the investments required to address the decarbonization and resilience transition are manageable, particularly when assessed against their expected benefits –Azerbaijan’s future prosperity depends on setting the right policy framework for public and private investments to start flowing” said Andrea Liverani, lead author of the Azerbaijan CCDR .

About Country Climate and Development Reports

The World Bank Group’s Country Climate and Development Reports (CCDRs) are new core diagnostic reports that integrate climate change and development considerations. They will help countries prioritize the most impactful actions that can reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and boost adaptation, while delivering on broader development goals. CCDRs build on data and rigorous research and identify main pathways to reduce GHG emissions and climate vulnerabilities, including the costs and challenges as well as benefits and opportunities from doing so. The reports suggest concrete, priority actions to support the low-carbon, resilient transition. As public documents, CCDRs aim to inform governments, citizens, the private sector and development partners and enable engagements with the development and climate agenda. CCDRs will feed into other core Bank Group diagnostics, country engagements and operations, and help attract funding and direct financing for high-impact climate action.

The Azerbaijan Country Climate and Development Report highlights decarbonization and resilience measures that are aligned with the government’s objectives of economic diversification by focusing on the energy system and end-use sectors (transport, building, and industry) as well as the water and agricultural nexus.

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