higher education policy handbook

Book series

Higher Education: Handbook of Theory and Research

About this book series.

Published annually since 1985, the Handbook series provides a compendium of thorough and integrative literature reviews on a diverse array of topics of interest to the higher education scholarly and policy communities. Each chapter provides a comprehensive review of research findings on a selected topic, critiques the research literature in terms of its conceptual and methodological rigor, and sets forth an agenda for future research intended to advance knowledge on the chosen topic. The Handbook focuses on a comprehensive set of central areas of study in higher education that encompasses the salient dimensions of scholarly and policy inquiries undertaken in the international higher education community. Each annual volume contains chapters on such diverse topics as research on college students and faculty, organization and administration, curriculum and instruction, policy, diversity issues, economics and finance, history and philosophy, community colleges, advances in research methodology, and more. The series is fortunate to have attracted annual contributions from distinguished scholars throughout the world. 

  • Laura W. Perna

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  • Copyright: 2025

Available Renditions

  • Copyright: 2024
  • eReference work
  • Copyright: 2023
  • Copyright: 2022
  • Copyright: 2021

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Higher Education Policy

  • ISSN : 0952-8733 (print)
  • ISSN : 1740-3863 (electronic)
  • Journal no. : 41307

higher education policy handbook

Higher Education Policy is an international, peer-reviewed journal that focuses on issues of significance in higher education policy. The journal publishes original analyses, whether theoretical, empirical or practice-based. The range of coverage extends from case studies of developments in individual institutions, to broad examination of policy-making at the system, national and regional levels.

The journal addresses issues in higher education related to governmental and institutional policies and governance, including analyses of developments in quality assurance; funding of higher education; accountability; academic freedom; institutional autonomy; competition; academic careers; stratification; organizational strategies and change; access and exclusion. Given the many developments in higher education, the journal is keen to address contemporary themes like rankings and excellence and authors are invited to think outside the box as well.

Higher Education Policy assembles special issues which devote coverage to a single subject. Recent specials have addressed the consequences of global competition for local scholarship; student engagement; higher education research in East Asia; and early career researchers.

The journal reaches an international audience which includes researchers specializing in higher education, and policy-makers, administrators, managers and practitioners working in the field of higher education.

Higher Education Policy is the quarterly journal of the International Association of Universities (IAU).

Latest issue

Journal cover: 41307, Volume 37, Issue 2

Volume 37, Issue 2, June 2024

Original Article

The College Admission Policy Evolution from 2003 to 2020 in China—A Social Network Analysis

Kun Yan , Han Wu , Kaiming Bu , Lingli Wu

Game of Brains: Examining Researcher Brain Gain and Brain Drain and Research University Policy

Yuan Chih Fu , Juan José Moradel Vásquez , Bea Treena Macasaet , Angela Yung Chi Hou , Justin J. W. Powell

Time Matters in Higher Education: How the ECTS Changes Ideas of Desired Student Conduct

Laura Louise Sarauw

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The Oxford Handbook of Higher Education Systems and University Management

The Oxford Handbook of Higher Education Systems and University Management

The Oxford Handbook of Higher Education Systems and University Management

Gordon Redding is a socio-economist educated at Cambridge in economic geography,with a PhD at Manchester in organization theory, and an honorary doctorate from the Stockholm School of Economics. He earlier spent a decade as an executive in UK industry. He is a specialist on China and the regional ethnic Chinese, winning the Biennial Award for Scholarship of the International Association of Chinese Management Researchers. He now works on the comparison of different systems of capitalism, and on the role of education in societal development, and has published 15 books and over 100 articles related to these subjects. He has taught on a regular basis at universities in the United States, India, Sweden, Switzerland, Australia, Vietnam, and China. He holds an emeritus professorship at the University of Hong Kong, where he was based for twenty-four years and founded and directed the HKU Business School (now the Faculty of Business and Economics). He has also directed the Euro-Asia Centre at INSEAD,and holds a Conjoint Professorship at Newcastle University, NSW. Now living in London he has held a Visiting Professorial Fellowship at the Institute of Education, UCL. He is also a Fellow of the HEAD Foundation in Singapore, a think-tank he formerly directed, which is devoted to research on education and its role in societal progress internationally. Recent publications include co-editing The Oxford Handbook on Asian Business Systems (with Michael Witt, 2014) and writing The Future of Chinese Capitalism (with Michael Witt, Oxford University Press, 2010). He is currently sufficiently risk-prone to be working on a general theory of socio-economic forms of societal progress.

Antony Drew is Assistant Dean International for the Faculty of Business and Law at the University of Newcastle, Australia and Senior Lecturer in International Business and Management. In his management role, he is responsible for managing all aspects of the Faculty’s international portfolio including developing and managing inbound and outbound student movement opportunities, transnational educational opportunities, international research collaboration, and enhancing the Faculty’s international presence. His research focus is in comparative education systems, using frameworks from institutional theory, economic sociology, cross-cultural psychology, and international business, in order to better analyse how business and educational institutions evolve over time in different societies. He has published in peer-reviewed publications including Education and Training, Educational Technology Research and Development, Journal of Teaching in International Business, Advances in International Management, and the Handbook of East Asian Entrepreneurship and has presented papers on his research at a number of international conferences.

Stephen Crump was Pro Vice-Chancellor External Relations and Professor of Education at the University of Newcastle, Australia and is currently Honorary Professorial Fellow at the University of Melbourne, as well as holding adjunct positions at Newcastle and the University of Tasmania. Before taking up senior higher education management positions, Stephen lectured in educational leadership and policy studies, before being appointed as the inaugural Head of the School of Professional Studies at the University of Sydney. His discipline expertise is in education and public policy, leadership/organizational development, philosophy of education, and curriculum reform. Stephen has been awarded over $2 million in research grants, has more than 100 publications and has held positions on government and private boards/councils in Australia and internationally. He has presented in Asia, North America, Europe, and Africa and was a Visiting Fellow at University College London for two years. His most recent reports focus on local educational communities and improving educational and employment opportunities for young Indigenous Australians.

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The world’s systems of higher education (HE) are caught up in the fourth industrial revolution of the twenty-first century. Driven by increased globalization, demographic expansion in demand for education, new information and communications technology, and changing cost structures influencing societal expectations and control, higher education systems across the globe are adapting to the pressures of this new industrial environment. To make sense of the complex changes in the practices and structures of higher education, this Handbook sets out a theoretical framework to explain what higher education systems are, how they may be compared over time, and why comparisons are important in terms of societal progress in an increasingly interconnected world. Drawing on insights from over 40 leading international scholars and practitioners, the chapters examine the main challenges facing institutions of Higher Educations, how they should be managed in changing conditions, and the societal implications of different approaches to change. Structured around the premise that higher education plays a significant role in ensuring that a society achieves the capacity to adjust itself to change, while at the same time remaining cohesive as a social system, this Handbook explores how current internal and external forces disturb this balance, and how institutions of Higher Education could, and might, respond.

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Center for Higher Education Policy and Practice

On a mission to redefine the future of higher education

The Center for Higher Education Policy and Practice

On a mission to center learners in the future of higher education.

higher education policy handbook


The Center for Higher Education Policy and Practice (CHEPP) is a non-partisan higher education research, policy, and advocacy organization, promoting solutions that deliver transformative outcomes for all learners.

Who are today’s learners?

Today’s learners are working adults. Caregivers. Veterans. They are living with low income, or with food or housing insecurity. While these students don’t fit the profile of the traditional college student, they are the majority of today’s learners—it’s time to build systems that support and empower them.

37% of today’s learners are 25 and older.

24% of today’s learners are parents or have other dependents.

40% of today’s learners work full-time, and 49% are financially independent.

36% of today’s learners don’t know where their next meal will come from.

At CHEPP, we believe:

Post-secondary education unlocks social and economic mobility.

A learner’s lived experience is an asset to their education and institution, not a barrier to success.

Learning and progress should be measured by a demonstration of knowledge and skills, not time spent in a classroom.

Learner-centered design should shape all post-secondary education policy and practice change.

As a public good, post-secondary institutions bear responsibility to relentlessly focus on student success and equitable outcomes.

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What education policy experts are watching for in 2022

Subscribe to the brown center on education policy newsletter, daphna bassok , daphna bassok nonresident senior fellow - governance studies , brown center on education policy stephanie riegg cellini , stephanie riegg cellini nonresident senior fellow - governance studies , brown center on education policy michael hansen , michael hansen senior fellow - brown center on education policy , the herman and george r. brown chair - governance studies douglas n. harris , douglas n. harris nonresident senior fellow - governance studies , brown center on education policy , professor and chair, department of economics - tulane university jon valant , and jon valant director - brown center on education policy , senior fellow - governance studies kenneth k. wong kenneth k. wong nonresident senior fellow - governance studies , brown center on education policy.

January 7, 2022

Entering 2022, the world of education policy and practice is at a turning point. The ongoing coronavirus pandemic continues to disrupt the day-to-day learning for children across the nation, bringing anxiety and uncertainty to yet another year. Contentious school-board meetings attract headlines as controversy swirls around critical race theory and transgender students’ rights. The looming midterm elections threaten to upend the balance of power in Washington, with serious implications for the federal education landscape. All of these issues—and many more—will have a tremendous impact on students, teachers, families, and American society as a whole; whether that impact is positive or negative remains to be seen.

Below, experts from the Brown Center on Education Policy identify the education stories that they’ll be following in 2022, providing analysis on how these issues could shape the learning landscape for the next 12 months—and possibly well into the future.


I will also be watching the Department of Education’s negotiated rulemaking sessions and following any subsequent regulatory changes to federal student-aid programs. I expect to see changes to income-driven repayment plans and will be monitoring debates over regulations governing institutional and programmatic eligibility for federal student-loan programs. Notably, the Department of Education will be re-evaluating Gainful Employment regulations—put in place by the Obama administration and rescinded by the Trump administration—which tied eligibility for federal funding to graduates’ earnings and debt.


But the biggest and most concerning hole has been in the  substitute teacher force —and the ripple effects on school communities have been broad and deep. Based on personal communications with Nicola Soares, president of  Kelly Education , the largest education staffing provider in the country, the pandemic is exacerbating several problematic trends that have been quietly simmering for years. These are: (1) a growing reliance on long-term substitutes to fill permanent teacher positions; (2) a shrinking supply of qualified individuals willing to fill short-term substitute vacancies; and, (3) steadily declining fill rates for schools’ substitute requests. Many schools in high-need settings have long faced challenges with adequate, reliable substitutes, and the pandemic has turned these localized trouble spots into a widespread catastrophe. Though federal pandemic-relief funds could be used to meet the short-term weakness in the substitute labor market (and mainline teacher compensation, too ), this is an area where we sorely need more research and policy solutions for a permanent fix.


First, what’s to come of the vaccine for ages 0-4? This is now the main impediment to resuming in-person activity. This is the only large group that currently cannot be vaccinated. Also, outbreaks are triggering day-care closures, which has a significant impact on parents (especially mothers), including teachers and other school staff.

Second, will schools (and day cares) require the vaccine for the fall of 2022? Kudos to my hometown of New Orleans, which still appears to be the nation’s only district to require vaccination. Schools normally require a wide variety of other vaccines, and the COVID-19 vaccines are very effective. However, this issue is unfortunately going to trigger a new round of intense political conflict and opposition that will likely delay the end of the pandemic.

Third, will we start to see signs of permanent changes in schooling a result of COVID-19? In a previous post on this blog, I proposed some possibilities. There are some real opportunities before us, but whether we can take advantage of them depends on the first two questions. We can’t know about these long-term effects on schooling until we address the COVID-19 crisis so that people get beyond survival mode and start planning and looking ahead again. I’m hopeful, though not especially optimistic, that we’ll start to see this during 2022.


The CTC and universal pre-K top my list for 2022, but it’s a long list. I’ll also be watching the Supreme Court’s ruling on vouchers in Carson v. Makin , how issues like critical race theory and detracking play into the 2022 elections, and whether we start to see more signs of school/district innovation in response to COVID-19 and the recovery funds that followed.


Electoral dynamics will affect several important issues: the selection of state superintendents; the use of American Rescue Plan funds; the management of safe return to in-person learning for students; the integration of racial justice and diversity into curriculum; the growth of charter schools; and, above all, the extent to which education issues are leveraged to polarize rather than heal the growing divisions among the American public.

Early Childhood Education Education Policy Higher Education

Governance Studies

Brown Center on Education Policy

Sweta Shah, Donald Wertlieb, Charlotte Vuyiswa McClain-Nhlapo, Ruchi Kulbir Singh, Kathy Hirsh-Pasek

July 24, 2024

Carol Graham

July 22, 2024

Dina Buchbinder, Kathy Hirsh-Pasek

July 18, 2024

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Volume 37 march - june 2024.

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Academic Vigour in Changing Contexts

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Sustaining Diversity: Differentiating Higher Education Systems in a Knowledge Society

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Redefining the Social Contract

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Intercultural Learning and Dialogue

Knowledge Flow and Capacity Development

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Reform – Contemplated and Reconsidered

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On Prizes, Entrepreneurialism and Bologna

The Vision of Reform

Science, Training and Career

The Business of University Research: Cross national perspectives

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Organizing Higher Education for the 21st Century

Managing the Autonomous University

The Role of Universities in Developing Areas

Management in African Universities

Volume 7 March - December 1994

The Mobility of Brains

Higher Education and European Integration

Cross-National Perspectives on the Academic Profession

The Changing Graduate Training System

Volume 6 March - December 1993

The Changing Role of the State

Process in Higher Education

Higher Education in East Asia

Academic Mobility: Strengthening the Internationalization of the University

Volume 5 March - December 1992

Different Systems, Different Issues

Intermediary Bodies

Research and Training: Towards Innovative Strategies of Financing

University Action for Sustainable Development

Volume 4 March - December 1991

Leverage and Change

Reconstructing Higher Education

Student Mobility: Reciprocity and Exchange

Volume 3 March - December 1990

At the Frontiers of Practice and Theory

Mobilizing for Change

Higher Education: Public Service and Private Commitment

Higher Education and Culture

Volume 2 March - December 1989

Informatics and Education: Implications for Higher Education

Problems of Higher Education in Latin America

Higher Education: Resource, Service or Good?

Access to Higher Education

Volume 1 March - December 1988

Points of Tension: Higher Education and Society in the late 1980s

The Response of Higher Education to New Priorities

Conflict and Peace: A Challenge for Universities

Higher Education and Development: A Reappraisal

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College of Education, Health and Human Sciences

Physical Address: 921 Campus Drive Moscow ID, 83844

General Contact: Phone: 208-885-6772 Email: [email protected]

Student Services: Phone: 208-885-6610

Fax: 208-885-1071

Mailing Address: University of Idaho Boise Center 322 E. Front Street Boise, ID 83702

Phone: 208-334-2999

Fax: 208-364-4035

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Web: Boise Center

Coeur d'Alene

Mailing Address: University of Idaho CDA Center 1031 N. Academic Way, Suite 242 Coeur d'Alene, ID 83814

Phone: 208-292-2519

Fax: 208-667-5275

Email: [email protected]

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Doctoral Degree Overview

University of Idaho offers two advanced Education degree programs, the Doctor of Education (Ed.D.) and Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.). Differences between the two are explained below. The Doctoral Handbook will guide students through the steps necessary to be considered for admission to the doctoral program in the College of Education, Health and Human Sciences and College of Graduate Studies. For more information about our programs, contact us by email at  [email protected]  or call 208-885-6772.

For more information about our doctoral programs, contact Ann Brown .

Doctor of Education (Ed.D.)

The Doctor of Education prepares students as professional leaders, educators and practitioner-scholars who actualize the knowledge base in their respective field. Students will:

Create and model ethical evidence-based best practices

Lead organizational change 

Establish a caring and collaborative learning community

Support the principles of teaching and learning practices

Utilize the principles of effective leadership

Develop proficiency utilizing and applying technologies

Evaluate the individual, organizational, and societal contexts of learning

Design research that addresses professional policy issues

Integrate ethical sensitivity toward diversity and social justice in research, teaching and learning

Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)

The Doctor of Philosophy prepares students as researchers, faculty and/or discipline-based scholars who contribute to the knowledge base of their respective fields. Students will:

Engage in ethical, empirical, theoretical, and/or conceptual inquiry

Develop an active research agenda

Engage in grant-writing, proposal and manuscript preparation and presentations

Develop understanding of pedagogies and content 

Contribute to professional organizations, societies and/or academies

Engage in appropriate outreach/service 

Doctoral Specializations

Adult, organizational learning and leadership, ph.d..

A Ph.D. in Adult, Organizational Learning and Leadership will prepare you to lead and teach professional development and training programs as a leader or educator. This doctorate program at  University of Idaho prepares students in a wide range of careers including higher education, business, government agencies and nonprofit organizations.

  • View Ph.D. study plan

Autism Spectrum Disorder & Related Disabilities, Ph.D.

The Ph.D. specialization at the University of Idaho is designed to prepare prospective university faculty and leaders to teach, conduct and disseminate research and secure funding for research in the area of autism spectrum disorder and related disabilities. This highly structured program is designed to accommodate full- and part-time doctoral students both at a distance and on campus, and to produce high-quality leaders that are philosophically oriented toward family involvement, cultural competency, inclusive and multi-tiered supports, evidence-based interventions and research to practice scholarship.

  • View Ph.D. study guide

Career and Technical Education, Ph.D. or Ed.D.

This program prepares education professionals for leadership positions in public or private education systems, including K-12 districts and community colleges. The degree is designed for experienced educators who want to perform and apply research to address practical problems relevant to their personal careers and local educational landscapes. As a student in this program, you will lead original dissertation research, likely within the context of your professional work, with a focus primarily on real-world, real-time applications in your local community. Students graduate proficient in program evaluation, case study and action research.

  • View Ed.D. study plan

Curriculum and Instruction, Ph.D. or Ed.D.

This program offers opportunities to contribute to national and international conversations surrounding the many complex issues in today’s educational system. This research-oriented program is designed primarily, but not exclusively, for students who want research and/or teaching careers in higher education. As a student in the program, you will design and implement original dissertation research to address a specific problem or issue in the field of education. Your work should lead to publishable articles in national and international peer-reviewed journals. Students in this program become proficient in advanced statistical and qualitative research methodologies and gain the skills to lead further research in their professional careers in academia.

Educational Leadership, Ph.D. or Ed.D.

A Doctor of Education (Ed.D) or a Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) degree with an educational leadership emphasis is for students who want to learn advanced skills and theories that will help inform and improve research and practice. This degree prepares students to assume positions as research-based faculty members in universities, high-level administrators and analysts in schools, school districts and in state and national-level agencies. The doctorate can also open doors in the private sector as a consultant and CEO.

Exercise Science, Ph.D.

This Ph.D. program prepares you to help advance the field of exercise science through teaching, research and service at universities or other exercise-related institutions. As a student in the program, you will focus your doctoral studies in biomechanics, exercise physiology or sport psychology. You also will lead independent research in the field, with opportunities to conduct performance, physiological or motor-skills tests in the on-campus Human Performance Laboratory which houses the Exercise Physiology Lab and the Biomechanics Lab.

Healthy Active Lifestyles, Ph.D.

Stem (science, technology, engineering and mathematics), ph.d. or ed.d..

The College of Education, Health and Human Sciences (EHHS) has a specialization in STEM education within its Ph.D. in education. The college focuses on the disciplines within STEM not only because the skills and knowledge in each discipline are essential for student success, but also because these disciplines are deeply intertwined in the real world and in how students learn most effectively.

There are various areas of expertise and experience in EHHS that include but are not limited to:

  • K-12 STEM Education
  • Math and Science Education
  • Engineering and Technology Education
  • Indigenous STEM Education
  • Experiential STEM Education

Because there is so much variance among study plans in the STEM Education specialization based on students’ backgrounds and focus, a sample program sheet is not provided. Contact the associate dean for the College of Education, Health and Human Sciences for specific information regarding a given focus within STEM Education.

Questions on our Graduate Programs?

» Visit our Graduate Program FAQ page

  • Doctoral Handbook pdf
  • Doctoral Dissertation Proposal Approval pdf

Admission Details

Ed.D. or Ph.D.

  • Next available: Fall 2025
  • Application Deadline: Dec. 1
  • Summer only
  • Next available: Summer 2024
  • Application Deadline: April 15

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What a Kamala Harris Presidency Will Mean for Higher Education, DEI, and History


Election 2024 continues to surprise.

After President Joseph R. Biden dropped out of the presidential election Sunday, he quickly endorsed his vice president, Kamala Harris, to replace him at the top of the ticket.

Biden's decision created a whiplash within the Republican base. GOP leaders launched swift attacks on Harris, labeling her as a “DEI” candidate. But despite the attacks, experts agree that a Harris presidential candidacy is as groundbreaking as Biden’s late withdrawal.

Dr. Christina Greer, associate professor of political science at Fordham University.

The Democratic National Convention to be held in Chicago, Aug. 19-22, is where a presidential candidate is officially nominated. And while many high-powered Democrats have already endorsed Harris, other notable figures, like former President Barack Obama, said that they will wait until the convention to decide who to endorse.

While Harris’s nomination is not a sure thing, her presidency would likely echo Biden’s policies when it comes to higher education, according to experts. And it is also important, they added, that this potential future president matriculated at an historically Black college and university (HBCU). Harris is also the child of immigrant parents, which would give the presidency another vantage point that it never had before.

Greer said that Harris will likely continue Biden’s radical attempts to relegate, reform, and abolish student loan debt, something that has actively changed the lives of millions of student borrowers. Some of Biden’s policies for higher education were more popular than others, so Greer added that Harris will have to thread the needle carefully when sharing the Biden administration successes while highlighting her own policies. But Harris has already received endorsements from teaching unions and progressive civil rights organizations.

The American Federation of Teachers (AFT), a union of 1.7 million pre-K through 12 and higher education teaching professionals, offered Harris their full endorsement Monday. Dr. Alí Bustamante, director of the Worker Power and Economic Security Program at the Roosevelt Forward, a progressive think-tank, also released a statement in support of Harris, citing her efforts toward student debt cancellation.

“Within the administration, she has championed student debt relief, driving forward the SAVE plan that aims to reduce average monthly payments from $393 to about $200 and implementing various loan forgiveness programs that cancelled about $170 billion in debt for nearly five million Americans,” wrote Bustamante. “Although SAVE was blocked by a federal court, her administration took quick action to protect those borrowers by placing them in forbearance while the case is litigated."

Dr. Tabitha Bonilla, associate professor at the Institute of Policy Research at Northwestern University.

“You can clearly tell that this has been something that Democrats have been working on for some time. As soon as they made this announcement, there’s been quick donor action,” said Bonilla.

Harris’s newly launched campaign announced it has raised over $49 million in less than 24-hours, while ActBlue, the fundraising branch of the Democratic party, has seen its single best day in gifts since record keeping began in 2020, receiving $67 million in donations.

“I'm already seeing attacks against her that she's the first DEI presidential candidate, kind of mocking the fact that she couldn't get through a primary on her own, and she's a Black woman,” said Bonilla. “I actually think that there's probably going to be even more opportunity for discussions around [like], ‘What does DEI mean, what does it do?’ that may come up because of her candidacy.”

Greer agreed that Republicans will likely continue attacking Harris, who has championed DEI policies. 

“We know the negative ads; how she’s not qualified and all the tropes you have for Black women, and women of color, will be on full display. The misinformation and disinformation during her tenure as Attorney General of California [will be used] to try to chip away at some of the Black and Latinx male vote,” said Greer. “Hopefully the Democratic strategists have thought about the various scenarios and are prepared to counter-attack.”

While nothing is certain until the official nomination at the end of August, Bonilla said the weeks leading up to the convention might continue to be “weird” and “wacky.”

“What I hope and think the true value of campaigns is, is to get folks talking about policy and understanding it,” said Bonilla. “The hope is the campaigns will be back there by September.”

Liann Herder can be reached at [email protected] .

Dr. N. Joyce Payne is founder of the Thurgood Marshall College Fund, the national advocacy organization designed to support students who attend the 47 historically Black colleges and universities.

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Dr. N. Joyce Payne is founder of the Thurgood Marshall College Fund, the national advocacy organization designed to support students who attend the 47 historically Black colleges and universities.

Dean College of Public Health

Tenure-track faculty position assistant professor of middle east and north african (mena) studies, dean for the school of health services, project manager a (penn implementation science center), clinical assistant/associate professor of financial planning, director of military center connections.

University of Missouri- Columbia

As Trump creates distance from Project 2025, the conservative Agenda47 comes into focus

higher education policy handbook

As the Republican National Convention (RNC) continues into its third day, speakers and party members have rallied around a firm support of Trump, despite a tumultuous few years that resulted in 34 felony convictions for falsifying business records, among other controversies.

At the RNC , political speakers outlined issues the Republican party considers to be some of the biggest facing Americans, including crime, immigration and identity politics. While some also proposed solutions that would be ushered in under a conservative president, voters don't have to guess Trump's plans; instead, they can simply head over to his website.

Starting in 2022, Trump's official campaign began uploading a series of policy plans to its website, detailing how the Republican candidate plans to tackle some of the country's most pressing issues. Called Agenda47 , the campaign materials paint a big picture of what Americans may expect under another Trump presidency.

Here's what to know about Agenda47.

What to know about Heritage Foundation: Main group behind Project 2025 and RNC sponsor

What is Agenda47 and how is it different from Project 2025?

Agenda47 is the Trump administration's official policy platform for the 2024 presidential election. Outlined in a series of videos and statements on the Trump website, the proposals were released during primary election season.

Many of the actions proposed would be achieved through executive order and touch on topics ranging from climate change and education to the economy and immigration.

The policies are separate from Project 2025, an ultra-conservative initiative created by far-right think tank the Heritage Foundation . Project 2025 is something of a playbook for the next conservative president and details a reimagining of the executive branch and plans to overhaul federal government agencies in a conservative image.

It was created by a team that includes several members of Trump's former staff, but Trump has since attempted to distance himself from the Heritage Foundation after President Joe Biden publicly criticized his ties to the project.

Agenda47, on the other hand, is the official outline for Trump's campaign.

What Agenda47 says about education

Trump's proposals for education reform focus on defunding and punishing educators and institutions that do not teach conservative values and creating new organizations to enforce rules created around Republican talking points to "save" schools from "Radical Left maniacs."

These plans include:

  • Cutting federal funding for any school or programs teaching "Critical Race Theory," "gender ideology" or other lessons deemed "inappropriate."
  • Keeping "men out of women's sports."
  • Abolishing teacher tenure.
  • Pushing prayer in public schools.
  • Seeking out and undoing "Marxism" in education.
  • Certifying only teachers “who embrace patriotic values" through a new credential program.
  • Undoing DEI policies.
  • Encouraging home and religious schooling.
  • Creating a "Parental Bill of Rights" to give parents control over curriculum.
  • Allowing parents to elect school officials and favoring school districts that enable teachers to carry firearms.

On the college level, Agenda47 wants to punish universities like Harvard for "turning students into Communists and terrorists" and plans to do away with the existing accreditation system, replacing it with one that adheres to GOP values and heavily fines those that don't comply. With money made from the fines, Agenda47 proposes the creation of a free online “American Academy" with "no wokeness or jihadism."


Anti-immigrant rhetoric is a prominent feature of Trump's 2024 campaign, a fact reflected in Agenda47. In the discussion of policy around immigration, Trump's preamble relies on the message that immigrants are "criminals" and "birth tourists" taking over America.

According to the plan, Trump will sign an executive order on "day one" to end automatic citizenship for children of "illegal aliens."

The agenda also envisions a slew of proposed executive and presidential orders that will:

  • Determine the "correct" interpretation of the 14th Amendment.
  • Completely prohibit undocumented immigrants from receiving any form of government benefit.
  • Impose a travel ban on certain countries.
  • Close the border to asylum seekers.
  • Stop refugee admissions.
  • Suspend visa programs including family visas, the visa lottery and "non-essential" work visas.
  • Stop federal funding to sanctuary cities.
  • Create a vetting center for "extreme vetting of foreign nationals,"

Agenda47 says it wants to restore "law and order" to address what Trump claims is "out of control crime ."

The plan proposes an investment in hiring, retention, and training for police officers and increasing their liability protections as well as supporting policing policies like stop-and-frisk and local police working with ICE on deportation.

Agenda47 also wants to:

  • Overhaul federal standards on disciplining minors
  • Have the DOJ "dismantle every gang, street crew, and drug network in America.” 
  • Deploy federal troops for "law and order."
  • Establish a DOJ task force for “protecting the right to self-defense.”
  • Facilitate the hiring of 100 U.S. attorneys to investigate what Trump believes to be "left-leaning" district attorney and "anti-conservative bias" in law schools and firms.

Agenda47 places a focus on pharmaceuticals and medical devices manufactured within the U.S.

Under the plan, essential medical devices and medicines would be manufactured in the U.S. and federal agencies would be required to “Buy American" to prevent shortages.

It also calls for an increase in the production of drugs domestically, bans agencies from other countries from buying "essential drugs" and demands that pharmaceutical companies only be paid the “best price they offer to foreign nations.”

Agenda47 describes proposed economic policies under Trump as "pro-American" and blames Biden's "pro-China" administration for the poor state of the economy.

The agenda proposes cutting federal regulations on resources like energy, cutting taxes, raising tariffs on foreign producers while lowering taxes for domestic producers, imposing universal tariffs on most foreign products, "eliminating dependence on China" and banning federal contracts for any company that outsources to China.

Welfare, social security

Agenda47 says "Under no circumstances should Republicans vote to cut a single penny from Medicare or Social Security."

In the proposal, Trump blames threats to the programs on Biden's spending and says the Democrats are trying to undo Social Security, though Republicans have previously proposed a higher retirement age and funding cuts.

Trump's agenda proposes cutting tax dollars going to "corrupt foreign countries," "illegal aliens," "left-wing gender programs from our military" and "climate extremism" to save Social Security funding.

The proposal also bans undocumented immigrants from receiving any welfare monies and seeks to address homelessness , banning "public camping" and instead giving unhoused individuals the option to go to some form unspecified of "treatment" or being arrested.

It also proposes the creation of large tent cities to accommodate unhoused people with doctors and social workers on site.

LGBTQIA+ rights

Trump makes apparent throughout his policy plans an anti-LGTBQIA+ stance that specifically targets transgender individuals.

Proposed policies include

Removing any healthcare provider that offers gender-affirming care to youth from Medicare and Medicaid eligibility.

Pushing Congress to pass laws that say “the only genders recognized by the U.S. government are male and female—and they are assigned at birth."

  • Defunding any school where a staff member discusses gender identity.
  • Passing laws that ban what he calls "child sexual mutilation."
  • Promoting education around the traditional nuclear family in schools.
  • Supporting private lawsuits against doctors who provide gender-affirming care.
  • Demanding any federal agencies "cease all programs that promote the concept of sex and gender transition at any age."

Official websites use .gov

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higher education policy handbook

2024 Investment Climate Statements: Finland


Finland is a Nordic country situated north of the Baltic states, bordering Russia, Sweden, and Norway. It has excellent transportation links within the Nordic-Baltic region and is a member of the Schengen Zone within which internal border controls have been, for the most part, eliminated. In 2023, the population was around 5.6 million, with over 85 percent residing in cities in the country’s south. Helsinki is the capital and largest city, with a population of around 675,000 in the city and 1.5 million in the metropolitan area.

Finland is a member of the European Union and a part of the Euro area. In 2023, Finland joined NATO and concluded negotiations on a bilateral Defense Cooperation Agreement (DCA) with the United States. NATO membership and the DCA should benefit the country economically by increasing regional security and stability; and investments in the defense industry will create jobs and stimulate economic growth and trade. According to Finnish Customs, the United States was Finland’s biggest trading partner for exports in 2023.

As a modern, stable economy, Finland offers a well-developed digital infrastructure with stability, functionality, and a high standard of living. The country has a highly skilled, educated, and multilingual labor force with solid expertise in Information Communications Technology (ICT) and emerging technologies, including microelectronics; quantum and supercomputing; shipbuilding; forestry; and renewable energy. Finland and the United Sates are intensifying cooperation in various fields, including cybersecurity, 6G networks, nuclear, climate, energy, health, biotechnology, space, quantum technology, artificial intelligence, and other emerging technologies through bilateral joint statements and agreements.

In 2021, emerging from the pandemic, Finland’s economy recovered swiftly from recession to moderate growth of 2.6 percent, but growth slowed after Russia’s February 2022 full-scale invasion of Ukraine. The center-right government of Prime Minister Petteri Orpo, formed in June 2023 following parliamentary elections in April 2023, aims to improve weak economic growth through changes to structural policies, including balancing public finances; spurring investment in education, research, and development; accelerating the green transition; and introducing labor market reforms. Labor unions engaged in a series of political strikes aimed at blocking the implementation of the labor market reforms during the spring of 2024.

At the same time, an aging population and a shrinking workforce are the most pressing demographic concerns for economic growth. According to the Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) Barometer 2023, over three-quarters of businesses report experiencing a talent shortage, with large foreign-owned companies being most negatively affected. In response, Finland aims to increase work- and education-based immigration through the Talent Boost program, revised for the years 2023-2027. The aim is to attract and improve the employment of international specialists immigrating to Finland.

Finland has set a target of becoming carbon neutral by 2035. To accelerate the green transition, the government is prioritizing investment projects in renewable energy production, industrial electrification, hydrogen economy, carbon capture and storage, and battery production to grant quicker permit processing times. The current pipeline of green investments amounts to approximately 230 billion euros ($247 billion), including projects by domestic and multinational companies. The high share of carbon-free electricity production in the domestic energy mix, which was 94 percent in 2023, facilitates the green transition.

The European Central Bank has tightened monetary policy in the euro area in response to high inflation, which has also slowed economic growth in Finland during the past two years. Industrial production and construction are sensitive to interest rate movements, which have reduced private consumption, investment, and the demand for housing in Finland. The Bank of Finland’s interim forecast indicates Gross Domestic Product (GDP) will decrease by 0.5 percent in 2024. Economists predict the economy will bounce back towards the end of the year, and GDP will grow by 1.7 percent in 2025. Inflation is projected to decline to below one percent during 2024, improving employees’ actual earnings and consumers’ purchasing power.

Russia’s war against Ukraine has impacted Finland’s economic activity and inflation through higher energy and commodity prices, the disruption of international commerce, and weaker confidence in the economy. Finnish Customs indicates the value of Finland’s exports of goods to Russia and Central Asia amounted to 1.2 billion euros ($1.3 billion) in 2023, a decrease of 50.5 percent compared to 2022. The overall economic effects of the war on the private sector have remained relatively small as companies have replaced Russian trade with other markets.

Table 1: Key Metrics and Rankings
2023 2 of 180
2023 6 of 132
2022 $4.4


2022 $54,890

1. Openness To, and Restrictions Upon, Foreign Investment

  • Policies Towards Foreign Direct Investment

The Finnis government is open to foreign investment. As an EU member state, Finland is committed to the free movement of goods, capital, persons, and certain services. Companies benefit from trade arrangements through EU and World Trade Organization (WTO) membership, and the protection offered by Finland’s bilateral investment treaties with sixty-three countries.

Private ownership and the participation of foreign companies or individuals are unrestricted, and the government promotes trade and foreign direct investment. Business Finland helps foreign investors set up businesses and provides free services ranging from data collection and matchmaking to location management. The organization offers funding for research and development work carried out by companies, research organizations, and public sector service providers in Finland: https://www.businessfinland.com/  

  • Limits on Foreign Control and Right to Private Ownership and Establishment

The Act on Monitoring Foreign Corporate Acquisitions (172/2012) governs foreign investments in Finland. The Ministry of Economic Affairs and Employment monitors and confirms foreign corporate acquisitions and decides whether an acquisition conflicts with securing national defense and safeguarding public order and security. If the ministry finds a critical national interest jeopardized, it must refer the matter to the Council of State, which may refuse to approve the acquisition. For more information: https://tem.fi/en/acquisitions  

In the non-military sector, Finnish companies considered critical for securing vital functions are subject to screening, which applies to foreign owners residing or domiciled outside the EU or the European Free Trade Association (EFTA). The Ministry of Economic Affairs and Employment provides instructions for preparing the application/notification. The application and statement must also be accompanied by a form containing specific information required by EU regulation.

For defense acquisitions, monitoring applies to all foreign owners, who must apply for prior approval. “Defense” includes all entities that supply or have supplied goods or services to the Finnish Ministry of Defense, the Finnish Defense Forces, and the Finnish Border Guard, as well as entities dealing in dual-use goods.

Finland requires non-EU/European Economic Area (EEA) foreign individuals or entities to receive Defense Ministry permission before they purchase real estate. Companies registered in Finland with decision-making bodies of at least one-tenth non-EU/EEA origin must seek a permit. More information is available here: https://www.defmin.fi/en/licences_and_services/authorisation_to_non-eu_and_non-eea_buyers_to_buy_real_estate#a6591279  

In 2022, the European Commission published guidance for EU member states on assessing and preventing threats to EU security and public order from Russian and Belarusian investments. The direction highlights the increased risk from investments subject to Russian or Belarusian government influence in the context of Russia’s invasion of Ukraine and calls for close cooperation between authorities involved in investment screening and those responsible for enforcing sanctions.

  • Other Investment Policy Reviews

Finland is considered one of the most open economies in the OECD area with a stable economy and society, strong institutions, and low corruption that attracts foreign investors. Knowledge and innovation capacity are among the most critical factors bringing foreign firms to the Finnish economy, and salaries for high-skilled workers are considered relatively competitive compared to other Nordic states.

In 2021, the OECD launched the Impact of Regulation on International Investment in Finland report to analyze FDI flows toward Finland and other Nordic-Baltic countries and discuss the benefits of foreign investment for the Finnish economy. The OECD noted that several challenges may prevent Finland from exploiting its full potential as a destination for FDI.

The OECD recommended reviewing and streamlining inefficient and burdensome policies, diminishing red tape, and fostering competition to encourage new international investment and enhance the economic performance of existing players. Complex administrative procedures to recruit foreign talent and stringent labor market conditions affect growth prospects. Further policy responses that help businesses deal with skill shortages are essential to ensure attractiveness as an investment location. More information is available here: https://www.oecd.or g/publications/the-impact-of-regulation-on-international-investment-in-finland-b1bf8bee-en.htm  

Over the past three years, Finland has not undergone an investment policy review by the WTO or the United Nations Committee on Trade and Development (UNCTAD).

  • Business Facilitation

All businesses in Finland must be publicly registered at the Finnish Trade Register. The website is: https://www.prh.fi/en/kaupparekisteri.html .

The Business Information System (BIS) is an online service enabling investors to start a business or organization, report changes, close down a business, or conduct searches: https://www.prh.fi/en/kaupparekisteri/rekisterointipalvelut/ytj.html  

All businesses must also enter the VAT, Prepayment, and Employer Registers of Tax Administration. Instructions for registering a company can be found at this website: https://www.vero.fi/en/businesses-and-corporations/business-operations/tax-administrations-registers–business/  

Entrepreneurs can apply for a residence permit in Finland. Before a permit can be issued, entrepreneurs usually need to enter their business in the Trade Register maintained by the Finnish Patent and Registration Office. https://migri.fi/en/entrepreneur  

In 2022, Finland introduced a long-term “D” visa for students, researchers, persons in managerial positions in companies, and their family members to increase the immigration of skilled labor. With a “D” visa, applicants can enter Finland immediately after receiving a favorable decision on the residence permit application, and the “D” visa sticker has been attached to the passport. For more information: https://migri.fi/en/d-visa  

  • Outward Investment

International trade and external economic relations are central to Finland’s foreign and security policy. The Ministry for Foreign Affairs prepares and implements Finland’s trade policy within the framework of the EU.

Team Finland is a network of public sector bodies dedicated to helping Finnish companies grow and be successful in their dealings abroad. It also promotes the country’s image and attracts foreign investments and experts to Finland. The network offers tailor-made service packages for companies’ internationalization needs based on the services provided by the network actors. Service packages typically combine services provided by the Center for Economic Development, Transport and the Environment, Business Finland, Finnvera, and the Ministry for Foreign Affairs. https://www.team-finland.fi/en/network-services-for-companies  

Business Finland is a public-sector operator and part of the Team Finland network. It helps Finnish Small- and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) go international, encourages foreign direct investment in Finland, and promotes tourism. The organization focuses on agricultural technology, clean technology, connectivity, e-commerce, education, information and communication technology, digitalization, mining, and mobility. While many of Business Finland’s programs are export-oriented, they also seek to offer business and network opportunities within Finland that are not necessarily focused on exports. The organization employs 760 specialists at 40 foreign locations and 16 offices in Finland. https://www.businessfinland.fi/en/for-finnish-customers/home  

The government generally allows domestic investors to invest abroad, with some exceptions. The defense ministry approves arms exports for military use, the National Police Board grants permission to export civilian weapons, and the foreign ministry oversees exports of dual-use products.

  • 2. Bilateral Investment and Taxation Treaties

Finland has 55 Bilateral Investment Treaties in force but does not share a BIT or Free Trade Agreement (FTA) with the United States. As an EU member state, Finland is a signatory to any treaty or agreement signed by the EU, including free trade agreements. A complete list of Finland’s investment agreements can be found at: https://investmentpolicy.unctad.org/international-investment-agreements/countries/71/finland  

Finland and the United States signed a convention to avoid double taxation and prevent fiscal evasion concerning taxes on income and capital (TIAS 12101) that entered into force in 1990. In 2014, the two countries signed an intergovernmental agreement to implement the U.S. Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act (FATCA), which fights tax evasion and fraud. For more information: https://www.vero.fi/en/businesses-and-corporations/business-operations/financial-sector/fatca-crs-and-dac2/general-information/   https://home.treasury.gov/system/files/131/FATCA-Agreement-Finland-3-5-2014.pdf

Finland is a member of the OECD Inclusive Framework on Base Erosion and Profit Shifting and a party to the two-pillar plan to address the tax challenges arising from the digitalization of the economy. For a list of Finland’s bilateral tax agreements, see: https://www.vero.fi/en/detailed-guidance/guidance/49062/tax_treatie/  

3. Legal Regime

  • Transparency of the Regulatory System

In Finland, competition policy aims to create and maintain an environment where enterprises have a level playing field and an opportunity to succeed due to their expertise. The Competition Act (948/2011) is the base for the national competition policy, seeking to ensure sound and effective economic competition. The Finnish Competition and Consumer Authority is responsible for applying the legislation. For more information: https://www.kkv.fi/en/competition-affairs/competition-act/  

Finland is subject to accounting, auditing, and financial reporting requirements established through EU regulations and directives as transposed into national laws and regulations. Finland has fully aligned its legal framework with the EU acquis communitaire related to accounting and auditing. For more information: https://www.ifac.org/about-ifac/membership/profile/finland#:~:text=In%20Finland%2C%20the%20Accounting%20Act,European%20Commission%20(EC)%20Regulations  

Finnish law does not require institutional investors and financial intermediaries to consider Environmental, Social, and Governance (ESG) factors when making investment decisions. Most institutional investors and financial intermediaries have signed the UN Principles for Responsible Investment and also consider sustainable development goals in their investment decisions. However, the Finnish Corporate Governance Code considers certain ESG factors in its recommendations, such as the composition of the company’s board of directors concerning gender. The Corporate Governance Code applies to all companies listed on Nasdaq Helsinki. https://cgfinland.fi/en/corporate-governance-code/  

In September 2021, the Ministry of Economic Affairs and Employment released a Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) finance roadmap, called the “Finnish Roadmap for Financing a Decade of SDG Action 2021.” The roadmap aims to support Finnish stakeholders with a goal of increasing financing for solutions to reach the SDGs in Finland and globally. More information can be found here: https://tem.fi/en/developing-finlands-sustainable-finance-ecosystems  

The Act on the Openness of Public Documents establishes the openness of all records in the possession of officials of the state, municipalities, registered religious communities, and corporations that perform legally mandated public duties, such as pension funds and public utilities. Exceptions can only be made by law or by an executive order for reasons such as national security. https://oikeusministerio.fi/en/act-on-the-openness-of-government-activities  

The Ministry of Justice maintains an online Finlex Data Bank database of up-to-date legislative and judicial information. Most of the databases are only available in Finnish and Swedish, but some translations of Finnish acts and decrees are also available in English and other languages. Case law in the legal literature database is also available in English. https://finlex.fi/en/  

The Ministry of Justice provides an online service to request and give statements electronically in connection with draft regulations, legislation, and other government documents. Public administration authorities can publish draft bills and regulations for public consultation. The service is available in Finnish and Swedish: https://www.lausuntopalvelu.fi/FI  

The Parliamentary Ombudsman exercises oversight to ensure that those who perform public tasks comply with the law and fulfill their responsibilities. The Ombudsman investigates complaints, conducts on-site inspections, and makes statements on legislative proposals. The scope of the Ombudsman’s oversight includes courts, authorities, and public servants, as well as other persons and organizations that perform public tasks. The Ombudsman submits an annual report to Parliament, including observations on the state of the administration of justice and any shortcomings in legislation. https://www.oikeusasiamies.fi/en/eoa  

The status of Finland’s public finances is available at Statistics Finland, Finland’s official statistics agency: https://www.stat.fi/en/topic/national-economy  

The status of Finland’s national debt is available at the State Treasury: https://www.treasuryfinland.fi/statistics/statistics-on-central-government-debt/  

  • International Regulatory Considerations

Finland follows EU internal market practices, which define Finland’s trade relations both inside the EU and with non-EU countries. As a member of the WTO, Finland reports under the Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT Agreement) all proposed technical regulations that could affect trade with other member countries. In 2021, Finland submitted two notifications of technical regulations and conformity assessment procedures to the WTO. It has submitted 105 notifications since 1995. Finland is a signatory to the WTO Trade Facilitation Agreement (TFA), which entered into force on February 22, 2017.

  • Legal System and Judicial Independence

Finland has a civil law system. European Community (EC) law is directly applicable in Finland and takes precedence over national legislation. The Market Court is a special court for rulings in commercial law, competition, and public procurement cases, and may issue injunctions and penalties against the illegal restriction of competition. It also governs mergers and acquisitions, may overturn public procurement decisions, and require compensatory payments. More information about the court is available here: https://oikeus.fi/tuomioistuimet/en/index.html  

Finland has been a party to the New York Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards since 1962. The provisions of the convention have been included in the Arbitration Act (957/1992).

The Oikeus.fi website https://oikeus.fi/en/index.html   contains information about the Finnish judicial system and links to the websites of the independent courts, the public legal aid and guardianship districts, the National Prosecution Authority, the National Enforcement Authority Finland, and the Criminal Sanctions Agency.

  • Laws and Regulations on Foreign Direct Investment

The Ministry of Economic Affairs and Employment monitors foreign corporate acquisitions and is a national contact point for the EU screening regulation. The purpose of the Act on the Monitoring of Foreign Corporate Acquisitions in Finland (127/2012) (hereafter the Act) is to monitor and, if vital national interests so require, to restrict the transfer of influence to foreigners and foreign organizations and foundations. More information about the Act is available here: ihttps://tem.fi/en/acquisitions.

Under the Act, corporate acquisition refers to activities in which a foreign owner gains control of at least one-tenth, at least one-third, or at least one-half of the aggregate number of votes conferred by all shares in the company or a holding that otherwise corresponds to decision-making authority in a limited liability company or other monitored entity. For more information: https://tem.fi/documents/1410877/0/Kysymyksi%C3%A4+ja+vastauksia_en.pdf/0ef51799-6c84-9251-6cfe-188bc91c6f83/Kysymyksi%C3%A4+ja+vastauksia_en.pdf?t=1636548655250  

There is no primary or “one-stop-shop” website that provides all relevant laws, rules, procedures, and reporting requirements for investors. A non-European Economic Area (EEA) resident (persons or companies) operating in Finland must obtain a license or a notification when starting a business in a regulated industry. For more information: https://tem.fi/en/regulation-of-business-operations  

  • Competition and Antitrust Laws

The Finnish Competition and Consumer Authority (FCCA) protects competition by intervening in cases regarding restrictive practices, such as cartels and abuse of dominant position, and violations of the Competition Act and the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). Investigations occur both on the FCCA’s initiative and based on complaints. Where necessary, the FCCA makes proposals to the Market Court regarding penalties.

The FCCA requires notification on mergers and acquisitions that exceed certain turnover thresholds. The FCCA will intervene in the transaction if it deems it to prevent effective competition in Finland. The FCCA would investigate transactions where the parties’ combined turnover generated in Finland exceeds EUR 100 million and the total turnover generated in Finland of at least two parties exceeds EUR 10 million per party.

In international competition matters, the FCCA’s key stakeholders are the European Commission (DG Competition), the OECD Competition Committee, the Nordic competition authorities, and the International Competition Network (ICN). FCCA rulings and decisions can be found in the archive in Finnish. More information is available at: https://www.kkv.fi/en/facts-and-advice/competition-affairs/

  • Expropriation and Compensation

Finnish law protects private property rights. Citizen property is protected by the constitution, which includes basic provisions in the event of expropriation. Private property is only expropriated for public purposes (eminent domain), in a non-discriminatory manner, with reasonable compensation, and in accordance with established international law.

Expropriation is usually based on a permit given by the government or on a confirmed plan and is performed by the District Survey Office. An expropriation permit granted by the government may be appealed to the Supreme Administrative Court. Compensation is awarded at full market price but may exclude the rise in value due only to planning decisions.

Besides normal expropriation according to the Expropriation Act, a municipality or the state has the right to expropriate land for planning purposes. Expropriation is mainly for acquiring land for common needs, such as street areas, parks, and civic buildings. The method is rarely used: less than one percent of land acquired by the municipalities is expropriated. Credendo Group ranks Finland’s expropriation risk as low (1), on a scale from 1 to 7: https://credendo.com/en/country-risk/finland  

Dispute Settlement

  • ICSID Convention and New York Convention

In 1969, Finland became a member state of the World Bank-based International Center for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID; Washington Convention). Finland is a signatory to the Convention of the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards (1958 New York Convention).

  • Investor-State Dispute Settlement

The Finnish Arbitration Act (967/1992) applies to domestic and international arbitration without distinction. Sections 1 to 50 apply to arbitration in Finland, and Sections 51 to 55 apply to arbitration agreements providing for arbitration abroad and the recognition and enforcement of foreign arbitral awards in Finland. Of 229 parties in 2021, the majority (208) were from Finland.

In 2021, a Chinese investor brought the first known investment treaty claim against Finland. He was detained and had his business center raided and shut down on suspicion it was facilitating illegal immigration. The proceedings were ultimately settled between Finland and the claimant. For more information: https://investmentpolicy.unctad.org/investment-dispute-settlement/cases/1192/wang-v-finland  

  • International Commercial Arbitration and Foreign Courts

Finland has a long tradition of institutional arbitration, and its legal framework dates to 1928. Today, arbitration procedures are governed by the 1992 Arbitration Act (as amended), which largely mirrors the UNCITRAL Model Law on International Commercial Arbitration of 1985 (with amendments, as adopted in 2006). However, the UNCITRAL Model law has yet to be incorporated into Finnish law.

Finland’s Act on Mediation in Civil Disputes and Certification of Settlements by Courts (394/2011) aims to facilitate alternative dispute resolution (ADR) and promote amicable settlements by encouraging mediation and applies to settlements concluded in other EU member states: https://www.finlex.fi/en/laki/kaannokset/2011/en20110394.pdf

In June 2016, the Finland Arbitration Institute of the Chamber of Commerce (FAI) launched its Mediation Rules under which FAI will administer mediation: https://arbitration.fi/mediation/mediation_rules/  

Any dispute in a civil or commercial matter, international or domestic, which can be settled by agreement may be referred to arbitration. Arbitration is frequently used to resolve commercial disputes and is usually faster than court proceedings. An arbitration award is final and binding. FAI promotes the settlement of disputes through arbitration, commonly using the “FAI Arbitration/Expedited Arbitration Rules,” which were updated in 2020: https://arbitration.fi/en/arbitration/rules-and-guidelines/  

The Finland Arbitration Institute (FAI) appoints arbitrators both to domestic and international arbitration proceedings and administers domestic and international arbitrations governed by its rules. It also appoints arbitrators in ad hoc cases when the arbitration agreement provides and acts as appointing authority under the UNCITRAL Arbitration Rules. The Finnish Arbitration Act (967/1992) states that foreign nationals can act as arbitrators. For more information: https://arbitration.fi/en/arbitration/  

Finland signed the UN Convention on Transparency in Treaty-based Investor-State Arbitration (“Mauritius Convention”) in March 2015. Under these rules, all documents and hearings are open to the public, interested parties may submit statements, and protection for confidential information has been strengthened.

  • Bankruptcy Regulations

The Bankruptcy Act (120/2004) governs bankruptcy proceedings aimed at liquidating the assets of an insolvent company to satisfy its creditors and dissolve the company. The act was amended in 2019 to simplify, digitize, and speed up bankruptcy proceedings. The amended act allows administrators to send notices and invitations to creditor addresses registered in the Trade Register. This improves accessibility for foreign companies that have established a branch in Finland. For more information: https://www.finlex.fi/en/laki/kaannokset/2004/en20040120.pdf

The Bankruptcy Ombudsman is an independent authority that supervises the administration of bankruptcy estates in Finland . The Office of Bankruptcy Ombudsman is a member of the International Association of Insolvency Regulators (IAIR). For more information: https://www.konkurssiasiamies.fi/en/index.html  

The Reorganization of Enterprises Act (1993/47) establishes a legal framework for reorganization with the aim to provide an alternative to bankruptcy proceedings. The act excludes credit and insurance institutions and certain other financial institutions. Recognition of restructuring or insolvency processes initiated outside of the EU requires an exequatur from a Finnish court. https://www.finlex.fi/fi/laki/kaannokset/1993/en19930047  

4. Industrial Policies

  • Investment Incentives

Foreign-owned companies in Finland are eligible for government and EU incentives on an equal footing with Finnish-owned businesses. Companies receive support through grants, loans, tax benefits, equity participation, guarantees, and employee training.

The income tax rate for limited liability companies and other corporate entities is 20 percent. According to the 2023 International Tax Competitiveness Index, the Finnish tax system is the 19th best tax code among 38 OECD countries. For more information: https://www.vero.fi/en/businesses-and-corporations/business-operations/foreign-business-in-finland/taxation-in-finland/   and https://taxfoundation.org/location/finland/  

Startups, SMEs, and large companies can benefit from Business Finland’s incentives: https://www.businessfinland.fi/en/do-business-with-finland/invest-in-finland/business-environment/incentives/incentives-short   and https://www.businessfinland.fi/48d8e1/globalassets/julkaisut/invest-in-finland/business-guides-and-fact-sheets/iif_factsheet_incentives.pdf

Centers for Economic Development, Transport, and the Environment (ELY Centers) support the establishment, growth, and development of SMEs by providing advisory, training, and expert services, and by granting funding for investment and development projects. Large companies may also qualify for assistance or funding if they significantly increase employment in their region of operation. Startups can receive subsidies to establish and expand business operations during their first 24 months. For more information: http://www.ely-keskus.fi/en/web/ely-en/business-and-industry;jsessionid=0B09A1B237B74FAC485AAD7C8E068DBF  

As part of its Sustainable Growth Program, which is funded by the EU Recovery Plan, Finland is promoting energy investments and energy infrastructure projects that reduce greenhouse gas emissions in Finland and support Finland’s target to be carbon neutral by 2035. For more information: https://tem.fi/en/-/energy-investments-of-finland-s-sustainable-growth-programme-promote-the-green-transition   and https://www.businessfinland.fi/en/for-finnish-customers/services/funding/energy-aid  

Government aid is available for the implementation of energy audits, investments that conserve energy, and investments related to the use of renewable energy, as well as for European Skills, Competences, Qualifications and Occupations (ESCO) projects. For more information: https://www.motiva.fi/en/solutions/policy_instruments/energy_aid  

Finnvera offers loans, domestic guarantees, export credit guarantees, and other services associated with financing exports: https://www.finnvera.fi/eng  

  • Foreign Trade Zones/Free Ports/Trade Facilitation

The EU Customs Code (UCC), which entered into force on May 1, 2016, harmonized free trade zone area regulations in the EU.

The Åland Islands are one of the unique fiscal territories within Finland and the EU. The tax border separates the Åland Islands from the VAT and excise territory of the EU. VAT and excise are levied on goods imported across the tax border, but no customs duty is levied. In tax border trade, goods can be sold with a tax-free invoice in accordance with the detailed taxation instructions of the Finnish Tax Administration. Trade between Åland and non-EU countries is subject to the same regulations and instructions as trade between the EU and third countries. For more information: https://tulli.fi/en/businesses/aland-businesses  

  • Performance and Data Localization Requirements

As an EU member state, Finland adheres to the General Data Protection Regulation (Regulation (EU) 2016/679) (GDPR), an EU law that entered into force in 2016, and, following a two-year transition period, became law on May 25, 2018, without requiring EU member states to change national laws.

Finland’s Data Protection Act (1050/2018) supplements the GDPR. The Data Protection Ombudsman is a national supervisory authority that supervises compliance with data protection legislation. The office has approximately 45 specialists, including the Data Protection Ombudsman and two Deputy Data Protection Ombudsmen. For more information: https://tietosuoja.fi/en/home   and https://www.finlex.fi/en/laki/kaannokset/2018/en20181050.pdf

5. Protection of Property Rights

  • Real Property

The Finnish legal system protects and enforces property rights and secured interests in property, both movable and real. Mortgages exist in Finland and can be applied to both owned and rented real estate. In Finland, real property formation, development, land consolidation, cadastral or boundary mapping, registration of real properties, ownership and legal rights, real property valuation, and taxation are all combined within one basic cadastral system (i.e. real estate register) maintained by the National Land Survey: https://www.maanmittauslaitos.fi/en/apartments-and-real-property  

Finland is not a contracting party to the 2001 Cape Town Convention on Mobile Equipment (CTC) and the Protocol on Matters Specific to Aircraft Equipment (Aircraft Protocol).

  • Intellectual Property Rights

Finland is not included on USTR’s Special 301 Report or Notorious Markets List..

USTR’s 2022 Notorious Markets List mentions Finland for reportedly hosting a Flokinet server associated with infringing activity and reportedly hosting an FLVTO web server, a platform that allows the user to download music from YouTube and convert it to an mp3.

The Finnish legal system protects intellectual property rights (IPR), and Finland adheres to numerous international agreements. Finland ranked first among 129 countries in the Property Rights Alliance 2023 International Property Rights Index (IPRI), which concentrates on a country’s legal and political environment, physical property rights, and IPR: https://www.internationalpropertyrightsindex.org/  

IPR enforcement in Finland is based on EU Regulation 608/2013. For more information, see: https://taxation-customs.ec.europa.eu/customs-4/prohibitions-and-restrictions/counterfeit-piracy-and-other-ipr-violations_en  

IPR must be registered in Finland to be enforced under local laws, such as the Copyright Act, the Registered Designs Act, and the Patents Act. Patent rights in Finland are consistent with international standards, and a granted patent is valid for 20 years. The Finnish Patent and Registration Office (PRH) website contains unofficial translations in English of the Patents Act, Patents Decree, and Patent Regulation. For more information: https://www.prh.fi/en/index.html  

The Finnish Trademarks Act was enacted in May 2019 to implement the revised EU Trademark Directive. The act includes provisions concerning collective marks and control marks. It includes amendments to related legislation such as the Finnish Company Names Act, the Criminal Code, and relevant procedural acts. Trademark applicants or proprietors not domiciled in Finland must have a representative resident in the European Economic Area. Finland is a party to the Madrid Protocol.

Finnish Customs supervises counterfeit products that are imported to, exported from, and transited via Finland and other products that violate IPR. Custom officers have the authority to seize and destroy counterfeit goods. Customs has intensified the control of counterfeit goods by conducting a risk analysis of postal traffic. The long-term trend indicates a decline in counterfeit goods detected in large-volume shipments: https://www.vero.fi/en/grey-economy-crime/prevention/preventionstatistics/  

Finland is a member of the World International Property Organization (WIPO) and party to a several other treaties, including the Berne Convention, the Paris Convention, the Patent Cooperation Treaty, the WIPO Copyright Treaty, the WIPO Performances and Phonograms Treaty, and the International Convention for the Protection of Performers, Producers of Phonograms and Broadcasting Organizations (Rome Convention). Finland is a party to the WTO’s Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS).

For additional information about national laws and points of contact at local IP offices, please see WIPO’s country profiles at: https://www.wipo.int/directory/en/details.jsp?country_code=FI  

6. Financial Sector

  • Capital Markets and Portfolio Investment

Finland is open to foreign portfolio investment and has an effective regulatory system. Credit is allocated on market terms and made available to foreign investors non-discriminately, and private sector companies have access to various credit instruments. Legal, regulatory, and accounting systems are transparent and consistent with international norms.

The Helsinki Stock Exchange is part of OMX, referred to as NASDAQ OMX Helsinki (OMXH). NASDAQ OMX Helsinki is part of the NASDAQ OMX Nordic division, together with the Stockholm, Copenhagen, Iceland, and Baltic (Tallinn, Riga, and Vilnius) stock exchanges.

Finland accepts the obligations under IMF Article VIII, Sections 2(a), 3, and 4 of the IMF Articles of Agreement. It maintains an exchange system free of restrictions on payments and transfers for current international transactions, except for those measures imposed for security reasons by the Regulations of the Council of the European Union.

  • Money and Banking System

Finland has a resilient, digitally advanced, and well-capitalized banking sector characterized by cooperative banking and pan-Nordic groups. Banking is open to foreign competition, and the industry is one of Europe’s most prominent relative to the size of the national economy. Four significant banks (OP Financial Group, Nordea, Municipality Finance, and Danske Bank) dominate the banking sector, holding 80 percent of the market. The Bank of Finland is the national monetary authority and the central bank of Finland: https://www.suomenpankki.fi/en  

The Financial Supervisory Authority (FIN-FSA) supervises Finland’s financial and insurance sectors, including banks, insurance and pension companies, other companies operating in the insurance sector, investment firms, fund management companies, and the Helsinki Stock Exchange: https://www.finanssivalvonta.fi/en/  

In 2023, the financial sector’s capital position remained strong despite the gloomier economic environment. Finland’s banks met the requirements for liquid bank holdings under Basel III standards, which compare a bank’s assets with its capital to see if the bank would withstand a financial crisis. The sector’s operating environment weakened as the Finnish economy slid into a recession. Despite increased credit risks in corporate and household loans, the Finnish banking sector’s non-performing loans and loan losses were still among the lowest in Europe.

Foreign companies and nationals can, in principle, open bank accounts in the same manner as Finnish nationals. However, banks must identify customers, and this may prove more difficult for foreign nationals. In addition to personal and address data, the bank often needs to know the person’s identifier code (i.e. social security number). Several banks require a work permit, a certificate of studies, a letter of recommendation from a trustworthy bank, and details regarding the nature of transactions to be made with the account. All authorized deposit-taking banks are members of the Deposit Guarantee Fund, which guarantees customers’ deposits to a maximum of EUR 100,000 ($109,000) per depositor.

The Act on Virtual Currency Providers (572/2019) entered into force in May 2019. FIN-FSA is the registration authority for virtual currency providers. The primary objective of the act is to introduce virtual currency providers into the scope of anti-money laundering regulation. Only virtual currency providers meeting statutory requirements can carry on their activities in Finland, and only a FIN-FSA registered virtual currency provider may market its currency and services in Finland. The Finnish Tax Administration released guidelines on the taxation of cryptocurrency, available here: https://www.vero.fi/en/detailed-guidance/guidance/48411/taxation-of-virtual-currencies3/  

Foreign Exchange and Remittances

  • Foreign Exchange

Finland adopted the Euro as its official currency in January 1999. Finland maintains an exchange system free of restrictions on making payments and transfers for international transactions, except for those measures imposed for security reasons. Currency transfers are protected by Article VII of the IMF Articles of Agreement: http://www.imf.org/External/Pubs/FT/AA/index.htm#art7  

  • Remittance Policies

There are no legal obstacles to direct foreign investment in Finnish securities or exchange controls regarding payments into and out of Finland. Banks must identify their customers and report suspected cases of money laundering or the financing of terrorism. Banks and credit institutions must also report single payments or transfers of EUR 15,000 ($16,000) or more. If the origin of funds is suspicious, banks must immediately inform the National Bureau of Investigation. There are no restrictions on current transfers or repatriation of profits. Residents and non-residents may hold foreign exchange accounts. There is no limit on dividend distributions as long as they correspond to a company’s official earnings records. Travelers carrying more than EUR 10,000 ($11,000) must make a declaration upon entering or leaving the EU.

  • Sovereign Wealth Funds

Solidium is a holding company fully owned by the Finnish government. It is a minority owner of nationally listed companies operating in clusters significant to the national economy, such as the forest industry. Solidium’s ownership stake of these companies is usually over 10 percent but rarely exceeds 20 percent. According to Solidium’s investment strategy, future investments may include companies that seek to implement green transition strategies or solutions related to the platform economy. Solidium aims to strengthen and stabilize Finnish ownership in the companies and increase the value of their holdings. In 2023, Solidium paid the Finnish government approximately $374 million as a dividend. For more information: https://www.solidium.fi/en/  

7. State-Owned Enterprises

The government of Finland owns directly or through Solidium the shares of 15 listed companies on the Helsinki stock exchange. In general, State-Owned Enterprises (SOEs) are open to competition except where they have a monopoly position, namely in alcohol retail and gambling. SOEs in Finland operate in chemicals, petrochemicals, plastics, and composites; energy and mining; environmental technologies; food processing and packaging; industrial equipment and supplies; marine technology; media and entertainment; metal manufacturing and products; services; and travel. The market value of all state direct shareholdings was approximately $24 billion as of March 2024. For more information, see: https://vnk.fi/en/government-ownership-steering/companies   https://vnk.fi/en/government-ownership-steering/value-of-state-holdings  

The Ownership Steering Department in the Prime Minister’s Office has ownership steering responsibility for Finnish SOEs, and is responsible for Solidium. The State Shareholdings and Ownership Steering Act (1368/2007) and the Act Amending the State Shareholdings and Ownership Steering Act (1315/2016) regulate the administration of state-owned companies. For more information, see: https://www.finlex.fi/en/laki/kaannokset/2007/en20071368   https://www.finlex.fi/fi/laki/alkup/2016/20161315  

Finnish state ownership steering complies with the OECD Principles of Corporate Governance. The Parliamentary Advisory Council in the Prime Minister’s Office serves in an advisory capacity regarding SOE policy; it does not make recommendations regarding any business in which the individual companies are engaged. The government has proposed changing its ownership levels in several companies and increasing the number of companies the Prime Minister’s Office steers. Parliament decides from which companies the state may relinquish its sole ownership (100 percent), its control of ownership (50.1 percent), or minority ownership (33.4 percent of votes). For more information: https://vnk.fi/en/government-ownership-steering/ownership-policy  

Finland opened domestic rail freight to competition in early 2007, and in July 2016, Fenniarail Oy, the first private rail operator on the Finnish market, began operations. In November 2020, Estonian-based Operail, which works in Finland’s rail freight operations, started a subsidiary in Finland as Operail Finland. In 2023, Operail Finland’s share was sold to Nurjminen Logistics. Passenger rail transport services will be opened to competition in stages, starting with local rail services in southern Finland. Based on an agreement between Finnish State Railways (VR) and the Ministry of Transport and Communications, VR has exclusive rights to provide passenger transport rail services in Finland until the end of 2030. For more information, see: https://lvm.fi/en/-/nine-year-contract-between-the-ministry-of-transport-and-communications-and-vr-for-purchasing-rail-transport-services-1643706  

The exclusive right applies to all passenger rail transport in Finland, excluding the commuter train transport services provided by the Helsinki Regional Transport Agency (HSL). In February 2020, HSL put its commuter train transport services out for tender; VR won the tender and will continue to provide passenger rail service for the next ten years. The value of southern Finland commuter train services is $67 million per year, with 200,000 daily passengers.

  • Privatization Program

Parliament makes all decisions identifying the companies in which the state may relinquish sole ownership (100 percent of the votes) or control (minimum of 50.1 percent of the votes), while the government decides on the actual sale. The state has privatized companies by selling shares to Finnish and foreign institutional investors through both public offerings and directly to employees. Sales of the state’s direct holdings totaled $2.89 billion (2007 – 2018).

The government issued a new resolution on state-ownership policy in April 2020, seeking to maximize overall social and financial benefits; use corporate assets to promote domestic ownership; and diversify the economy, create innovations, and support sustainable structural change. For more information, visit https://vnk.fi/en/government-ownership-steering  

8. Responsible Business Conduct

Finland has long traditions in compliance with labor, occupational safety, health, and environmental legislation. Finnish companies recognize that their due diligence to comply with laws and regulations is central to responsible business conduct and corporate responsibility. The Finnish Business & Society (FIBS) is the largest corporate responsibility network in the Nordic countries and has more than 300 members: https://www.fibsry.fi/briefly-in-english/  

Finland is committed to implementing the OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises, the ILO Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work, and the ILO’s tripartite declaration of principles concerning multinational enterprises and social policy. The government promotes Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) through the Ministry of Employment and the Economy CSR Guidelines. or more information: https://tem.fi/en/key-guidelines-on-csr  

Finland ranks first in the UN’s Sustainable Development Report, which compares 193 UN member states based on 17 sustainability goals. Finland launched a new sustainable development strategy built around the UN’s Sustainable Development Goals (SDG). More information is available here: https://dashboards.sdgindex.org/profiles/finland  

The Directive of the European Parliament and the Council on the disclosure of non-financial information has been implemented via amendments to the Finnish Accounting Act, requiring affected organizations to report on their CSR. The obligation to report non-financial information and corporate responsibility reports applies to significant public interest entities, i.e., listed companies, credit institutions, and insurance companies with more than 500 employees. In addition, turnover must be greater than $45.4 million, or the balance sheet must exceed more than $22.7 million. For more information: https://tem.fi/en/accounting  

Currently, there are no other mandatory human rights-related due diligence requirements apart from those set out in the Act on the Placing on the Market of Conflict Minerals and Their Ores (1196/2020) (the Conflict Minerals Act), which improved the transparency of supply chains and brought Finland’s conflict minerals regime into line with EU regulations. Businesses importing conflict minerals (tin, tantalum, tungsten, and gold) from conflict-affected areas into the EU that exceed certain volume thresholds are subject to due diligence requirements. The Finnish Safety and Chemicals Agency and Finnish Customs are competent authorities in implementing the act. For more information: https://tukes.fi/en/industry/conflict-minerals  

Finland has joined the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI), which supports improved governance in resource-rich countries. Finland is not a member of the Voluntary Principles on Security and Human Rights Initiative. The Human Rights Center (HRC), administratively linked to the Office of the Parliamentary Ombudsman, encourages foreign and local enterprises to follow the most important international norms: https://www.humanrightscentre.fi/  

Finland participates in the Montreux Document on pertinent international legal obligations and good practices for states related to private military and security company operations during armed conflict. However, Finland is not a member of ICoCA, the International Code of Conduct for Private Security Service Providers’ Association.

  • Additional Resources

Department of State

  • Country Reports on Human Rights Practices ;
  • Trafficking in Persons Report ;
  • Guidance on Implementing the “UN Guiding Principles” for Transactions Linked to Foreign Government End-Users for Products or Services with Surveillance Capabilities
  • U.S. National Contact Point for the OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises ; and;
  • Xinjiang Supply Chain Business Advisory 

Department of the Treasury

  • OFAC Recent Actions

Department of Labor

  • Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor Report ;
  • List of Goods Produced by Child Labor or Forced Labor ;
  • Sweat & Toil: Child Labor, Forced Labor, and Human Trafficking Around the World and;
  • Comply Chain .

Finland participates in international climate negotiations as an EU member state. It is firmly committed to the EU’s joint reduction target under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the Paris Agreement. The core elements of EU climate policy are the EU Emissions Trading System (EU ETS); national targets for sectors excluded from EU ETS (effort sharing); and obligations concerning the Land Use, Land-Use Change, and Forestry sector (LULUCF). The EU ETS covers more than 40 percent of the total greenhouse gas emissions in the EU and just under half of the greenhouse gas emissions in Finland. For more information, see: https://tem.fi/en/emissions-trading  

The National Climate Act is another fundamental pillar of Finland’s climate policy. The act aims to reduce greenhouse gas emissions for 2030 (-60 percent), 2040 (-80 percent), and 2050 (-95 percent) compared to 1990 levels. According to the act, Finland must be carbon neutral by 2035. For more information, see: https://ym.fi/en/climate  

Finland reduces carbon emissions by increasing clean energy production, investing in the hydro economy, and augmenting the carbon sequestration of the industrial and land use sectors. Renewables have replaced imported fossil fuels in domestic electricity production. In 2023, the share of carbon-free electricity production was 94 percent. The primary energy sources of electricity production were nuclear power at 41 percent, hydropower at 18.8 percent, wind at 18.1 percent, and biomass at 13.3 percent, while the share of imported electricity was 2.2 percent.

In 2024, the government reserved EUR 14.1 million ($15.3 million) in national energy aid to promote the production of renewable energy, renewable hydrogen and hydrogen-refined fuels, energy saving or more efficient energy production or use, utilization of waste heat, and the transition towards a low-carbon energy system. The government will prioritize investment projects promoting new technology, its commercialization, and the capacity of the electricity system. In addition, REPowerEU aid supports investments in new energy technology and the production and storage of renewable hydrogen, funded by the EU Recovery and Resilience Facility. REPowerEU aims to reduce dependence on Russian fossil fuels by fast forwarding the clean transition and joining forces to achieve a more resilient energy system and a true Energy Union. For more information, see: https://tem.fi/en/-/ministry-of-economic-affairs-and-employment-sets-energy-aid-priorities-for-2024  

The Finnish Climate Fund is a state-owned company that focuses on combating climate change, boosting the low-carbon industry, and promoting digitalization. Companies targeted by the fund typically receive the funding in installments over several years when meeting conditions specified in the financing agreements. For more information, see: https://www.ilmastorahasto.fi/en/  

The National Forest Strategy contains the critical outlines of Finland’s forest policy. For more information, see: https://mmm.fi/en/forests/strategies-and-programmes  

Finland also aims to increase ecological public procurement. Finland’s first National Public Procurement Strategy, launched in September 2020, focuses on developing strategic management and promoting procurement expertise. For more information, see: https://vm.fi/en/-/national-public-procurement-strategy-identifies-concrete-ways-in-which-public-procurement-can-help-achieve-wider-goals-in-society  

On MIT’s Green Future Index 2023, Finland ranked second among 76 leading countries and territories. The index measures progress and commitment towards building a low-carbon future. According to the index, Finland fosters an extensive green tech R&D ecosystem with leading-edge renewables and food tech.

9. Corruption

Corruption in Finland is covered by the criminal code and penalties range from fines to imprisonment of up to four years. The bribery offenses criminalized in the criminal code are electoral bribery, bribery violation, the giving of bribes, the acceptance of a bribe, providing bribes to a Member of Parliament, accepting a bribe as a Member of Parliament, giving of bribes in a business transaction, and accepting a bribe in a business transaction. For more information, see: https://korruptiontorjunta.fi/en/national-legislation  

Finland does not have an authority specifically charged to prevent corruption. Instead, several authorities and agencies contribute to anti-corruption work. The Ministry of Justice coordinates anti-corruption matters, but Finland’s EU anti-corruption contact is the Ministry of the Interior. The National Bureau of Investigation also monitors corruption, while the tax administration has guidelines obliging tax officials to report suspected offenses, including foreign bribery, and the Ministry of Finance has guidelines on hospitality, benefits, and gifts. The Ministry of Justice describes its anti-corruption efforts at https://oikeusministerio.fi/en/anti-corruption-activities.

The EU Directive on non-financial reporting supports action against corruption. Implementation of the EU Directive in Finland led to the amendment of the Accounting Act in December 2016. Current legislation imposes obligations on large companies to report on anti-bribery and anti-corruption action policies.

The Ministry of Justice is responsible for monitoring and developing the Transparency Register legislation. The Transparency Register Guide contains a general description, key concepts, related procedures, and published actors. The guide answers questions such as who is subject to the obligation to provide information to the Transparency Register, what kind of information must be provided to the register and when, and how the Transparency Register is monitored. The guide is available in Finnish, Swedish, and English: https://julkaisut.valtioneuvosto.fi/handle/10024/164813  

In 2020, the Ministry of Employment and Economy released an anti-corruption guide intended for companies, especially SMEs, to provide them with guidance and support for promoting sound business practices and corruption-free business relations both in Finland and abroad. Large companies must publish corporate responsibility reports. These reports must briefly describe their business model, explain the risks related to their policies, and describe how they manage these risks. The reporting obligation applies to public interest entities with over 500 employees and a turnover of over 40 million euros ($43 million) or an annual balance sheet of over 20 million euros ($22 million). Smaller companies can report voluntarily. The report can be part of yearly reports or reports on corporate social responsibility. For more information: https://tem.fi/en/-/guide-offers-smes-practical-anti-corruption-tips  

Finland has ratified the following anti-corruption conventions: the Convention on Laundering, Search, Seizure, and Confiscation of the Proceeds from Crime; the Council of Europe Civil Law Convention on Corruption; the Criminal Law Convention on Corruption; and the UN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime. Finland has become the 32nd country to sign the United Nations Convention against Corruption (UNCAC) Coalition’s Transparency Pledge, voluntarily committing to a high level of transparency and civil society inclusion in the second cycle of the UNCAC implementation review. Finland is a member of the European Partners against Corruption (EPAC).

Finland is a signatory to the OECD Convention on Anti-Bribery. In October 2020, the OECD working group on bribery said it recognizes Finland’s commitment to combat corruption but is concerned about lack of foreign bribery enforcement. For more information: https://www.oecd.org/daf/anti-bribery/finland-oecdanti-briberyconvention.htm  

  • Resources to Report Corruption

Jaakko Christensen Head of Financial Crime Division National Board of Investigation P.O. Box 285, 01310 Vantaa, Finland [email protected]

Jaakko Korhonen Chairperson Transparency Finland [email protected]

  • 10. Political and Security Environment

Finland acceded to NATO in April 2023 and signed a bilateral Defense Cooperation Agreement with the United States in December 2023. The Finnish Security and Intelligence Service (SUPO) estimated in the National Security Overview 2023, the most current version released, that Russia’s actions remain the greatest threat to Finland’s national security, with Russia treating Finland as an unfriendly state, and as a target for espionage and malign influence activities. According to SUPO, NATO membership protects Finland from Russia’s measures. SUPO assesses Russia’s use of irregular migration as a way for Russia to indicate its dissatisfaction with Finland’s NATO membership and generally sow the consequences of actions Russia perceives as unfriendly.

SUOP assesses that no significant changes have occurred in the threat of terrorism faced by Finland. The threat of terrorism in Finland remains at level 2, ‘Elevated’, on the four-tier scale. There are probably far-right and radical Islamist operators in Finland with the desire and capacity to carry out violent attacks. Supporters of these ideologies pose the most likely threat, either as individuals or in small groups. Attacks remain unlikely in the short term. .For more information, see: https://supo.fi/en/terrorism-overview  

While instances of political violence in Finland are rare, extremism exists, and anti-immigration and anti-Semitic incidents do occur. The Central Council of Finnish Jewish Communities has noted a rise in anti-Semitism in Finland over the past two decades, with reported instances likely underestimating the prevalence of such cases. Targeted acts of vandalism against the synagogue and property of the Israeli Embassy and random acts of vandalism featuring anti-Semitic language and images have become more common. Hate groups and far-right political parties use anti-Semitic language and Nazi iconography in both online publications and public events. SUPO considers Racially or Ethnically Motivated Violent Extremism (REMVE) online platforms a significant source of radicalization in Finland, and Jewish and Muslim community leaders have identified these websites as contributors to increases in public anti-Semitism.

In 2022, The Ministry of the Interior published the National Counterterrorism Strategy 2022–2025 to guide national and international counterterrorism activities. Finland combats terrorism, violent radicalization, and extremism to safeguard national interests and foster the safety and security of the country and its population. The Ministry of the Interior monitors the achievement of objectives and will prepare an interim report in 2024. For more information, see: https://intermin.fi/en/publication?pubid=URN:ISBN:978-952-324-578-5  

  • 11. Labor Policies and Practices

According to Statistics Finland, the population was approximately 5.6 million, and the average number of employed persons aged 15 to 74 was 2,628,000 in 2023. The number of unemployed persons was 204,000. Men’s unemployment rate was 7.9 percent, while women’s unemployment rate was 6.5 percent. In January 2024, the number of unfilled vacancies was 133,400. The working-age population will decrease in the years to come due to an increasing retirement rate caused by Finland’s aging population. At the same time, the number of immigrants is growing, and people are working to a later age in life. In Finland, most job vacancies advertised are in the social healthcare services sector, the construction industry, and the service and retail sectors.

Finland has a long tradition of trade unions. The country has a 60 percent unionization rate, and approximately 90 percent of employees have participated in the collective bargaining system. Extensive tripartite cooperation between the government, employers’ groups, and trade unions characterizes the labor market system in Finland. Trade unions and employers’ associations may make collective agreements, and the ministry decides on the agreements’ validity, determining minimum wages, working hours, and working conditions. The Ministry of Employment and the Economy is responsible for drafting labor legislation, and the Ministry of Social Affairs and Health is responsible for enforcing labor laws and regulations via the Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) authorities of the OSH Divisions at the Regional State Administrative Agencies, which operate under the Ministry of Social Affairs and Health.

To increase the labor market’s flexibility, the government of Prime Minister Petteri Orpo aims to reform the labor market legislation in 2024. As part of the proposed reforms, the government intends to increase local bargaining, which refers to workplace-level agreements on working hours, annual holidays, or wages; tie all sectors’ wage increases to export industry levels; restrict the right to political strikes, including limiting political strikes to 24 hours; and cut social welfare and benefits programs, including unemployment benefits. The government’s proposed labor reforms launched a wave of political strikes in Finland.

In the March 2024 IMF Article IV consultation with Finland, the IMF commended the government’s efforts to boost employment through social benefit reforms, greater flexibility in the labor market, and lowering the labor tax wedge. According to the IMF, the government should establish robust systems to monitor the impact of these reforms on employment closely. Additionally, government policies and procedures should aim to improve higher education, lower skill mismatches, and more effectively attract and integrate international talent.

Finland adheres to most ILO conventions; and enforcement of worker rights is effective. Freedom of association and collective bargaining are guaranteed by law, providing the right to form and join independent unions, conduct legal strikes, and bargain collectively. The law prohibits anti-union discrimination and any obstruction of these rights. The National Conciliator under the Ministry of Employment and the Economy assists negotiating partners with labor disputes. The arbitration system is based on the Act on Mediation in Labor Disputes, and the Labor Court is the highest body for settlement. The ILO’s Finland Country profile can be found here: http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:11110:0::NO:11110:P11110_COUNTRY_ID:102625  

  • 12. U.S. International Development Finance Corporation (DFC), and Other Investment Insurance or Development Finance Programs

The U.S. International Development Finance Corporation, DFC, does not operate in Finland.

  • 13. Foreign Direct Investment Statistics
Table 2: Key Macroeconomic Data, U.S. FDI in Host Country/Economy
Host Country Gross Domestic Product (GDP) ($M USD) 2022 $288.69


2022 $282.65


U.S. FDI in host country ($M USD, stock positions) 2022 $1.42


2022 $4.429


BEA data available at
Host country’s FDI in the United States ($M USD, stock positions) 2022 $5.84


2022 $9.868


BEA data available at
Total inbound stock of FDI as % host GDP 2022 29% 2022 29% OECD data available at


* Source for Host Country Data: Statistics Finland

Table 3: Sources and Destination of FDI
Total Inward $ Amount 100% Total Outward $ Amount 100%
Sweden $23.830 28.7% Sweden $35.522 25.6%
The Netherlands $11.871 14.3% The Netherlands $25.906 18.7%
Luxembourg $10.915 13.2% Ireland $14.327 10.3%
Norway $5.996 7.2% Denmark $8.955 6.5%
Cayman Islands $4.642 5.6% Norway $7.512 5.4%
“0” reflects amounts rounded to +/- $ 500,000.
  • 14. Contact for More Information

[email protected]  

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How a Second Trump Term Could Turn Up the Heat on Higher Ed

Higher ed wasn’t a top priority for Donald Trump when he first took office. But now that he and the GOP see attacking elite institutions and regulating colleges as winning political issues, a second term is likely to bring more aggressive policies.

By  Katherine Knott

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Former president Trump stands in front of a plane at a podium. A Trump 2024 sign is in the foreground.

Former president Trump has pledged to make significant changes to higher education if he wins a second term.

Nic Antaya/Getty Images

For America’s colleges and universities and the students they serve, the four years of Donald Trump’s first term as president were fraught, defined by threats to international students, allegations of “radical left indoctrination,” free speech controversies and far-reaching attacks on fundamental institutional values such as diversity.

Since Trump left office in 2021, universities have continued to grapple with the legacy of his term and the movement it spawned. His four years in office helped to pave the way for the Supreme Court’s decision last summer banning race-conscious admissions. A controversial executive order spurred a cascade of state laws banning diversity, equity and inclusion programs and policies. Meanwhile, the rise of MAGA Republicanism spawned supercharged culture wars, entangling campuses and prompting some state officials to get increasingly involved in how public universities are run and what’s taught in classrooms.

Now, Trump is back and seeking another four years in the White House, and higher education could be in for greater scrutiny and heightened pressure if he wins. Higher education wasn’t high on Trump’s priority list the first time around, but an increasing anti–higher education sentiment among Republicans and sectors of the public has shifted the political winds. That could open the door to more radical policy options.

Trump has already vowed to “fire” accreditors and reclaim colleges from the “radical left,” called for the creation of a free national online university paid for by taxes on wealthy colleges, threatened to deport campus protesters and backed extending green cards to college graduates. The Republican Party’s 2024 platform , which Trump’s team helped to write, calls for closing the Education Department and creating more affordable higher education options, along with deporting “pro-Hamas radicals and [making] our college campuses safe and patriotic again.”

In a second term, Trump would also have a sharp critic of higher education as his No. 2. His pick for vice president, Ohio senator J.D. Vance, has been an unsparing critic of universities, which he’s characterized as being dedicated to “deceit and lies, not to the truth” and controlled by “left-wing foundations.”

Brendan Cantwell, a professor of education at Michigan State University, sees a systematic approach in Trump’s agenda and other conservative plans for higher education. They want to make “deep, structural changes,” he said, and “convert the rhetoric about higher education that we’ve seen on the political right into policy.”

“I see the possibility of one or more of these levers being used to fundamentally remake the higher education sector as we know it,” Cantwell said. “Federal policy is what facilitated the creation of the higher education sector that we know today, and it’s the federal government that can undo it.”

Trump’s potential return to the White House comes at a time when colleges and universities are grappling with numerous challenges, from declining enrollment and shrinking budgets to campus tensions and a drop in public confidence. A potential second Trump term would likely exacerbate those challenges, according to interviews with a dozen liberal and conservative policy experts as well as college professors and leaders.

Why? Because the decrease in public trust over the last decade has made institutions more vulnerable. On top of that, President Biden’s efforts to forgive billions in federal student loans have infuriated Republicans, spurring lawmakers in Congress and the states to get more involved in higher ed policy. The campus protests in the aftermath of Hamas’s Oct. 7 attack on Israel and the ensuing war in Gaza added fuel to the fire , triggering congressional investigations and combative hearings with college leaders.

“There’s a good chance that higher ed could be front and center because it has made itself a target of populist frustration,” said Frederick Hess, director of education policy studies for the American Enterprise Institute, a conservative think tank.

Experts generally expect that rolling back policies put in place by the Biden administration and overhauling accreditation to allow alternative providers of college credentials to access federal financial aid would be among the first priorities for the Trump administration.

On the chopping block would likely be new Title IX protections for LGBTQ+ students, along with Biden’s new income-driven repayment program that lowered monthly payments for millions of borrowers. A second Trump administration could also seek to scrutinize foreign funds that flow to colleges.

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The agenda for a potential second term is in some ways similar to the first. The Betsy DeVos–led Education Department rolled back Obama-era policies that would have held for-profits accountable, stepped up enforcement of a federal law that requires colleges and universities to report foreign gifts and contracts, and rewrote the Title IX regulations, leaving a controversial legacy that hasn’t stood the test of time. Few of those changes have survived the Biden administration.

DeVos also criticized colleges and faculty members for telling students “what to think,” a claim higher education leaders have pushed back on. “They say that if you voted for Donald Trump, you’re a threat to the university community,” she said in a February 2017 speech. “But the real threat is silencing the First Amendment rights of people with whom you disagree."

Trump himself derided “radical left indoctrination” at elite institutions. He also threatened to review the tax-exempt status of nonprofit colleges and universities and to cut off federal funding to the University of California, Berkeley, for allegedly restricting the speech of conservative speakers. His Education Department discouraged the use of race in college admissions decisions and investigated Princeton University in fall 2020 after its president acknowledged that institutional racism exists on the campus.

Trump, surrounded by seemingly college students, holds a two pieces of way

Alex Wong/Getty Images

But the first Trump administration was considered disorganized and chaotic. The Education Department struggled to run loan forgiveness programs such as Public Service Loan Forgiveness. Under that program, created in 2007, borrowers who work in public service jobs such as teaching can get their loans discharged after making payments for 10 years. Borrowers first became eligible for relief in September 2017—nearly a year into Trump’s first term—but few individuals received forgiveness.

This time around, the Trump team will be more prepared to govern. To assist in that effort, the conservative Heritage Foundation has spearheaded an effort known as Project 2025 to recruit and train employees to serve in the administration and provide a blueprint to radically reshape the federal government, higher education policy included. Trump has recently tried to distance himself from Project 2025, although several of its proposals—abolishing the Education Department, for one, and rescinding Biden’s Title IX rule—overlap with his own agenda and the party’s platform. Further, several former officials who worked in the DeVos-led department helped write the Education Department section of Project 2025.

“The incoming Trump administration will be more radical in what they want to do and hit the ground more quickly in what levers they want to pull,” said Amy Laitinen, senior director for higher education at New America, a left-leaning think tank. “That’s a bad combination.”

Shifting Political Winds

Before Trump took office, 57 percent of Americans had either a great deal or quite a lot of confidence in higher education, according to Gallup. Now, only about 36 percent of Americans express confidence, and the drop is starker among Republicans. A June Gallup survey found that 20 percent of Republicans are confident in higher education—a 36-point drop since 2015.

“I haven’t seen the public view higher education this negatively in my lifetime,” said Andrew Gillen, a research fellow at the conservative Cato Institute’s Center for Educational Freedom. “I think you could get a lot more support for something that the universities would have been able to brush off in the past. I think they are going to have a much harder time now.”

Policy ideas on the table range from the likely—rewriting or reversing the Biden administration’s regulations—to the more radical and far-fetched, like getting rid of the Education Department. More threats to tax institutions and strip their federal funding are expected.

“What should worry the higher ed community and the progressives is that the extent that Biden gets away with rewriting so many of the rules and laws around federal student aid is that you have created a landscape where I think it’s possible that a Trump administration would no longer feel particularly constrained by the letter of the law,” Hess said.

Republicans have already proposed bills to charge wealthy colleges for unpaid student loans and use that money for students in short-term workforce training programs. Lawmakers will likely redouble their efforts to restrict institutions’ diversity, equity and inclusion policies and penalize those that they find to be insufficiently protecting Jewish students.

Jason Delisle, a nonresident senior policy fellow at the Urban Institute’s Center on Education Data and Policy, said it all represents a sea change for Republicans. They used to take a hands-off approach to higher education and view a college degree as a pathway to good jobs and a way to grow the economy, he said, which justified the necessary federal investment. Now, “that calculus is gone from the thinking of most Republicans.”

The new thinking is reflected in a sweeping plan to overhaul higher education introduced earlier this year that would put colleges on the hook for unpaid student loans, use graduates’ earnings to evaluate programs and link some funding for institutions to their student outcomes, among other proposals aimed at lowering the cost of college and holding institutions accountable. The legislation, known as the College Cost Reduction Act, has 145 co-sponsors.

“The most interesting thing is the change among folks on the right, and I think I count the Trump people in this, for their skepticism of higher education—the skepticism of the value of it, their skepticism of culture war—in a way that did not exist in 2016,” said Delisle.

If Republicans control the House or Senate—or both—will likely continue to investigate campus antisemitism and hold hearings to question college presidents while branching out to other hot-button issues as well. Some higher education groups and advocacy organizations have argued that the hearings and investigations, which have included requests for troves of internal documents and communications from the targeted universities, have echoes of the McCarthy era and threaten academic freedom and institutional autonomy.

“If they were smart, they would double down on the culture war stuff. It works for them,” said Laitinen. “But they don’t need to do the policy. They can get the same wind [in their sails] from press conferences and hearings … The bully pulpit is enough for what they want to do.”

What Trump can accomplish on policy will depend in part, of course, on whom he picks to run the Education Department, if it survives. If the agency is staffed with populists and Trump loyalists, some observers predict a greater focus on culture war issues designed to rile up voters rather than substantive policy.

That group, Hess at AEI said, would be “more hard-charging and much less concerned about ruffling feathers.”

“These are people who thrive on the attack, but … the populist wing is not people who spent a lot of time worrying about the particulars of 400 Maryland Avenue,” Hess said, referring to the address of the Education Department. “They aren’t policy wonks. So part of the challenge is can they find policy wonks to help them figure out how to translate what they want to do into change.”

The scrutiny on higher education and culture wars could elevate the profile of the education secretary. The gig has not typically gone to ambitious politicians. But it could now be more attractive for someone interested in launching a bid for Senate or the White House in 2028, or at least to someone with a background in—and an agenda for—higher education policy.

“Certainly, education looms large enough, given the degree to which our ideological clashes are cultural. It could be a real opportunity for somebody who wants to set themselves up,” Hess said.

Can Institutions Fight Back?

The potential second Trump administration comes as university leaders, who pushed back on Trump’s policies and rhetoric in the first term, are bruised and battered. Already, some have signaled that they’re less willing to engage in political fights going forward. Harvard University, for example, said in May that it will no longer make statements on political issues. But the stakes for colleges and universities couldn’t be higher, and some leaders are already calling for stiffened spines in anticipation of what may be coming.

Underpinning the potentially sweeping policy changes is an anti-intellectual agenda that’s an “assault on the mission of higher education” and promises to usher in “a much more dangerous period” than the first term, said Patricia McGuire, president of Trinity Washington University and an outspoken critic of the Trump administration.

“Everything else is details that we will learn to live with,” she said. “I hope that my colleagues as presidents don’t get distracted by the bureaucratic agenda, because bureaucracies are all always with us. It doesn’t matter what the name of the bureaucracy is.”

While “higher education is the counterweight to government,” McGuire said, the academy can’t serve in that role without academic and intellectual freedom, which some officials are aiming to restrict. “If we don’t preserve academic freedom, that’s the ball game,” she said.

McGuire and others say that at a time when traditional higher education is threatened, they are worried that university leaders will stand on the sidelines rather than fighting back. They point out that when Florida governor Ron DeSantis, a Republican who briefly ran for president, made a number of reforms to the state’s colleges and universities and orchestrated a conservative takeover of the New College of Florida, no presidents in Florida spoke out.

“We’re caving in on our values without any fight,” McGuire said. “This is what bothers me more than anything else, and it tells me that we’re not ready for a second Trump term. Because it’s going to come fast and furious, and most of higher ed is going to lay down and hope it goes away. And it’s not going to go away.”

Keith Curry, president of Compton College, a community college, said he learned from the first term the importance of staying focused on his college’s mission to support students while standing up for them. No matter what happens in November, he said he’ll keep doing just that. “We have to be unapologetic, regardless of who is the president of the United States,” he said.

Curry acknowledged that not all college leaders are in a position to speak out, and that doing so is more difficult after Trump’s first term and the intensifying criticisms from state and federal lawmakers in the years since. Curry said some leaders are nervous and concerned, but “we gotta be thinking about what’s best for our students and how we stand up for our students. For some leaders, standing up for them and being unapologetic, some of us could actually lose our jobs.”

Trump’s first term amped up the age-old criticisms of “liberal” universities, putting them in the middle of contentious debates over what students are taught. The prime example was an executive order banning the promotion of so-called divisive concepts in federally funded programs, which disrupted campus diversity programs. State leaders responded with bans on what they called critical race theory and diversity, equity and inclusion programs. So far, 14 states have passed laws restricting DEI policies and offices on college campuses—legislation based on that 2020 executive order.

“It was a big signal that this was potentially fruitful ground for Republicans, and of course, it rippled out in a pretty significant way,” said Steven Brint, a professor of sociology and public policy at the University of California, Riverside.

Kaleb Briscoe, an assistant professor of adult and higher education at the University of Oklahoma who studies campuses’ racial climates and hate crimes, and other experts say the attacks on DEI and Trump’s time in office inflamed tensions on some campuses and spurred an increase in bias-related incidents, such as students leaving nooses around campuses or wearing blackface.

“We have not recovered within higher education,” she said, “and it would be catastrophic if he had another term.”

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Kamala Harris' record on business: Fighting banks, backing unions

Kamala Harris smiles

The economy has long ranked at the top of voters’ priorities in the election. With Vice President Kamala Harris rapidly consolidating support to lead the Democratic ticket, Americans will soon begin to size up how a potential Harris administration might tackle business and the economy.

Of course, Harris has already had a leading role in steering the Biden administration as vice president, but her domestic portfolio has dealt more heavily with other issues, like immigration , than with the economic ones. Here’s what her record as a senator and as California’s attorney general reveal about her approach prior to serving as vice president.

Consumer banking

Harris was the attorney general of California from 2011 to 2017. Early on in her tenure, she was engaged in talks on behalf of the state with some of the country’s largest banks and mortgage servicers over “robo-signing” and allegations of “ foreclosure misconduct ,” in which banks were accused of having employees sign dozens or sometimes thousands of foreclosure proceeding documents without verifying the information they included.

JPMorgan Chase, Bank of America, Wells Fargo, Citigroup, Ally Financial and other firms were nearing a deal to provide California about $4 billion of consumer relief. But Harris walked away from the talks in September 2011, believing the amount was too low. Five months later, the firms promised California up to $18 billion for mortgage customers as part of a multistate settlement.

Writing in her book “The Truths We Hold” in 2019, Harris said, “If we agree that homeowners deserve to be treated with dignity and respect, not as lines on a balance sheet to be packaged and sold, then there’s only one way to achieve the change we seek: with our voices and our votes.”

Higher education costs

In 2013, Harris led multiple states in suing Corinthian Colleges, a for-profit higher education company, over allegations of “abusive practices that left tens of thousands of students under a mountain of debt and useless degrees.” The company collapsed in 2015 , following Harris’ case.

Near the end of her 2020 presidential bid, Harris ran an ad featuring Donald Trump and his shuttered Trump University. “She shut down for-profit colleges that swindled Americans. He was a for-profit college — literally,” a voiceover in the ad said.

During that campaign, Harris also unveiled a federal student debt relief plan offering to forgive up to $20,000 per eligible borrower, but some observers criticized the proposal as too narrow for many to qualify. Since then, she has fronted more far-reaching college debt forgiveness efforts as vice president. In 2022, President Joe Biden had Harris announce the rollout of nearly $6 billion in loan forgiveness linked to the Corinthian case, which then was the largest single discharge of federal loan debt.

Harris’ approach to large technology companies was sometimes less strict than to other industries. She didn’t use the office of attorney general to stop Facebook’s controversial takeover of Instagram in 2012. And in 2017 activists voiced disappointment when Harris, then a U.S. senator, declined to support a bill that would have regulated autonomous vehicles. The measure ended up failing.

Still, Harris raised the heat on Uber in 2016, her last full year as attorney general, over its self-driving car program in San Francisco, which the company scrapped soon afterward under regulatory pressure.

She has also raised scrutiny of some of the country’s biggest tech firms’ privacy rules and handling of consumer data. In 2012, California joined 35 other states and territories in questioning Google over a major privacy change , and she sued Delta Air Lines that year over privacy concerns involving its app. The Delta case was later dismissed because of a federal law limiting states’ abilities to regulate airlines.

Organized labor

Throughout her years in public office, Harris has built up her profile as an ally of organized labor — a constituency the GOP ticket is pursuing aggressively . During the height of the 2023 Hollywood writers strike, she was set to attend an MTV event about mental health but postponed it, saying, “ That would have been seen as crossing the picket line. ”

In 2022, during the Culinary Union strike in Las Vegas, Harris visited workers and told them pay rises were “ long overdue .” In 2020, the Communications Workers of America’s president said Harris’ joining Biden’s presidential bid made “a strong, pro-worker ticket even stronger.” And in 2019, she joined with Rep. Pramila Jayapal, D-Wash., who heads the Congressional Progressive Caucus, to co-sponsor a “Domestic Workers Bill of Rights.”

So it’s not surprising that Harris secured endorsements and words of support from major unions starting hours after Biden announced he was dropping his re-election bid.

The United Auto Workers, which has more than 400,000 active members, said on social media that “Kamala Harris walked the picket line with us in 2019, and along with President Biden has brought work and jobs back to communities” in multiple states. The International Union of Painters and Allied Trades, representing more than 140,000 workers, also swiftly got behind Harris , and the Service Employees International Union said Sunday it was “ALL IN” for her campaign.

Tariffs, trade and climate

While Harris has criticized protectionist trade policies in general, the Biden-Harris administration has preserved and even expanded many of its predecessor’s tariffs. It isn’t clear what path she might take as president when it comes to those duties.

On trading with the world’s second-largest economy, China, Harris said last year that “it’s not about pulling out, but it is about ensuring that we are protecting American interests.” Last week, speaking at a political event , she said the tariffs Trump is proposing for a second term — including 10% on all imports and up to 60% on many Chinese goods — “would increase the cost of everyday expenses for families.”

When Trump, as president, hammered out a trade deal with Canada and Mexico to replace the North American Free Trade Agreement, Harris voted against it as a senator, saying , “Trade policies should lift up workers and grow the economy but must also protect our environment.”

As California’s attorney general, Harris sued and investigated multiple energy companies over pollution and climate change. Her office brought criminal indictments against Plains All-American Pipeline after a 2015 oil spill in Santa Barbara County. Harris also reached million-dollar settlements with subsidiaries of BP, Chevron, Phillips 66 and ConocoPhillips after having found that the companies violated state pollution laws.

Steve Kopack is a producer at NBC News covering business and the economy.

Trump’s VP Pick: What We Know About JD Vance’s Record on Education

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Ohio Sen. JD Vance, a Republican who has come after “left-wing domination” in colleges and universities and criticized schools for “CRT indoctrination,” will be former President Donald Trump’s running mate in the 2024 election.

Trump announced that he was picking the first-term senator to occupy the vice presidential slot on the 2024 Republican ticket on Monday, July 15, the first day of the Republican National Convention in Milwaukee and just two days after a gunman attempted to assassinate Trump at a rally in Butler, Pa.

Before his 2022 election, the senator was best known for writing Hillbilly Elegy , a 2016 book chronicling his experience in growing up in rural Appalachia. Many looked to the book after Trump’s election later that year to better understand his appeal among the white working-class.

In his year-and-a-half serving in the U.S. Senate, Vance has used his platform to target affirmative action in college admissions; diversity, equity, and inclusion efforts in both K-12 schools and higher education; what he’s characterized as “left-wing domination” of universities; and China’s influence in colleges .

In a post on Truth Social, Trump wrote that he chose Vance because of his experience serving in the U.S. Marine Corps and his understanding of the “hardworking men and women of our Country.”

Vance has focused much of his education-related legislative activity on colleges and universities, but he has echoed conservative rhetoric surrounding K-12 schools. On his 2022 Senate campaign website , Vance went after schools for their COVID-19 policies and accused them of teaching critical race theory.

“As we saw from the radical Left’s culture war waged during COVID-19 and the continued CRT indoctrination in our kids’ schools, it’s clear that we should never let politics drive public health decisions and deprive our kids of a good education,” Vance wrote.

In a June 2024 tweet, Vance called for outlawing DEI policies nationwide, saying that “DEI is racism, plain and simple.”

His education focus today is markedly different from that of seven years ago when Vance first entered the public sphere.

In 2017, in the weeks before Trump took office and in the months following the publication of Hillbilly Elegy , Vance told Education Week that the then-incoming administration should focus on training students in high-demand jobs to help grow the middle class.

“Recognize that so many of the next generation of jobs require training and skills that we’re not necessarily preparing our kids for now,” Vance said.

A focus on higher education

In his short time in the Senate, Vance has sponsored three education-related bills, all of which are specific to higher education.

In legislative language, they mimic much of the conservative rhetoric surrounding K-12 schools and state-level K-12 policymaking. One bill would establish stricter requirements for colleges and universities contracting with or accepting donations from “foreign entities,” which he said would help keep the Chinese Communist Party from “exerting financial influence over American educational institutions.” Throughout this legislative session, conservative lawmakers in Congress have raised concerns that Chinese language and culture programs that receive Chinese government funding, like the Confucius Institute, are covertly influencing K-12 schools and colleges and universities.

The second bill would prohibit public colleges and universities from employing undocumented immigrants by taking away federal funding. And the third, which he introduced before the U.S. Supreme Court overturned affirmative action in colleges and universities, would have established an office of the inspector general for unlawful discrimination in higher education. Vance also sent a letter to the presidents of 10 universities after the Supreme Court ruling accusing them of being “openly defiant” toward the ruling because they had expressed opposition to and disappointment with it.

In an interview with The European Conservative in February , Vance criticized colleges and universities for “left-wing domination” and called for a “much less biased approach to teaching.”

Learning Mandarin with Fruits Name Flash Cards

K-12 bills show support for hunting programs, cellphone bans

Vance has signed onto six education bills as a co-sponsor, four of which affect K-12 schools. None have advanced through the Senate or been considered in the Senate’s Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions committee.

Two came in response to a provision in the Bipartisan Safer Communities Act that a bipartisan group of lawmakers claimed had the unintended consequence of threatening school hunting, archery, and sharp shooting programs because the law—a sweeping bill passed in 2022 after the Uvalde, Texas, school shooting—prohibited schools from using federal funds to purchase “dangerous weapons.”

The two bills Vance co-sponsored would have altered that language to allow schools to purchase weapons for use in hunting, archery, and sharp shooting programs. Those bills, however, ultimately weren’t needed because a similar bill in the U.S. House of Representatives became law.

Vance also co-sponsored a bill targeting cellphone use in schools. The bill would direct Education Secretary Miguel Cardona to study the use of mobile devices in K-12 schools and establish a pilot program for a grant that would support schools in creating a phone-free environment.

Another piece of legislation he signed onto was a bipartisan bill that would have directed the Department of Health and Human Services to provide grants for schools to expand student access to defibrillators.

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The King’s Speech 2024: What does it mean for education?

King's Speech Education

During the State Opening of Parliament on Wednesday 17 July, the King set out the government’s priorities for the coming months.

This included commitments relating to education, including children’s social care, schools , and further education .

Together, these important changes will help to break down barriers to opportunity, and drive high and rising standards in schools, to create better life chances for everyone.

Here, we explain what the King’s Speech means for young people, parents and the education sector.

You can read more about the King’s Speech and how it works on Gov.uk .

What was announced for education?

A Children’s Wellbeing Bill and a Skills England Bill were announced in the King’s Speech.

A bill is a proposed law which is introduced into Parliament. After being debated, passed through Parliament, and receiving Royal Assent, it becomes law.

What is included in the Children’s Wellbeing Bill?

The Children’s Wellbeing Bill will put children and their wellbeing at the centre of the education and children’s social care systems, and make changes to ensure children are safe, healthy, happy and treated fairly.

There are a range of changes which the government will aim to pass through the bill, to remove barriers to opportunity and make sure that the school system is fair for every child, no matter their background.

These include, but are not limited to:

  • Making sure there are free breakfast clubs in every primary school.
  • Limiting the number of branded uniform items that a school can require, to bring down costs for parents.
  • Requiring local authorities to have and maintain Children Not in School registers and provide support to home-educating parents, to ensure fewer children slip under the radar.
  • Giving Ofsted more powers to investigate unregistered schools and tackle patterns of poor care in children’s homes to keep children safe.

What is included in the Skills England Bill?

Skills England will bring together businesses, providers, unions and other bodies to try to boost skills training and tackle skills shortages to support sustained economic growth.

A Skills England Bill will work towards this, simplifying the skills system by transferring responsibilities from the Institute for Apprenticeships and Technical Education (IfATE) to a new Skills England organisation, to make skills sector more efficient.

When will the education bills be introduced?

Before becoming law, the education bills will be debated by Parliament.

Both bills are planned to be introduced in the first session of Parliament.

You can read more about how a bill becomes law on Gov.uk .

You may also be interested in:

  • Letter to the education workforce from Education Secretary Bridget Phillipson

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Fact-Checking Trump’s Speech and More: Day 4 of the Republican National Convention

A team of New York Times reporters followed the developments and fact-checked the speakers, providing context and explanation.

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Former President Donald J. Trump accepted his party’s nomination during the final night of the Republican National Convention on Thursday, delivering a freewheeling, factually challenged and often ad-libbed speech.

Mr. Trump began by describing in detail the assassination attempt that left him with a bandaged ear. Then, he essentially staged a campaign rally, repeating familiar boasts and delving into a cascade of false and misleading claims about his own record and the state of the border, the economy and the world.

Here’s a fact-check of his remarks.

Linda Qiu

“We’ve got Right to Try. They were trying to get that for 52 years.”

— Former President Donald J. Trump

This needs context.

The “right to try” law of 2018 allows terminally ill patients to seek access to experimental medicine that is not yet fully approved by the Food and Drug Administration, but a similar program has been in place since the 1970s.

Jeanna Smialek

Jeanna Smialek

An inflation crisis “is just simply crushing our people, like never before — they’ve never seen anything like it.”

This is false..

Inflation peaked at 9.1 percent in the summer of 2022, but that is considerably lower than its peak of nearly 15 percent in the early 1980s.

Republicans will sometimes point out that the inflation methodology has changed since then — meaning that we are measuring price increases differently — but even accounting for those tweaks, economists have said that inflation was lower in 2022 than it was four decades earlier. Inflation is not, based on the data, crushing people like never before.


John Ismay

“Our planet is teetering on the edge of World War III, and this will be a war like no other.”

This lacks evidence..

While there is an active war between Russia and Ukraine, and between Hamas and Israel, and fighting in Sudan, Myanmar and other countries, there is no evidence that a third world war is imminent.

In terms of previous world wars, according to the Encyclopaedia Britannica, an estimated 8.5 million soldiers were killed in World War I and an estimated 35 million to 60 million people died during World War II.

The concept of World War III has traditionally referred to a potential war between the United States and Russia, which is not imminent. President Biden has often said he is actively trying to avoid such a conflict even as he arms Kyiv in its war with Moscow.

Brad Plumer

Brad Plumer

“We will drill, baby, drill, and by doing that we will lead to a large-scale decline in prices.”

More drilling doesn’t always cause gasoline prices to plunge. Case in point: The United States is actually producing significantly more crude oil today under the Biden administration than it did under the Trump administration, yet gasoline prices are still higher than they were four years ago.

That’s because gasoline costs are also influenced by broader market forces that can cause the global price of crude oil to rise or fall. For instance, a big reason prices increased in 2022 was Russia’s invasion of Ukraine, which disrupted the flow of crude across the globe. All else equal, an increase in U.S. oil drilling should put downward pressure on prices, but those other global factors also play a considerable role.

Angelo Fichera

Angelo Fichera

“If you look at the arrow at the bottom, that’s the lowest level — the one on the bottom, heavy red arrow — that’s the lowest level of illegal immigrants ever to come into our country in recorded history right there, right there. And that was my last week in office.”

Mr. Trump presented an immigration graphic that he credited with saving his life during an assassination attempt at a rally in Pennsylvania days earlier.

Moments before a gunman opened fire at the rally, Mr. Trump turned to gesture at the chart, a move that he said prevented him from being shot in the head . The shooting left his ear bloodied, killed one spectator and seriously injured two others.

In his acceptance speech on Thursday, he referred to a thick red arrow on the chart, titled “Illegal Immigration Into the U.S.,” that points to a significant drop in migrant crossings at the southern border during his presidency.

But despite text on the chart and Mr. Trump’s description at the convention, the arrow is actually pointing to a dip in early 2020 — when migration slowed globally during the coronavirus pandemic and the restrictions that followed — not during his last week in office. And that low did not last.

In March 2020, there were about 30,000 encounters at the southern border recorded by Border Patrol, according to Customs and Border Protection statistics . That dropped in April 2020 by almost half, to about 16,000.

In the months that followed, however, the number of migrants encountered at the border then climbed back up. During Mr. Trump’s last month in office, there were about 75,000 encounters by Border Patrol.

And contrary to Mr. Trump’s claim, even the low in 2020 was not the lowest “in recorded history.” Earlier in Mr. Trump’s presidency, the number of apprehensions at the border had dipped to about 11,000 in April 2017 , before the flow increased again.

Also, since 1925, total annual apprehensions nationwide by Border Patrol have often been lower than they were under Mr. Trump’s presidency, noted Michelle Mittelstadt, a spokeswoman for the nonpartisan Migration Policy Institute.

There is no arguing that the situation at the southern border grew worse during the Biden administration: In December, there were around 250,000 encounters .

In an effort to reverse course, President Biden recently announced severe restrictions on asylum, and illegal crossings have since significantly dropped . Border Patrol reported about 83,500 encounters in June.

“We gave you the largest tax cuts.”

The $1.5 trillion tax cut, enacted in December 2017, ranks below at least half a dozen other tax cuts by several metrics. The 1981 Reagan tax cut was the largest as a percentage of the economy and by its reduction to federal revenue. The 2012 Obama tax cut amounted to the largest reduction in inflation-adjusted dollars: $321 billion a year.

“We built most of the wall.”

During Mr. Trump’s 2016 campaign, he promised to build a wall spanning at least 1,000 miles along the southern border and have Mexico pay for it. That did not happen. Overall, the Trump administration constructed 458 miles of border barriers — most of which upgraded or replaced existing structures. Officials put up new primary barriers where none previously existed along only 47 miles.

“I will end every single international crisis that the current administration has created — including the horrible war with Russia and Ukraine, which would have never happened if I was president, and the war caused by the attack on Israel, which never would have happened if I were president.”

There is no evidence that President Vladimir V. Putin of Russia would not have invaded Ukraine if Donald J. Trump had been president of the United States in February 2022, when Russian forces began a full-scale war on Ukraine.

In fact, Mr. Trump supported one of Mr. Putin’s greatest desires — weakening the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. Senior administration officials told The New York Times that several times over the course of 2018 Mr. Trump privately said he wanted to withdraw from NATO . And Mr. Trump was impeached for withholding Javelin missiles from Ukraine in 2019. Those missiles proved effective in blunting Russian armor advances into Ukraine in 2022.

“And then we had that horrible, horrible result that we’ll never let happen again. The election result. We’re never going to let that happen again. They used Covid to cheat.”

Mr. Trump has continued to falsely claim that the 2020 election was stolen from him. His assertions about widespread cheating are unsubstantiated. Since the election, the former president has used claims mischaracterizing the voting and counting process, cited baseless examples of fraud and peddled conspiracy theories.

“Just a few short years ago under my presidency, we had the most secure border and the best economy in the history of the world.”

This is exaggerated..

Apprehensions of unauthorized crossings along the southwest border in the 2017 fiscal year, which includes several months of the Obama administration, fell to the lowest point since the 1970s.

But they increased in subsequent years. In the 2019 fiscal year, apprehensions topped 800,000 and were the highest in a decade. And in the 2020 fiscal year, even as the coronavirus pandemic ground global movement to a halt, apprehensions were higher than in 2011, 2012 and 2015.

And when Mr. Trump left office, the coronavirus pandemic had decimated the economy with an unemployment rate of 6.4 percent in January 2021 and gross domestic product had not yet rebounded to pre-Covid levels. But even before all of that, annual average growth was lower under Mr. Trump than under Presidents Bill Clinton and Ronald Reagan.

“We had no inflation.”

The rate of inflation was indeed low under Mr. Trump, but it was not completely nonexistent.

Under Mr. Trump, the rate of inflation measured by the overall Consumer Price Index largely gravitated around 2 percent — with the rate slightly lower and higher some months — according to data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics . That dropped at the onset of the coronavirus pandemic, and inflation reached a low of 0.1 percent in May 2020 before trending upward.

“By the way, you know who’s taking the jobs? The jobs that are created? 107 percent of those jobs are taken by illegal aliens”

Official estimates of employment do not support Mr. Trump’s statement, which makes little sense. And estimates from various groups show that the population of unauthorized immigrants has grown in recent years, but not nearly enough to take all the jobs created during Mr. Biden’s presidency.

The economy has added more than 15 million jobs since January 2021. Two groups that advocate for lower levels of migration and stricter border security have estimated that there are 2.3 million to 2.5 million more unauthorized immigrants in 2023 than in 2020.

Overall, the Bureau of Labor Statistics estimated that 29.9 million foreign-born workers — both authorized and unauthorized — and 131.1 million native-born workers were employed in 2023. That is an increase of 5.1 million in employed foreign-born workers and 8.1 million native-born workers since 2020 .

“Our current administration, groceries are up 57 percent, gasoline is up 60 and 70 percent.”

Grocery prices are up substantially since Joseph R. Biden Jr. took office in early 2021, but not by 57 percent: The Consumer Price Index’s food-at-home index is up about 21 percent . Gas prices are up about 35 percent , depending upon the measure used.

Lisa Friedman

Lisa Friedman

“Under the Trump administration, just three and a half years ago, we were energy independent. But soon we will actually be better than that. We will be energy dominant and supply not only ourselves, but we supply the rest of the world, with numbers that nobody has ever seen.”

This is misleading..

Under the Trump administration, the United States for the first time began to export more oil than it imported. Energy experts say that is not because of Trump’s policies, but because of the fracking boom that began during the George W. Bush administration and soared under President Barack Obama. It’s still happening.

In fact, under President Biden, the United States has become the biggest oil producer in the world and is producing more natural gas than ever before. The phrases “energy independence” and “energy dominance” also fail to take into account wind, solar and other renewable energy, which is growing at a rapid pace.

Alan Rappeport

Alan Rappeport

“We will reduce our debt, $36 trillion, and we will reduce your taxes still further.”

Mr. Trump suggested that the national debt would be paid down by jump-starting economic growth. He made this promise during his first term, promising that $2 trillion of tax cuts would pay for themselves, and ended up approving more than $8 trillion of borrowing. The Republican platform this year makes no mention of debt or deficits but does call for cutting wasteful spending.

Also, the national debt currently stands at $34.9 trillion, not $36 trillion.

“They want to raise your taxes four times.”

Many elements of the 2017 tax cut Mr. Trump signed into law will expire in 2025, and Mr. Biden has proposed some tax increases on high-income earners and corporations. But this does not amount to a quadrupling of taxes.

The 2017 tax cuts are expected to reduce the average tax rate by 1.4 percent in 2025, according to the Urban-Brookings Tax Policy Center, a left-leaning Washington think tank. Most in the top 5 percent of income would see the greatest change, by 2.4 percent. Mr. Biden has also consistently said he does not support raising taxes on people making under $400,000 a year and, in his latest budget, proposed extending tax cuts for those making under that threshold.

Mr. Biden’s proposals would increase the average tax rate by about 1.9 percent, according to a Tax Policy Center analysis . The top 0.1 percent would see the biggest increase of about 13.9 percent, while the low income filers would see a reduction in taxes. That is no nowhere near the 300 percent increase Mr. Trump warned of.

“I will end the electric vehicle mandate on Day 1, thereby saving the U.S. auto industry from complete obliteration, which is happening right now, and saving U.S. customers thousands and thousands per car.”

There is no electric vehicle mandate. The Biden administration has imposed rules requiring carmakers to meet new average emissions limits across their entire product line. It is up to auto manufacturers how to comply. The Environmental Protection Agency has estimated that the rule would mean that by 2032, about 56 percent of new passenger vehicles sold would be electric and another 16 percent would be hybrids. Autoworkers do fear job losses because electric vehicles could require less than half the number of workers to assemble than cars with internal combustion engines do.

There is also no evidence that the rule or other policies aimed at encouraging electric vehicles are leading the automobile industry toward “obliteration.” Many automakers have, in fact, embraced electric vehicle production. General Motors, for example, has been talking about preparing for an “all-electric future” since 2017. The Biden administration has argued that its policies are aimed at moving electric vehicle jobs from China to the United States.

“We’re going to bring back car manufacturing.”

The American auto industry lost jobs under the Trump administration, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics. General Motors, Ford and Fiat Chrysler all closed factories during Mr. Trump’s presidency.

“Probably the best trade deal was the deal I made with China, where they buy $50 billion worth of our product.”

The trade agreement that Mr. Trump signed with China in 2020 was quickly derailed by the coronavirus pandemic, and China never fulfilled its obligations to purchase American goods. And Mr. Trump gave an incorrect total for how much American product China was supposed to buy. A 2022 analysis by the Peterson Institute for International Economics found that China had bought none of the extra $200 billion of U.S. exports in the trade pact.

“Democrats are going to destroy Social Security and Medicare.”

President Biden has pledged not to make any cuts to America’s social safety net programs. Mr. Trump suggested this year that he was open to scaling back the programs when he said there was “a lot you can do in terms of entitlements in terms of cutting.” He later walked back those comments and pledged to protect the programs. But if changes to the programs are not made, the programs’ benefits will automatically be reduced eventually. Government reports released earlier this year projected that the Social Security and disability insurance programs, if combined, would not have enough money to pay all of their obligations in 2035. Medicare will be unable to pay all its hospital bills starting in 2036.

Hamed Aleaziz

Hamed Aleaziz

The Biden administration “demolished Title 42.”

The Biden administration kept in place the Trump-era policy, known as Title 42, which allowed border agents to quickly turn back migrants and cut off access to asylum protections for more than a year.

The Biden administration did not move to get rid of Title 42 until spring 2022. The move was later blocked by a federal judge, which forced the administration to keep the policy in place.

During that time, the Biden administration expanded the use of the policy and began expelling Venezuelans to Mexico. It was later rolled back in 2023 by the Biden administration.

“In Venezuela, crime is down 72 percent.”

Mr. Trump claimed that crime had fallen drastically in Venezuela because the country had sent “their murderers” and prisoners to the United States. Annual reports from the Venezuelan Violence Observatory, a research organization based in Caracas, shows a 25 percent decline in the country’s homicide rate from 2022 to 2023 , and a 41 percent decline since 2020 . In comparison, the homicide rate declined even more precipitously while Mr. Trump was president, by almost 50 percent from 2016 .

The Venezuelan Prison Observatory told Univision in 2022, when Mr. Trump first made the claim, that the prisons in the country had not been emptied and rather were at 170 percent capacity. According to the group’s latest annual report, Venezuela’s prison population stood at 33,558 in 2022, about level with its 2021 population of 33,710. Immigration experts have said they could not corroborate Mr. Trump’s claims that other countries were “dumping” their criminal and prison populations into the United States.

“I was the first president in modern times to start no new wars.”

Depending on the definition of “modern times,” President Jimmy Carter started no new wars during his time in office between 1977 and 1981.

“The whole world was at peace. And now the whole world is blowing up around us. Under President Bush, Russia invaded Georgia. Under President Obama, Russia took Crimea. Under the current administration, Russia is after all of Ukraine. Under President Trump, Russia took nothing.”

Under Mr. Trump’s presidency, there was not global peace. While Mr. Trump was in the Oval Office, there was an active war in eastern Ukraine between the Russian and Ukrainian armies, he authorized airstrikes and ground combat operations against fighters of the Islamic State in Iraq and Syria, and he ordered the assassination of an Iranian military leader in Iraq.

“We defeated 100 percent of ISIS in Syria, something that was going to take five years — ‘It’ll take five years, sir’ — and I did it in two months.”

The American-led coalition campaign against the Islamic State began in 2014 . The research firm IHS Markit estimated that the Islamic State lost about a third of its territory from January 2015 to January 2017. Mr. Trump has largely stuck with, and taken advantage of, a strategy that Mr. Obama began , and the Islamic State lost its final territories in March 2019 , two years after Mr. Trump took office, not two months.

“I stopped the missile launches from North Korea.”

North Korea continued to test missiles during Mr. Trump’s time in the White House, a fact that the former president continually dismissed at the time .

“Our opponents inherited a planet at peace and turned it into a planet at war.”

While Russia had not invaded Ukraine and the war between Israel and Hamas had not broken out, it is a stretch to claim that the world was entirely peaceful under the Trump administration.

Average peacefulness declined in 2018 and 2020 , according to the Global Peace Index, an annual measure of violence around the world compiled by the Institute for Economics & Peace. During the Trump administration, the United States was also engaged in military conflicts in Iraq, Syria and Afghanistan and more than 60 American soldiers died in hostile action . When Mr. Trump left office, there were 2,500 troops remaining in Afghanistan.

“We also left $85 billion worth of military equipment” in Afghanistan.

Mr. Trump was once again referring to the total amount that the United States spent on security in Afghanistan over the course of 20 years — not the value of equipment left behind in the 2021 withdrawal.

The United States provided $88.6 billion for security in Afghanistan from October 2001 to July 2021, and disbursed about $75 billion, according to Pentagon figures .

That figure includes the amount spent on training, antidrug trafficking efforts and infrastructure, as well as $18 billion for equipment. CNN previously reported that about $7 billion worth of military equipment that the United States transferred to the Afghan government was left behind during the withdrawal.

“We will replenish our military and build an Iron Dome missile defense system to ensure that no enemy can strike our homeland. And this great Iron Dome will be built entirely in the U.S.A. and Wisconsin.”

The U.S. military’s budget continues to grow year by year, and the Iron Dome missile defense system is effective only against relatively short-range rockets and missiles. Installing an Iron Dome across the country would in no way ensure that an enemy could not strike the United States.

“They spent $9 billion on eight chargers.”

— Former President Donald J. Trump.

This is false .

This is an inflated claim of another false statement Mr. Trump has made on the campaign trail about electric vehicle charging stations. (He recently said that the Biden administration had “opened seven chargers for $8 billion.”)

The Bipartisan Infrastructure Law, which President Biden signed in 2021, allocated $7.5 billion for electric vehicle charging stations, with the goal of installing 500,000 across the country.

So far, only seven chargers have been installed — not a great pace. But the suggestion that the entire amount was used on seven chargers is not accurate. The Biden administration has argued that the pace is the result of wanting to get a complex new national program done right.

“He decided to leave behind the comforts of an unbelievable business empire. To leave behind everything he had ever built. To answer the call to serve our nation. Unlike his predecessor, it was not a decision born out of necessity. Unlike the current president, it was not a decision that would enrich his family.”

— Eric Trump, a son of Donald J. Trump

Former President Donald J. Trump did not divest from his businesses when he assumed the presidency, and his critics argue that his companies did benefit from his being in public office. Mr. Trump’s businesses received nearly $8 million from 20 foreign governments during his time in office, according to documents released by House Democrats this year. Much of that was from China. The nonprofit OpenSecrets has also tracked millions of dollars flowing to Trump properties from political entities and groups in recent years, suggesting that those seeking favor with Mr. Trump may do so through his properties.

“He slashed regulations.”

This needs context ..

As president, Donald J. Trump indeed slashed regulations, rolling back more than 100 environmental protections alone. The bulk of those were aimed at keeping the air and water clean, and cutting planet-warming greenhouse gas emissions from automobiles and power plants.

However, the Trump administration’s attempt to deregulate was also often thwarted by the courts. All told, the Trump administration lost 57 percent of cases challenging its environmental policies, a much higher rate of loss than previous administrations, according to a database maintained by New York University’s Institute for Policy Integrity .

“The U.S. dollar has been diminished.”

The value of the U.S. dollar is stronger than it has been in decades . This year, the dollar index, which measures the strength of the currency against the currencies of six major trading partners, has been hovering at levels last seen in the early 2000s.

Eric Trump’s suggestion that the dollar has been diminished is actually at odds with his father’s recent suggestion that the dollar is too strong, making American exports too expensive abroad.

Former President Donald J. Trump and Senator J.D. Vance, his running mate, have both argued that a weaker dollar would be better for the U.S. economy and have suggested that steps should be taken to depreciate the currency.

“In 2019, I was with him at the United Nations when the first president of history of this country stood there to advocate for religious liberty worldwide.”

— Franklin Graham, the evangelical leader

President Donald J. Trump hosted a United Nations event on religious freedom in 2019 in New York. At the time, he characterized it as the first time a U.S. president had hosted such a meeting. But aside from specific meetings, Mr. Trump’s appearance was certainly not the first time that an American president had championed religious freedom before the United Nations. President Barack Obama did so in a 2012 address to the General Assembly . President George W. Bush pressed the importance of religious liberty in a 2008 interfaith event.

“We’ve lost more Americans from drugs in the past four years than we lost in World War II. Yeah. Our bloodiest war. More than we lost in World War II. Does anybody care? It is pathetic. It is pathetic. And do you hear a single word from Washington about doing anything about it?”

— Tucker Carlson, Trump ally and former Fox News host

Mr. Carlson can certainly argue that lawmakers have not done enough to address the opioid crisis in the United States, but his suggestion that they have done nothing is wrong. The Congressional Research Service listed several major legislative efforts in 2016, 2018, 2019 and 2021.

These laws, according to the research service, “addressed overprescribing and misuse of opioids, expanded substance use disorder prevention and treatment capacities, bolstered drug diversion capabilities, and enhanced international drug interdiction, counternarcotics cooperation and sanctions efforts.”

Annual funding for border security and the Drug Enforcement Administration has tried to directly address drug trafficking. The bipartisan border bill that failed this past spring would have also included increased funding for enforcement efforts and new technology to detect drug smuggling. Former President Donald J. Trump lobbied against its passage.


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