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## Module 4: Applications of Derivatives

Initial-value problems, learning outcomes.

- Use antidifferentiation to solve simple initial-value problems

We look at techniques for integrating a large variety of functions involving products, quotients, and compositions later in the text. Here we turn to one common use for antiderivatives that arises often in many applications: solving differential equations.

A differential equation is an equation that relates an unknown function and one or more of its derivatives. The equation

is a simple example of a differential equation. Solving this equation means finding a function [latex]y[/latex] with a derivative [latex]f[/latex]. Therefore, the solutions of [latex]\frac{dy}{dx}[/latex] are the antiderivatives of [latex]f[/latex]. If [latex]F[/latex] is one antiderivative of [latex]f[/latex], every function of the form [latex]y=F(x)+C[/latex] is a solution of that differential equation. For example, the solutions of

are given by

Sometimes we are interested in determining whether a particular solution curve passes through a certain point [latex](x_0,y_0)[/latex]—that is, [latex]y(x_0)=y_0[/latex]. The problem of finding a function [latex]y[/latex] that satisfies a differential equation

with the additional condition

is an example of an initial-value problem . The condition [latex]y(x_0)=y_0[/latex] is known as an initial condition . For example, looking for a function [latex]y[/latex] that satisfies the differential equation

and the initial condition

is an example of an initial-value problem. Since the solutions of the differential equation are [latex]y=2x^3+C[/latex], to find a function [latex]y[/latex] that also satisfies the initial condition, we need to find [latex]C[/latex] such that [latex]y(1)=2(1)^3+C=5[/latex]. From this equation, we see that [latex]C=3[/latex], and we conclude that [latex]y=2x^3+3[/latex] is the solution of this initial-value problem as shown in the following graph.

Figure 2. Some of the solution curves of the differential equation [latex]\frac{dy}{dx}=6x^2[/latex] are displayed. The function [latex]y=2x^3+3[/latex] satisfies the differential equation and the initial condition [latex]y(1)=5[/latex].

## Example: Solving an Initial-Value Problem

Solve the initial-value problem

First we need to solve the differential equation. If [latex]\frac{dy}{dx}= \sin x,[/latex] then

Next we need to look for a solution [latex]y[/latex] that satisfies the initial condition. The initial condition [latex]y(0)=5[/latex] means we need a constant [latex]C[/latex] such that [latex]− \cos x+C=5[/latex]. Therefore,

The solution of the initial-value problem is [latex]y=− \cos x+6[/latex].

Solve the initial value problem [latex]\frac{dy}{dx}=3x^{-2}, \,\,\, y(1)=2[/latex].

Find all antiderivatives of [latex]f(x)=3x^{-2}[/latex].

[latex]y=-\frac{3}{x}+5[/latex]

Watch the following video to see the worked solution to Example: Solving an Initial-Value Problem and the above Try It.

Initial-value problems arise in many applications. Next we consider a problem in which a driver applies the brakes in a car. We are interested in how long it takes for the car to stop. Recall that the velocity function [latex]v(t)[/latex] is the derivative of a position function [latex]s(t)[/latex], and the acceleration [latex]a(t)[/latex] is the derivative of the velocity function. In earlier examples in the text, we could calculate the velocity from the position and then compute the acceleration from the velocity. In the next example, we work the other way around. Given an acceleration function, we calculate the velocity function. We then use the velocity function to determine the position function.

## Example: Decelerating Car

A car is traveling at the rate of [latex]88[/latex] ft/sec ([latex]60[/latex] mph) when the brakes are applied. The car begins decelerating at a constant rate of [latex]15[/latex] ft/sec 2 .

- How many seconds elapse before the car stops?
- How far does the car travel during that time?

The acceleration is the derivative of the velocity,

Therefore, we have an initial-value problem to solve:

Integrating, we find that

Since [latex]v(0)=88, \, C=88[/latex]. Thus, the velocity function is

Integrating, we have

Since [latex]s(0)=0[/latex], the constant is [latex]C=0[/latex]. Therefore, the position function is

Watch the following video to see the worked solution to Example: Decelerating Car.

Suppose the car is traveling at the rate of 44 ft/sec. How long does it take for the car to stop? How far will the car travel?

[latex]v(t)=-15t+44[/latex]

2.93 sec, 64.5 ft

- 4.10 Antiderivatives. Authored by : Ryan Melton. License : CC BY: Attribution
- Calculus Volume 1. Authored by : Gilbert Strang, Edwin (Jed) Herman. Provided by : OpenStax. Located at : https://openstax.org/details/books/calculus-volume-1 . License : CC BY-NC-SA: Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike . License Terms : Access for free at https://openstax.org/books/calculus-volume-1/pages/1-introduction

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Solvethe giveninitial-valueproblem.xy' +y=ex,y(1) = 8y(x) = Give the largest interval I over which the solution is defined. (Enter your answer using interval notation.) I = Thisproblemhas been solved!Free

Pre-Algebra, Algebra,Trigonometry, Calculus, Geometry, Statistics and Chemistry calculators step-by-stepSolvean ODE using a specified numerical method: Runge-Kutta method, dy/dx = -2xy,y(0) = 2, from1to3, h = .25. {y' (x) = -2y,y(0)=1} from 0 to 2 by implicit midpoint.Initial Value ProblemThe Organic Chemistry Tutor 6.64M subscribers 582K views3years ago New Calculus Video Playlist This calculus video tutorial explains how tosolvethe initial value...The

initial-valueproblemsin Examples1, 2, and3each had a unique solution; values for the arbitrary constants in the general solution were uniquely determined. Example 4. The functiony= x2 is a solution of the diﬀerential equation y0 =2 √yandy(0) = 0. Thus theinitial-valueproblemy0 =2 √y;y(0) = 0. has a solution.Figure 2. Some of the solution curves of the differential equation dy dx =6x2 d

ydx= 6x2 are displayed. The functiony=2x3+3y= 2x3+3satisfies the differential equation and theinitialconditiony(1)=5y(1) = 5. Example:SolvinganInitial-ValueProblemSolvetheinitial-valueproblemdy dx = sinx,y(0) = 5 dydx= sinx, y( 0) = 5Compute answers using Wolfram's breakthrough technology & knowledgebase, relied on by millions of students & professionals. For math, science, nutrition, history ...

A separable differential equation is any equation that can be written in the form.

y′ = f(x)g(y). The term ‘separable’ refers to the fact that the right-hand side of Equation 8.3.1can be separated into a function ofxtimes a function ofy. Examples of separable differential equations include.y′ = (x2 − 4)(3y + 2)y′ = 6x2 + 4x ...