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## Sudoku for Beginners: How to Improve Your Problem-Solving Skills

Are you a beginner when it comes to solving Sudoku puzzles? Do you find yourself frustrated and unsure of where to start? Fear not, as we have compiled a comprehensive guide on how to improve your problem-solving skills through Sudoku.

## Understanding the Basics of Sudoku

Before we dive into the strategies and techniques, let’s first understand the basics of Sudoku. A Sudoku puzzle is a 9×9 grid that is divided into nine smaller 3×3 grids. The objective is to fill in each row, column, and smaller grid with numbers 1-9 without repeating any numbers.

## Starting Strategies for Beginners

As a beginner, it can be overwhelming to look at an empty Sudoku grid. But don’t worry. There are simple starting strategies that can help you get started. First, look for any rows or columns that only have one missing number. Fill in that number and move on to the next row or column with only one missing number. Another strategy is looking for any smaller grids with only one missing number and filling in that number.

## Advanced Strategies for Beginner/Intermediate Level

Once you’ve mastered the starting strategies, it’s time to move on to more advanced techniques. One technique is called “pencil marking.” This involves writing down all possible numbers in each empty square before making any moves. Then use logic and elimination techniques to cross off impossible numbers until you are left with the correct answer.

Another advanced technique is “hidden pairs.” Look for two squares within a row or column that only have two possible numbers left. If those two possible numbers exist in both squares, then those two squares must contain those specific numbers.

## Benefits of Solving Sudoku Puzzles

Not only is solving Sudoku puzzles fun and challenging, but it also has many benefits for your brain health. It helps improve your problem-solving skills, enhances memory and concentration, and reduces the risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease.

In conclusion, Sudoku is a great way to improve your problem-solving skills while also providing entertainment. With these starting and advanced strategies, you’ll be able to solve even the toughest Sudoku puzzles. So grab a pencil and paper and start sharpening those brain muscles.

This text was generated using a large language model, and select text has been reviewed and moderated for purposes such as readability.

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## Brainstorming Ways to Solve Environmental Problems? 5 Simple Ways You Can Help

June 1, 2019

Home  /  News  /  Brainstorming Ways to Solve Environmental Problems? 5 Simple Ways You Can Help

We are currently facing the most critical environmental issues in human history. Our climate, planet, lives, and future as a civilization are all at risk. While the magnitude of that thought can be extremely overwhelming, don’t allow yourself to feel helpless, not knowing where to begin. Making small steps and adjustments in your daily routine will give you a sense of success and a yearning to attempt more.

Here are 5 simple ways you can help the environment and spark others to become more environmentally aware.

## 1. Replace disposable items with reusable

Anything you use and throw away can potentially spend centuries in a landfill. See below for simple adjustments you can make to decrease the amount of disposable items in your daily life.

• Carry your own reusable cup or water bottle
• Use airtight, reusable food containers instead of sandwich bags and plastic wrap
• Pack a waste-free lunch: carry your utensils, cloth napkin, and containers in a reusable lunch bag
• Bring your own bags to the grocery store
• Use rechargeable batteries

## 2. Pass on paper

We are living in the Digital Era, but think about all the paper products you use in your daily life. These actions still align with reusing and repurposing, though may take a little more time for transition.

• Print as little as possible; and if you must, print on both sides
• Wrap gifts in fabric and tie with ribbon; both are reusable and prettier than paper and sticky-tape
• Stop using paper towels and incorporate washable cloths
• Look at labels to make sure you only use FSC-certified wood and paper products
• Cut out products made by palm oil companies that contribute to deforestation in Indonesia and Malaysia

## 3. Conserve water & electricity

The tips you see below will seem like no-brainers; however, it may take to become more aware of your unconscious habits.

• Turn the sink water off when brushing your teeth
• Water the lawn in the morning or evening; cooler air causes less evaporation
• Switch off anything that uses electricity when not in use (lights, televisions, computers, printers, etc.)
• Unplug devices when possible; even when an appliance is turned off, it may still use power
• Remove chemicals inside of the house; research companies that use plant-derived ingredients for their household cleaning products
• Remove chemicals outside of the house; use eco-friendly pesticides and herbicides that won’t contaminate groundwater
• Consider signing up for a renewable energy producer that uses 100% renewable energy to power homes

## 4. Support local & environmentally friendly

Here are a few reasons to start buying local:

• Reduces plastic and paper waste
• Boosts cost-efficiency
• Retains farmland within the community
• Builds up the local economy
• Uses fewer chemicals for both for growing and transporting

## 5. Recycle (& then recycle properly)

Implementing recycling habits into your daily life is one of the most effective ways to help lessen landfill waste, conserve natural resources, save habitats, reduce pollution, cut down on energy consumption, and slow down global warming.

• Confirm you are using the proper separation containers for your household per the local recycling services
• Remember to make sure your trash bags are recycled or biodegradable, and always cut up the plastic rings from packs of beer or soda to prevent wildlife from getting caught
• Educate yourself about what can and cannot be recycled, as not all plastic and cardboard is acceptable (like pizza boxes for example, due to the grease) ( click here for a simple 101 )

Taking the time to simply read this article for ways to solve environmental problems is a step forward to becoming more aware of the needs of your environment. You are now taking action, and every change–big or small–will create an impact.

If you’re already taking action on the suggestions above, see below for additional tips and ideas:

• Add these simple lists to your digital checklist and pick one at a time to tackle. After a week or so, check it off the list and move on to the next. Remember to pat yourself on the back! You just created a change in your lifestyle!
• Find a comfortable compromise for your life. Purchase a pack of affordable, reusable rags and give them a specific purpose. For example, perhaps you always clean your countertops with paper towels; try wiping them down with cloth towels instead.
• Remember to highlight your successes and share them with others! #savetheplanet
• Calculate your environmental footprint to see how much impact just one person has on the world’s resources and adjust accordingly.
• Consider an environmentally-focused career like one of the top four environmental jobs of the future.

Interested in learning more about Unity College’s programs? Get in touch with us by completing this form .

© Unity Environmental University 2023. “America's Environmental College” is a registered trademark of Unity Environmental University.

## 10 Environmental Problems and Solutions

If you’re searching for answers to the 10 biggest environmental problems and solutions, you might be concerned with the state of the planet today. If you’re worried, I want you to know that although the world faces major environmental problems, there are solutions. The solutions aren’t simple, and there are no magic bullets, but they exist.

There are also a lot of voices and opinions about environmental issues. So along with basic information about environmental problems and solutions, I also offer different perspectives and further reading so you can form your own opinions. Because there are many possible environmental solutions, and not even the “experts” have all the answers. So I encourage you to keep an open mind to every option. Let’s look for progress, not perfection.

I’ll write more about the UN Sustainable Development Goals below but wanted to mention these goals up-front. If you’re reading this article because you’re concerned about the environment (or maybe you’re feeling stressed or anxious about climate change) learn about the Global Goals first. The Global Goals offer a solid framework for solving environmental problems. Now, on to the 10 biggest environmental problems we face today.

## 10 environmental problems

These are the 10 biggest environmental problems in no particular order. Climate change is a hot topic right now so I include it first. It’s also first on the list simply because so many of the problems related to climate change are also connected to other environmental problems. Environmental problems like oil spills, deforestation, and poverty need to be solved in and of themselves. But solving these problems indirectly helps solve the problem of climate change.

There are also environmental problems like fluorinated gases that have a large impact on the climate, but not directly on our health or wealth. These problems are extra tricky because they’re expensive to solve and they get little media coverage. That’s why international laws and cooperation are especially important for solving the hardest problems.

## Climate change

Climate change is a long-term change in the average weather patterns that have come to define Earth’s local, regional and global climates.” – NASA

Climate change happens when greenhouse gases are released and trapped in the atmosphere, causing the greenhouse effect. The greenhouse effect creates a layer around the earth’s atmosphere that traps heat from the sun, making our atmosphere warmer, similar to a greenhouse.

The following greenhouse gases contribute to climate change.

• Carbon dioxide (CO2) – Carbon dioxide enters the atmosphere when fossil fuels like coal, oil, and natural gas are burned. Carbon dioxide is also released when trees and other plants are burned or cut down and through manufacturing cement. Carbon dioxide made up 81% of man-made greenhouse gas emissions from the United States in 2018 according to the Environmental Protection Agency .
• Methane (CH4) – Methane is released from fossil fuels (natural gas in particular), agriculture (cow farts and manure), and landfills. Methane made up 10% of greenhouse gases in the US in 2018.
• Nitrous oxide (N2O) – Nitrous oxide is emitted from agriculture, fossil fuels, industry, and waste-water treatment. Nitrous oxide made up 7% of greenhouse gas emissions in 2018.
• Fluorinated gases – Fluorinated gases are hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons, sulfur hexafluoride, and nitrogen trifluoride. They are man-made gases commonly used in refrigerants used for cooling air conditioners and refrigerators. These gases have a high Global Warming Potential and makeup 3% of greenhouse gases emitted in the United States according to the EPA.

Resource: Drilled Podcast: The origins of climate denial

Poverty is indirectly linked to environmental problems. When you solve issues related to poverty you also solve environmental problems such as deforestation[cm_simple_footnote id=1], population growth, gender inequality, and climate change.

The world has been making steady progress toward ending extreme poverty for years according to the UN. The COVID-19 crisis has reversed some of the progress. But before the virus, life was better for many people around the world than ever before in history. Now, we need to deal with the crisis and get back to making progress.

Related: Population growth explained with IKEA boxes

## Gender inequality

Although gender inequality is also not a direct environmental problem, solving problems like inadequate access to birth control, health services, and education has a positive impact on the economy and environment.

Education lays a foundation for vibrant lives for girls and women, their families, and their communities. It also is one of the most powerful levers available for avoiding emissions by curbing population growth. Women with more years of education have fewer and healthier children, and actively manage their reproductive health. Gender inequality is indirectly linked to environmental problems.” – Drawdown.org

Related: Melinda Gates: Why equality can’t wait

## Fluorinated gases used in refrigerants

Fluorinated gases, like the hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) used in refrigerators and air conditioners, are considered major contributors to climate change according to Drawdown.org. The most commonly used refrigerants have a high Global Warming Potential. The Kigali amendment to the Montreal Protocol offers a timeline for phasing out refrigerants with high Global Warming Potential, but it’s essential for companies and governments to maintain their commitments.

To minimize your personal impact, make sure to properly recycle refrigerators and air conditioning units. If you’re not sure how to recycle an appliance contact your local waste management company.

Fluorinated gases have a potent greenhouse effect and are widely used as refrigerants. Managing leaks and disposal of these chemicals can avoid emissions in buildings and landfills.” – Drawdown

In 2010, the Deepwater Horizon oil rig sank in the Gulf of Mexico, making it one of the most environmentally damaging oil spills in history. The spill covered over 43,300 square miles. It killed and harmed dolphins, sea turtles, fish, and a variety of organisms ( source ).

The environmental problems associated with oil have many layers. Not only does an oil spill kill wildlife and fishing industries, but oil is also a fossil fuel that contributes to climate change. Although oil is a necessary source of energy in every developed and developing country today, it comes with dire environmental problems.

## Wasted natural resources

267.8 million tons of municipal solid waste went to landfills instead of being recycled, upcycled, composted, or used for something else in 2017, according to the EPA . That’s a lot of wasted natural resources that originally came from nature, in one form or another. In a circular economy , these natural resources would not be wasted. Instead, they could be upcycled, recycled, or used to regenerate other materials.

## Plastic pollution

You’ve probably seen images of marine life drowning in plastic pollution. Maybe you’re aware of the Great Pacific Garbage Patch which is about twice the size of Texas. The people and countries with the highest income generate the most plastic waste. That’s because we can afford to buy more stuff wrapped in plastic.

Plastic pollution is a major environmental problem. Plastic comes from fossil fuels, which we need to phase out, so using less plastic is important. But ultimately solving the problem of plastic pollution may come down to improving waste management technology and creating a more circular economy for plastics.

Related: The world’s plastic pollution crisis explained

Food waste[cm_simple_footnote id=2] is a big environmental problem. Up to 40% of food is wasted from farm to fork to landfill according to the National Resources Defense Council . There’s a lot of media coverage about how diet is related to the environment. But the majority of that coverage has to do with how individuals should eat, not how agriculture and waste management services should improve.

Instead of focusing on how individuals should change their eating habits (which is so darned hard) the answers just might lie in improving technology and holding companies to higher environmental standards. This leads me to deforestation, which is closely related to agriculture.

## Deforestation

Deforestation is linked to many environmental problems, and the biggest problem is agriculture according to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United States .

Agri-businesses should meet their commitments to deforestation-free commodity chains and companies that have not made zero deforestation commitments should do so. Commodity investors should adopt business models that are environmentally and socially responsible. These actions will, in many cases, require a revision of current policies and financial incentives. – Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

Related: Can planting billions of trees save the planet?

## Ocean acidification

Ocean acidification is one of the main problems associated with climate change. It doesn’t get as much attention as other environmental problems, but it can have a major impact on ocean ecosystems.

The ocean absorbs about 30% of the carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) that is released in the atmosphere. As levels of atmospheric CO 2  increase from human activity such as burning fossil fuels (e.g., car emissions) and changing land use (e.g., deforestation), the amount of carbon dioxide absorbed by the ocean also increases.  When CO 2  is absorbed by seawater, a series of chemical reactions occur resulting in the increased concentration of hydrogen ions. This process has far reaching implications for the ocean and the creatures that live there. – National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

## 10 environmental solutions

Now that you understand the environmental problems we face today, it’s time to understand the potential environmental solutions. I say potential solutions because the cause and effect from environmental problem to environmental solution is complex. There’s a word for this, it’s called dynamic complexity.

The below environmental solutions have the potential to solve different problems within a complex, dynamic, and interconnected system. But there is no magic bullet for environmental problems. So I encourage anyone interested in environmental solutions to think big-picture. Each solution is simply one piece of a giant puzzle. Again, look for progress rather than perfection.

Related: Climate solutions 101 by Project Drawdown

• UN Sustainable Development Goals

The UN Sustainable Development Goals offer the best possible framework for dealing with most of the problems listed above. These are the 17 goals that almost all countries have agreed to.

• Zero hunger
• Good health and well-being
• Quality education
• Gender equality
• Clean water and sanitation

## Affordable and clean energy

• Decent work and economic growth
• Industry, innovation, and infrastructure
• Reduced inequality
• Sustainable cities and communities
• Responsible consumption and production
• Climate action
• Life below water
• Life on Land
• Peace, justice, and strong institutions
• Partnerships and Goals

## Green innovation

Green innovation may be the most important environmental solution. People around the world are working on new technologies and solutions that could revolutionize the way we look at energy and waste. We haven’t scratched the surface yet on how humanity will solve these problems. But there’s no time to waste, and we need governments and companies to invest in research and development.

One step is to lay the foundation for innovation by drastically increasing government funding for research on clean energy solutions. Right now, the world spends only a few billion dollars a year on researching early-stage ideas for zero-carbon energy. It should be investing two or three times that much.” – Bill Gates

Read: We need clean-energy innovation and lots of it

There are several different forms of clean and renewable energy. Solar, wind, and hydro energy are considered renewable energy sources. Nuclear energy, a non-renewable source of energy that contributes little to climate change, is an example of clean energy.

## Electrify everything

How to make energy clean and affordable for everyone is not an easy solution to implement. However, the phrase “electrify everything” is a concept that’s fairly easy to understand. Here’s a paragraph that helped me understand how we can truly get clean and affordable energy for everyone on the planet.

“We know, or at least have a pretty good idea, how to get electricity down to zero carbon. There are options: wind, solar, nuclear, hydro, geothermal, and coal or natural gas with carbon capture and sequestration (CCS). There are plenty of disagreements about exactly what mix of those sources will be needed to get us to a carbon-free grid, and what mix of centralized versus distributed resources, and what mix of supply-side versus demand-side solutions — but there’s broad consensus that pathways to fully clean electricity exist.” – The key to tackling climate change: electrify everything by David Roberts for Vox

Related: The Rewiring America Handbook : A Guide to Winning the Climate Fight.

## Carbon taxes

You may have read statements from economists like former Federal Reserve Chairmen Ben Bernanke, Alan Greenspan, Janet Yellen, and Paul Volcker in support of a carbon tax. That’s because pollution and emissions are considered negative externalities.

By correcting a well-known market failure, a carbon tax will send a powerful price signal that harnesses the invisible hand of the marketplace to steer economic actors towards a low-carbon future.” – Statement by economists posted in the Wall Street Journal

Related: Why Put a Price on Carbon? by the Citizens’ Climate Lobby

## Conservation of natural resources

Conserving the natural resources we already have is one important environmental solution. The strategies below help individuals and companies conserve resources:

• Zero waste – Zero-waste is a way for individuals to reduce their own environmental impact by contributing less to landfills by using reusable containers and less plastic.
• Circular economy – “A circular economy is based on the principles of designing out waste and pollution, keeping products and materials in use, and regenerating natural systems,” according to the Ellen MacArthur Foundation.
• Sustainable living – Sustainable living is a general term used to describe lifestyle choices that contribute less to environmental problems.
• Upcycling – Creating a product of higher value from a product or material that would otherwise be thrown away. The clothes and accessories made by ZeroWasteDaniel.com is an excellent example of upcycling.
• Dematerialization – Designing products to use less materials while still creating the same value for the customer. This reduces shipping, natural resources, waste and pollution. A good example of dematerialization is TruEarth’s eco-strips laundry detergent.

## Carbon capture and sequestration

Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) removes carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and stores it in the soil, trees, plants, or underground. CCS is considered one way to mitigate climate change.

The simplest way to capture carbon is through photosynthesis. Trees and plants take atmospheric carbon dioxide and store that carbon in healthy soil and plants using photosynthesis. But there are more high-tech ways to capture and sequester carbon as well. One way is through geoengineering.

Geoengineering is the deliberate large-scale intervention in the Earth’s natural systems to counteract climate change. – Oxford Geoengineering Program

There are also companies that will sequester carbon for you.

Some businesses, like Patagonia, Interface, and IKEA, have built sustainability and resilience into the core of their companies. Others have fought against sustainability by lawyering up, using loopholes, and lying about the damage their businesses create. If we want environmental solutions, we need to support companies with sustainable business models that support progress. If you’re interested in learning more about what businesses and consumers can do, here are a few places to start:

• Doughnut Economics: Seven Ways to Think Like a 21st-Century Economist
• Genuine progress indicator
• Environmental, social, and governance (ESG) investing
• Dow Jones Sustainability Index
• Green bonds

## Improved food production

The environmental problems associated with food production get a lot of attention in the media. Some environmentalists and journalists advocate for plant-based diets and veganism as a solution to the problems associated with food. Changing our eating habits may have a small impact on the environment, but there’s a much larger movement underfoot lead by farmers and entrepreneurs. Below is a shortlist of potential environmental solutions to problems associated with food production and water shortages:

• Regenerative agriculture
• Lab-grown meat
• Plant-based meat
• Verticle farms
• Precision agriculture
• Anaerobic digestion
• Water desalination

## Sustainable homes

Our homes use a lot of energy to run our dishwashers, washer and dryers, and HVAC systems. And let’s not forget about all the energy we use charging our computers and watching TV. It adds up. But instead of turning off our devices, it’s possible to build more efficient homes that waste less energy and use cleaner energy sources. Although we have a long way toward making most homes sustainable, here are a few environmental solutions related to homes.

• Net Zero homes
• Home electrification
• Living Buildings
• LEED-certified buildings
• Energy star appliances

Read: The ultimate guide to solar homes

## Environmental frameworks and certifications

As mentioned earlier, the UN Sustainable Development Goals offer a framework for solving most environmental problems. If you’re interested in learning more about the environmental movement, here are a few places to start.

• Future Fit Business – Free tools to help businesses and investors make better decisions.
• The Natural Step (TNS)

If you’re interested in buying better products, consider looking for products with these certifications.

• B Corporation
• Design for the environment
• EWG verified

## 1 thought on “10 Environmental Problems and Solutions”

Wow this a great work. I have learned a lot. At least I can solve some environmental problems and encourage sustainable environmental conservation.

## 10 ways to protect our health and the environment

• 13th September 2019

## Preventing environmental pollution can save lives. There is clear scientific evidence on how environmental, chemical and air pollution as well as climate change threaten and impact our health. Europe has a real opportunity to protect and improve Europeans’ health and prevent major chronic health epidemics – here are ten ways how.

1. A healthy planet for healthy people Preventing environmental pollution can save lives and reduce the toll of diseases. EU laws can reduce environmental pollution.

Find out more:

• Zero pollution: Beat pollution today, prevent disease tomorrow, for everyone
• High level panel: Why urgent action on the EU’s Zero Pollution ambition matters for health – voices from communities and vulnerable groups

2. Protection of the most vulnerable A polluted environment is most dangerous for children, older people, those already sick and people living in poverty.

3. Climate action for health

People in every region of the world are increasingly seeing their health affected by the climate emergency.Action to tackle it can provide immediate and significant health benefits to people and the environment.

• Infographic on climate change and health (available in EN, PL, DE, IT, TR)
• Briefing: Just Transition for health protection
• Infographic: Just Transition for health protection
• Report: Chronic Coal pollution Turkey
• Briefing: Chronic coal pollution Turkey: Cumulative health effects
• Report: Chronic coal pollution Western Balkans ( EN ,  SB ,  RO )
• Infographic: Chronic coal pollution Western Balkans
• Briefing: The health perspective of wood-burning in the Western Balkans region

4. An EDC-free future Everyday exposure to hormone disrupting chemicals contributes to modern health epidemics like breast cancer and prostate cancer, obesity and diabetes as well as infertility and learning disorders.

• Infographic: 10 tips to avoid endocrine disruptors in and around your home (in collaboration with Mutualités Libres / Onafhankelijke Ziekenfondsen)
• Infographic: Under the Label – The story behind chemicals in cosmetics (in collaboration with Tegengif / Erase all Toxins)
• Infographic: How Europe can prevent cancer by tackling environmental pollutants (in collaboration with the European Cancer Leagues)
• I nfographic on why low dose exposure matters (available in  EN ,  FR ,  PT ,  ES ,  NL )
• FREIA research project: How can EDCs affect female reproductive health?
• EDC-Free Europe campaign website (available in  EN –  DE  –  NL  –  SE  –  DK  –  ES  –  FR )

5. Clean up the air we breathe Air pollution is the number one environmental threat to health in Europe, leading to 400,000 early deaths each year.

• HEAL 10 demands for a clean air for health transition, 2021-2030
• Infographic: Why clean air standards have to be health-based
• Infographic: Walking and cycling
• Campaign: Our healthy city of tomorrow (EN, PL, DE, ES, PT, FR)

6. Stop pesticides to promote health Pesticides in our food, water and air can increase the risk of cancer and infertility, harm children’s healthy development and disrupt our hormonal systems.

• Campaign page: Why the EU needs to ban glyphosate to protect health
• Infographic: Europe needs to ban glyphosate to protect farmers, our health and the environment
• Joint statement: The EU Commission must do better to transition away from synthetic pesticides
• Infographic: Ban the toxic pesticide chlorpyrifos from our plates (available in EN , FR , ES )
• Factsheet: EU should ban brain-harming chlorpyrifos to protect health (available in  EN ,  FR ,  ES )
• Video: Chlorpyrifos – Let’s get rid of this dangerous pesticide (available in EN , FR , ES , DE )

7. Healthy, renewable and efficient energy Burning coal for energy production is the most polluting form of power generation and we pay for it with our health and our healthcare budgets.

• HEAL  campaign page on prescription for a healthy energy future
• Healthy Energy briefing ( EN , DE,  PL ,  CZ )
• Lignite coal – Health effects and recommendations from the health sector ( EN ,  TK ,  DE )

8. A toxic-free future 75% of chemicals produced in the EU are hazardous to health.

• Factsheet: How Europe can lead the way to a non-toxic environment ( EN ,  FR ,  NL )
• Campaign page: The chemicals in food contact materials are putting our health at risk
• Campaign page: The “forever chemicals” that are harming our helath: PFAS
• Infographic: 10 tips to avoid toxic chemicals during and after pregnancy (in collaboration with the Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics – FIGO and the University of California – San Francisco)
• Infographic: Under The Label – The story behind chemicals in cosmetics (in collaboration with Tegengif / Erase All Toxins)
• Infographic: Harmful chemicals in food packaging are putting our health at risk (in collaboration with BEUC, CHEM Trust, ClientEarth and Zero Waste Europe)
• Infographic: How PFAS chemicals affect women, pregnancy and human development (in collaboration with the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics – FIGO and the University of California in San Francisco – UCSF)

9. Healthy mobility Fossil fuelled cars, buses and trucks are noisy, pollute the air and threaten our health.

• HEAL  project on healthy transport in Germany
• Healthy air, healthier children: 50 schools across the EU monitor air quality

10. A safe and toxic-free environment

• Turning the plastic tide: the chemicals in plastic that put our health at risk
• Infographic: Harmful chemicals in food packaging hamper the circular economy
• Infographic: Under The Label – The story behind chemicals in cosmetics
• Infographic: Harmful chemicals in food packaging are putting our health at risk
• Toxic Loophole – how hazardous waste is recycled into new products (available in  EN ,  NL ,  FR ,  DE )
• Detoxing Carpets – Pathways towards safe and recyclable carpet in a truly circular economy (available in  EN ,  NL ,  FR ,  DE )
• Toxic chemicals found in carpets sold by major European manufacturers (available in  EN ,  FR ,  DE ,  NL )
• Infographic: the European Carpet Market (available in  EN ,  FR ,  NL ,  DE )
• Infographic: What are the health impacts of toxic chemicals possibly present in carpets? (available in  EN ,  FR ,  NL ,  DE )
• Infographic: Toxic chemicals detected in carpets and their potential health impacts
• Video: Toxic chemicals found in carpets sold by major European manufacturers

## Het voorkomen van milieuvervuiling kan levens redden. Er is duidelijk wetenschappelijk bewijs over hoe milieu-, chemische en luchtvervuiling en klimaatverandering onze gezondheid kan bedreigen en beïnvloeden. De Europese Unie heeft een unieke kans om gezondheidsepidemieën te voorkomen. Hier zijn tien manieren om de gezondheid van Europeanen te beschermen en te verbeteren!

1. Een gezonde planeet voor gezonde mensen Het voorkomen van milieuvervuiling kan levens redden en het aantal ziektes verminderen. EU-wetgeving kan deze vervuiling verminderen en ziektes voorkomen.

2. Bescherm de meest kwetsbaren in de samenleving Milieuvervuiling is het gevaarlijkst voor kinderen, oudere mensen, mensen die al ziek zijn en mensen die in armoede leven.

3. Klimaatactie en de bescherming van onze gezondheid Klimaatverandering is de grootste bedreiging voor onze gezondheid van de 21ste eeuw. Actie om dit aan te pakken kan onmiddelijke en aanzienelijke voordelen opleveren.

Meer informatie:

• Infographic on climate change and health
• Health groups call for greater EU leadership in tackling climate change

4. Een EDC-vrije toekomst Onze dagelijkse blootstelling aan hormoonverstorende stoffen draagt bij aan hedendaagse gezondheidsepidemieën zoals borst- en prostaatkanker, obesitas en diabetes, onvruchtbaarheid en leerstoornissen.

5. Schonere lucht in onze steden en gebouwen Luchtvervuiling is de belangrijkste bedreiging voor onze gezondheid in Europa, die elk jaar tot 400,000 vroegtijdige sterfgevallen leidt.

• Infographic on clean air for health (available in  EN ,  DE )
• HEAL briefing on healthy buildings

6. Stop het gebruik van giftige pesticiden in voeding en bescherm onze gezondheid Pesticiden in ons eten, water en lucht kunnen het risico op kanker en onvruchtbaarheid verhogen, de gezonde ontwikkeling van kinderen schaden en onze hormonen verstoren.

• Petition to ban chlorpyrifos (available in  EN ,  FR ,  DE , ES)

7. Gezonde en duurzame energie Het verbranden van steenkool is de meest vervuilende vorm van energieopwekking. We betalen hiervoor met onze gezondheid en zorguitgaven.

• HEAL  campaign on healthy energy
• Chronic coal pollution – EU action on the Western Balkans will improve health and economies across Europe ( EN ,  SB ,  RO )

8. Een toekomst zonder giftige stoffen 75% van de chemicaliën geproduceerd in de EU zijn gevaarlijk voor onze gezondheid.

9. Gezonde mobiliteit Auto’s, bussen en vrachtwagens die rijden op fossiele brandstoffen maken lawaai, vervuilen de lucht en bedreigen onze gezondheid.

10. Een veilige circulaire economie zonder giftige stoffen In de EU wordt nieuw plastic speelgoed geproduceerd onder strengere normen dan gerecycleerd plastic speelgoed.

## Prévenir la pollution de l’environnement peut sauver des vies. Il existe des données scientifiques claires sur la façon dont pollution environnementale, chimique atmosphérique ou encore le changement climatique menacent et impactent notre santé. L’Europe a une réelle opportunité de protéger et d’améliorer la santé des Européens et de prévenir les grandes épidémies de maladies chroniques – voici dix façons de procéder.

1. Agissez pour une planète et des personnes en bonne santé Prévenir la pollution de l’environnement peut sauver des vies et réduire le nombre de maladies. Les lois européennes peuvent réduire la pollution de l’environnement et prévenir les maladies.

2. Agissez pour protéger les plus vulnérables Un environnement pollué est particulièrement dangereux pour les enfants, les personnes âgées, les personnes déjà malades et les personnes vivant dans la pauvreté.

3. Agissez pour assurer la lutte contre le changement climatique et la protection de la santé Le changement climatique est la plus grande menace sanitaire du 21ème siècle, mais des mesures pour y faire face peuvent apporter des bénéfices immédiats et significatifs pour la santé.

4. Agissez pour éliminer les pesticides toxiques de nos aliments et protéger notre santé L’exposition quotidienne aux perturbateurs endocriniens contribue aux épidémies modernes telles que le cancer du sein et de la prostate, l’obésité et le diabète, ainsi que la stérilité et les troubles de l’apprentissage.

5. Agissez pour purifier l’air que nous respirons dans nos villes et nos bâtiments La pollution de l’air est la principale menace environnementale pour la santé en Europe et entraîne 400 000 décès prématurés chaque année.

6. Agissez pour éliminer les pesticides toxiques de nos aliments et protéger notre santé Les pesticides présents dans nos aliments, notre eau et notre air peuvent augmenter les risques de cancer et d’infertilité, nuire au bon développement des enfants et perturber le système hormonal.

7. Agissez pour une énergie saine et pour mettre fin à la dépendance au charbon La combustion du charbon pour la production d’énergie est la forme de production d’électricité la plus polluante et nous le payons de notre santé et aux dépens de la sécurité sociale.

8. Agissez pour un avenir sans toxique 75% des produits chimiques fabriqués dans l’UE sont dangereux pour la santé.

9. Agissez pour une mobilité saine Les voitures, les autobus et les camions alimentés par des combustibles fossiles sont bruyants, polluent l’air et menacent notre santé.

10. Agissez pour exiger des produits de consommation sûrs et exempts de produits chimiques toxiques Dans l’UE, les nouveaux jouets en plastique sont fabriqués selon des normes plus strictes que les jouets recyclés.

## Die Vermeidung von Umweltverschmutzung kann Leben retten. Es ist eindeutig wissenschaftlich bewiesen, dass Umwelt-, Chemikalien-, Luftverschmutzung und der Klimawandel unsere Gesundheit bedrohen und beeinflussen. Europa hat eine echte Chance, die Gesundheit der Europäer zu schützen und zu verbessern und schwere chronische Gesundheitsepidemien zu verhindern – hier sind zehn Ideen.

1. Handle jetzt für einen gesunden Planeten und gesunde Menschen Die Verhinderung von Umweltverschmutzung kann Leben retten und die Zahl von Krankheitsfällen senken. EU-Gesetze können Umweltverschmutzung reduzieren und Krankheiten verhindern.

2. Handle jetzt, um die stärksten gefährdeten Personen zu schützen Eine verschmutzte Umwelt ist besonders gefährlich für Kinder, ältere Menschen, Kranke und in Armut lebende Menschen.

3. Handle jetzt, um sofortigen Klimaschutz und Gesundheitsschutz sicherzustellen Der Klimawandel ist die größte gesundheitliche Bedrohung des 21. Jahrhunderts, aber Klimaschutz kann unmittelbare und erhebliche gesundheitliche Vorteile bringen.

4. Hilf Eine EDC-freie Zukunft aufzubauen Die tägliche Einwirkung von hormonstörenden Chemikalien trägt zu modernen Epidemien wie Brust- und Prostatakrebs, Fettleibigkeit und Diabetes sowie Unfruchtbarkeit und Lernstörungen bei.

5. Handle jetzt für saubere Luft in unseren Städten und Gebäuden Luftverschmutzung ist in Europa die gesundheitsschädlichste Umweltbedrohung und führt jedes Jahr zu 400.000 vorzeitigen Todesfällen.

6. Handle jetzt um giftige Pestizide von unseren Lebensmitteln fernzuhalten und unsere Gesundheit zu schützen Pestizide in Lebensmitteln, Wasser und Luft können das Risiko für Krebs und Unfruchtbarkeit erhöhen, die gesunde Entwicklung von Kindern beeinträchtigen und unser Hormonsystem stören.

7. Handle jetzt für gesunde Energie Kohleverbrennung zur Energieerzeugung ist die schmutzigste Form der Stromerzeugung, und wir bezahlen dafür – mit unserer Gesundheit und unseren Versicherungsbeiträgen.

8. Eine giftfreie Zukunft 75% der in der EU hergestellten Chemikalien sind gesundheitsgefährdend.

9. Gesunde Mobilität Autos, Busse und Lastwagen mit fossilem Treibstoff sind laut, verschmutzen die Luft und gefährden unsere Gesundheit.

10. Handle jetzt für Verbraucherprodukte, die sicher und frei von giftigen Chemikalien sind In der EU werden neue Plastikspielzeuge nach strengeren Standards hergestellt als recycelte.

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## Environmental Issues

Climate change, global warming, ozone layer depletion, water pollution, air pollution, solid waste management, deforestation, overpopulation, solutions to environmental issues.

An environment is generally defined as the surroundings or conditions in which a person, animal or plant survives or operates. From this, it must be relatively easy for one to comprehend its importance in the famed cycle of life.

Our environment is constantly changing, and as our environment changes so does the need to become increasingly aware of the environmental issues that are causing these changes. With a massive increase in natural disasters, warming and cooling periods, and different types of weather patterns, people need to be a lot more cautious with the way they lead their lives in conjunction with the types of environmental issues our planet is facing.

Environmental issues are the harmful effects of human activities on the environment. These include pollution, overpopulation, waste disposal, climate change, global warming, the greenhouse effect, etc.

Various environment protection programs are being practised at the individual, organizational and government levels with the aim of establishing a balance between man and the environment.

Some of the current environmental issues that require urgent attention are:

Climate change is a great concern in today’s scenario. This problem has surfaced in the last few decades. Greenhouse gases are the major cause of climate change. Environmental changes have several destructive impacts such as the melting of glaciers, change in seasons, epidemics, etc.

The burning of fossil fuels, emissions from automobiles and chlorofluorocarbons add to the greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. This has led to an increase in the earth’s temperature causing environmental changes. This increase in temperature across the globe is known as global warming .

The ozone layer is a layer of concentrated ozone gas. It protects us from the sun’s harmful ultraviolet rays. This very important layer is being destroyed by CFCs (chlorofluorocarbons), which are used in industries and everyday life (e.g. aerosol cans).

The chlorine in these compounds destroys the ozone layer. The hole in the ozone layer leaves humans and wildlife exposed to harmful UV rays resulting in several skin diseases including cancer.

The introduction of harmful substances into rivers, oceans, lakes and ponds, which changes the physical, chemical or biological condition of the water is called water pollution. The polluted water lacks oxygen and therefore the organisms die.

Water is the main source of life and therefore it is our prime duty to prevent it from any kind of pollution.

Air pollution is the result of emissions from industries, automobiles, and the increasing use of fossil fuels. The gaseous emissions have added to an increase in the temperature of the earth. Not only this, but it had also increased the risk of diseases among individuals.

Solid-waste management is defined as the discipline associated with the generation, storage, collection, transfer and transport, processing, and disposal of solid waste in a manner that it does not have a harmful effect on the environment.

Deforestation is the depletion of trees and forests at an alarming rate. The trees provide us with oxygen, and several raw materials and also maintain the temperature of the earth. Due to the depletion of trees for commercial purposes, there has been a drastic change in the earth’s climate.

Forests are an abode to a large number of wild animals and plants. Destruction of forests has led to the elimination of a large number of plants and animal species affecting biodiversity.

The earth’s population is increasing drastically. It is estimated to be more than seven billion. The increasing population has led to a shortage of resources. If this continues, it will be very difficult to sustain such a huge population. The other environmental issues including pollution, waste management, deforestation, climate change and global warming are all associated with overpopulation.

Following are some of the most common solutions to the environmental issue:

• Replace disposal items with reusable items.
• The use of paper should be avoided.
• Conserve water and electricity.
• Support environmental friendly practices.
• Recycle waste to conserve natural resources.

Environmental issues are a warning of the upcoming disaster. If these issues are not controlled, there will soon be no life on earth.

Also Read:  Water Pollution and its Control

Define pollution., define pollutants., name two diseases caused by air pollution, water pollution and noise pollution..

Diseases caused due to air pollution, water pollution and noise pollution are following:

• Air Pollution: Asthma and lung cancer
• Water Pollution: Diarrhea and cholera
• Noise Pollution: Hearing problems and Hypertension

## Define the ozone layer. Why is the ozone layer getting depleted at a higher level of the atmosphere?

What are the consequences of deforestation.

Put your understanding of this concept to test by answering a few MCQs. Click ‘Start Quiz’ to begin!

Select the correct answer and click on the “Finish” button Check your score and answers at the end of the quiz

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## Environmental Issues and Solutions

Environmental issues happen due to disturbances in the normal functioning of the ecosystem. Current environmental issues may include climate change, pollution, environmental degradation, and resource depletion. These types of environmental-related issues can occur either due to human causes or can be natural. They can vary in dimension from local, regional, to global levels. Environmental issues can be addressed by promoting green innovations, reducing, reusing, and recycling things, conserving water and electricity, avoiding single-use plastic, and recycling waste to conserve natural resources.

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## What are Environment Issues?

Types of environmental issues, environmental challenges, solution to environmental issues.

Environment plays an important role in supporting life on the earth. But with the increase in the population, the demand for food, clothing, fuel, housing, etc., has also increased. This increased demand has exerted tremendous pressure on natural resources and has led to environmental pollution, depletion of resources, loss of biodiversity, etc. These environmental issues are affecting the natural balance of the ecosystem.

Another term for environment issues is environment degradation. Environmental degradation  is the deterioration of the environment through depletion of resources such as quality of air, water and soil; the destruction of ecosystems; habitat destruction; the extinction of wildlife; and pollution. Addressing these issues requires global efforts to mitigate their impact and protect the environment for future generations.

There are several types of environmental issues that impact the planet’s ecosystems and natural resources. Different current environment issues are as follows:

Pollution is defined as any undesirable change in physical, chemical, or biological characteristics of air, land, water, or soil. Agents that cause such undesirable changes are called a pollutant​​ . Various types of pollution are:

• Air pollution : It is the contamination of air with harmful gases, dust, and smoke. The major cause of air pollution is the burning of fossil fuel, automobile, industries, smelters, etc. Air pollution has a deleterious effect on human health, reduces crop yield, and cause premature death of plants.
• Water pollution : It is the contamination of water bodies, like lakes, rivers, and oceans, with harmful products. The factors responsible for water pollution are agriculture runoff, fertilizers, urbanization, industrial waste, etc.

The other type of pollution can be soil pollution, noise pollution, radioactive pollution, etc.

## Solid Waste Mangement

Solid waste is known as trash or garbage. It includes waste from the home, offices, hospitals, stores, etc. It usually consists of paper, food wastes, plastics, glass, metals, rubber, leather, textile, etc. The waste is either burnt to reduce its volume or is dumped in sanitary landfills.

Solid waste management involves the collection, disposal, and recycling of various non-liquid materials, such as paper, plastics, and organic waste, to minimize environmental impacts and promote sustainability. Proper management reduces pollution, conserves resources, and mitigates health and environmental hazards.

## Agro-Chemicals

Agro-chemicals, including pesticides and fertilizers, pose significant environmental issues. Their runoff into water bodies can result in water pollution, impacting aquatic ecosystems and human health. Overuse of the chemicals can lead to nutrient imbalances, soil degradation and the loss of beneficial organisms. They disrupt ecosystem and can harm non-target species. These chemicals can lead to greenhouse gas emissions, that lead to climate change. Addressing these concerns requires sustainable agricultural practices and reduced chemical use.

## Global Warming and Greenhouse Effect

Global warming is defined as the rise in the surface temperature of the earth. The main factor responsible for global warming is the increase in the level of greenhouse gases , which has led to considerable heating of the earth. This phenomenon of heating of the earth’s surface and atmosphere is known as the greenhouse effect. The greenhouse gases are released from automobile emissions, industries, fossil fuels, etc.

Radioactive waste, generated by nuclear power plants and various industrial processes, form a major environmental issue. It can lead to contamination of soil and groundwater, posing long-term health risks to both humans and ecosystems due to Improper storage and disposal. The management of radioactive waste is complex, as it remains hazardous for thousands of years. Safe storage and disposal solutions are essential to prevent environmental damage and potential catastrophic events like nuclear accidents or leakage. Public awareness and strict regulations are important in addressing this environmental concern.

## Ozone Depletion in the Stratosphere

The ozone layer in the upper part of the atmosphere absorbs harmful UV radiation from the sun. There is a balance between production and degradation of ozone in the stratosphere. The balance has been disrupted by the increased use of chlorofluorocarbon(CFC), which degrades the ozone layer. This has resulted in the formation of an ozone hole that allows UV radiation to pass through it. UV radiation can cause the aging of the skin, skin cancer, cataract, mutation of DNA, etc

## Degradation by Improper Resource Utilisation and Maintenance

Degradation of natural resources can occur due to improper resource utilization.

• Soil erosion and desertification: Over-cultivation, deforestation, unrestricted grazing, and poor irrigation practice has led to arid patches of land. When these arid patches meet over time, a desert is formed. The problem has increased nowadays due to urbanization.
• Water logging and soil salinity: With the green revolution the practice of irrigation increased, which has led to the problem of waterlogging and deposition of salt crystals on the surface. Water logging and soil salinity both affect crop yield.

## Deforestation

Deforestation is the conversion of forested areas to non-forested ones. The growing human population has led to an increase in the conversion of forest land to agricultural land. It results in habitat loss, threatening countless species and biodiversity. Moreover, it contributes to climate change, as forests act as carbon sinks. Soil erosion and disruptions in water cycles are also consequences of deforestation, impacting local and global ecosystems. Sustainable forestry practices and reforestation efforts are essential to mitigate these environmental challenges and preserve the world’s forests.

Environmental challenges are issues that have significant threats to the well-being of the planet and its ecosystems. The various challenges are:

• The release of harmful substances into the environment, such as air pollution from industrial emissions and vehicle exhaust, water pollution from industrial and agricultural runoff, and plastic pollution in oceans.
• Overpopulation is one of the important environmental issue, as the world’s population has tripled in the past six decades. This strains the environment due to increased food demand, land development and urbanization.
• Due to greenhouse gas emissions the Earth’s climate is increasing, leading to extreme weather events, and sea-level rise.
• Due to pollution, habitat destruction, over-exploitation, and the introduction of invasive species, there is rapis extinction of the species.
• The large-scale removal of forests for agriculture, logging, and urban development, leading to habitat loss, reduced carbon storage, and changes in local and global climates.
• The thinning of the ozone layer due to the release of ozone-depleting substances, which can result in increased exposure to harmful UV radiation.
• The improper disposal and accumulation of solid and hazardous waste, which can lead to pollution and health hazards.
• The strain on resources and ecosystems resulting from a growing global population, leading to increased demand for food, water, and energy.

Environmental issues are a matter of concern these days. People are becoming aware of the implication of environmental degradation in our daily life. It has become important to check the degradation and depletion of natural resources and pollution, but without halting the process of development. The following are the possible solution for the environmental issues:

• Avoid single-use plastic
• Promoting clean and affordable energy
• Go for sustainable agriculture
• Reduce food waste
• Plant more trees and go paperless
• Promote green innovations
• Conserve water and electricity
• Use reusable products instead of disposable ones
• Recycle the waste to conserve the natural resources
• Support local and environment-friendly practices

## FAQs on Environmental Issues and Solutions

1. what are the major environmental problems explain.

Some of the major environmental issue includes water pollution, air pollution, poor management of waste, growing water scarcity, lowering groundwater tables, decrease in forest cover, biodiversity loss, and land/soil degradation.

## 2. Define Pollution.

Pollution is the introduction of harmful contaminants or substances into the environment. It cause adverse effects on natural resources, living organisms, and ecosystems. It can cause various form of pollution including air, water, soil, and noise pollution.

## 3. Define Pollutants.

Pollutants is a chemical or biological substance which harms water, air, or land quality. These can be both naturally forming or due to human activity.

## 4. Name two Diseases caused by air pollution, water pollution and noise pollution.

Diseases caused due to air pollution, water pollution and noise pollution are as follows: Air Pollution: Asthma, COPD, and lung cancer Water Pollution: Diarrhea, Typhoid and cholera Noise Pollution: Deafness, and Hypertension

## 5. Define the Ozone Layer. Why is the Ozone Layer getting depleted at a higher level of the atmosphere?

The ozone layer is a layer present in the stratosphere with a high concentration of ozone (O3). It absorbs and blocks harmful ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun. It is depleting at higher levels due to human-made chemicals, primarily chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), which break down ozone molecules in the stratosphere.

## 6. What are the Consequences of Deforestation?

Deforestation is large-scale removal of trees from forests. It leads to habitat loss, reduces biodiversity and contributes to climate change. It also results in soil erosion, disrupted water cycles, and potential long-term environmental and ecological imbalances.

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## Solutions for the Environmental Health of Communities

Clean Power Plan Community Page This website provides resources to help inform overburdened communities about the final Clean Power Plan and the proposed Federal Plan Requirements for Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Electric Utility Generating Units Constructed on or Before January 8, 2014; Modeling Rules.

Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy in Low-Income Communities Energy efficiency and renewable energy provide multiple benefits to low-income communities, including cost savings, job creation, improved air quality, and healthier homes. This webpage provides resources for state and local governments and other organizations implementing energy efficiency and renewable energy programs to help them overcome barriers that often prevent effective delivery of such programs to low-income communities.

Environmental Justice Environmental Justice is the fair treatment and meaningful involvement of all people regardless of race, color, national origin, or income with respect to the development, implementation, and enforcement of environmental laws, regulations, and policies. EPA has this goal for all communities and persons across this Nation.

Environmental Justice (EJ) Legal Tools Identifies key legal authorities for EPA policy makers to consider in advancing environmental justice.

Environmental Solutions Resources for the Aging Order or download easy-to-read fact sheets regarding environmental hazards that can affect chronic health conditions such as asthma, COPD, heart disease or diabetes for caregivers and family members.  The factsheets are filled with information that can be easily implemented to protect one’s health.  The factsheets are available in 17 languages including Spanish, Chinese, Korean and Vietnamese.  To download a PDF, choose your language and then click on "View Aging Factsheets".

Healthy Schools Comprehensive schools website offers all the resources needed to establish, maintain or enhance a school environmental health program.

Improving Air Quality in Your Community Communities are essential to protecting our environment and improving public health. EPA is committed to finding ways to help build the capacity of communities to improve their quality of life. This Web site presents ideas on what communities can do to improve local air quality.

In Your Community Provides an overview of resources for understanding and addressing environmental issues at the local level.

Resilience and Adaptation in New England - Explore Common Subjects The Resilience and Adaptation in New England (RAINE) database is a collection of vulnerability, resilience and adaptation reports, plans and webpages at the state, regional and community level. While the information was collected from the New England area, many of the solutions can be used by similar entities in different regions of the country.

Sustainability Checklist Use this tool from the EPA CARE program to help your community work toward long-term sustainability.

Urban Waters Program Urban waters work supports a positive cycle that begins with connection to water, which builds community engagement, leading to water quality improvement and revitalization.

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## Seven top tips to reduce your environmental impact

This year is vitally important for green issues, as highlighted by Antonio Guterres in his sobering speech at COP27. COP15 in December will focus on biodiversity and the global decline in species. It can seem overwhelming, but every small action we take can make a difference.

By Rosemary Horry - 11 November 2022

Now’s the time to think about little changes that can be made to reduce our environmental impact.

## Here’s how you can help:

Tip 1 – watch your energy consumption.

As energy bills increase, it is becoming even more important to use less energy and use it wisely. Here are some things you can do.

Switch those incandescent light bulbs to energy-saving fluorescent ones. Not only will you reduce the amount of power you consume, you’ll also save money on electricity bills. Think about other ways in which you can cut your electricity usage.

Many electronic devices such as chargers for phones and cameras, televisions and computers, continue to draw energy even when in the “off” position. To avoid this phantom power use, unplug such devices, or plug everything into a power strip which you can turn off when not in use. Remember to switch off computer monitors, printers and other equipment at the end of each day.

## Tip 2 – Go vegetarian for a day

With food costs on the rise, you could save money by eating less meat and more vegetables and potatoes. It will help the planet too: recent studies have found that livestock production contributes significantly to greenhouse gas emissions and has other environmental impacts. Why not go vegetarian one day each week?

## Tip 3 – Recycle old technology

The chances are that you’ve got an old phone or laptop lying around. Think about de-cluttering your life and donating your old technology to charity or send them off for recycling.

## Tip 4 – Conserve resources

Water: Only turn the tap on when necessary and make sure you get those dripping taps fixed.

Paper: When you do need to print, make sure that it is on the duplex setting (so it prints on both sides of the paper) and be sure to recycle when you have finished with it. Buy recycled paper but also look for paper that is processed chlorine free (PCF). Chlorine is sometimes used to bleach paper to make it white, however this process is harmful to the environment and to human health. PCF paper is made without this type of chlorine processing and is also made using recycled paper.

Clothes and other goods: Many websites have sprung up where you can sell your own clothes or other possessions and make some money. This also saves resources and means that others can get the benefit from things you no longer need or want. If you don't need to make money from them, you could donate the items to charity shops who are starting to struggle as people increasingly sell their own items.

## Tip 5 – Do some gardening

Swap chemical fertilisers and pesticides for organic substitutes. Chemicals eventually seep into the water table and can affect local wildlife. Try starting a compost bin in your garden to turn organic waste into natural fertiliser. You can also make your garden more animal-friendly by putting up bird feeders and planting pollinator species or fruiting trees.

## Tip 6 – Buy in season and avoid packaging

Choose local food where possible to reduce the distance from ‘producer to plate’, which will lower your environmental impact. Try to eat foods that are in season . They’re often tastier, cheaper and better for the planet.

## Tip 7 – Travel smart

You can reduce your CO2 production by using public transport, car sharing with others or ditching the car for short journeys in favour of cycling or walking.

Find out more about the University of Derby’s environment policies and activities .

For further information contact the Corporate Communications team at [email protected] or call 01332 591891 .

## Rosemary Horry Senior Lecturer in Environmental Management

Rosemary is a Senior Lecturer in Environmental Management. Her current role is within the College of Science and Engineering, in the School of Built and Natural Environmental. She tends to be involved in modules that discuss sustainability and environmental management issues and is currently the Sustainability Lead within the school.

## How to reduce human-caused environmental changes

The diversity on Earth aids the health and quality of human life. It provides the food we eat, the clothes we wear, and the air we breathe. But what do we do to serve the Earth? Human impact makes the environment less able to sustain life due to “human-induced rapid environmental changes.” There is no way to escape the effect we have, but there are ways to lessen it in order to protect the beauty of Earth and the many species that inhabit it.

Biology professor Blaine Griffen shares solutions to the five main drivers of human-induced rapid environmental changes:

1. Overexploitation of resources

Let’s take it back to the basics and reduce, reuse, and recycle. Recycling is the most familiar of the three solutions, but we should turn our focus to the other two to achieve the greatest positive impact. Learn how to reuse everyday items. DIY culture has promoted the ability to repurpose almost anything. Utilize the internet to find out what you can do. Reducing is effective economically and environmentally. One way we can reduce is by being extra cautious about the overexploitation of water. Don’t keep your water running and cut down on lawn sprinkler systems.

2. Habitat destruction

We are part of the ecosystem that we live in, so we must support it. The humans vs. nature predicament has never been a productive one and leads to a destructive mindset. Changing this mindset can lead you to be more mindful and respectful of hiking trails, your camping footprint, and nature in general. We are meant to enjoy the beauty of nature, but we should not feel entitled to abuse it.

3. Invasive species

Invasive species prove their destructive nature by causing extinctions, competing with other species, and reducing diversity in the ecosystems they invade, but they also cost the US economy approximately 120 billion dollars per year. Three easy combative measures we can take against invasive species include, never releasing pets into the environment, cleaning boats after removing them from the water, and planting native species in your yard.

4. Pollution

Whether it is trash, chemicals, or light, the whole Earth suffers from pollution, and, luckily, we can alleviate the problem through simple efforts.

Some solutions include:

• Avoiding excess use of pesticides and fertilizer. Following instructions helps to avoid infecting ground water and causing pollution.
• Picking up litter so it isn’t ingested by animals or infecting waterways.
• Minimizing the use of outside lights.
• Learning to enjoy nature quietly.

5. Climate change

Broad scale problems like climate change aren’t easily solved, but simple efforts make a difference. Consider your modes of transportation, electricity use, and the benefits of buying locally. Making choices that consider the climate change problem are healthy for the planet and you.

We need to abandon the feeling of hopelessness we may feel in regards to environmental problems. We must work together to have the power to make change, otherwise nothing will get better.

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## Three Environmental Issues and Ways to Combat Them

For years now, humans have mistreated and contaminated the very environment that sustains them. But the broad concern for the environment can be so overwhelming that people don’t know what to do or where to start making a difference.

• By Erich Lawson
• Nov 25, 2019

For years now, humans have mistreated and contaminated the very environment that sustains them. But the broad concern for the environment can be so overwhelming that people don’t know what to do or where to start making a difference.

The list of issues surrounding our environment go on, but there are three major ones that affect the majority of them overall: global warming and climate change; water pollution and ocean acidification; and loss of biodiversity. These three issues need immediate attention and proactive action on our part to ensure conservation of the only habitable planet which we call our home. And, focusing attention on these three major topics will have a ripple effect on a number of smaller environmental issues like inefficient recycling systems and food waste.

Let’s look at three major environmental issues and some solutions which can help combat them:

Global Warming and Climate Change Human activities have made global warming and climate change a global threat. The rising levels of CO2 and other greenhouse gases have caused an increase in average global temperatures, extreme weather events, rising sea levels and other negative changes. These changes are directly and indirectly affecting all life forms. Pollution of air, land and water through excessive deforestation, industrialization and overfilling landfills which emits CO2 and adds to greenhouse gas emissions are all topmost causes of these environmental issues. Here are some effective solutions to these problems:

• Invest in and encourage production of sustainable technology
• Commercial and residential buildings should aim to achieve zero-emission or zero-waste
• Improve waste compaction in landfills with smart technology like stationary compactors which helps free up space for other constructive uses. It comes in varying capacities and configurations for handling different volumes of trash
• Increase forest cover, restore sea grasses and boost use of agricultural cover crops to reduce the amount of CO2 in atmosphere.

Water Pollution and Ocean Acidification Rapid urban development, improper sewage disposal by industries, oil spills, disposal of chemical and radioactive wastes, and plastic pollution are some of the major causes of water pollution. Today, water scarcity and polluted water are posing a big threat to the human existence across many nations of the world.

Ocean waters absorb around 30 percent of the carbon dioxide that is released in the atmosphere. Ocean acidification occurs when the CO2 absorbed by the seawater undergoes a series of chemical reactions which leads to increased concentration of hydrogen ions, thus making the seawater more acidic. This decreases the carbonate ions in the seawater which makes it difficult for clams, deep sea corals, oysters etc. to build and maintain their shells and other calcium carbonate structures. These changes in the ocean water chemistry can affect the behavior of other organisms also. This puts the entire ocean food web at risk. Listed below are some measures which can help prevent water pollution and ocean acidification :

• Practice more effective measures to contain spills
• Curtail storm water runoff and plant trees near water bodies to reduce soil erosion
• Expand the network which monitors the measuring of acidity levels to provide researchers and shellfish farmers with long-term and real-time pH data
• Incorporate ocean acidification threats into the coastal zone management plans of states
• Increase marine protection measures

Loss of Biodiversity Biodiversity helps maintain the balance of the ecosystem and provides biological resources which are crucial for our existence. Habitat destruction, climate change, pollution, secondary extinction and introduced species are a few ways in which humans are wreaking havoc on the biodiversity of this planet. Loss of biodiversity can be countered in a number of ways:

• Government should create and implement stricter policies and laws related to conservation of biodiversity
• Stop habitat destruction and encourage its restoration
• Practice sustainable living
• Reduce invasive species
• Research innovative ways to preserve biodiversity and educate the populace about it

Awareness and adaption are two key steps towards conserving this boon called environment. Each one of us can and should do their bit to curb the effects of these environmental issues and ensure that our future generations have a healthy planet to live.

Erich Lawson is very passionate about the environment and is an advocate of effective recycling. He writes on a wide array of topics to inform readers on how modern recycling equipment can be used by industries to reduce monthly wastage bills and increase recycling revenue. You can learn more about environment saving techniques by visiting his blog on Compactor Management Company.

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The UK Faculty of Public Health has recently taken ownership of the Health Knowledge resource. This new, advert-free website is still under development and there may be some issues accessing content. Additionally, the content has not been audited or verified by the Faculty of Public Health as part of an ongoing quality assurance process and as such certain material included maybe out of date. If you have any concerns regarding content you should seek to independently verify this.

## Methods for monitoring and control of environmental hazards (including food and water safety, atmospheric pollution and other toxic hazards, noise, and ionising and electromagnetic radiation) and cluster investigations

Methods for monitoring and control of environmental hazards (including food and water safety, atmospheric pollution and other toxic hazards, noise, and ionising, electromagnetic radiation and cluster investigations

Introduction

The monitoring and control of environmental hazards to health entails a wide range of actions, each tailored to the particular hazard or form of public health concern.  Monitoring implies use of routine measurements to detect changes in the environment or health, and can be based on data from a wide variety of sources.  The control of environmental hazards depends on defining acceptable levels of exposure and hence health risk and determining the levels of control needed to keep exposure below specified thresholds.  Particular issues of control are discussed in relation to food and water safety, atmospheric pollution, noise, and ionising and electromagnetic radiation.  A specific issue of health observation relevant to environmental hazards is the ‘disease cluster’.  Cluster investigations are very controversial, however, and usually not worthwhile, because they are unlikely to lead to any clear insight about the origin of the cluster.

Key definitions and terms

C ontrol of specific environmental hazards

Disease clusters

References (clusters)

• Clusters have Rothman.  A sobering start to the cluster-busters conference. Am J ol Epidemiol 19 90;132:s6-13
• Neutra, R. Counterpoint from a cluster-buster.  Am J Epidemiol. 1990; 132: 1-8.
• Bellec, S. and Hémon, D. (2005) Answering Cluster Investigation Requests: The Value of Simple Simulations and Statistical Tools. European Journal of Epidemiology. August 2005, Volume 20, Issue 8, pp 663-671
• Goodman M., Naiman J.S., Goodman D., LaKind J,S. (2012). Cancer clusters in the USA: What do the last 20 years of state and federal investigations tell us? Critical Reviews in Toxicology. 42(6): 474-490.
• CDC. Guidelines for Investigating Clusters of Health Events. (1990): http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/00001797.htm

Useful websites

DEFRA Air Quality Strategy website: https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/the-air-quality-strategy-for…

National Environmental Public Health Tracking Program (CDC): http://www.cdc.gov/nceh/tracking/

Answering Cluster Investigation Requests: The Value of Simple Simulations and Statistical Tools: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10654-005-7924-xNew Zealand guidance: Investigating Clusters of Non-Communicable Disease: Guidelines for public health units: http://www.health.govt.nz/publication/investigating-clusters-non-communicable-disease-guidelines-public-health-units

Netherlands guidance: in Drijver, M, Busby, A., Kreis, I.A (2013) Cluster investigation chapter, in Essentials of Environmental Epidemiology for Health Protection, A handbook for field professionals, Kreis, I. A, Busby, A., Leonardi, G.S, Meara, J. and Murray, V. chapter 19, pages 199-211.

© Dr Paul Wilkinson 2009, Helen Crabbe and Rebecca Close 2016

[1] WHO set guidelines and limits for drinking water , see http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/dwq/guidelines/en/

Regulated by the Drinking Water Inspectorate in the UK: see http://www.dwi.gov.uk/index.htm

[2] E.g. the European Food Safety Agency: http://www.efsa.europa.eu/

[3] http://www.who.int/topics/air_pollution/en/

[4] http://www.who.int/indoorair/guidelines/hhfc/en/

[5] [5] http://ec.europa.eu/environment/air/legis.htm

[6] http://laqm.defra.gov.uk/

[7] http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/1995/25/contents

[8] http://www.air-quality.org.uk/20.php

[10] https://www.epa.gov/laws-regulations/summary-noise-control-act

[11] http://www.euro.who.int/en/health-topics/environment-and-health/noise/p…

[12] http://ec.europa.eu/environment/noise/directive_en.htm

[13] http://services.defra.gov.uk/wps/portal/noise

[14] Noise policy statement for England

[16] http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs291/en/

[18] http://www.icnirp.org/

[19] Rothman KJ. (1990) A sobering start for the cluster busters' conference. Comment in

Re: "Editorial commentary: epidemiology and exposure to electromagnetic fields," "a sobering start for the cluster busters' conference," and "counterpoint from a cluster buster". [Am J Epidemiol. 1991]

Am J Epidemiol. 1990 Jul;132(1 Suppl):S6-13. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2356837

#### IMAGES

1. Environmental problems

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3. Environmental Issues

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5. Global environmental problems and solutions

6. 5 Major Environmental Health Problems

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