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8D Problem Solving Process
Solving major problems in a disciplined way.
By the Mind Tools Content Team
(Also known as Global 8D Problem Solving)
When your company runs into a major problem, you need to address it quickly. However, you also need to deal with it thoroughly and ensure that it doesn't recur – and this can take a lot of effort and elapsed time.
The 8D Problem Solving Process helps you do both of these seemingly-contradictory things, in a professional and controlled way. In this article, we'll look at the 8D Problem Solving Process, and we'll discuss how you can use it to help your team solve major problems.
Origins of the Tool
The Ford Motor Company® developed the 8D (8 Disciplines) Problem Solving Process, and published it in their 1987 manual, "Team Oriented Problem Solving (TOPS)." In the mid-90s, Ford added an additional discipline, D0: Plan. The process is now Ford's global standard, and is called Global 8D.
Ford created the 8D Process to help teams deal with quality control and safety issues; develop customized, permanent solutions to problems; and prevent problems from recurring. Although the 8D Process was initially applied in the manufacturing, engineering, and aerospace industries, it's useful and relevant in any industry.
The eight disciplines are shown in figure 1, below:
Figure 1: The 8D Problem Solving Process
The 8D Process works best in teams tasked with solving a complex problem with identifiable symptoms. However, you can also use this process on an individual level, as well.
Applying the Tool
To use the 8D Process, address each of the disciplines listed below, in order. Take care not to skip steps, even when time is limited; the process is only effective when you follow every step.
Discipline 0: Plan
Before you begin to assemble a team to address the problem, you need to plan your approach. This means thinking about who will be on the team, what your time frame is, and what resources you'll need to address the problem at hand.
Discipline 1: Build the Team
You should aim to put together a team that has the skills needed to solve the problem, and that has the time and energy to commit to the problem solving process.
Keep in mind that a diverse team is more likely to find a creative solution than a team of people with the same outlook (although if outlooks are too diverse, people can spend so much time disagreeing that nothing gets done).
Create a team charter that outlines the team's goal and identifies each person's role. Then, do what you can to build trust and get everyone involved in the process that's about to happen.
If your team is made up of professionals who haven't worked together before, consider beginning with team-building activities to ensure that everyone is comfortable working with one another.
Discipline 2: Describe the Problem
Once your team has settled in, describe the problem in detail. Specify the who, what, when, where, why, how, and how many; and use techniques like CATWOE and the Problem-Definition Process to ensure that you're focusing on the right problem.
Start by doing a Risk Analysis – if the problem is causing serious risks, for example, to people's health or life, then you need to take appropriate action. (This may include stopping people using a product or process until the problem is resolved.)
If the problem is with a process, use a Flow Chart , Swim Lane Diagram , or Storyboard to map each step out; these tools will help your team members understand how the process works, and, later on, think about how they can best fix it.
Discovering the root cause of the problem comes later in the process, so don't spend time on this here. Right now, your goal is to look at what's going wrong and to make sure that your team understands the full extent of the problem.
Discipline 3: Implement a Temporary Fix
Once your team understands the problem, come up with a temporary fix. This is particularly important if the problem is affecting customers, reducing product quality, or slowing down work processes.
Harness the knowledge of everyone on the team. To ensure that each person's ideas are heard, consider using brainstorming techniques such as Round Robin Brainstorming or Crawford's Slip Writing Method , alongside more traditional team problem solving discussions.
Once the group has identified possible temporary fixes, address issues such as cost, implementation time, and relevancy. The short-term solution should be quick, easy to implement, and worth the effort.
Discipline 4: Identify and Eliminate the Root Cause
Once your temporary fix is in place, it's time to discover the root cause of the problem.
Conduct a Cause and Effect Analysis to identify the likely causes of the problem. This tool is useful because it helps you uncover many possible causes, and it can highlight other problems that you might not have been aware of. Next, apply Root Cause Analysis to find the root causes of the problems you've identified.
Once you identify the source of the problem, develop several permanent solutions to it.
If your team members are having trouble coming up with viable permanent solutions, use the Straw Man Concept to generate prototype solutions that you can then discuss, tear apart, and rebuild into stronger solutions.
Discipline 5: Verify the Solution
Once your team agrees on a permanent solution, make sure that you test it thoroughly before you fully implement it, in the next step.
- Conducting a Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) to spot any potential problems.
- Using Impact Analysis to make sure that there will be no unexpected future consequences.
- Using Six Thinking Hats to examine the fix from several different emotional perspectives.
Last, conduct a Blind Spot Analysis to confirm that you and your team haven't overlooked a key factor, or made an incorrect assumption about this solution.
Discipline 6: Implement a Permanent Solution
Once your team reaches a consensus on the solution, roll your fix out. Monitor this new solution closely for an appropriate period of time to make sure that it's working correctly, and ensure that there are no unexpected side effects.
Discipline 7: Prevent the Problem From Recurring
When you're sure that the permanent solution has solved the problem, gather your team together again to identify how you'll prevent the problem from recurring in the future.
You might need to update your organization's standards, policies, procedures, or training manual to reflect the new fix. You'll likely also need to train others on the new process or standard. Finally, you'll need to consider whether to change your management practices or procedures to prevent a recurrence.
Discipline 8: Celebrate Team Success
The last step in the process is to celebrate and reward your team's success . Say "thank you" to everyone involved, and be specific about how each person's hard work has made a difference. If appropriate, plan a party or celebration to communicate your appreciation.
Before the team disbands, conduct a Post-Implementation Review to analyze whether your solution is working as you thought, and to improve the way that you solve problems in the future.
In the late 1980s, Ford Motor Company developed the 8D (8 Disciplines) Problem Solving Process to help manufacturing and engineering teams diagnose, treat, and eliminate quality problems. However, teams in any industry can use this problem solving process.
The eight disciplines are:
- Build the Team.
- Describe the Problem.
- Implement a Temporary Fix.
- Identify and Eliminate the Root Cause.
- Verify the Solution.
- Implement a Permanent Solution.
- Prevent the Problem From Recurring.
- Celebrate Team Success.
The 8D Problem Solving Process is best used with a team solving complex problems; however, individuals can also use it to solve problems on their own.
Ford is a registered trademark of the Ford Motor Company: https://www.ford.com/
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Global 8D PD111860
Topics: Quality, Safety & Maintenance Management and Organization , Product development
Global 8D (G8D) is a disciplined process developed by Ford Motor Company to help product development and manufacturing engineers identify and solve problems. Solving problems results in efficient, as well as effective, resolution to "root causes" of customer satisfaction issues, and helps reduce warranty costs.
With this three-hour online course, you will learn the methods and tools used to complete each step in the Ford Global 8D find-and-fix problem-solving process, including steps to define the problem, verify the root cause and escape point, and prevent occurrence. The course is designed to provide you with the analytical and procedural information you need to understand, describe, and participate in the G8D problem-solving process as a team member. While certain Ford proprietary information has been removed from the course, it contains essentially the same content that engineers from Ford and select suppliers have benefitted from taking.
The estimated time to completion is three hours, including active participation in case studies using a limited edition version of Prism Quality's Global 8D software application.
By participating in this on-demand course, you'll be able to:
- Describe each step in the G8D process
- Identify the types of problems best resolved using the G8D problem-solving method
- Participate as an effective G8D team member
- Apply Global 8D problem-solving methods as a G8D team member
- Use G8D process support tools and the G8D web application
- 90 days of online single-user access (from date of purchase) to the three-hour presentation
- Access to Prism Quality's Global 8D Limited Edition software for practice case studies (some exclusions may apply)
- Integrated knowledge checks to reinforce key concepts
- Online learning assessment
- 0.3 CEUs* Certificate of Achievement (upon completion of all course content and a score of 70% or higher on the learning assessment)
*SAE International is authorized by IACET to offer CEUs for this course.
Is this Ford Online Course for You?
This course is geared toward quality, manufacturing, and product development engineers. It is recommended that you have an engineering degree and experience in the automotive engineering field.
Ford Quality Office, Ford Learning & Development
For more details.
Email [email protected] , or call 1-877-606-7323 (U.S. and Canada) or 724-776-4970 (outside US and Canada).
- Windows or macOS
- Microsoft Edge, Mozilla Firefox, Google Chrome, Safari (Other OSs and browsers including mobile devices are not supported by may work)
- Broadband-1Mbps minimum
Eight Disciplines of Problem Solving (8D)
– Eight Disciplines of Problem Solving –
⇓ Introduction to 8D
⇓ What is 8D
⇓ Why Apply 8D
⇓ When to Apply 8D
⇓ How to Apply 8D
Introduction to Eight Disciplines of Problem Solving (8D)
The Eight Disciplines of Problem Solving (8D) is a problem solving methodology designed to find the root cause of a problem, devise a short-term fix and implement a long-term solution to prevent recurring problems. When it’s clear that your product is defective or isn’t satisfying your customers, an 8D is an excellent first step to improving Quality and Reliability.
Ford Motor Company developed this problem solving methodology, then known as Team Oriented Problem Solving (TOPS), in the 1980s. The early usage of 8D proved so effective that it was adopted by Ford as the primary method of documenting problem solving efforts, and the company continues to use 8D today.
8D has become very popular among manufacturers because it is effective and reasonably easy to teach. Below you’ll find the benefits of an 8D, when it is appropriate to perform and how it is performed.
What is Eight Disciplines of Problem Solving (8D)
The 8D problem solving process is a detailed, team oriented approach to solving critical problems in the production process. The goals of this method are to find the root cause of a problem, develop containment actions to protect customers and take corrective action to prevent similar problems in the future.
The strength of the 8D process lies in its structure, discipline and methodology. 8D uses a composite methodology, utilizing best practices from various existing approaches. It is a problem solving method that drives systemic change, improving an entire process in order to avoid not only the problem at hand but also other issues that may stem from a systemic failure.
8D has grown to be one of the most popular problem solving methodologies used for Manufacturing, Assembly and Services around the globe. Read on to learn about the reasons why the Eight Disciplines of Problem Solving may be a good fit for your company.
Why Apply Eight Disciplines of Problem Solving (8D)
The 8D methodology is so popular in part because it offers your engineering team a consistent, easy-to-learn and thorough approach to solving whatever problems might arise at various stages in your production process. When properly applied, you can expect the following benefits:
- Improved team oriented problem solving skills rather than reliance on the individual
- Increased familiarity with a structure for problem solving
- Creation and expansion of a database of past failures and lessons learned to prevent problems in the future
- Better understanding of how to use basic statistical tools required for problem solving
- Improved effectiveness and efficiency at problem solving
- A practical understanding of Root Cause Analysis (RCA)
- Problem solving effort may be adopted into the processes and methods of the organization
- Improved skills for implementing corrective action
- Better ability to identify necessary systemic changes and subsequent inputs for change
- More candid and open communication in problem solving discussion, increasing effectiveness
- An improvement in management’s understanding of problems and problem resolution
8D was created to represent the best practices in problem solving. When performed correctly, this methodology not only improves the Quality and Reliability of your products but also prepares your engineering team for future problems.
When to Apply Eight Disciplines of Problem Solving (8D)
The 8D problem solving process is typically required when:
- Safety or Regulatory issues has been discovered
- Customer complaints are received
- Warranty Concerns have indicated greater-than-expected failure rates
- Internal rejects, waste, scrap, poor performance or test failures are present at unacceptable levels
How to Apply Eight Disciplines of Problem Solving (8D)
The 8D process alternates inductive and deductive problem solving tools to relentlessly move forward toward a solution. The Quality-One approach uses a core team of three individuals for inductive activities with data driven tools and then a larger Subject Matter Expert (SME) group for the deductive activities through brainstorming, data-gathering and experimentation.
D0: Prepare and Plan for the 8D
Proper planning will always translate to a better start. Thus, before 8D analysis begins, it is always a good idea to ask an expert first for their impressions. After receiving feedback, the following criterion should be applied prior to forming a team:
Collect information on the symptoms
Use a Symptoms Checklist to ask the correct questions
Identify the need for an Emergency Response Action (ERA), which protects the customer from further exposure to the undesired symptoms
D1: Form a Team
A Cross Functional Team (CFT) is made up of members from many disciplines. Quality-One takes this principle one step further by having two levels of CFT:
- The Core Team Structure should involve three people on the respective subjects: product, process and data
- Additional Subject Matter Experts are brought in at various times to assist with brainstorming, data collection and analysis
Teams require proper preparation. Setting the ground rules is paramount. Implementation of disciplines like checklists, forms and techniques will ensure steady progress. 8D must always have two key members: a Leader and a Champion / Sponsor:
- The Leader is the person who knows the 8D process and can lead the team through it (although not always the most knowledgeable about the problem being studied)
- The Champion or Sponsor is the one person who can affect change by agreeing with the findings and can provide final approval on such changes
D2: Describe the Problem
The 8D method’s initial focus is to properly describe the problem utilizing the known data and placing it into specific categories for future comparisons. The “Is” data supports the facts whereas the “Is Not” data does not. As the “Is Not” data is collected, many possible reasons for failure are able to be eliminated. This approach utilizes the following tools:
- Problem Statement
- Affinity Diagram (Deductive tool)
- Fishbone/Ishikawa Diagram (Deductive tool)
- Problem Description
D3: Interim Containment Action
In the interim, before the permanent corrective action has been determined, an action to protect the customer can be taken. The Interim Containment Action (ICA) is temporary and is typically removed after the Permanent Correct Action (PCA) is taken.
- Verification of effectiveness of the ICA is always recommended to prevent any additional customer dissatisfaction calls
D4: Root Cause Analysis (RCA) and Escape Point
The root cause must be identified to take permanent action to eliminate it. The root cause definition requires that it can be turned on or off, at will. Activities in D4 include:
- Comparative Analysis listing differences and changes between “Is” and “Is Not”
- Development of Root Cause Theories based on remaining items
- Verification of the Root Cause through data collection
- Review Process Flow Diagram for location of the root cause
- Determine Escape Point, which is the closest point in the process where the root cause could have been found but was not
D5: Permanent Corrective Action (PCA)
The PCA is directed toward the root cause and removes / changes the conditions of the product or process that was responsible for the problem. Activities in D5 include:
- Establish the Acceptance Criteria which include Mandatory Requirements and Wants
- Perform a Risk Assessment / Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) on the PCA choices
- Based on risk assessment, make a balanced choice for PCA
- Select control-point improvement for the Escape Point
- Verification of Effectiveness for both the PCA and the Escape Point are required
D6: Implement and Validate the Permanent Corrective Action
To successfully implement a permanent change, proper planning is essential. A project plan should encompass: communication, steps to complete, measurement of success and lessons learned. Activities in D6 include:
- Develop Project Plan for Implementation
- Communicate the plan to all stakeholders
- Validation of improvements using measurement
D7: Prevent Recurrence
D7 affords the opportunity to preserve and share the knowledge, preventing problems on similar products, processes, locations or families. Updating documents and procedures / work instructions are expected at this step to improve future use. Activities in D7 include:
- Review Similar Products and Processes for problem prevention
- Develop / Update Procedures and Work Instructions for Systems Prevention
- Capture Standard Work / Practice and reuse
- Assure FMEA updates have been completed
- Assure Control Plans have been updated
D8: Closure and Team Celebration
Teams require feedback to allow for satisfactory closure. Recognizing both team and individual efforts and allowing the team to see the previous and new state solidifies the value of the 8D process. Activities in D8 include:
- Archive the 8D Documents for future reference
- Document Lessons Learned on how to make problem solving better
- Before and After Comparison of issue
- Celebrate Successful Completion
8D and Root Cause Analysis (RCA)
The 8D process has Root Cause Analysis (RCA) imbedded within it. All problem solving techniques include RCA within their structure. The steps and techniques within 8D which correspond to Root Cause Analysis are as follows:
- Problem Symptom is quantified and converted to “Object and Defect”
- Problem Symptom is converted to Problem Statement using Repeated Whys
- Possible and Potential Causes are collected using deductive tools (i.e. Fishbone or Affinity Diagram)
- Problem Statement is converted into Problem Description using Is / Is Not
- Problem Description reduces the number of items on the deductive tool (from step 3)
- Comparative Analysis between the Is and Is Not items (note changes and time)
- Root Cause theories are developed from remaining possible causes on deductive tool and coupled with changes from Is / Is Not
- Compare theories with current data and develop experiments for Root Cause Verification
- Test and confirm the Root Causes
Example: Multiple Why Technique
The Multiple / Repeated Why (Similar to 5 Why) is an inductive tool, which means facts are required to proceed to a more detailed level. The steps required to determine problem statement are:
- Problem Symptom is defined as an Object and Defect i.e. “Passenger Injury”
- Why? In every case “SUV’s Roll Over”
- Why? In every case, it was preceded by a “Blown Tire”
- Why? Many explanations may be applied, therefore the team cannot continue with another repeated why past “Blown Tire”
- Therefore, the Problem Statement is “Blown Tire”
- Why? Low (Air) Pressure, Tire Defect (Degradation of an Interface) and High (Ambient) Temperature
- Counter measures assigned to low pressure and tire defect
This example uses only 4 of the 5 Whys to determine the root causes without going further into the systemic reasons that supported the failure. The Repeated Why is one way to depict this failure chain. Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) could also be used.
Learn More About Eight Disciplines of Problem Solving (8D)
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File Size: 39.8 MB
Number of Slides: 256
Terms of Usage
8d (eight disciplines) problem solving process.
The 8D (Eight Disciplines) approach is a systematic problem solving process. Popularized by Ford, the 8D process integrates best practices from various problem-solving methods and is now a standard in the automotive industry. The 8D problem solving process has proven to be highly effective in product and process improvement.
The 8D Problem Solving Process
Following the logic of the PDCA cycle, the 8D process enables problem solving teams to identify root causes, develop proper actions to eliminate root causes, and implement permanent corrective action to prevent recurrence. It includes key analytical tools such as Is/Is Not Analysis and Root Cause Analysis using 5 Whys and the Fishbone Diagram.
This highly detailed training presentation will help you to teach employees in your company or organization to better understand team dynamics and solve problems using a disciplined approach.
Note: This training package includes:
8D Problem Solving PPT training presentation (PowerPoint format)
8D Problem Solving Report Template (PowerPoint format)
8D Report Worksheet (Word format)
8D Is/Is Not Worksheet (Excel format)
FMEA Form (Excel format)
8D Problem Solving poster (PDF format, in color and monochrome, printable in A3/A4 size paper)
Acquire knowledge of key concepts and principles in 8D problem solving.
Understand team-based problem solving dynamics and define roles within the 8D problem-solving team.
Familiarize yourself with the step-by-step 8D problem-solving process and the use of analytical tools.
Gain practical insights for achieving success in 8D problem solving.
1. Key C on cept s and Principles
• The Blind Men and the Elephant • The Mindset of a Traditional Problem Solver • Common Pitfalls in Problem Solving • What is a Problem? • What is Problem Solving? • What Problem Solving is Not • Impact of Problem Solving • Problem Solving Funnel • Problem Solving Philosophy • Benefits of Problem Solving • What is 8D problem solving? • Applying 8D Met hodology to Problem Solving • Why Use 8D? • 8D Problem Solving Process
2. Team Approach and Roles
• What is a Team? • Types of Teams • Importance of Team-based Approach to Problem-solving • Qualities of an Effective Team • Team Member Ground Rules • Tuckman's Model of Team Development Stages • Why is Teamwork Important? • Problem Solving Team's Maxims • Ingredients for Problem Solving Team Success • Keys to Team Success • What is a Problem Solving Team? • Key Roles in 8D Problem Solving
3. 8D Problem Solving Process
• Popular Problem Solving Methods • 8D Problem Solving Process • 8D Problem Solving Process vs 8D Report • The Importance of an 8D Report • D0: Plan • D1: Initiate Project Team • D2: Define the Problem • D3: Implement Containment Actions • D4: Identify Root Causes • D5: Develop and Verify Solution • D6: Implement Corrective Actions • D7: Prevent Recurrence • D8: Recognize Project Team • The 8D report: Capturing Solutions and Progress • Sample 8D Report / Template • Key Sections of the 8D Report • The Role of the 8D Report • 8D Report Templates Included (as part of this training presentation package)
4. Analytical Tools in 8D
• Brainstorming • Affinity Diagram • 5W2H • Is / Is Not • Control Chart • 5 Whys • Cause and Effect Diagram • Pareto Chart • Histogram • Scatter Diagram • FMEA
5. Practical Tips for Success
You may also be interested in the following training presentations and frameworks (sold separately):
Introduction to Quality
Total Quality Management
Total Quality Process
PDCA Problem Solving Technique & Tools
Root Cause Analysis
Seven Basic Quality Tools
Seven Advanced Quality Tools
Reducing the Cost of Quality
8D Report Template
Advanced Product Quality Planning (APQP)
Failure Mode & Effects Analysis (FMEA)
Home Collections Strategy / Business Plan Problem Solving 8D Problem Solving PPT
8D Problem Solving PPT Presentation Template & Google Slides
- problem solving
- 8D problem solving
- analyse problem
- Google Slides
Eight-Noded Problem Solving Presentation Slide
Features of the template:.
Team / Teamwork
Strategy / Business Plan
You May Also Like These PowerPoint Templates
Global%208D%20Problem%20Solving - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
Global 8d problem solving. process overview. define and quantify symptoms. identify customer and affected parties. – powerpoint ppt presentation.
- Define and quantify symptoms
- Identify customer and affected parties
- If necessary, provide Emergency Response Action to protect the customer
- Determine if G8D should be implemented
- Identify G8D Champion
- Identify Team Leader
- Determine skills and knowledge team will need at this stage
- Establish team membership
- Establish team goals
- Establish team roles
- Develop the Problem Statement
- identifying what is wrong with what
- Develop the Problem Description
- detailing the problem in quantifiable terms.
- Is ICA required
- Evaluate ERA
- Identify and choose best ICA
- Plan and implement ICA
- Review process inputs and establish possible causes
- Determine possible root causes
- Establish root cause and verify
- To be established for the problem and for the escape point
- Select the best permanent corrective action to remove the root cause
- Select the best permanent corrective action to address the escape point
- Verify that both decisions will be successful when implemented and not cause undesirable effects.
- Develop action plan for root cause and escape point PCAs
- Implement PCAs
- Remove the ICA
- Perform Validation
- Confirm with customer
- Identify systems, policies, practices and procedures that allowed problem to occur and to escape to the customer
- Identify and select preventative actions
- Verify preventative actions
- Implement preventative actions
- Consider current and similar problems
- Document lessons learnt
- Recognise individual contributions
- Recognise group contributions
- Celebrate completion of G8D teams task
- Modify the necessary systems including policies, practices and procedures to prevent recurrence of this problem and similar ones
- Make recommendations for systemic improvements, as necessary
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