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Creating a Chicago Style Bibliography | Format & Examples
Published on September 23, 2019 by Jack Caulfield . Revised on December 5, 2022.
A Chicago style bibliography lists the sources cited in your text. Each bibliography entry begins with the author’s name and the title of the source, followed by relevant publication details. The bibliography is alphabetized by authors’ last names.
A bibliography is not mandatory, but is strongly recommended for all but very short papers. It gives your reader an overview of all your sources in one place. Check with your instructor if you’re not sure whether you need a bibliography.
Always make sure to pay attention to punctuation (e.g., commas , quotation marks , parentheses ) in your citations.
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Table of contents
Chicago style bibliography examples, formatting the bibliography page, author names in the bibliography, bibliography vs reference list, frequently asked questions about the chicago bibliography.
Bibliography entries vary in format depending on the type of source . Templates and examples for the most common source types are shown below.
- Book chapter
- Journal article
- The edition is always abbreviated (e.g. 2nd ed. or rev. ed.).
- Only include the URL for books you consulted online.
- Use this format to cite a chapter in a multi-authored book. If all the chapters in a book were written by the same person, reference the whole book.
- Begin the citation with the author of the chapter. The editor who compiled the book is listed later.
- The page range identifies the location of the article within the journal issue.
- For articles accessed online, include a DOI (digital object identifier) where available, and a URL if not.
- If the author is unknown, list the organization or website name as author, and don’t repeat it later in the citation.
- If no publication date is listed, include an access date instead.
- The website name is not italicized, unless it is an online version of a newspaper or magazine .
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The bibliography appears at the end of your text. The heading Bibliography is bolded and centred at the top of the page.
Unlike the rest of a Chicago format paper, the bibliography is not double-spaced. However, add a single line space between entries.
If a bibliography entry extends onto more than one line, subsequent lines should be indented ( hanging indent ), as seen in the example below. This helps the reader to see at a glance where each new entry begins.
There are further guidelines for formatting a Chicago style annotated bibliography , in which you write a paragraph of summary and source evaluation under each source.
Author names in the bibliography are inverted: The last name comes first, then the first name(s). Sources are alphabetized by author last name.
If a source has no named author, alphabetize by the first word of the title or organization name that starts the entry. Ignore articles (“the,” “a,” and “an”) for the purposes of alphabetization.
Sources with multiple authors
For sources with more than one author, only the first author’s name is inverted; subsequent names are written in the normal order.
For texts with up to 10 authors, all the authors’ names should be listed in the order they appear in the source, separated by commas .
If there are more than 10 authors, list the first seven, followed by “ et al. ”
Multiple sources by the same author
If you include multiple works from the same author, only include the author name in the first entry. In subsequent entries, replace the name with three em dashes , followed by the rest of the citation formatted as normal. List the entries in alphabetical order by title.
A reference list is mandatory in Chicago author-date style , where you cite sources in parentheses in the text. The only differences between a Chicago bibliography and a reference list are the heading and the placement of the date.
The reference list is headed “References.” In reference list entries, the publication date is placed immediately after the author’s name. This allows the reader to easily find a reference on the basis of the corresponding in-text citation.
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In a Chicago style footnote , list up to three authors. If there are more than three, name only the first author, followed by “ et al. “
In the bibliography , list up to 10 authors. If there are more than 10, list the first seven followed by “et al.”
The same rules apply in Chicago author-date style .
To automatically generate accurate Chicago references, you can use Scribbr’s free Chicago reference generator .
In a Chicago footnote citation , when the author of a source is unknown (as is often the case with websites ), start the citation with the title in a full note. In short notes and bibliography entries, list the organization that published it as the author.
In Chicago author-date style , treat the organization as author in your in-text citations and reference list.
When an online source does not list a publication date, replace it with an access date in your Chicago footnotes and your bibliography :
If you are using author-date in-text citations , or if the source was not accessed online, replace the date with “n.d.”
- A reference list is used with Chicago author-date citations .
- A bibliography is used with Chicago footnote citations .
Both present the exact same information; the only difference is the placement of the year in source citations:
- In a reference list entry, the publication year appears directly after the author’s name.
- In a bibliography entry, the year appears near the end of the entry (the exact placement depends on the source type).
There are also other types of bibliography that work as stand-alone texts, such as a Chicago annotated bibliography .
In Chicago author-date style , your text must include a reference list . It appears at the end of your paper and gives full details of every source you cited.
In notes and bibliography style, you use Chicago style footnotes to cite sources; a bibliography is optional but recommended. If you don’t include one, be sure to use a full note for the first citation of each source.
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Notes and Bibliography: Sample Citations
Go to Author-Date: Sample Citations
The following examples illustrate the notes and bibliography system. Sample notes show full citations followed by shortened citations for the same sources. Sample bibliography entries follow the notes. For more details and many more examples, see chapter 14 of The Chicago Manual of Style . For examples of the same citations using the author-date system, follow the Author-Date link above.
1. Zadie Smith, Swing Time (New York: Penguin Press, 2016), 315–16.
2. Brian Grazer and Charles Fishman, A Curious Mind: The Secret to a Bigger Life (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2015), 12.
3. Smith, Swing Time , 320.
4. Grazer and Fishman, Curious Mind , 37.
Bibliography entries (in alphabetical order)
Grazer, Brian, and Charles Fishman. A Curious Mind: The Secret to a Bigger Life . New York: Simon & Schuster, 2015.
Smith, Zadie. Swing Time . New York: Penguin Press, 2016.
For many more examples, covering virtually every type of book, see 14.100–163 in The Chicago Manual of Style .
Chapter or other part of an edited book
In a note, cite specific pages. In the bibliography, include the page range for the chapter or part.
1. Henry David Thoreau, “Walking,” in The Making of the American Essay , ed. John D’Agata (Minneapolis: Graywolf Press, 2016), 177–78.
2. Thoreau, “Walking,” 182.
Thoreau, Henry David. “Walking.” In The Making of the American Essay , edited by John D’Agata, 167–95. Minneapolis: Graywolf Press, 2016.
In some cases, you may want to cite the collection as a whole instead.
1. John D’Agata, ed., The Making of the American Essay (Minneapolis: Graywolf Press, 2016), 177–78.
2. D’Agata, American Essay , 182.
D’Agata, John, ed. The Making of the American Essay . Minneapolis: Graywolf Press, 2016.
For more examples, see 14.103–5 and 14.106–12 in The Chicago Manual of Style .
1. Jhumpa Lahiri, In Other Words , trans. Ann Goldstein (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2016), 146.
2. Lahiri, In Other Words , 184.
Lahiri, Jhumpa. In Other Words . Translated by Ann Goldstein. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2016.
For books consulted online, include a URL or the name of the database. For other types of e-books, name the format. If no fixed page numbers are available, cite a section title or a chapter or other number in the notes, if any (or simply omit).
1. Herman Melville, Moby-Dick; or, The Whale (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1851), 627, http://mel.hofstra.edu/moby-dick-the-whale-proofs.html.
2. Philip B. Kurland and Ralph Lerner, eds., The Founders’ Constitution (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987), chap. 10, doc. 19, http://press-pubs.uchicago.edu/founders/.
3. Brooke Borel, The Chicago Guide to Fact-Checking (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2016), 92, ProQuest Ebrary.
4. Jane Austen, Pride and Prejudice (New York: Penguin Classics, 2007), chap. 3, Kindle.
5. Melville, Moby-Dick , 722–23.
6. Kurland and Lerner, Founder s ’ Constitution , chap. 4, doc. 29.
7. Borel, Fact-Checking , 104–5.
8. Austen, Pride and Prejudice , chap. 14.
Austen, Jane. Pride and Prejudice . New York: Penguin Classics, 2007. Kindle.
Borel, Brooke. The Chicago Guide to Fact-Checking . Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2016. ProQuest Ebrary.
Kurland, Philip B., and Ralph Lerner, eds. The Founders’ Constitution . Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987. http://press-pubs.uchicago.edu/founders/.
Melville, Herman. Moby-Dick; or, The Whale . New York: Harper & Brothers, 1851. http://mel.hofstra.edu/moby-dick-the-whale-proofs.html.
For more examples, see 14.1 59 –63 in The Chicago Manual of Style .
In a note, cite specific page numbers. In the bibliography, include the page range for the whole article. For articles consulted online, include a URL or the name of the database. Many journal articles list a DOI (Digital Object Identifier). A DOI forms a permanent URL that begins https://doi.org/. This URL is preferable to the URL that appears in your browser’s address bar.
1. Susan Satterfield, “Livy and the Pax Deum ,” Classical Philology 111, no. 2 (April 2016): 170.
2. Shao-Hsun Keng, Chun-Hung Lin, and Peter F. Orazem, “Expanding College Access in Taiwan, 1978–2014: Effects on Graduate Quality and Income Inequality,” Journal of Human Capital 11, no. 1 (Spring 2017): 9–10, https://doi.org/10.1086/690235.
3. Peter LaSalle, “Conundrum: A Story about Reading,” New England Review 38, no. 1 (2017): 95, Project MUSE.
4. Satterfield, “Livy,” 172–73.
5. Keng, Lin, and Orazem, “Expanding College Access,” 23.
6. LaSalle, “Conundrum,” 101.
Keng, Shao-Hsun, Chun-Hung Lin, and Peter F. Orazem. “Expanding College Access in Taiwan, 1978–2014: Effects on Graduate Quality and Income Inequality.” Journal of Human Capital 11, no. 1 (Spring 2017): 1–34. https://doi.org/10.1086/690235.
LaSalle, Peter. “Conundrum: A Story about Reading.” New England Review 38, no. 1 (2017): 95–109. Project MUSE.
Satterfield, Susan. “Livy and the Pax Deum .” Classical Philology 111, no. 2 (April 2016): 165–76.
Journal articles often list many authors, especially in the sciences. If there are four or more authors, list up to ten in the bibliography; in a note, list only the first, followed by et al . (“and others”). For more than ten authors (not shown here), list the first seven in the bibliography, followed by et al .
7. Rachel A. Bay et al., “Predicting Responses to Contemporary Environmental Change Using Evolutionary Response Architectures,” American Naturalist 189, no. 5 (May 2017): 465, https://doi.org/10.1086/691233.
8. Bay et al., “Predicting Responses,” 466.
Bay, Rachael A., Noah Rose, Rowan Barrett, Louis Bernatchez, Cameron K. Ghalambor, Jesse R. Lasky, Rachel B. Brem, Stephen R. Palumbi, and Peter Ralph. “Predicting Responses to Contemporary Environmental Change Using Evolutionary Response Architectures.” American Naturalist 189, no. 5 (May 2017): 463–73. https://doi.org/10.1086/691233.
For more examples, see 14.1 68 – 87 in The Chicago Manual of Style .
News or magazine article
Articles from newspapers or news sites, magazines, blogs, and the like are cited similarly. Page numbers, if any, can be cited in a note but are omitted from a bibliography entry. If you consulted the article online, include a URL or the name of the database.
1. Rebecca Mead, “The Prophet of Dystopia,” New Yorker , April 17, 2017, 43.
2. Farhad Manjoo, “Snap Makes a Bet on the Cultural Supremacy of the Camera,” New York Times , March 8, 2017, https://www.nytimes.com/2017/03/08/technology/snap-makes-a-bet-on-the-cultural-supremacy-of-the-camera.html.
3. Rob Pegoraro, “Apple’s iPhone Is Sleek, Smart and Simple,” Washington Post , July 5, 2007, LexisNexis Academic.
4. Tanya Pai, “The Squishy, Sugary History of Peeps,” Vox , April 11, 2017, http://www.vox.com/culture/2017/4/11/15209084/peeps-easter.
5. Mead, “Dystopia,” 47.
6. Manjoo, “Snap.”
7. Pegoraro, “Apple’s iPhone.”
8. Pai, “History of Peeps.”
Manjoo, Farhad. “Snap Makes a Bet on the Cultural Supremacy of the Camera.” New York Times , March 8, 2017. https://www.nytimes.com/2017/03/08/technology/snap-makes-a-bet-on-the-cultural-supremacy-of-the-camera.html.
Mead, Rebecca. “The Prophet of Dystopia.” New Yorker , April 17, 2017.
Pai, Tanya. “The Squishy, Sugary History of Peeps.” Vox , April 11, 2017. http://www.vox.com/culture/2017/4/11/15209084/peeps-easter.
Pegoraro, Rob. “Apple’s iPhone Is Sleek, Smart and Simple.” Washington Post , July 5, 2007. LexisNexis Academic.
Readers’ comments are cited in the text or in a note but omitted from a bibliography.
9. Eduardo B (Los Angeles), March 9, 2017, comment on Manjoo, “Snap.”
For more examples, see 14.1 88 – 90 (magazines), 14.191–200 (newspapers), and 14.208 (blogs) in The Chicago Manual of Style .
1. Michiko Kakutani, “Friendship Takes a Path That Diverges,” review of Swing Time , by Zadie Smith, New York Times , November 7, 2016.
2. Kakutani, “Friendship.”
Kakutani, Michiko. “Friendship Takes a Path That Diverges.” Review of Swing Time , by Zadie Smith. New York Times , November 7, 2016.
1. Kory Stamper, “From ‘F-Bomb’ to ‘Photobomb,’ How the Dictionary Keeps Up with English,” interview by Terry Gross, Fresh Air , NPR, April 19, 2017, audio, 35:25, http://www.npr.org/2017/04/19/524618639/from-f-bomb-to-photobomb-how-the-dictionary-keeps-up-with-english.
2. Stamper, interview.
Stamper, Kory. “From ‘F-Bomb’ to ‘Photobomb,’ How the Dictionary Keeps Up with English.” Interview by Terry Gross. Fresh Air , NPR, April 19, 2017. Audio, 35:25. http://www.npr.org/2017/04/19/524618639/from-f-bomb-to-photobomb-how-the-dictionary-keeps-up-with-english.
Thesis or dissertation
1. Cynthia Lillian Rutz, “ King Lear and Its Folktale Analogues” (PhD diss., University of Chicago, 2013), 99–100.
2. Rutz, “ King Lear ,” 158.
Rutz, Cynthia Lillian. “ King Lear and Its Folktale Analogues.” PhD diss., University of Chicago, 2013.
It is often sufficient simply to describe web pages and other website content in the text (“As of May 1, 2017, Yale’s home page listed . . .”). If a more formal citation is needed, it may be styled like the examples below. For a source that does not list a date of publication or revision, include an access date (as in example note 2).
2. “About Yale: Yale Facts,” Yale University, accessed May 1, 2017, https://www.yale.edu/about-yale/yale-facts.
3. Katie Bouman, “How to Take a Picture of a Black Hole,” filmed November 2016 at TEDxBeaconStreet, Brookline, MA, video, 12:51, https://www.ted.com/talks/katie_bouman_what_does_a_black_hole_look_like.
5. “Yale Facts.”
6. Bouman, “Black Hole.”
Bouman, Katie. “How to Take a Picture of a Black Hole.” Filmed November 2016 at TEDxBeaconStreet, Brookline, MA. Video, 12:51. https://www.ted.com/talks/katie_bouman_what_does_a_black_hole_look_like.
Yale University. “About Yale: Yale Facts.” Accessed May 1, 2017. https://www.yale.edu/about-yale/yale-facts.
For more examples, see 14. 20 5–10 in The Chicago Manual of Style . For multimedia, including live performances, see 14. 261–68 .
Social media content
Citations of content shared through social media can usually be limited to the text (as in the first example below). A note may be added if a more formal citation is needed. In rare cases, a bibliography entry may also be appropriate. In place of a title, quote up to the first 160 characters of the post. Comments are cited in reference to the original post.
Conan O’Brien’s tweet was characteristically deadpan: “In honor of Earth Day, I’m recycling my tweets” (@ConanOBrien, April 22, 2015).
1. Pete Souza (@petesouza), “President Obama bids farewell to President Xi of China at the conclusion of the Nuclear Security Summit,” Instagram photo, April 1, 2016, https://www.instagram.com/p/BDrmfXTtNCt/.
2. Chicago Manual of Style, “Is the world ready for singular they? We thought so back in 1993,” Facebook, April 17, 2015, https://www.facebook.com/ChicagoManual/posts/10152906193679151.
3. Souza, “President Obama.”
4. Michele Truty, April 17, 2015, 1:09 p.m., comment on Chicago Manual of Style, “singular they.”
Chicago Manual of Style. “Is the world ready for singular they? We thought so back in 1993.” Facebook, April 17, 2015. https://www.facebook.com/ChicagoManual/posts/10152906193679151.
Personal communications, including email and text messages and direct messages sent through social media, are usually cited in the text or in a note only; they are rarely included in a bibliography.
1. Sam Gomez, Facebook message to author, August 1, 2017.
Purdue Online Writing Lab Purdue OWL® College of Liberal Arts
Welcome to the Purdue OWL
This page is brought to you by the OWL at Purdue University. When printing this page, you must include the entire legal notice.
Copyright ©1995-2018 by The Writing Lab & The OWL at Purdue and Purdue University. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, reproduced, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed without permission. Use of this site constitutes acceptance of our terms and conditions of fair use.
This section contains information on The Chicago Manual of Style (CMOS) method of document formatting and citation. These resources follow The Chicago Manual of Style (17th edition), which was issued in 2017.
Since The Chicago Manual of Style (CMOS) is primarily intended as a style guide for published works rather than class papers, these guidelines will be supplemented with information from, Kate L. Turabian’s Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations (8th ed.), which is largely based on CMOS with some slight alterations.
To see a side-by-side comparison of the three most widely used citation styles, including a chart of all CMOS citation guidelines, see the Citation Style Chart.
Please use the example at the bottom of this page to cite the Purdue OWL in CMOS.
A Note on Citations
Unlike many citation styles, CMOS gives writers two different methods for documenting sources: the Author-Date System and the Notes-Bibliography (NB) System. As its name suggests, Author-Date uses parenthetical citations in the text to reference the source's author's last name and the year of publication. Each parenthetical citation corresponds to an entry on a References page that concludes the document. In these regards, Author-Date is very similar to, for instance, APA style.
By contrast, NB uses numbered footnotes in the text to direct the reader to a shortened citation at the bottom of the page. This corresponds to a fuller citation on a Bibliography page that concludes the document. Though the general principles of citation are the same here, the citations themselves are formatted differently from the way they appear in Author-Date.
If you are using CMOS for school or work, don't forget to ensure that you're using your organization's preferred citation method. For examples of these two different styles in action, see our CMOS sample papers:
Author-Date Sample Paper
NB Sample Paper
General CMOS Guidelines
- Text should be consistently double-spaced, except for block quotations, notes, bibliography entries, table titles, and figure captions.
- A prose quotation of five or more lines, or more than 100 words, should be blocked.
- CMOS recommends blocking two or more lines of poetry.
- A blocked quotation does not get enclosed in quotation marks.
- A blocked quotation must always begin a new line.
- Blocked quotations should be indented with the word processor’s indention tool.
- Page numbers begin in the header of the first page of text with Arabic number 1.
- For CMOS and Turabian’s recommendations, see “Headings,” below.
Supplemental Turabian Style Guidelines
- Margins should be set at no less than 1”.
- Typeface should be something readable, such as Times New Roman or Courier.
- Font size should be no less than 10 pt. (preferably, 12 pt.).
Major Paper Sections
- The title should be centered a third of the way down the page.
- Your name, class information, and the date should follow several lines later.
- For subtitles, end the title line with a colon and place the subtitle on the line below the title.
- Double-space each line of the title page.
CMOS Title Page
- Different practices apply for theses and dissertations (see Kate L. Turabian’s A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, ad Dissertations [8 th ed.].
- Titles mentioned in the text, notes, or bibliography are capitalized “headline-style,” meaning first words of titles and subtitles and any important words thereafter should be capitalized.
- Book and periodical titles (titles of larger works) should be italicized.
- Article and chapter titles (titles of shorter works) should be enclosed in double quotation marks.
- The titles of most poems should be enclosed in double quotation marks, but the titles of very long poems should be italicized.
- Titles of plays should be italicized.
- For example, use lowercase terms to describe periods, except in the case of proper nouns (e.g., “the colonial period,” vs. “the Victorian era”).
- A prose quotation of five or more lines should be “blocked.” The block quotation should match the surrounding text, and it takes no quotation marks. To offset the block quote from surrounding text, indent the entire quotation using the word processor’s indentation tool. It is also possible to offset the block quotation by using a different or smaller font than the surrounding text.
- Label the first page of your back matter, your comprehensive list of sources, “Bibliography” (for Notes and Bibliography style) or “References” (for Author-Date style).
- Leave two blank lines between “Bibliography” or “References” and your first entry.
- Leave one blank line between remaining entries.
- List entries in letter-by-letter alphabetical order according to the first word in each entry, be that the author's name or the title of the piece..
- For two to three authors, write out all names.
- For four to ten authors, write out all names in the bibliography but only the first author’s name plus “et al.” in notes and parenthetical citations.
- When a source has no identifiable author, cite it by its title, both on the references page and in shortened form (up to four keywords from that title) in parenthetical citations throughout the text.
- Write out publishers’ names in full.
- Do not use access dates unless publication dates are unavailable.
- If you cannot ascertain the publication date of a printed work, use the abbreviation “n.d.”
- Provide DOIs instead of URLs whenever possible.
- If no DOI is available, provide a URL.
- If you cannot name a specific page number when called for, you have other options: section (sec.), equation (eq.), volume (vol.), or note (n.).
CMOS Bibliography Page
- Note numbers should begin with “1” and follow consecutively throughout a given paper.
- Note numbers are superscripted.
- Note numbers should be placed at the end of the clause or sentence to which they refer and should be placed after all punctuation, except for the dash.
- Note numbers are full-sized, not raised, and followed by a period (superscripting note numbers in the notes themselves is also acceptable).
- In parenthetical citation, separate documentation from brief commentary with a semicolon.
- Do not repeat the hundreds digit in a page range if it does not change from the beginning to the end of the range.
For more information on footnotes, please see CMOS NB Sample Paper .
While The Chicago Manual of Style does not include a prescribed system for formatting headings and subheads, it makes several recommendations.
- Maintain consistency and parallel structure in headings and subheads.
- Use headline-style for purposes of capitalization.
- Subheadings should begin on a new line.
- Subheadings can be distinguished by font-size.
- Ensure that each level of hierarchy is clear and consistent.
- Levels of subheads can be differentiated by type style, use of boldface or italics, and placement on the page, usually either centered or flush left.
- Use no more than three levels of hierarchy.
- Avoid ending subheadings with periods.
Turabian has an optional system of five heading levels.
Turabian Subheading Plan
Here is an example of the five-level heading system:
Tables and Figures
- Position tables and figures as soon as possible after they are first referenced. If necessary, present them after the paragraph in which they are described.
- For figures, include a caption, or short explanation of the figure or illustration, directly after the figure number.
- Cite a source as you would for parenthetical citation, and include full information in an entry on your Bibliography or References page.
- Acknowledge reproduced or adapted sources appropriately (i.e., photo by; data adapted from; map by...).
- If a table includes data not acquired by the author of the text, include an unnumbered footnote. Introduce the note by the word Source(s) followed by a colon, then include the full source information, and end the note with a period.
How to Cite the Purdue OWL in CMOS
On the new OWL site, contributors’ names and the last edited date are no longer listed at the top of every page. This means that most citations will now begin with the title of the resource, rather than the contributors' names.
Footnote or Endnote (N):
Corresponding Bibliographical Entry (B):
“Title of Resource.” List the OWL as Publishing Organization/Web Site Name . http://Web address for OWL resource.
“General Format.” The Purdue OWL. https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/717/02/.
Author Date In-text Citation:
("General Format" 2017).
Author Date References Page Citation:
Year of Publication. “Title of Resource.” List the OWL as Publishing Organization/Web Site Name . http://Web address for OWL resource.
2017. “General Format.” The Purdue OWL . https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/717/02.
Chicago Style Guide - 17th Edition
- Chicago Style
- Title Page and Pagination
- Quotations and Signal Phrases
- Chicago's Citation Parts
- Articles - Online
- Articles - Print
- Blogs and Social Media
- Government Publications
- Elders & Knowledge Keepers
- Other Sources
- Secondary Sources
- Generative AI Tools (e.g., ChatGPT, DALL·E 2)
- Author/Date (Scientific) System
- Need More Help?
Hints for Successful Bibliographies
- Make your life easier by starting your bibliography as soon as you find a source you might use.
Having a separate working document started to track your resources means you can add and delete citations as you conduct your research. This way, your bibliography will be almost complete even before you finish writing your paper–a huge help to avoid the stress of having to undertake the detail-oriented work of creating a full bibliography as your deadline draws near!
- Use the *Cite* tool in the Camosun Library Databases, then edit for correct formatting.
- For more tips check out the Academic Integrity Guide !
Citing Works by the Same Author in a Bibliography
Citing Different Works by the Same Author in a Bibliography
The use of three em dashes (———.) was previously used in Chicago style reference lists in place of multiple successive entries of a single author's name. However, in it's 17 th edition, the Chicago Manual of Style discourages the use of three em dashes (———.) to replace author's names. This adaptation is due largely to changes in publishing technologies.
To correctly cite two or more works by the same author in your bibliography, arrange entries chronologically from oldest to newest publication.
LastName, FirstName. Title of Work . PlacePublished: Publisher, OldestPublicationYear.
LastName, FirstName. Title of Work . PlacePublished: Publisher, MostRecentPublicationYear.
Maracle, Lee. Celia's Song . Toronto: Cormorant Books, 2014.
Maracle, Lee. Talking to the Diaspora . Winnipeg: ARP Books, 2015.
Maracle, Lee. My Conversations with Canadians . Toronto: BookThug, 2017.
The way you cite different works by the same author in your footnotes or endnotes does not change. This variation is for bibliographies only .
Writing a Bibliography
The Chicago notes and bibliography (humanities) style uses notes (either footnotes or endnotes) and a bibliography at the end of the paper.
It is strongly recommended, but not absolutely required, that you cite your sources in both notes and a bibliography. If you are considering not providing a bibliography, be sure to consult your instructor first since it is still standard practice to include both notes and a bibliography.
Key formatting aspects of formatting a bibliography in the Chicago style include:
- The bibliography is a list of all the sources you have used to research your paper.
- It appears on a separate page at the end of the essay and is titled "Bibliography" (centred, no quotation marks, no underline).
- The bibliography is arranged alphabetically by the author’s last name or by the title, if there is no author.
- Citations in the bibliography are single spaced within entries , but double-spaced between entries (unless your instructor prefers double-spacing throughout).
- The bibliography is arranged alphabetically by the author’s last name , or, if there is no author, by the first word in the title. When arranging the list ignore, but do not omit, “The”, “An” or “A” at the beginning of the title.
- After the first line, each entry is indented ½ inch or 5 spaces from the left margin. This is called a hanging indent .
- Each entry presents information in a specific order : the author’s name, the title, the publication information.
- Citations must appear both in the text of your paper (as footnotes or endnotes) and in the bibliography at the end of your paper.
For an excellent sample of a bibliography , check out the Chicago Manual of Style Sample Paper (notes and bibliography/humanities style) from the Purdue University Online Writing Lab.
Bibliographies - The Hanging Indent in MS Word
The Hanging Indent
In the Chicago style, after the first line of each bibliographic citation, each entry is indented ½ inch or 5 spaces from the left margin. This is called a hanging indent . Formatting the hanging indent can sometimes be a frustrating task. If you are using MS Word to produce your research paper, you may find it helpful to reveal the ruler tool while you work.
- Go to the "View" tab.
- In the "Show" section, click the box next to the word "Ruler."
- The ruler and indentation markers will now be revealed.
- Click on and drag the " hanging indent marker " (upwards pointing lower section of the hour-glass shape) to the right to set the hanging indent to the desired position ( ½ inch from the left margin) .
By setting the hanging indent marker before you begin your bibliography , your entries will be created with the correct indentation formatting as you type or paste them into the Word document – saving time for more important work (like writing the paper itself!).
You can also use the hanging indent marker to adjust the indents of bibliographic entries you have already made . Try selecting all of the text on the page while moving the hanging indent marker to adjust all entries at once. Entries will need to be separated by a hard return (also known as a hard break or full carriage return) in order for this to work.
Making an Annotated Bibliography
An annotated bibliography contains descriptive or evaluative comments on the sources included in a bibliography. Each entry consists of two parts: the citation and the annotation .
Annotations are usually brief and limited to approximately 100 to 300 words . However, always be sure to check with your instructor to see what the required word count is for your specific assignment.
Annotations come in various forms. Depending on assignment requirements, they can be merely descriptive, summarizing the authors' qualifications, research methods, and arguments, or contain evaluative information about the quality of scholarship in a resource. Such evaluative information may consider the logic of authors' arguments and the quality of their evidence.
For more information , see the Camosun guide, Annotated Bibliography: How to Create One .
Allen, Donald M., ed. The New American Poetry . New York: Grove Press,1960.
Concentrates on the postwar period from 1945 to 1960 and presents the work of poets who identified themselves with anti-formalist movements or waves, often associated with fugitive publications and little magazines.
Battle, Ken. "Child Poverty: The Evolution and Impact of Child Benefits." In A Question of Commitment: Children's Rights in Canada , edited by Katherine Covell and Howe, R. Brian, 21-44. Waterloo, ON: Wilfrid Laurier University Press, 2007.
Ken Battle draws on a close study of government documents, as well as his own research as an extensively-published policy analyst, to explain Canadian child benefit programs. He outlines some fundamental assumptions supporting the belief that all society members should contribute to the upbringing of children. His comparison of child poverty rates in a number of countries is a useful wake-up to anyone assuming Canadian society is doing a good job of protecting children. Battle pays particular attention to the National Child Benefit (NCB), arguing that it did not deserve to be criticized by politicians and journalists. He outlines the NCB’s development, costs, and benefits, and laments that the Conservative government scaled it back in favour of the inferior Universal Child Care Benefit (UCCB). However, he relies too heavily on his own work; he is the sole or primary author of almost half the sources in his bibliography. He could make this work stronger by drawing from others' perspectives and analyses. However, Battle does offer a valuable source for this essay, because the chapter provides a concise overview of government-funded assistance currently available to parents. This offers context for analyzing the scope and financial reality of child poverty in Canada.
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The ultimate guide to citing anything in chicago style, everything you ever needed to know about citing sources from the chicago manual of style, the basics of citing in chicago style.
The Chicago Manual of Style, currently in its 16th edition, was created to help researchers properly cite their sources. There are two types of referencing styles in Chicago: 1) Notes and Bibliography and 2) Author-Date.
This guide displays the Notes and Bibliography style of referencing and is not associated with the official publishers of the style.
Need help with other styles? Our thorough MLA format and APA format guides are available for all of your writing and citing needs!
Creating a Bibliography in Chicago Style
The bibliography is a list of all the sources used in the paper. The list includes the important publication details of the sources. The bibliography must also follow this format:
- The citation list or bibliography must be single spaced.
- The last names of the authors must be arranged alphabetically.
- The second line of the source must be indented.
Examples of Citing Different Sources in Chicago Style
Generally, Chicago citations require:
- Title of book/article
- Title of newspaper/journal
- Publication year
- Publication month and date
- City of publication
- Date of access
- Page numbers
- URL or Name of Database
How to Create Footnotes and Endnotes for Chicago Style
If you’re wondering how to format Chicago in-text citations, Notes and Bibliography formatting requires writers to use footnotes and endnotes. These footnotes and endnotes acknowledge the different sources used in the work.
When a source is used in a research paper, a roman numeral is placed at the end of the borrowed information as superscript (it is smaller than the normal line of text and raised). That number correlates with a footnote or endnote.
- Footnotes are found at the bottom of the page
- Endnotes are added at the end of the chapter or project
- A footnote or endnote contains the complete citation information
- The matching number in the footnote or endnote is normal sized and not raised
- It is up to the discretion of the writer to either place the citation at the bottom of the page where the superscript is placed (a footnote) or to place all citations together at the end of the work (endnotes)
One would wonder, "Would young Einstein be characterized as belonging somewhere on the autism spectrum? Would Erdos have been given a diagnosis of A.D.H.D.?" ¹
Chicago style footnotes are placed at the bottom of the page:
- Silver, Nate. "Beautiful Minds." The New York Times. July 13, 2013. Accessed August 04, 2015. http://www.nytimes.com/2013/07/14/books/review/the-boy-who-loved-math-and-on-a-beam-of-light.html?ref=books&_r=0 .
If a source is used more than once in a research project, follow these guidelines:
- When used again, instead of writing out the complete citation for a second time in the footnote, only include: the author’s last name, the title or a phrase for the title (if it’s more than four words), and the page number(s) that were used. This will reduce the bulk of citation information in the paper.
- Cohen, Micah, "Rubio is Losing Support Among Republican Voters." FiveThirtyEight. July 09, 2013. Accessed August 04, 2015. http://fivethirtyeight.com/features/rubio-is-losing-support-among-republican-voters/
- Wolf, Leon H. "Marco Rubio's Campaign Must Adapt or Die." RedState. August 04, 2015. Accessed August 04, 2015. http://www.redstate.com/2015/08/04/marco-rubios-campaign-must-adapt-die/ .
- Cohen, "Rubio Losing Support"
If a source is used consecutively, follow these guidelines for shortened citation and ibid :
If you are citing the same source continually throughout your text, use a shortened version of the full citation in your footnotes.
Previous versions of the style used the abbreviation “ibid,” short for “ibidem.” Ibidem is a Latin word that means “in the same place.” It was used when referring to a source that was just cited within a document (without other sources in between). Writers would use ibid instead of writing out the source information again. This was meant to save space since it’s fewer characters than citing the source again.
In the current version of Chicago, the 17th version, ibid is accepted but not preferred. This is because ibid requires readers to go back and search for the previous source cited, an inconvenience which outweighs the benefits of shortening the citation. Also, shortened citations are compact, so using ibid doesn’t always save line space.
The first mention of a source should include all relevant information (e.g., full author name(s), full title, publisher, date published, etc.).
Subsequent mentions should be a shortened version using this formula:
Last Name, Title of the Work , page number(s).
Mentions after the shortened form can use the abbreviated formula:
Last Name, page number(s).
If there are two or three authors, list their full names in the order they appear in the source. If there are more than three authors, list the first author’s name followed by “et al.”
Examples of using shortened citations (preferred format in the 17th Edition):
- Philip R. Cateora et al., International Marketing (New York: McGraw Hill, 2020), 292-294.
- Cateora et al., International Marketing , 28-29.
- Cateora et al., 28-29.
- Cateora et al., 377.
Long titles that are more than four words are usually shortened. Focus on keeping key words from the title and omitting any beginning “a” or “the.” Examples:
- And to Think That I Saw It on Mulberry Street = Mulberry Street
- Fried Green Tomatoes at the Whistle Stop Cafe = Fried Green Tomatoes
If you are using the discontinued ibid notation, here are a few guidelines:
- When the same source is used consecutively, instead of typing in the citation information again, use the abbreviation “ibid.” Add the page numbers immediately following.
- If the same source AND same page number are used consecutively, simply write “Ibid.”
Same example above, but using ibid:
- Philip R. Cateora et al, International Marketing (New York: McGraw Hill, 2020), 292-294.
Another example with two sources that were mentioned earlier in the text:
- Anthony Doerr, All the Light We Cannot See (New York: Scribner, 2014), 82-84.
- Tatiana de Rosnay, Sarah's Key (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2007), 24-27.
- Ibid., 133-134.
- Doerr, All the Light We Cannot See , 397-401.
- Ibid., 405.
- Ibid., 411.
For further clarification on the Chicago in-text citation style of footnotes and endnotes, consult the Chicago Manual of Style's website . This site is full of helpful pages, so if you’re tempted to head to Google to type in, “in-text citations Chicago,” take a peek at the official site first.
Creating Your Citations in Chicago Style
As mentioned, when you're following The Chicago Manual of Style, you'll be required to create a list of all sources used in your paper. Even though full bibliographic information can be found in the footnotes and endnotes, it is still acceptable, and often required by instructors, to create a bibliography. The bibliography is placed at the end of an assignment.
How to Cite a Print Book in Chicago Style
In the footnotes and endnotes:
First name Last name, Title of Book (Publication Place: Publisher, Year), page range.
In the bibliography:
Last name, First name. Title of book . Publication Place: Publisher, Year.
Example of Chicago Style for Books with One Author
Sam Staggs, Born to Be Hurt: The Untold Story of Imitation of Life (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2009), 84.
Staggs, Sam. Born to Be Hurt: The Untold Story of Imitation of Life. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2009.
Don’t forget, Citation Machine allows you to generate Chicago citations for books quickly and accurately.
Example of Chicago Citation for Books with Multiple Authors
Ella Shohat and Robert Stam, Unthinking Eurocentrism: Multiculturalism and the Media (London: Routledge,1994) 24-28.
Shohat, Ella, and Robert Stam. Unthinking Eurocentrism: Multiculturalism and the Media . London: Routledge, 1994.
How to Cite Chapters or Articles from a Book in Chicago Style
First name, Last name of Chapter Author, “Chapter or Article Title,” in Book Title , ed. First Name Last Name of Editor (Publication Place: Publisher, Year), page range.
Last name, First name. "Chapter Title." In Book Title , edited by First Name Last Name, page range. Publication Place: Publisher, Year.
Looking for a simple and easy-to-use Chicago citation maker? Head to our homepage and start building your Chicago format references with ease!
Example of Chicago Citation for Chapters in a Book
Laura Aymerich-Franch and Maddalena Fedele, "Student's Privacy Concerns on the Use of Social Media in Higher Education," in Cutting-Edge Technologies and Social Media Use in Higher Education, ed. Vledlena Benson and Stephanie Morgan (Hershey, PA: Information Science Reference, 2014), 35-36.
Aymerich-Franch, Laura, and Maddalena Fedele. "Student's Privacy Concerns on the Use of Social Media in Higher Education." In Cutting-Edge Technologies and Social Media Use in Higher Education, edited by Vledlena Benson and Stephanie Morgan, 35-36. Hershey, PA: Information Science Reference, 2014.
How to Cite Online E-books in Chicago Style
When citing e-books, include the URL or the name of the database. The URL or database name should be the last part of the citation.
First name Last name, Title of e-book (Place of Publication: Publisher, Year), page range, URL, Database Name.
Last name, First name. Title of Book. Publication Place: Publisher, Year. URL, Name of Database.
Example of Chicago Citation for E-Books
Michael J. Baker, The Marketing Book (Burlington, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann, 2002), 89, https://htbiblio.yolasite.com/resources/Marketing%20Book.pdf .
Baker, Michael J. The Marketing Book. Burlington, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann, 2002. https://htbiblio.yolasite.com/resources/Marketing%20Book.pdf .
If you understand how to structure your references easily, thanks to this thorough guide, and are looking for help with the written portion of your paper, look no further! There are tons of Citation Machine grammar guides to help you write with ease. Here’s just one of our many useful pages: Positive & Negative Adjectives .
How to Cite E-books in Chicago Style E-books from a Kindle or E-book Reader
If there aren’t any clearly labeled page numbers, use chapter numbers or titles, section numbers or titles, or any other established numbering system in the text. It’s also acceptable to omit page information from Chicago style citations if there aren’t clearly labeled page numbers.
First name Last name, Title of the Book (Place of Publication: Publisher, Year), page range, Type of E-reader
Last name, First name. Title of book . Publication Place: Publisher, Year. Type of e-reader.
Example of Chicago Citation for Kindle or E-book Reader
Corina Bomann, The Moonlight Garden (Washington: AmazonCrossing, 2016), chap. 8, Kindle.
Bomann, Corina. The Moonlight Garden . Washington: AmazonCrossing, 2016. Kindle.
How to Cite Print Journals in Chicago Style
First name Last name, "Title of Article," Journal Title Volume Number, No. of issue (Year): Page range.
Chicago style citation in the bibliography:
Last name, First name. "Title of Article," Journal Title Volume Number, No. of issue (Year): Page range.
Example of Chicago Citation for Print Journals
Damien O'Brien and Brian Fitzgerald, "Digital Copyright Law in a YouTube World," Internet Law Bulletin 9, no. 6 (2007): 71-74.
O'Brien, Damien, and Brian Fitzgerald, "Digital Copyright Law in a YouTube World." Internet Law Bulletin 9, no. 6 (2007): 71-74.
If you’re come this far and you’re still searching for in-text citation Chicago information, remember, this style uses footnotes and endnotes! Scroll up to find out more!
How to Cite Online or Database Journals in Chicago Style
First name Last name, "Article Title," Journal Title Volume Number, Issue No.(Year): Page range. URL or Name of Database.
Last name, First name. "Article Title." Journal Title Volume Number, Issue No. (Year): Page range. URL or Name of Database.
Example of Chicago Citation for Online or Database Journals
Trine Schreiber, "Conceptualizing Students’ Written Assignments in the Context of Information Literacy and Schatzki’s Practice Theory," Journal of Documentation 70, no. 3 (2014): 346-363. https://doi.org/10.1108/JD-01-2013-0002 .
Schreiber, Trine. "Conceptualizing Students’ Written Assignments in the Context of Information Literacy and Schatzki’s Practice Theory." Journal of Documentation 70, no. 3 (2014): 346-363. https://doi.org/10.1108/JD-01-2013-0002 .
Our Citation Machine Chicago citation generator helps you create your references in just a few clicks. Give it a whirl and watch the magic unfold!
How to Cite Print Magazines in Chicago Style
First name Last name, "Article Title," Magazine Title, Full Date, page range.
Last name, First name. "Article Title." Magazine Title, Full Date.
Example of Chicago Citation for Print Magazines
George J. Church, "Sunny Mood at Midsummer: Americans Take a Brighter View of Reagan," _Time, July 18, 1983, 56-59.
Church, George J. "Sunny Mood at Midsummer: Americans Take a Brighter View of Reagan" Time, July 18, 1983.
How to Cite Online Magazines in Chicago Style
First name, Last name, "Article Title," Title of Magazine, Full Date, URL.
Chicago style bibliography structure:
Last name, First name. "Article Title" Magazine Title, Full Date, URL.
Example of Chicago Citation for Online Magazines
Bill Donahue. “King of the Mountains,” Backpacker, September/October 2019, 76-82, http://backpacker.eoncontent.ebscohost.com/2226647#&pageSet=39
Donahue, Bill. “King of the Mountains.” Backpacker, September/October 2019. http://backpacker.eoncontent.ebscohost.com/2226647#&pageSet=39
How to Cite a Web Page in Chicago Style
Creating a footnote, endnote, or bibliographic information for web content isn’t always necessary. It’s acceptable to simply mention the source in the written portion of the paper. For example, “The Marco Polo page on History’s website, last updated on March 6, 2019, describes his travels along the Silk Road while....” Include formal Chicago citation style references if you or your professor prefers to do so.
A bit more:
- If the website page is missing a date of publication, include the date the source was last modified or accessed in the footnote and endnote.
- If the website page is missing the name of the author, begin the footnote with the “Title of the Article or Page.”
First name Last name of Author, "Title of Article or Page," Title of Website, Date published or last modified or accessed, URL.
Last name, First name or Organization Name. "Title of Article or Page." Title of Website. Date published or last modified or accessed. URL.
Figuring out how to style web references can be tricky, but thanks to our Chicago citation machine, we’ve made the whole process much easier for you. Try it out!
Example of Chicago Citation for a Web Page
Sujan Patel, "15 Must-have Marketing Tools for 2015," Entrepreneur, January 12, 2015. http://www.entrepreneur.com/article/241570 .
Patel, Sujan. “15 Must-have Marketing Tools for 2015.” Entrepreneur. January 12, 2015. http://www.entrepreneur.com/article/241570 .
Don’t forget, Citation Machine allows you to generate Chicago citations for websites quickly and accurately.
How to Cite The Bible or Religious Texts in Chicago Style
Bible references are often displayed in the text of a paper (similar to web content) or in footnotes and endnotes. Formal bible references in bibliographies are not necessary.
Abbreviated Title of Book, Chapter:Verse (Edition).
Example of Chicago Citation for Bible
2 Cor. 11:7 (New Standard Version).
If you’re looking for other resources to help you with the written portion of your paper, we have quite a few handy grammar guides. Two of our favorites? Adjectives starting with X and List of verbs .
How to Cite Blogs in Chicago Style
*According to the 17th edition of the manual, blogs are not typically cited in bibliographies. They are generally cited in the footnotes/endnotes section. Of course, if the writer or professor prefers a full bibliographic reference, one can be created.
Style notes and bibliographic references the same way as you would an online newspaper, but include (blog) in parentheses immediately following the title of the blog.
First name Last name, "Title of Blog Post," Title of Blog (blog), Title of Larger Blog, if part of a larger one, Month Day Year of post, URL.
Last Name, First Name. "Title of the Blog." Name of Blog Site (blog). Title of Larger Blog, if part of a larger one, Month Day Year of post. URL.
Example of Chicago Citation for Blogs
Shannon Miller, "Valentine Ideas Using Digital Tools, Hands, Creativity, and a Little Love for Padlet," The Library Voice (blog), January 20, 2016, http://vanmeterlibraryvoice.blogspot.com/2016/01/valentine-ideas-using-digital-tools.html .
Miller, Shannon. "Valentine Ideas Using Digital Tools, Hands, Creativity, and a Little Love for Padlet." The Library Voice, January 20, 2016. http://vanmeterlibraryvoice.blogspot.com/2016/01/valentine-ideas-using-digital-tools.html .
Chicago style bibliographies aren’t as complicated as they seem, especially when you have a generator to do the work for you. Head to our homepage and try ours out!
How to Cite TV Broadcasts in Chicago Style
Title of Series , episode number, “Title of Episode,” directed by First Name Last Name, written by First Name Last Name, featuring First Names Last Names of actors, aired Month Day, Year, on Station Name, URL.
Last Name, First Name, dir. Title of Series . Season Number, episode number, “Title of Episode.” Aired Month Day, Year, on Station Name. URL.
Example of Chicago Citation for Broadcasts
Riverdale , episode 15, “American Dreams,” directed by Gabriel Correra, written by Roberto Aguirre-Sacasa, featuring KJ Apa, Lili Reinhart, and Cole Sprouse, aired March 13, 2019, on CW.
Bibliography Chicago style:
Correra, Gabriel, dir. Riverdale . Season 3, episode 15, “American Dreams.” Aired March 13, 2019, on CW.
How to Cite a Case Study in Chicago Style
First name Last name. Title of Case Study. (Publication Place: Publisher, Year).
Last name, First name. Title of Case Study.
Example of Chicago Citation for Case Study
Peter Finn. Disulfiram.
Finn, Peter. Disulfiram.
How to Cite Conference Proceedings in Chicago Style
First Name Last Name, “Title of Conference Paper” (format, Title of Conference, Location, Full Date).
Last name, First name. “Title of Conference Paper.” Format presented at Title of Conference, Location, Date. URL.
Example of Chicago Citation for Conference Paper
Craig Myerson, “Historical Markings in New Castle, Delaware” (Power-Point presentation, The University of Delaware, Newark, DE, June 18, 2019.
Myerson, Craig. “Historical Markings in New Castle, Delaware.” Power-point presentation presented at The University of Delaware, Newark, DE, June 18, 2019.
How to Cite Court or Legal Cases in Chicago Style
The 17th edition of The Chicago Manual of Style recommends referring to The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation , or the ALWD Guide to Legal Citation to learn how to create court or legal references. Both guides are widely used by those in legal fields and have become the standard for referencing legal cases.
The examples below reflect the format found in The Bluebook .
Legal cases are rarely documented in bibliographies, usually only in notes.
Plaintiff v. Defendant, Court Case Number (Abbreviated Name of the Court. Year).
Example of Chicago Citation for Legal Cases
Michael Clum v. Jackson National Life Insurance Co., 10-000126-CL (Ingham Cty. 2011).
How to Cite Dictionary and Encyclopedia Entries in Chicago Style
According to The Chicago Manual of Style, 17th Edition, well-known reference books, including major dictionaries and encyclopedias, are normally cited in notes rather than bibliographies. Lesser known reference books can be cited in the bibliography.
The abbreviation "s.v." means sub verbo , which is Latin for "under the word."
Chicago style formatting in the footnotes and endnotes:
Name of dictionary or encyclopedia , Numbered ed. (Year), s.v. “term.”
If found online:
Name of dictionary or encyclopedia , s.v. "term," accessed Month Day Year, url.
Last name, First name of Author. Title of Dictionary or Encyclopedia . Numbered ed. Location of Publisher: Publisher, Year.
Example of Chicago Citation for Dictionary and Encyclopedia Entries
Encyclopedia Britannica , s.v. “pressure,” accessed September 15, 2019, https://www.britannica.com/science/pressure .
Gover, Emily. Encyclopedia of Birds . 4th ed. New York: Chegg, 2016.
How to Cite Dissertations in Chicago Style
First name Last name, "Title of Dissertation" (type of paper, school, year), url.
Last name, First name. "Title of Dissertation." Type of Paper, School, Year. URL or Database(Identification Number).
Example of Chicago Citation for Dissertations
Michele Kirschenbaum, "Young Students' Online Searching Capabilities" (master's thesis, Drexel University, 2009).
Kirschenbaum, Michele. "Young Students' Online Searching Capabilities." Master's thesis, Drexel University, 2009.
How to Cite DVDs, Video, and Film in Chicago Style
Title , directed by First Name Last name (Year; City, State Abbrev: Producer), Format.
Last Name, First Name, dir. Title . Year; City, State Abbrev: Producer, Year. Format.
Example of Chicago Citation for Film, DVDs, or Videos
_Home Lone , directed by Chris Columbus (1990; Los Angeles, CA: 20th Century Fox), DVD.
Columbus, Chris, dir. Home Alone . 1990; Los Angeles, CA: 20th Century Fox. DVD.
Don’t forget, Citation Machine allows you to generate Chicago citations for films quickly and accurately.
How to Cite Facebook Pages in Chicago Style
Title of Facebook Page, “Text of Post,” Facebook, Month Day, Year, URL.
Title of Facebook Page. “Text of Post.” Facebook, Month Day, Year. URL.
Example of Chicago Citation for Facebook Post
Awakenings, “Maceo Plex gave us goosebumps during Awakenings Festival! We can't wait to hear what he has in store during Maceo Plex x Lone Romantic | Awakenings ADE Elementenstraat on October 19:awak.enin.gs/2KMxDCH,” Facebook, September 12, 2019, https://www.facebook.com/pg/awakenings/posts/?ref=page_internal .
Awakenings. “Maceo Plex gave us goosebumps during Awakenings Festival! We can't wait to hear what he has in store during Maceo Plex x Lone Romantic | Awakenings ADE Elementenstraat on October 19:awak.enin.gs/2KMxDCH.” Facebook, September 12, 2019. https://www.facebook.com/pg/awakenings/posts/?ref=page_internal .
How to Cite Government Publications in Chicago Style
Title of Publication , prepared by Organization (City, State Abbrev, Year).
Firm/Department. Title of Publication . City, State Abbrev, Year.
Example of Chicago Citation for Government Publication
Audit of the Federal Bureau of Prisons Annual Financial Statements Fiscal Year 2014 , prepared by The Department of Justice (Washington, DC, 2014).
Department of Justice. Audit of the Federal Bureau of Prisons Annual Financial Statements Fiscal Year 2014 . Washington, DC, 2014.
How to Cite Interviews in Chicago Style
Published Interviews are treated in Chicago format style like an article in a magazine or a newspaper. Use one of those formats to cite your interview.
How to Cite an E-mail in Chicago Style
According to The Chicago Manual of Style , 17th edition, personal communications, such as letters, e-mails, text messages, and phone calls are usually referenced in the footnotes and endnotes or explained in the text of the paper. They are rarely listed in the Chicago style bibliography. In addition, an e-mail address belonging to an individual should be omitted, unless given permission by its owner.
Individual's First name Last name, type of communication, Month Day Year of correspondence.
Example of Chicago Citation for E-mail
Michele Kirschenbaum, e-mail message to author, January 18, 2016.
How to Cite Musical Recordings in Chicago Style
"Title of Song," Year of recording date, Platform, track number on Artist’s Name, Album Title, Producer, Year.
Last name, First name of performer. Title of Album. Recorded Year. Producer.
Example of Chicago Citation for Recordings
"Sucker,” Spotify, track 1, on Jonas Brothers, Happiness Begins , Republic Records, 2019.
Jonas Brothers. Happiness Begins . 2019. Republic Records.
Still wondering how to style a Chicago in-text citation? Remember, this style uses footnotes and endnotes! Head to the top of this page to learn more!
How to Cite Online Videos in Chicago Style
First name Last name of individual who posted the video, “Title of Video,” Producer, published on Month Day, Year, Site video, Length, URL.
Last name, First name. "Title of Video." Producer. Published on Month Day, Year. Site video, Length. URL.
Example of Chicago Citation for Online Videos
“Habitats Work in Texas After Hurricane Harvey,” Habitat for Habitat for Humanity, published on September 11, 2019, YouTube video, 01:35, https://youtu.be/EPPALfWYGRo .
“Habitats Works in Texas After Hurricane Harvey.” Habitat for Humanity. Published on September 11, 2019. YouTube video, 01:35. https://youtu.be/EPPALfWYGRo .
How to Cite Images in Chicago Style
First name Last name, Title of Image , Year, format, Location, State, URL.
Last Name, First Name. Title of Image . Date. Format. Location, State, URL.
Example of Chicago Citation for Photographs and Images
Jerome Liebling, May Day , New York, 1948, photograph, The Jewish Museum, New York.
Liebling, Chris. May Day , New York. 1948. Photograph. The Jewish Museum, New York.
How to Cite Live Performances in Chicago Style
Since most live performances are not retrievable by the reader, simply refer to them in the text of the paper or in the notes, and omit it from the bibliography. If it’s a recorded performance, follow the Chicago style format for musical recordings.
Title of Play , music and lyrics by First Name Last Name, dir. First Name Last name, chor. Name of Theatre, City, State Abbrev, Date of Live Performance.
Example of Chicago Citation for Live Performances
The Lion King , Julie Taymor, dir. Garth Fagan, chor. Minskoff Theatre, New York, NY, August 8, 2019.
How to Cite Podcasts in Chicago Style
When citing podcasts in Chicago Style, treat it as an article in a periodical or a chapter in a book. If found online, include the url.
How to Cite Poems in Chicago Style
When citing poems in Chicago Style, cite it as you would a chapter in a book.
How to Cite Presentations and Lectures in Chicago Style
Follow the same guidelines as in the “Conference Papers” section above.
How to Cite Sheet Music in Chicago Style
According to the Chicago Manual of Style, 17th edition, cite sheet music the same way as you cite books.
Once you’ve styled each and every reference, take a minute to run your paper through our plagiarism checker . It’s the perfect go-to resource when you’re in need of another set of eyes to scan your paper!
Updated January 8, 2020
Written and edited by Michele Kirschenbaum and Wendy Ikemoto. Michele Kirschenbaum has been an awesome school librarian since 2006 and is an expert in citing sources. Wendy Ikemoto has a master’s degree in library and information science and has been working for Citation Machine since 2012.
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Chicago Style Guide, for 17th Edition
- Paper Formatting
- Style Handbooks
- Footnotes vs. Endnotes
- Books / E-books
- Interviews / Personal Communications
- Audiovisual Materials
- Shortened Citations
- Author-Date References
- Books / E-Books
- Journal Articles
- Magazine Articles
- Newspaper Articles
- Interviews / Personal Communication
- Website / Webpage
Both footnote/endnote citations and author-date citations require a bibliography or cited reference section.
The way a bibliographic entry is structured will be the same regardless of which in-text citation style you use, with one exception: if you used author-date as your in-text citation style, you will place the publication date immediately after the author section, as opposed to at/near the end. This makes it easier for readers to find the appropriate citation in your reference list.
For example, here is a bibliographic reference entry for the same resource in each style:
Judt, Tony. A Grand Illusion? An Essay on Europe. New York: Hill and Wang, 1996.
Judt, Tony. 1996. A Grand Illusion? An Essay on Europe. New York: Hill and Wang.
As you can see, the only difference between these two reference entries is the date placement. All other elements are listed in the same order.
General Bibliography Rules
- The bibliography should start on a new page, 12 pt. font (Times New Roman), and be titled ‘Bibliography’ at the top.
- Leave two blank lines between your bibliography title and the first entry.
- Use proper formatting for each type of source and always using a hanging indent. The first line of the citation will begin on the margin, subsequent lines are indented (opposite of a footnote/endnote).
- The bibliography should be alphabetical.
- Entries should be typed single-space but there should be a blank line between each separate citation.
- If you have multiple bibliographic entries from the same author, it is acceptable to use what is called the ‘3-em’ dash to replace the name of the content creators. For Example:
Judt, Tony. A Grand Illusion ? An Essay on Europe. New York: Hill and Wang, 1996.
—. Reappraisals: Reflections on the Forgotten Twentieth Century. New York: Penguin Press, 2008.
—, ed. Resistance and Revolution in Mediterranean Europe, 1939-1948. New York: Routledge, 1989.
There are many websites where you can get help with citing sources and formatting papers. Here are a few websites that can be trusted and provide excellent examples using Chicago Manual of Style:
Purdue University OWL
How to Cite Electronic Sources (Library of Congress)
Turabian Quick Guide (Kate Turabian)
NoodleTools helps you write citations in MLA, APA, or Chicago format, and create annotated bibliographies. It also has tools to create notecards, draft an outline of your paper and keep track of "To Do" tasks. Citations can be exported directly to your Google Drive, or to Word or other formats.
How to Set-up and Use NoodleTools
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Chicago Citation Guide (17th Edition): Sample Paper, Bibliography, & Annotated Bibliography
- What Kind of Source Is This?
- Books, eBooks & Pamphlets
- Book Reviews
- Class Handouts, Presentations, and Readings
- Encyclopedias & Dictionaries
- Government Documents
- Images, Artwork, and Maps
- Interviews and Emails (Personal Communications)
- Journal Articles
- Magazine Articles
- Newspaper Articles
- Primary Sources
- Religious Texts
- Social Media
- Videos & DVDs
- Works Quoted in Another Source
- No Author, No Date etc.
- Sample Paper, Bibliography, & Annotated Bibliography
- Powerpoint Presentations
On this Page
General paper formatting guidelines, quick rules for a chicago bibliography.
What is an Annotated Bibliography?
Writing an Evaluative Annotation
Tips on Writing & Formatting an Annotated Bibliography
Sample Paper with Bibliography
- Chicago Sample Paper
This sample paper can be used as a template to set up your assignment. It includes a title page, main body paragraph with footnotes, and a bibliography.
Sample Paper with Appendix
- Chicago Sample Paper Template - with Appendix
If you are adding an appendix to your paper there are a few rules to follow that comply with Chicago guidelines:
- The Appendix appears before the Bibliography
- If you have more than one appendix you would name the first appendix Appendix A, the second Appendix B, etc.
- The appendices should appear in the order that the information is mentioned in your essay
- Each appendix begins on a new page
Sample Annotated Bibliography
This sample annotated bibliography shows you the structure you should use to write a Chicago style annotated bibliography and gives examples of evaluative and summary annotations.
It can be used as a template to set up your assignment.
- End-of-Paper Checklist
Finished your assignment? Use this checklist to be sure you haven't missed any information needed for Chicago style.
Useful Links for Annotated Bibliographies
Overview of purpose and form of annotated bibliographies from the Purdue OWL.
Includes a sample annotation from a Chicago Manual of Style annotated bibliography. From the Purdue OWL.
An example of an MLA annotated bibliography. From the Purdue OWL.
Assemble your paper in the following order:
- Body of paper
- Appendix (if needed)
Use Times New Roman, Size 12 (unless otherwise instructed).
Margins and Indents
Your margins should be 1 inch on all sides.
Indent new paragraphs by one-half inch.
Double-space the main text of your paper.
Single-space the footnotes and bibliography, but add a blank line between entries.
Start numbering your pages on the second page of your paper (don't include the title page).
Put your page numbers in the header of the first page of text (skip the title page), beginning with page number 1. Continue numbering your pages to the end of the bibliography.
Place the footnote number at the end of the sentence in which you have quoted or paraphrased information from another source. The footnote number should be in superscript, and be placed after any punctuation.
Put your footnotes in the footer section of the page.
Your research paper ends with a list of all the sources cited in the text of the paper. This is called a bibliography.
See an example in the "Sample Paper with Bibliography" box on this page.
Here are nine quick rules for this list:
- Start a new page for your bibliography (e.g. If your paper is 4 pages long, start your bibliography on page 5).
- Centre the title, Bibliography, at the top of the page and do not bold or underline it. Look for the alignment option in Word.
- Leave two blank lines between the title and the first entry on your list.
- Single-space the list, but leave one blank line between entries.
- Start the first line of each citation at the left margin; each subsequent line should be indented (also known as a "hanging indent").
- Put your list in alphabetical order. Alphabetize the list by the first word in the citation. In most cases, the first word will be the author’s last name. Where the author is unknown, alphabetize by the first word in the title, ignoring the words a, an, the.
- For each author, give the last name followed by a comma and the first name followed by a period.
- Italicize the titles of full works , such as: books, videos (films and television shows), artwork, images, maps, journals, newspapers, magazines.
- Do not italicize titles of parts of works , such as: articles from newspapers, magazines, or journals / essays, poems, short stories or chapter titles from a book / chapters or sections of an Internet document. Instead, use quotation marks.
What Is An Annotated Bibliography?
An annotated bibliography is a list of citations for various books, articles, and other sources on a topic. The annotated bibliography looks like a Works Cited page but includes an annotation after each source cited. An annotation is a short summary and/or critical evaluation of a source. Annotated bibliographies can be part of a larger research project, or can be a stand-alone report in itself.
Types of Annotations
A summary annotation describes the source by answering the following questions: who wrote the document, what the document discusses, when and where was the document written, why was the document produced, and how was it provided to the public. The focus is on description.
An evaluative annotation includes a summary as listed above but also critically assesses the work for accuracy, relevance, and quality. Evaluative annotations can help you learn about your topic, develop a thesis statement, decide if a specific source will be useful for your assignment, and determine if there is enough valid information available to complete your project. The focus is on description and evaluation.
- Cite the source using Chicago style.
- Describe the main ideas, arguments, themes, theses, or methodology, and identify the intended audience.
- Explain the author’s expertise, point of view, and any bias he/she may have.
- Compare to other sources on the same topic that you have also cited to show similarities and differences.
- Explain why each source is useful for your research topic and how it relates to your topic.
- Evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of each source.
- Identify the observations or conclusions of the author.
Remember: Annotations are original descriptions that you create after reading the document. When researching, you may find journal articles that provide a short summary at the beginning of the text. This article abstract is similar to a summary annotation. You may consult the abstract when creating your evaluative annotation, but never simply copy it as that would be considered plagiarism.
Tips on Writing & Formatting an Annotated Bibliography
- Each annotation should be one paragraph, between three to six sentences long (about 150- 200 words).
- Start with the same format as a regular Bibliography list.
- All lines should be double-spaced. Do not add an extra line between the citations.
- If your list of citations is especially long, you can organize it by topic.
- Try to be objective, and give explanations if you state any opinions.
- Use the third person (e.g., he, she, the author) instead of the first person (e.g., I, my, me)
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Chicago Citation Style Guide
- Get Started With Chicago Style
About Chicago's Notes-Bibliography System
Formatting notes, ibid form for repeated citations.
- Author-Date Basics
- Citing Journal Articles
- Citing Newspaper Articles
- Citing Magazines
- Citing Websites & Blogs
- Sound Recordings
- Radio Program (Podcast)
- Broadcast Radio & TV
- Video Recordings (DVD/VHS)
- TV & Video (Web)
- Images & Art
- Reference Materials
- Religious Texts
- Legal & Government Documents
- Dissertations & Theses
Chicago's Notes-Bibliography citation style: "uses a system of notes, whether footnotes or endnotes or both, and usually a bibliography. The notes allow space for unusual types of sources as well as for commentary on the sources cited, making this system extremely flexible. Because of this flexibility, the notes and bibliography system is preferred by many writers in literature, history, and the arts." - Chicago Manual of Style
The Notes-Bibliography system consists of endnotes or footnotes (N) within the text and a bibliography (B) at the end of the document.
- Chicago Style Quick Guide
- CMS Ch. 14: Notes and Bibliography - Basic Format
- Purdue Owl General CMS Formatting: Footnotes
Example of basic Chicago bibliography entry
1. Newton N. Minow and Craig L. LaMay, Inside the Presidential Debates: Their Improbable Past and Promising Future (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2008), 24–25.
- A footnote or endnote generally lists the author, title, and facts of publication, in that order.
- Elements are separated by commas
- Authors’ names are presented in standard order (first name first).
- Titles Are Capitalized Headline-Style.
- Titles of larger works (e.g., books and journals) are italicized; titles of smaller works (e.g., chapters, articles) or unpublished works are presented in roman and enclosed in quotation marks (see 8.161 ).
- Note numbers should begin with “1” and follow consecutively throughout a given paper.
- In the text, note numbers are superscripted.
- Note numbers should be placed at the end of the clause or sentence to which they refer and should be placed after any and all punctuation.
- In the notes themselves, note numbers are full-sized, not raised, and followed by a period
- The first line of a footnote is indented .5” from the left margin.
- Subsequent lines within a footnote should be formatted flush left.
- Leave an extra line space between footnotes
- CMS 14.29: Notes and Bibliography - “Ibid.”
The abbreviation ibid. usually refers to a single work cited in the note immediately preceding. It must never be used if the preceding note contains more than one citation. It takes the place of the name(s) of the author(s) or editor(s), the title of the work, and as much of the succeeding material as is identical. If the entire reference, including page numbers or other particulars, is identical, the word ibid. alone is used (as in note 7 below). The word ibid. is capitalized at the beginning of a note and followed by a period.
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Citations: Chicago Style (17th ed.)
- Getting Started
1. title page format & content, 2. paper format & content, 3. bibliography formatting.
- Annotated Bibliography
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- Submit Your Paper for Review
CMS does not specify a particular font. We suggest you use a readable serif font, like Times New Roman, 12 pt.
- Leave uniform margins of at least 1 inch (2.54 cm.) at the top, bottom, left and right of every page.
- Indent all paragraphs in the body of the paper 1/2". (Hit the Tab key once.)
- Indent notes (footnotes or endnotes) 1/2" (first line indent, like a normal paragraph).
- Use a hanging indent of 1/2" for Bibliography entries.
- Block indent long quotations 1/2".
- Double-space the body of the paper with no extra space between paragraphs.
- Double-space block quotes.
- Single-space each note (whether using endnotes or footnotes) and bibliography, but double-space between each entry.
- Type only one space between words as well as following a period or a colon
- Title page does not get a number, and it doesn't count in the numbering sequence
- Page 2 (the first page of your paper) onward start numbering with 1
About a third of the way down the page, write your paper title.
Go down about another third and write:
Class Number and Name
Otherwise, proceed with your normal paper-writing style: indent paragraphs, organize your ideas, use good grammar, and so on.
The paper will be double-spaced throughout -- everything should be consistent and match everything else, from title page through bibliography.
- Continue with numbering of pages.
Each bibliographic entry will be single-spaced with a double-space in between each entry. Use the hanging indent.
For examples, please refer to the other sections of this guide (Articles, E-Books & Books, etc).
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