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Prerequisite : OSI Model

Introduction : Presentation Layer is the 6th layer in the Open System Interconnection (OSI) model. This layer is also known as Translation layer, as this layer serves as a data translator for the network. The data which this layer receives from the Application Layer is extracted and manipulated here as per the required format to transmit over the network. The main responsibility of this layer is to provide or define the data format and encryption. The presentation layer is also called as Syntax layer since it is responsible for maintaining the proper syntax of the data which it either receives or transmits to other layer(s).

Functions of Presentation Layer :

The presentation layer, being the 6th layer in the OSI model, performs several types of functions, which are described below-

  • Presentation layer format and encrypts data to be sent across the network.
  • This layer takes care that the data is sent in such a way that the receiver will understand the information (data) and will be able to use the data efficiently and effectively.
  • This layer manages the abstract data structures and allows high-level data structures (example- banking records), which are to be defined or exchanged.
  • This layer carries out the encryption at the transmitter and decryption at the receiver.
  • This layer carries out data compression to reduce the bandwidth of the data to be transmitted (the primary goal of data compression is to reduce the number of bits which is to be transmitted).
  • This layer is responsible for interoperability (ability of computers to exchange and make use of information) between encoding methods as different computers use different encoding methods.
  • This layer basically deals with the presentation part of the data.
  • Presentation layer, carries out the data compression (number of bits reduction while transmission), which in return improves the data throughput.
  • This layer also deals with the issues of string representation.
  • The presentation layer is also responsible for integrating all the formats into a standardized format for efficient and effective communication.
  • This layer encodes the message from the user-dependent format to the common format and vice-versa for communication between dissimilar systems.
  • This layer deals with the syntax and semantics of the messages.
  • This layer also ensures that the messages which are to be presented to the upper as well as the lower layer should be standardized as well as in an accurate format too.
  • Presentation layer is also responsible for translation, formatting, and delivery of information for processing or display.
  • This layer also performs serialization (process of translating a data structure or an object into a format that can be stored or transmitted easily).

Features of Presentation Layer in the OSI model: Presentation layer, being the 6th layer in the OSI model, plays a vital role while communication is taking place between two devices in a network.

List of features which are provided by the presentation layer are:

  • Presentation layer could apply certain sophisticated compression techniques, so fewer bytes of data are required to represent the information when it is sent over the network.
  • If two or more devices are communicating over an encrypted connection, then this presentation layer is responsible for adding encryption on the sender’s end as well as the decoding the encryption on the receiver’s end so that it can represent the application layer with unencrypted, readable data.
  • This layer formats and encrypts data to be sent over a network, providing freedom from compatibility problems.
  • This presentation layer also negotiates the Transfer Syntax.
  • This presentation layer is also responsible for compressing data it receives from the application layer before delivering it to the session layer (which is the 5th layer in the OSI model) and thus improves the speed as well as the efficiency of communication by minimizing the amount of the data to be transferred.

Working of Presentation Layer in the OSI model : Presentation layer in the OSI model, as a translator, converts the data sent by the application layer of the transmitting node into an acceptable and compatible data format based on the applicable network protocol and architecture.  Upon arrival at the receiving computer, the presentation layer translates data into an acceptable format usable by the application layer. Basically, in other words, this layer takes care of any issues occurring when transmitted data must be viewed in a format different from the original format. Being the functional part of the OSI mode, the presentation layer performs a multitude (large number of) data conversion algorithms and character translation functions. Mainly, this layer is responsible for managing two network characteristics: protocol (set of rules) and architecture.

Presentation Layer Protocols : Presentation layer being the 6th layer, but the most important layer in the OSI model performs several types of functionalities, which makes sure that data which is being transferred or received should be accurate or clear to all the devices which are there in a closed network. Presentation Layer, for performing translations or other specified functions, needs to use certain protocols which are defined below –

  • Apple Filing Protocol (AFP): Apple Filing Protocol is the proprietary network protocol (communications protocol) that offers services to macOS or the classic macOS. This is basically the network file control protocol specifically designed for Mac-based platforms.
  • Lightweight Presentation Protocol (LPP): Lightweight Presentation Protocol is that protocol which is used to provide ISO presentation services on the top of TCP/IP based protocol stacks.
  • NetWare Core Protocol (NCP): NetWare Core Protocol is the network protocol which is used to access file, print, directory, clock synchronization, messaging, remote command execution and other network service functions.
  • Network Data Representation (NDR): Network Data Representation is basically the implementation of the presentation layer in the OSI model, which provides or defines various primitive data types, constructed data types and also several types of data representations.
  • External Data Representation (XDR): External Data Representation (XDR) is the standard for the description and encoding of data. It is useful for transferring data between computer architectures and has been used to communicate data between very diverse machines. Converting from local representation to XDR is called encoding, whereas converting XDR into local representation is called decoding.
  • Secure Socket Layer (SSL): The Secure Socket Layer protocol provides security to the data that is being transferred between the web browser and the server. SSL encrypts the link between a web server and a browser, which ensures that all data passed between them remains private and free from attacks.

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  Layer 6 Presentation Layer

De/Encryption, Encoding, String representation

The presentation layer (data presentation layer, data provision level) sets the system-dependent representation of the data (for example, ASCII, EBCDIC) into an independent form, enabling the syntactically correct data exchange between different systems. Also, functions such as data compression and encryption are guaranteed that data to be sent by the application layer of a system that can be read by the application layer of another system to the layer 6. The presentation layer. If necessary, the presentation layer acts as a translator between different data formats, by making an understandable for both systems data format, the ASN.1 (Abstract Syntax Notation One) used.

OSI Layer 6 - Presentation Layer

The presentation layer is responsible for the delivery and formatting of information to the application layer for further processing or display. It relieves the application layer of concern regarding syntactical differences in data representation within the end-user systems. An example of a presentation service would be the conversion of an EBCDIC-coded text computer file to an ASCII-coded file. The presentation layer is the lowest layer at which application programmers consider data structure and presentation, instead of simply sending data in the form of datagrams or packets between hosts. This layer deals with issues of string representation - whether they use the Pascal method (an integer length field followed by the specified amount of bytes) or the C/C++ method (null-terminated strings, e.g. "thisisastring\0"). The idea is that the application layer should be able to point at the data to be moved, and the presentation layer will deal with the rest. Serialization of complex data structures into flat byte-strings (using mechanisms such as TLV or XML) can be thought of as the key functionality of the presentation layer. Encryption is typically done at this level too, although it can be done on the application, session, transport, or network layers, each having its own advantages and disadvantages. Decryption is also handled at the presentation layer. For example, when logging on to bank account sites the presentation layer will decrypt the data as it is received.[1] Another example is representing structure, which is normally standardized at this level, often by using XML. As well as simple pieces of data, like strings, more complicated things are standardized in this layer. Two common examples are 'objects' in object-oriented programming, and the exact way that streaming video is transmitted. In many widely used applications and protocols, no distinction is made between the presentation and application layers. For example, HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP), generally regarded as an application-layer protocol, has presentation-layer aspects such as the ability to identify character encoding for proper conversion, which is then done in the application layer. Within the service layering semantics of the OSI network architecture, the presentation layer responds to service requests from the application layer and issues service requests to the session layer. In the OSI model: the presentation layer ensures the information that the application layer of one system sends out is readable by the application layer of another system. For example, a PC program communicates with another computer, one using extended binary coded decimal interchange code (EBCDIC) and the other using ASCII to represent the same characters. If necessary, the presentation layer might be able to translate between multiple data formats by using a common format. Wikipedia
  • Data conversion
  • Character code translation
  • Compression
  • Encryption and Decryption

The Presentation OSI Layer is usually composed of 2 sublayers that are:

CASE common application service element

Sase specific application service element, layer 7   application layer, layer 6   presentation layer, layer 5   session layer, layer 4   transport layer, layer 3   network layer, layer 2   data link layer, layer 1   physical layer.

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Presentation Layer: What It Is, Design Issues, Functionalities

Description and Functions of Presentation Layer in the OSI model: In this tutorial, we are going to learn what the Presentation layer is and the Functions of the Presentation Layer in the OSI model in Computer Networking. We will also discuss the Design issues with the Presentation Layer and the working of the Presentation Layer with the help of its diagram. By Monika Jha Last updated : May 05, 2023

What is Presentation Layer?

The Presentation Layer is concerned with the syntax and semantics of the information exchanged between two communicating devices.

  • The presentation layer takes care that the data is sent in that way the receiver of the data will understand the information (data) and will be able to use the data.
  • Languages that are syntax can be different from the two communicating machines. In this condition, the presentation layer plays the role of translator between them.
  • It is possible for two machines to communicate with different data representations, data structures to be exchanged can be defined in an abstract way.
  • These abstract data structures will be managed by the presentation layer and this layer allows higher-level data structures (For example banking records), to be defined and exchanged.

This figure shows the relationship of the presentation layer to the session layer and application layer.

presentation layer

Design Issues with Presentation Layer

The following are the design issues with presentation layer:

  • To manage and maintain the Syntax and Semantics of the information transmitted.
  • Encoding data in a standard agreed-upon way just like a string, double, date, etc.
  • It Performs Standard Encoding scheme on the wire.

Functionalities of the Presentation Layer

Specific functionalities of the presentation layer are as follows:

1. Translation

  • The processes or running programs in two machines are usually exchanging the information in the form of numbers, character strings and so on before being transmitted. The information should be changed to bitstreams because different computers use different encoding schemes.
  • The Presentation layer is responsible for compatibility between these encoding methods.
  • The Presentation layer at the sender's side changes the information from its sender dependent format.
  • The Presentation layer at the receiving machine changes the common format into its receivers dependent format.

Example: Convert ASCII code to EBCDIC code.

2. Encryption

  • The system must be able to assure privacy regarding the message or information as it also carries sensitive information.
  • Encryption means that the sender transforms the original information or message to another form, this data after encryption is known as the ciphertext and this ciphertext sends the resulting message out over the network.
  • Decryption concerned with the transform of the message back to its original form. This decrypted data is known as plain text.

3. Compression

  • Data Compression means reduces the number of bits to be transmitted by this reduce the bandwidth of the data.
  • Data Compression becomes particularly important in the transmission of multimedia such as audio, video, text, etc.

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Presentation Layer

Last Edited

What is the Presentation Layer?

Presentation Layer is the Layer 6 of the seven-layer Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) reference model . The presentation layer structures data that is passed down from the application layer into a format suitable for network transmission. This layer is responsible for data encryption, data compression, character set conversion, interpretation of graphics commands, and so on. The network redirector also functions at this layer.

Presentation Layer

Presentation Layer functions

  • Translation:  Before being transmitted, information in the form of characters and numbers should be changed to bit streams. Layer 6 is responsible for interoperability between encoding methods as different computers use different encoding methods. It translates data between the formats the network requires and the format the computer.
  • Encryption:  Encryption at the transmitter and decryption at the receiver
  • Compression:  Data compression to reduce the bandwidth of the data to be transmitted. The primary role of  data compression  is to reduce the number of bits to be transmitted. Multimedia files, such as audio and video, are bigger than text files and compression is more important.

Role of Presentation Layer in the OSI Model

This layer is not always used in network communications because its functions are not always necessary. Translation is only needed if different types of machines need to talk with each other. Encryption is optional in communication. If the information is public there is no need to encrypt and decrypt info. Compression is also optional. If files are small there is no need for compression.

Explaining Layer 6 in video

Most real-world protocol suites, such as TCP/IP , do not use separate presentation layer protocols. This layer is mostly an abstraction in real-world networking.

An example of a program that loosely adheres to layer 6 of OSI is the tool that manages the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) — although it’s technically considered an application-layer protocol per the TCP/IP model.

However, HTTP includes presentation layer services within it. HTTP works when the requesting device forwards user requests passed to the web browser onto a web server elsewhere in the network.

It receives a return message from the web server that includes a multipurpose internet mail extensions (MIME) header. The MIME header indicates the type of file – text, video, or audio – that has been received so that an appropriate player utility can be used to present the file to the user.

In short, the presentation layer

Makes sure that data which is being transferred or received should be accurate or clear to all the devices which are there, in a closed network.

  • ensures proper formatting and delivery to and from the application layer;
  • performs data encryption; and
  • manages serialization of data objects.

what are the three primary functions of the presentation layer

Presentation layer and Session layer of the OSI model

There are two popular networking models: the OSI layers model and the TCP/IP layers model. The presentation layer and session layer exist only in the OSI layers models. The TCP/IP layers model merges them into the application layer.

The Presentation Layer

The presentation layer is the sixth layer of the OSI Reference model. It defines how data and information is transmitted and presented to the user. It translates data and format code in such a way that it is correctly used by the application layer.

It identifies the syntaxes that different applications use and formats data using those syntaxes. For example, a web browser receives a web page from a web server in the HTML language. HTML language includes many tags and markup that have no meaning for the end user but they have special meaning for the web browser. the web browser uses the presentation layer's logic to read those syntaxes and format data in such a way the web server wants it to be present to the user.

presentation layer

On the sender device, it encapsulates and compresses data before sending it to the network to increase the speed and security of the network. On the receiver device, it de-encapsulates and decompresses data before presenting it to the user.

Examples of the presentation layer

Example standards for representing graphical information: JPEG, GIF, JPEG, and TIFF.

Example standards for representing audio information: WAV, MIDI, MP3.

Example standards for representing video information: WMV, MOV, MP4, MPEG.

Example standards for representing text information: doc, xls, txt, pdf.

Functions of the presentation layer

  • It formats and presents data and information.
  • It encrypts and compresses data before giving it to the session layer.
  • It de-encrypts and decompresses the encrypted and compressed data it receives from the session layer.

Session layer

The session layer is the fifth layer of the OSI layers model. It is responsible for initiating, establishing, managing, and terminating sessions between the local application and the remote applications.

It defines standards for three modes of communication: full duplex, half-duplex, and simplex.

duplex modes

In the full duplex mode, both devices can send and receive data simultaneously. The internet connection is an example of the full duplex mode.

In the half duplex mode, only one device can send data at a time. A telephone conversation is an example of the half-duplex mode.

In the simplex mode, only one device can send data. A radio broadcast is an example of the simplex mode.

Functions of the session layer

  • It is responsible for terminating sessions, creating checkpoints, and recovering data when sessions are interrupted.
  • It opens and maintains logical communication channels between network applications running on the local host and network applications running on the remote host.
  • If a network application uses an authentication mechanism before it opens a logical communication channel (session) with the remote host, it handles the authentication process.

Examples of the session layer

Structure Query Language (SQL), Remote Procedure Call (RPC), and Network File System (NFS) are examples of the session layer.

By ComputerNetworkingNotes Updated on 2024-05-05 05:30:01 IST

ComputerNetworkingNotes CCNA Study Guide Presentation layer and Session layer of the OSI model

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what are the three primary functions of the presentation layer

How-To Geek

The 7 osi networking layers explained.

The Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) networking model defines a conceptual framework for communications between computer systems.

Quick Links

  • Physical Layer
  • Data Link Layer
  • Network Layer
  • Transport Layer
  • Session Layer
  • Presentation Layer
  • Application Layer

The Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) networking model defines a conceptual framework for communications between computer systems. The model is an ISO standard which identifies seven fundamental networking layers, from the physical hardware up to high-level software applications.

Each layer in the model handles a specific networking function. The standard helps administrators to visualize networks, isolate problems, and understand the use cases for new technologies. Many network equipment vendors advertise the OSI layer that their products are designed to slot into.

OSI was adopted as an international standard in 1984. It remains relevant today despite the changes to network implementation that have occurred since first publication. Cloud, edge, and IoT can all be accommodated within the model.

In this article, we'll explain each of the seven OSI layers in turn. We'll start from the lowest level, labelled as Layer 1.

1. Physical Layer

All networking begins with physical equipment. This layer encapsulates the hardware involved in the communications, such as switches and cables. Data is transferred as a stream of binary digits - 0 or 1 - that the hardware prepares from input it's been fed. The physical layer specifies the electrical signals that are used to encode the data over the wire, such as a 5-volt pulse to indicate a binary "1."

Errors in the physical layer tend to result in data not being transferred at all. There could be a break in the connection due to a missing plug or incorrect power supply. Problems can also arise when two components disagree on the physical encoding of data values. In the case of wireless connections, a weak signal can lead to bit loss during transmission.

2. Data Link Layer

The model's second layer concerns communication between two devices that are directly connected to each other in the same network. It's responsible for establishing a link that allows data to be exchanged using an agreed protocol. Many network switches operate at Layer 2.

The data link layer will eventually pass bits to the physical layer. As it sits above the hardware, the data link layer can perform basic error detection and correction in response to physical transfer issues. There are two sub-layers that define these responsibilities: Logical Link Control (LLC) that handles frame synchronization and error detection, and Media Access Control (MAC) which uses MAC addresses to constrain how devices acquire permission to transfer data.

3. Network Layer

The network layer is the first level to support data transfer between two separately maintained networks. It's redundant in situations where all your devices exist on the same network.

Data that comes to the network layer from higher levels is first broken up into packets suitable for transmission. Packets received from the remote network in response are reassembled into usable data.

The network layer is where several important protocols are first encountered. These include IP (for determining the path to a destination), ICMP, routing, and virtual LAN. Together these mechanisms facilitate inter-network communications with a familiar degree of usability. However operations at this level aren't necessarily reliable: messages aren't required to succeed and may not necessarily be retried.

4. Transport Layer

The transport layer provides higher-level abstractions for coordinating data transfers between devices. Transport controllers determine where data will be sent and the rate it should be transferred at.

Layer 4 is where TCP and UDP are implemented, providing the port numbers that allow devices to expose multiple communication channels. Load balancing is often situated at Layer 4 as a result, allowing traffic to be routed between ports on a target device.

Transport mechanisms are expected to guarantee successful communication. Stringent error controls are applied to recover from packet loss and retry failed transfers. Flow control is enforced so the sender doesn't overwhelm the remote device by sending data more quickly than the available bandwidth permits.

5. Session Layer

Layer 5 creates ongoing communication sessions between two devices. Sessions are used to negotiate new connections, agree on their duration, and gracefully close down the connection once the data exchange is complete. This layer ensures that sessions remain open long enough to transfer all the data that's being sent.

Checkpoint control is another responsibility that's held by Layer 5. Sessions can define checkpoints to facilitate progress updates and resumable transmissions. A new checkpoint could be set every few megabytes for a file upload, allowing the sender to continue from a particular point if the transfer gets interrupted.

Many significant protocols operate at Layer 5 including authentication and logon technologies such as LDAP and NetBIOS. These establish semi-permanent communication channels for managing an end user session on a specific device.

6. Presentation Layer

The presentation layer handles preparation of data for the application layer that comes next in the model. After data has made it up from the hardware, through the data link, and across the transport, it's almost ready to be consumed by high-level components. The presentation layer completes the process by performing any formatting tasks that may be required.

Decryption, decoding, and decompression are three common operations found at this level. The presentation layer processes received data into formats that can be eventually utilized by a client application. Similarly, outward-bound data is reformatted into compressed and encrypted structures that are suitable for network transmission.

TLS is one major technology that's part of the presentation layer. Certificate verification and data decryption is handled before requests reach the network client, allowing information to be consumed with confidence that it's authentic.

7. Application Layer

The application layer is the top of the stack. It represents the functionality that's perceived by network end users. Applications in the OSI model provide a convenient end-to-end interface to facilitate complete data transfers, without making you think about hardware, data links, sessions, and compression.

Despite its name, this layer doesn't relate to client-side software such as your web browser or email client. An application in OSI terms is a protocol that caters for the complete communication of complex data through layers 1-6.

HTTP, FTP, DHCP, DNS, and SSH all exist at the application layer. These are high-level mechanisms which permit direct transfers of user data between an origin device and a remote server. You only need minimal knowledge of the workings of the other layers.

The seven OSI layers describe the transfer of data through computer networks. Understanding the functions and responsibilities of each layer can help you identify the source of problems and assess the intended use case for new components.

OSI is an abstract model that doesn't directly map to the specific networking implementations commonly used today. As an example, the TCP/IP protocol works on its own simpler system of four layers: Network Access, Internet, Transport, and Application. These abstract and absorb the equivalent OSI layers: the application layer spans OSI L5 to L7, while L1 and L2 are combined in TCP/IP's concept of Network Access.

OSI remains applicable despite its lack of direct real-world application. It's been around so long that it's widely understood among administrators from all backgrounds. Its relatively high level of abstraction has also ensured it's remained relevant in the face of new networking paradigms, many of which have targeted Layer 3 and above. An awareness of the seven layers and their responsibilities can still help you appreciate the flow of data through a network while uncovering integration opportunities for new components.

Presentation Layer: Protocols, Examples, Services | Functions of Presentation Layer

Presentation Layer is the 6th layer in the Open System Interconnection (OSI) model where all application programmer consider data structure and presentation, beyond of simply sending the data into form of datagram otherwise packets in between the hosts. Now, we will explain about what is presentation layer with its protocols, example, service ; involving with major functions of presentation Layer with ease. At the end of this article, you will completely educate about What is Presentation Layer in OSI Model without any hassle.

  • What is Presentation Layer?

Definition : Presentation layer is 6th layer in the OSI model , and its main objective is to present all messages to upper layer as a standardized format. It is also known as the “ Translation layer “.  This layer takes care of syntax and semantics of messages exchanged in between two communication systems. Presentation layer has responsible that receiver can understand all data, and it will be to implement all data languages can be dissimilar of two communication system.

presentation layer

Presentation layer is capable to handle abstract data structures, and further it helps to defined and exchange of higher-level data structures.

Presentation Layer Tutorial Headlines:

In this section, we will show you all headlines about this entire article; you can check them as your choice; below shown all:

  • Functions of Presentation Layer

Protocols of Presentation Layer

  • Example of Presentation Layer Protocols

Presentation Layer Services

Design issues with presentation layer, faqs (frequently asked questions), what is meant by presentation layer in osi model, what protocols are used in the presentation layer, can you explain some presentation layer examples, what are the main functions of the presentation layer, what are services of presentation layer in osi, let’s get started,   functions of presentation layer.

Presentation layer performs various functions in the OSI model ; below explain each one – 

  • Presentation layer helps to translate from American standard code for information interchange (ASCII) to the extended binary code decimal interchange code (EBCDIC).
  • It deals with user interface as well as supporting for several services such as email and file transfer.
  • It provides encoding mechanism for translating all messages from user dependent format with common format and vice – versa.
  • It’s main goal for data encryption and decryption of entire data before they are getting transmission over all common platforms.
  • It provides data compression mechanism for source point to decrease the all bits which are transmitted. Due to this data compression system, user are able to transmit enlarge multimedia file at fastest file transfer rate.
  • Due to use of Data Encryption and Decryption algorithm, presentation layer provides more network protection and confidentiality while transmission data over the entire network.
  • This layer offers best flexibility for data translation for making connections with various kinds of servers , computers, and mainframes over the similar network.
  • Presentation layer has responsible to fix all translations in between all network systems .

Presentation layer is used various protocols; below list is available –

  • Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions
  • File Transfer Protocol
  • Network News Transfer Protocol
  • Apple Filing Protocol (AFP)
  • Independent Computing Architecture (ICA), the Citrix system core protocol
  • Lightweight Presentation Protocol (LPP)
  • NetWare Core Protocol (NCP)
  • Network Data Representation (NDR)
  • Telnet (a remote terminal access protocol)
  • Tox Protocol
  • eXternal Data Representation (XDR)
  • 25 Packet Assembler/Disassembler Protocol (PAD)

Example of Presentation Layer Protocols:

Here, we will discuss all examples of presentation layer protocols; below explain each one –  

Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) : MIME protocol was introduced by Bell Communications in 1991, and it is an internet standard that provides scalable capable of email for attaching of images, sounds and text in a message.

File Transfer Protocol (FTP) : FTP is a internet protocol, and its main goal is to transmit all files in between one host to other hosts over the internet on TCP/IP connections.

Network News Transfer Protocol (NNTP) : This protocol is used to make connection with Usenet server and transmit all newsgroup articles in between system over internet.

Apple Filing Protocol (AFP ) : AFP protocol is designed by Apple company for sharing all files over the entire network .

Lightweight Presentation Protocol (LPP) : This protocol is used to offer ISO presentation services on top of TCP/IP based protocol stacks.

NetWare Core Protocol (NCP) : NCP is a Novell client server model protocol that is designed especially for Local Area Network (LAN). It is capable to perform several functions like as file/print-sharing, clock synchronization, remote processing and messaging.

Network Data Representation (NDR) : NDR is an data encoding standard, and it is implement in the Distributed Computing Environment (DCE).

Telnet (Telecommunication Network) : Telnet protocol was introduced in 1969, and it offers the command line interface for making communication along with remote device or server .

Tox : The Tox protocol is sometimes regarded as part of both the presentation and application layer , and it is used for sending peer-to-peer instant-messaging as well as video calling.

eXternal Data Representation (XDR) : This protocol provides the description and encoding of entire data, and  it’s main goal is to transfer data in between dissimilar computer architecture.

25 Packet Assembler/Disassembler Protocol (PAD) : Main objective of this protocol is to obtain all data from group of terminal and allots the data into X. 25 packets.

Presentation layer provides several services like as –

  • Data conversion
  • Character code translation
  • Compression
  • Encryption and Decryption
  • It helps to handle and maintain Syntax and Semantics of the message transmitted.
  • Encoding data can be done as standard agreed like as String, double, date, and more.
  • Standard Encoding can be done on wire.

Presentation Layer is the 6th layer in the Open System Interconnection (OSI) model that is the lowest layer, where all application programmer consider data structure and presentation, beyond of simply sending the data into form of datagram otherwise packets in between the hosts.

Presentation layer is used various protocols like as:

Yes! In this article, already we have been explained many examples of presentation layer; you can check them.

Presentation layer has a responsibility for formatting, translation, and delivery of the information for getting to process otherwise display .

Now, i hope that you have completely learnt about what is presentation layer with its protocols, example, service ; involving with major functions of presentation Layer with ease. If this post is useful for you, then please share it along with your friends, family members or relatives over social media platforms like as Facebook, Instagram, Linked In, Twitter, and more.

Also Read: Data Link Layer: Protocols, Examples | Functions of Data Link Layer

If you have any experience, tips, tricks, or query regarding this issue? You can drop a comment!

Related Posts

transport layer

The OSI Model – The 7 Layers of Networking Explained in Plain English

Chloe Tucker

This article explains the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model and the 7 layers of networking, in plain English.

The OSI model is a conceptual framework that is used to describe how a network functions. In plain English, the OSI model helped standardize the way computer systems send information to each other.

Learning networking is a bit like learning a language - there are lots of standards and then some exceptions. Therefore, it’s important to really understand that the OSI model is not a set of rules. It is a tool for understanding how networks function.

Once you learn the OSI model, you will be able to further understand and appreciate this glorious entity we call the Internet, as well as be able to troubleshoot networking issues with greater fluency and ease.

All hail the Internet!

Prerequisites

You don’t need any prior programming or networking experience to understand this article. However, you will need:

  • Basic familiarity with common networking terms (explained below)
  • A curiosity about how things work :)

Learning Objectives

Over the course of this article, you will learn:

  • What the OSI model is
  • The purpose of each of the 7 layers
  • The problems that can happen at each of the 7 layers
  • The difference between TCP/IP model and the OSI model

Common Networking Terms

Here are some common networking terms that you should be familiar with to get the most out of this article. I’ll use these terms when I talk about OSI layers next.

A node is a physical electronic device hooked up to a network, for example a computer, printer, router, and so on. If set up properly, a node is capable of sending and/or receiving information over a network.

Nodes may be set up adjacent to one other, wherein Node A can connect directly to Node B, or there may be an intermediate node, like a switch or a router, set up between Node A and Node B.

Typically, routers connect networks to the Internet and switches operate within a network to facilitate intra-network communication. Learn more about hub vs. switch vs. router.

Here's an example:

1-Router-Image

For the nitpicky among us (yep, I see you), host is another term that you will encounter in networking. I will define a host as a type of node that requires an IP address. All hosts are nodes, but not all nodes are hosts. Please Tweet angrily at me if you disagree.

Links connect nodes on a network. Links can be wired, like Ethernet, or cable-free, like WiFi.

Links to can either be point-to-point, where Node A is connected to Node B, or multipoint, where Node A is connected to Node B and Node C.

When we’re talking about information being transmitted, this may also be described as a one-to-one vs. a one-to-many relationship.

A protocol is a mutually agreed upon set of rules that allows two nodes on a network to exchange data.

“A protocol defines the rules governing the syntax (what can be communicated), semantics (how it can be communicated), and synchronization (when and at what speed it can be communicated) of the communications procedure. Protocols can be implemented on hardware, software, or a combination of both. Protocols can be created by anyone, but the most widely adopted protocols are based on standards.” - The Illustrated Network.

Both wired and cable-free links can have protocols.

While anyone can create a protocol, the most widely adopted protocols are often based on standards published by Internet organizations such as the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF).

A network is a general term for a group of computers, printers, or any other device that wants to share data.

Network types include LAN, HAN, CAN, MAN, WAN, BAN, or VPN. Think I’m just randomly rhyming things with the word can ? I can ’t say I am - these are all real network types. Learn more here .

Topology describes how nodes and links fit together in a network configuration, often depicted in a diagram. Here are some common network topology types:

What is Network Topology? Best Guides to Types & Diagrams - DNSstuff

A network consists of nodes, links between nodes, and protocols that govern data transmission between nodes.

At whatever scale and complexity networks get to, you will understand what’s happening in all computer networks by learning the OSI model and 7 layers of networking.

What is the OSI Model?

The OSI model consists of 7 layers of networking.

First, what’s a layer?

Cave, Dragon's Lair, mountains

No, a layer - not a lair . Here there are no dragons.

A layer is a way of categorizing and grouping functionality and behavior on and of a network.

In the OSI model, layers are organized from the most tangible and most physical, to less tangible and less physical but closer to the end user.

Each layer abstracts lower level functionality away until by the time you get to the highest layer. All the details and inner workings of all the other layers are hidden from the end user.

How to remember all the names of the layers? Easy.

  • Please | Physical Layer
  • Do | Data Link Layer
  • Not | Network Layer
  • Tell (the) | Transport Layer
  • Secret | Session Layer
  • Password (to) | Presentation Layer
  • Anyone | Application Layer

Keep in mind that while certain technologies, like protocols, may logically “belong to” one layer more than another, not all technologies fit neatly into a single layer in the OSI model. For example, Ethernet, 802.11 (Wifi) and the Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) procedure operate on >1 layer.

The OSI is a model and a tool, not a set of rules.

OSI Layer 1

Layer 1 is the physical layer . There’s a lot of technology in Layer 1 - everything from physical network devices, cabling, to how the cables hook up to the devices. Plus if we don’t need cables, what the signal type and transmission methods are (for example, wireless broadband).

Instead of listing every type of technology in Layer 1, I’ve created broader categories for these technologies. I encourage readers to learn more about each of these categories:

  • Nodes (devices) and networking hardware components. Devices include hubs, repeaters, routers, computers, printers, and so on. Hardware components that live inside of these devices include antennas, amplifiers, Network Interface Cards (NICs), and more.
  • Device interface mechanics. How and where does a cable connect to a device (cable connector and device socket)? What is the size and shape of the connector, and how many pins does it have? What dictates when a pin is active or inactive?
  • Functional and procedural logic. What is the function of each pin in the connector - send or receive? What procedural logic dictates the sequence of events so a node can start to communicate with another node on Layer 2?
  • Cabling protocols and specifications. Ethernet (CAT), USB, Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) , and more. Specifications include maximum cable length, modulation techniques, radio specifications, line coding, and bits synchronization (more on that below).
  • Cable types. Options include shielded or unshielded twisted pair, untwisted pair, coaxial and so on. Learn more about cable types here .
  • Signal type. Baseband is a single bit stream at a time, like a railway track - one-way only. Broadband consists of multiple bit streams at the same time, like a bi-directional highway.
  • Signal transmission method (may be wired or cable-free). Options include electrical (Ethernet), light (optical networks, fiber optics), radio waves (802.11 WiFi, a/b/g/n/ac/ax variants or Bluetooth). If cable-free, then also consider frequency: 2.5 GHz vs. 5 GHz. If it’s cabled, consider voltage. If cabled and Ethernet, also consider networking standards like 100BASE-T and related standards.

The data unit on Layer 1 is the bit.

A bit the smallest unit of transmittable digital information. Bits are binary, so either a 0 or a 1. Bytes, consisting of 8 bits, are used to represent single characters, like a letter, numeral, or symbol.

Bits are sent to and from hardware devices in accordance with the supported data rate (transmission rate, in number of bits per second or millisecond) and are synchronized so the number of bits sent and received per unit of time remains consistent (this is called bit synchronization). The way bits are transmitted depends on the signal transmission method.

Nodes can send, receive, or send and receive bits. If they can only do one, then the node uses a simplex mode. If they can do both, then the node uses a duplex mode. If a node can send and receive at the same time, it’s full-duplex – if not, it’s just half-duplex.

The original Ethernet was half-duplex. Full-duplex Ethernet is an option now, given the right equipment.

How to Troubleshoot OSI Layer 1 Problems

Here are some Layer 1 problems to watch out for:

  • Defunct cables, for example damaged wires or broken connectors
  • Broken hardware network devices, for example damaged circuits
  • Stuff being unplugged (...we’ve all been there)

If there are issues in Layer 1, anything beyond Layer 1 will not function properly.

Layer 1 contains the infrastructure that makes communication on networks possible.

It defines the electrical, mechanical, procedural, and functional specifications for activating, maintaining, and deactivating physical links between network devices. - Source

Fun fact: deep-sea communications cables transmit data around the world. This map will blow your mind: https://www.submarinecablemap.com/

And because you made it this far, here’s a koala:

Closeup of a Koala

OSI Layer 2

Layer 2 is the data link layer . Layer 2 defines how data is formatted for transmission, how much data can flow between nodes, for how long, and what to do when errors are detected in this flow.

In more official tech terms:

  • Line discipline. Who should talk for how long? How long should nodes be able to transit information for?
  • Flow control. How much data should be transmitted?
  • Error control - detection and correction . All data transmission methods have potential for errors, from electrical spikes to dirty connectors. Once Layer 2 technologies tell network administrators about an issue on Layer 2 or Layer 1, the system administrator can correct for those errors on subsequent layers. Layer 2 is mostly concerned with error detection, not error correction. ( Source )

There are two distinct sublayers within Layer 2:

  • Media Access Control (MAC): the MAC sublayer handles the assignment of a hardware identification number, called a MAC address, that uniquely identifies each device on a network. No two devices should have the same MAC address. The MAC address is assigned at the point of manufacturing. It is automatically recognized by most networks. MAC addresses live on Network Interface Cards (NICs). Switches keep track of all MAC addresses on a network. Learn more about MAC addresses on PC Mag and in this article . Learn more about network switches here .
  • Logical Link Control (LLC): the LLC sublayer handles framing addressing and flow control. The speed depends on the link between nodes, for example Ethernet or Wifi.

The data unit on Layer 2 is a frame .

Each frame contains a frame header, body, and a frame trailer:

  • Header: typically includes MAC addresses for the source and destination nodes.
  • Body: consists of the bits being transmitted.
  • Trailer: includes error detection information. When errors are detected, and depending on the implementation or configuration of a network or protocol, frames may be discarded or the error may be reported up to higher layers for further error correction. Examples of error detection mechanisms: Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) and Frame Check Sequence (FCS). Learn more about error detection techniques here .

Example of frames, the network layer, and the physical layer

Typically there is a maximum frame size limit, called an Maximum Transmission Unit, MTU. Jumbo frames exceed the standard MTU, learn more about jumbo frames here .

How to Troubleshoot OSI Layer 2 Problems

Here are some Layer 2 problems to watch out for:

  • All the problems that can occur on Layer 1
  • Unsuccessful connections (sessions) between two nodes
  • Sessions that are successfully established but intermittently fail
  • Frame collisions

The Data Link Layer allows nodes to communicate with each other within a local area network. The foundations of line discipline, flow control, and error control are established in this layer.

OSI Layer 3

Layer 3 is the network layer . This is where we send information between and across networks through the use of routers. Instead of just node-to-node communication, we can now do network-to-network communication.

Routers are the workhorse of Layer 3 - we couldn’t have Layer 3 without them. They move data packets across multiple networks.

Not only do they connect to Internet Service Providers (ISPs) to provide access to the Internet, they also keep track of what’s on its network (remember that switches keep track of all MAC addresses on a network), what other networks it’s connected to, and the different paths for routing data packets across these networks.

Routers store all of this addressing and routing information in routing tables.

Here’s a simple example of a routing table:

A routing table showing the destination, subnet mask, and interface

The data unit on Layer 3 is the data packet . Typically, each data packet contains a frame plus an IP address information wrapper. In other words, frames are encapsulated by Layer 3 addressing information.

The data being transmitted in a packet is also sometimes called the payload . While each packet has everything it needs to get to its destination, whether or not it makes it there is another story.

Layer 3 transmissions are connectionless, or best effort - they don't do anything but send the traffic where it’s supposed to go. More on data transport protocols on Layer 4.

Once a node is connected to the Internet, it is assigned an Internet Protocol (IP) address, which looks either like 172.16. 254.1 (IPv4 address convention) or like 2001:0db8:85a3:0000:0000:8a2e:0370:7334 (IPv6 address convention). Routers use IP addresses in their routing tables.

IP addresses are associated with the physical node’s MAC address via the Address Resolution Protocol (ARP), which resolves MAC addresses with the node’s corresponding IP address.

ARP is conventionally considered part of Layer 2, but since IP addresses don’t exist until Layer 3, it’s also part of Layer 3.

How to Troubleshoot OSI Layer 3 Problems

Here are some Layer 3 problems to watch out for:

  • All the problems that can crop up on previous layers :)
  • Faulty or non-functional router or other node
  • IP address is incorrectly configured

Many answers to Layer 3 questions will require the use of command-line tools like ping , trace , show ip route , or show ip protocols . Learn more about troubleshooting on layer 1-3 here .

The Network Layer allows nodes to connect to the Internet and send information across different networks.

OSI Layer 4

Layer 4 is the transport layer . This where we dive into the nitty gritty specifics of the connection between two nodes and how information is transmitted between them. It builds on the functions of Layer 2 - line discipline, flow control, and error control.

This layer is also responsible for data packet segmentation, or how data packets are broken up and sent over the network.

Unlike the previous layer, Layer 4 also has an understanding of the whole message, not just the contents of each individual data packet. With this understanding, Layer 4 is able to manage network congestion by not sending all the packets at once.

The data units of Layer 4 go by a few names. For TCP, the data unit is a packet. For UDP, a packet is referred to as a datagram. I’ll just use the term data packet here for the sake of simplicity.

Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP) are two of the most well-known protocols in Layer 4.

TCP, a connection-oriented protocol, prioritizes data quality over speed.

TCP explicitly establishes a connection with the destination node and requires a handshake between the source and destination nodes when data is transmitted. The handshake confirms that data was received. If the destination node does not receive all of the data, TCP will ask for a retry.

TCP also ensures that packets are delivered or reassembled in the correct order. Learn more about TCP here .

UDP, a connectionless protocol, prioritizes speed over data quality. UDP does not require a handshake, which is why it’s called connectionless.

Because UDP doesn’t have to wait for this acknowledgement, it can send data at a faster rate, but not all of the data may be successfully transmitted and we’d never know.

If information is split up into multiple datagrams, unless those datagrams contain a sequence number, UDP does not ensure that packets are reassembled in the correct order. Learn more about UDP here .

TCP and UDP both send data to specific ports on a network device, which has an IP address. The combination of the IP address and the port number is called a socket.

Learn more about sockets here .

Learn more about the differences and similarities between these two protocols here .

How to Troubleshoot OSI Layer 4 Problems

Here are some Layer 4 problems to watch out for:

  • Blocked ports - check your Access Control Lists (ACL) & firewalls
  • Quality of Service (QoS) settings. QoS is a feature of routers/switches that can prioritize traffic, and they can really muck things up. Learn more about QoS here .

The Transport Layer provides end-to-end transmission of a message by segmenting a message into multiple data packets; the layer supports connection-oriented and connectionless communication.

OSI Layer 5

Layer 5 is the session layer . This layer establishes, maintains, and terminates sessions.

A session is a mutually agreed upon connection that is established between two network applications. Not two nodes! Nope, we’ve moved on from nodes. They were so Layer 4.

Just kidding, we still have nodes, but Layer 5 doesn’t need to retain the concept of a node because that’s been abstracted out (taken care of) by previous layers.

So a session is a connection that is established between two specific end-user applications. There are two important concepts to consider here:

  • Client and server model: the application requesting the information is called the client, and the application that has the requested information is called the server.
  • Request and response model: while a session is being established and during a session, there is a constant back-and-forth of requests for information and responses containing that information or “hey, I don’t have what you’re requesting.”

Sessions may be open for a very short amount of time or a long amount of time. They may fail sometimes, too.

Depending on the protocol in question, various failure resolution processes may kick in. Depending on the applications/protocols/hardware in use, sessions may support simplex, half-duplex, or full-duplex modes.

Examples of protocols on Layer 5 include Network Basic Input Output System (NetBIOS) and Remote Procedure Call Protocol (RPC), and many others.

From here on out (layer 5 and up), networks are focused on ways of making connections to end-user applications and displaying data to the user.

How to Troubleshoot OSI Layer 5 Problems

Here are some Layer 5 problems to watch out for:

  • Servers are unavailable
  • Servers are incorrectly configured, for example Apache or PHP configs
  • Session failure - disconnect, timeout, and so on.

The Session Layer initiates, maintains, and terminates connections between two end-user applications. It responds to requests from the presentation layer and issues requests to the transport layer.

OSI Layer 6

Layer 6 is the presentation layer . This layer is responsible for data formatting, such as character encoding and conversions, and data encryption.

The operating system that hosts the end-user application is typically involved in Layer 6 processes. This functionality is not always implemented in a network protocol.

Layer 6 makes sure that end-user applications operating on Layer 7 can successfully consume data and, of course, eventually display it.

There are three data formatting methods to be aware of:

  • American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII): this 7-bit encoding technique is the most widely used standard for character encoding. One superset is ISO-8859-1, which provides most of the characters necessary for languages spoken in Western Europe.
  • Extended Binary-Coded Decimal Interchange Code (EBDCIC): designed by IBM for mainframe usage. This encoding is incompatible with other character encoding methods.
  • Unicode: character encodings can be done with 32-, 16-, or 8-bit characters and attempts to accommodate every known, written alphabet.

Learn more about character encoding methods in this article , and also here .

Encryption: SSL or TLS encryption protocols live on Layer 6. These encryption protocols help ensure that transmitted data is less vulnerable to malicious actors by providing authentication and data encryption for nodes operating on a network. TLS is the successor to SSL.

How to Troubleshoot OSI Layer 6 Problems

Here are some Layer 6 problems to watch out for:

  • Non-existent or corrupted drivers
  • Incorrect OS user access level

The Presentation Layer formats and encrypts data.

OSI Layer 7

Layer 7 is the application layer .

True to its name, this is the layer that is ultimately responsible for supporting services used by end-user applications. Applications include software programs that are installed on the operating system, like Internet browsers (for example, Firefox) or word processing programs (for example, Microsoft Word).

Applications can perform specialized network functions under the hood and require specialized services that fall under the umbrella of Layer 7.

Electronic mail programs, for example, are specifically created to run over a network and utilize networking functionality, such as email protocols, which fall under Layer 7.

Applications will also control end-user interaction, such as security checks (for example, MFA), identification of two participants, initiation of an exchange of information, and so on.

Protocols that operate on this level include File Transfer Protocol (FTP), Secure Shell (SSH), Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP), Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP), Domain Name Service (DNS), and Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP).

While each of these protocols serve different functions and operate differently, on a high level they all facilitate the communication of information. ( Source )

How to Troubleshoot OSI Layer 7 Problems

Here are some Layer 7 problems to watch out for:

  • All issues on previous layers
  • Incorrectly configured software applications
  • User error (... we’ve all been there)

The Application Layer owns the services and functions that end-user applications need to work. It does not include the applications themselves.

Our Layer 1 koala is all grown up.

Koala with Photoshopped makeup

Learning check - can you apply makeup to a koala?

Don’t have a koala?

Well - answer these questions instead. It’s the next best thing, I promise.

  • What is the OSI model?
  • What are each of the layers?
  • How could I use this information to troubleshoot networking issues?

Congratulations - you’ve taken one step farther to understanding the glorious entity we call the Internet.

Learning Resources

Many, very smart people have written entire books about the OSI model or entire books about specific layers. I encourage readers to check out any O’Reilly-published books about the subject or about network engineering in general.

Here are some resources I used when writing this article:

  • The Illustrated Network, 2nd Edition
  • Protocol Data Unit (PDU): https://www.geeksforgeeks.org/difference-between-segments-packets-and-frames/
  • Troubleshooting Along the OSI Model: https://www.pearsonitcertification.com/articles/article.aspx?p=1730891
  • The OSI Model Demystified: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HEEnLZV2wGI
  • OSI Model for Dummies: https://www.dummies.com/programming/networking/layers-in-the-osi-model-of-a-computer-network/

Chloe Tucker is an artist and computer science enthusiast based in Portland, Oregon. As a former educator, she's continuously searching for the intersection of learning and teaching, or technology and art. Reach out to her on Twitter @_chloetucker and check out her website at chloe.dev .

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The Presentation Layer of OSI Model

The presentation layer (Layer 6) ensures that the message is presented to the upper layer in a standardized format. It deals with the syntax and the semantics of the messages.

The main functions of the presentation layer are as follows −

  • It encodes the messages from the user dependent format to the common format and vice versa, for communication among dissimilar systems.
  • It is responsible for data encryption and decryption of sensitive data before they are transmitted over common channels.
  • It is also responsible for data compression. Data compression is done at the source to reduce the number of bits to be transmitted. It reduces the storage space and increases the file transfer rate. It is particularly useful for transmission of large multimedia files.

what are the three primary functions of the presentation layer

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  1. Presentation Layer in OSI model

    The main responsibility of this layer is to provide or define the data format and encryption. The presentation layer is also called as Syntax layer since it is responsible for maintaining the proper syntax of the data which it either receives or transmits to other layer(s). ... Functions of Presentation Layer : Data from Application Layer ...

  2. Presentation Layer

    The presentation layer is the lowest layer at which application programmers consider data structure and presentation, instead of simply sending data in the form of datagrams or packets between hosts. This layer deals with issues of string representation - whether they use the Pascal method (an integer length field followed by the specified ...

  3. Presentation Layer: What It Is, Design Issues, Functionalities

    Functionalities of the Presentation Layer. Specific functionalities of the presentation layer are as follows: 1. Translation. The processes or running programs in two machines are usually exchanging the information in the form of numbers, character strings and so on before being transmitted. The information should be changed to bitstreams ...

  4. Presentation layer

    The presentation layer ensures the information that the application layer of one system sends out is readable by the application layer of another system. On the sending system it is responsible for conversion to standard, transmittable formats. [7] On the receiving system it is responsible for the translation, formatting, and delivery of ...

  5. Presentation Layer of the OSI Model

    The three main functions of the presentation layer are data encryption and decryption, data translation, and data compression. These functions allow the data to be compatible, acceptable, and ...

  6. A Guide to the Presentation Layer

    Which three main functions are performed by the presentation layer? The layer's three main functions are data translation, data compression, and data encryption and decryption. Therefore, in this way, data becomes secure and compatible. What is the primary purpose of the presentation layer?

  7. What is presentation layer?

    The presentation layer is located at Layer 6 of the OSI model. The tool that manages Hypertext Transfer Protocol ( HTTP) is an example of a program that loosely adheres to the presentation layer of OSI. Although it's technically considered an application-layer protocol per the TCP/IP model, HTTP includes presentation layer services within it.

  8. Presentation Layer

    The primary role of data compression is to reduce the number of bits to be transmitted. Multimedia files, such as audio and video, are bigger than text files and compression is more important. Role of Presentation Layer in the OSI Model. This layer is not always used in network communications because its functions are not always necessary.

  9. Presentation layer and Session layer of the OSI model

    The presentation layer is the sixth layer of the OSI Reference model. It defines how data and information is transmitted and presented to the user. It translates data and format code in such a way that it is correctly used by the application layer. It identifies the syntaxes that different applications use and formats data using those syntaxes.

  10. PDF Presentation Layer

    The presentation layer is concerned with preserving the meaning of information sent across a network. The presentation layer may represent (encode) the data in various ways (e.g., data compression, or encryption), but the receiving peer will convert the encoding back into its original meaning. The presentation layer concerns itself with the ...

  11. Presentation Layer of the OSI Model: Definition and Function

    Functions of the presentation layer The presentation layer is the residing layer of a computer's operating system. It communicates with the application layer, from which it receives data inputted by the user. This layer performs three important functions in the transmission of data between computers. These are: Translation

  12. What is Presentation Layer in the OSI Model?

    The Presentation Layer, situated at Layer 6 of the OSI model, acts as an intermediary between the Application Layer (Layer 7) and the Session Layer (Layer 5). Its primary function is to ensure ...

  13. Presentation Layer in OSI Model

    The presentation layer is the 6 th layer from the bottom in the OSI model. This layer presents the incoming data from the application layer of the sender machine to the receiver machine. It converts one format of data to another format of data if both sender and receiver understand different formats; hence this layer is also called the ...

  14. The 7 OSI Networking Layers Explained

    Data Link Layer. Network Layer. Transport Layer. Session Layer. Presentation Layer. Application Layer. Summary. The Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) networking model defines a conceptual framework for communications between computer systems. The model is an ISO standard which identifies seven fundamental networking layers, from the physical ...

  15. Explain the functions of Presentation Layer.

    Computer Network Internet MCA. The functions of the presentation layer are as follows: It provides the users with a way to execute the session service primitives. For that, it uses the contexts, each consisting of some data types and their transfer syntaxes. When a session is established, the peer entities negotiate for one or more contexts.

  16. Presentation Layer: Protocols, Examples, Services

    What is Presentation Layer? Definition: Presentation layer is 6th layer in the OSI model, and its main objective is to present all messages to upper layer as a standardized format.It is also known as the "Translation layer". This layer takes care of syntax and semantics of messages exchanged in between two communication systems. Presentation layer has responsible that receiver can ...

  17. What is the OSI model? The 7 layers of OSI explained

    Layer 3. The network layer. The primary function of the network layer is to move data into and through other networks. Network layer protocols accomplish this by packaging data with correct network address information, selecting the appropriate network routes and forwarding the packaged data up the stack to the transport layer.

  18. The OSI Model

    Chloe Tucker. This article explains the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model and the 7 layers of networking, in plain English. The OSI model is a conceptual framework that is used to describe how a network functions. In plain English, the OSI model helped standardize the way computer systems send information to each other.

  19. CCNA Chapter 10 Flashcards

    What are the three primary functions of the presentation layer? 1. Formats, or presents data from source into compatible form for receipt by the destination device. 2. Compresses data in a way that it can be decompressed by destination device. 3. Encrypts the data in a way that it can be decrypted by the destination device.

  20. The Presentation Layer of OSI Model

    The Presentation Layer of OSI Model. The presentation layer (Layer 6) ensures that the message is presented to the upper layer in a standardized format. It deals with the syntax and the semantics of the messages. The main functions of the presentation layer are as follows −. It encodes the messages from the user dependent format to the common ...

  21. Presentation and Session Layer Flashcards

    The presentation layer has three primary functions: Click the card to flip 👆. •Formatting, or presenting, data at the source device into a compatible form for receipt by the destination device. •Compressing data in a way that can be decompressed by the destination device. •Encrypting data for transmission and decrypting data upon receipt.

  22. CISCO ITN Module 15 "Application Layer" Flashcards

    What are the three primary functions of the presentation layer? Formatting, or presenting, data at the source device into a compatible format for receipt by the destination device. Compressing data in a way that can be decompressed by the destination device.

  23. 1.3 The OSI Model Flashcards

    Match each layer of the TCP/IP model on the left w the corresponding layer of the OSI Model on the right. Each option on the left can be used more than once. Explanation: Device/Function OSI Layer HTTP >>> Application ASCII >>> Presentation Session ID Number >>> Session Port Numbers >>> Transport Router >>> Network Switch >>> Data Link Wireless ...