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What’s the latest in development economics research? Microsummaries of 150+ papers from NEUDC 2018

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  • The saturation rate of communities with planting material for highly nutritious crop technologies (vitamin-A-rich orange sweet potato and high-iron biofortified beans) substantially increases the average probability of adopting the crops and increased spillovers to neighboring households by 16-19 percent. A treatment in which opinion leaders were invited to promote the technologies did not lead to no more diffusion of either technology. ( Baird, Gilligan, and McNiven ) #RCT
  • How much are women willing to sacrifice to avoid sexual harassment? In India (Delhi), “women  are  willing  to  choose  a  college  in  the  bottom  half  of  the  quality  distribution over  a  college  in  the  top  quintile  in  order  to  travel  by  a  route  that  is  perceived  to  be  one  standard deviation safer.” ( Borker )
  • Getting married one year later in India results in “a significant decline in physical violence, although it has no impact on sexual or emotional violence.” ( Dhamija & Roychowdhury )
  • The opening of all women police stations in India “increased reported crime against women by 22 percent. This is due to increases in reports of female kidnappings and domestic violence.” ( Amaral, Bhalotra, & Prakash )
  • A multi-year intervention that “engaged adolescents in classroom discussions about gender equality” improved gender attitudes and reported gender-equitable behavior (e.g., “boys report helping out more with household chores”). ( Dhar, Jain, & Jayachandran ) #RCT
  • Does your daughter think she’s bad at math? It’s probably because of her classmates’ parents. Evidence from China. ( Eble & Hu )
  • In recent years in Bangladesh, researchers find “a pro-female bias in enrollment decision but a pro-male bias in the decisions on the conditional expenditure and core share in education expenditure.” A program providing stipends to females helped with enrollment but didn’t overcome gender bias overall. ( Xu, Shonchoy, & Fujii )
  • Cash transfers in Kenya reduced physical violence against wives regardless of whether the husband or wife received them, but they reduced sexual violence against wives only when the wives received them. ( Haushofer et al. )
  • Participants in a lab experiment in Ethiopia “are ten percent less likely to follow the same advice from a female leader than an otherwise identical male leader, and female-led subjects perform .33 standard deviations worse as a result.” ( Ayalew, Manian, & Sheth )
  • Across 42 countries, what are the differences in infant feeding patterns by wealth, parental education, and community infrastructure? ( Choudhury, Headey, & Masters )
  • Teaching mothers how to improve children’s diets improved children’s diets in Ethiopia, but providing vouchers for them to afford more food did not. Combining the two was the most effective. ( Park, Han, & Kim ) #RCT
  • Give a multi-layered child nutrition program or its equivalent in cash? Mixed bag in Rwanda. But giving a lot more cash makes a real difference. ( McIntosh & Zeitlin ) #RCT
  • “Mothers who received free meals during primary school are less likely to have stunted children compared to mothers who did not receive free meals” in India. ( Chakrabarti et al. )
  • “Women exposed to cow slaughter bans” in India “in their year of birth have lower levels of hemoglobin (Hb) and are up to 10% more likely to be anemic in their prime reproductive ages between 15 and 35, particularly those who have not completed primary schooling or who come from poorer families.” ( Dasgupta, Majid, & Orman )
  • What’s the optimal level of health insurance subsidy? In Ghana, a one-time partial subsidy affects long-term health care service use more than a one-time full subsidy. This seems to be due to selection – sicker people opted into the partial subsidy program. ( Asuming, Kim, & Sim ) #RCT
  • Public anti-malaria investments in Senegal did not crowd out household investments in health. ( Rossi & Villar )
  • “Peers are… more effective than health workers in bringing in new suspects for testing” for tuberculosis in India. “Low-cost incentives of about $3.00 per referral considerably increase the probability that current patients make referrals.” ( Goldberg, Macis, & Chintagunta ) #RCT
  • The cost of low effort among clinicians in Nigeria is about US$350 million annually. Peer monitoring increases effort. ( Okeke )
  • A soda tax in Mexico increased gastrointestinal disease because of low-quality drinking water. ( Gutierrez & Rubli )
  • “Piped water at home reduces childhood” obesity in Morocco and the Philippines. ( Ritter )
  • Providing double-fortified salt to primary school children in India reduced anemia but didn’t affect test scores on average. However, for the kids who complied best with treatment, test scores did rise. ( Krämer, Kumar, & Vollmer )
  • In China, regulating salt to make sure it contained iodine resulted in higher test scores for girls but not for boys, reducing the math ability gap. ( Deng & Lindeboom )
  • Games in Kenya show that spouses don’t totally trust each other. Letting them communicate increase trust a bit. ( Castilla, Masuda, & Zhang ) #LabInField
  • When a carpet manufacturer offered jobs to women in India, their likelihood of taking the job was unchanged whether they received the offer directly or their husbands got the information to share with their wives. When couples discussed the opportunity together, women were less likely to take the job. ( Lowe & McKelway ) #RCT
  • Households differ in who makes decisions but also in why that person makes the decisions. Among farmers in Senegal, “households achieve greater milk production, higher hemoglobin levels among children, and more satisfaction with decisions when the most informed member or members of the household make the relevant decision.” ( Bernard et al. )
  • In Bangladesh, “women, children, and the elderly face significant probabilities of living in poverty even in households with per-capita expenditure above the poverty threshold.” ( Brown, Calvi, & Penglase )
  • “A drop of 1 percentage point in the earnings gap” between husbands and wives in Mexico led to “an increase in the divorce rate of 2 percent.” ( Davila )
  • Christian missionaries settled in healthier, safer and more developed locations in 43 sub-Saharan African countries (early 20 th century) and in Ghana (18 th -20 th century) – this endogeneity led to an overly optimistic account of the importance of colonial missions for long-term development. ( Jedwab, Meier zu Selhausen, and Moradi ) #RDD
  • Greater suitability for opium cultivation in India under British Rule is associated with lower present-day literacy outcomes and a lower rate of public good provision. In opium-growing districts, the Colonial administration spent less on education and health, while spending more on police forces. ( Lehne ) #RDD
  • The United Fruit Company (UFCo), active in Costa Rica from 1889 to 1984, had positive, large and persistent effects even after it stopped production: households in former UFCo areas have better housing, sanitation, education, and consumption capacity. UFCo invested in physical and human capital, such as sanitary and health programs, housing for its employees, and vocational training. ( Méndez-Chacón and Van Patten ) #RDD
  • In locations where plantation estates were ruled by private, foreign enterprises during the Dutch colonial period in Java (Indonesia) weaker economic outcomes and institutions persist to this day. ( Fetzer and Mukherjee )
  • A novel index of ethnic segregation – taking into account both ethnic and spatial distances between individuals and computed for 159 countries - reveals that countries where ethnically diverse individuals lived far apart, have higher-quality government, higher incomes and higher levels of trust. ( Hodler, Valsecchi, and Vesperoni )
  • Information can break the political resource curse: Giving information - related to a recent discovery of natural gas in Mozambique - only to community leaders increases elite capture and rent-seeking, while information targeted at the general population increases mobilization, trust, demand for political accountability and decreases conflict.  ( Armand et al.)  
  • Group size of minorities has no relation with its representation in national government under proportional electoral systems, while it shows an inverted-U shaped relationship in majoritarian electoral systems (i.e., if “too small” or “too large” they suffer a disadvantage against the majority group) based on 421 ethno-country minority groups across 92 democracies spanning the period 1946–2013. ( Chaturvedi and Das )
  • The majority of citizens in Bangladesh prefer taking common decisions via democratic and inclusive institutions, and these positive evaluations of participatory governance are reinforced by the exposure to a Community-Driven Development program. ( Cocciolo ) #LabInField
  • Rewarding politicians by making their political effort more visible to citizens - either through public recognition or by increasing their access to public funds - improves citizens’ wellbeing in south Indian state Tamil Nadu.  ( Mansuri et al. )
  • Caste quotas lead to political candidates with lower wealth, lower criminal records, but similar education levels. Quotas also increase women’s representation in politics. There is no difference in the level of public goods between quota-bound and non-quota-bound areas. ( Jogani ) #RDD
  • Presence of political opposition in the city council improves mayors’ performance in Brazil: it increases legislative oversight, reduces corruption, increases the probability that a physician will be present at the local health clinic, and decreases the infant mortality rate by 3.4 per 1000 births for uneducated mothers. ( Poulsen and Varjão ) #RDD
  • Registered citizens in Tanzania are more likely to work in the formal economic sector, have higher education, bank accounts, and pay taxes. ( Bowles ) #IV
  • A land certification program in Zambia improved perceptions of tenure security, but it had no impact on investment. ( Huntington and Shenoy ) #RCT
  • Improved schools increased satisfaction with government’s education policy, voter registration and vote share for incumbent representatives in Liberia. Electoral gains were concentrated in places where test score gains were largest, suggesting that voters perceive and reward school quality. ( Romero, Sandefur, and Sandholtz )
  • An alcohol ban led to an increase in crime in the Indian State of Bihar. Since state capacity and supply of police is fixed, diverting law enforcement resources towards implementing the alcohol ban effectively reduces capacity to prevent crimes. ( Dar and Sahay )
  • But wait! Alcohol regulation policies in the Indian State of Bihar led to a 0.21 standard deviation reduction in the incidence of violent crimes but had no significant impact on non-violent crimes. ( Chaudhuri et al. )
  • Brazil’s 2007 voter re-registration reform, intended to curb voter-buying, increased political competition and healthcare expenditures, which in turn led to better health outcomes: a 6.6 percent increase in prenatal visits, a 15 percent decrease in the incidence of low birthweight, and 5.3 percent reduction in the infant mortality rate.  ( Karim ) #RDD
  • Electing “parachuters” (those who have hereditary/dynastic background) leads to 0.2 percentage point lower GDP growth per year compared to constituencies where “climbers” are elected (those who have made their way up on their own). Impact is likely driven by misallocation of bureaucratic resources. ( Dar ) #RDD
  • Workers will privately accept jobs at a wage below the prevailing norm in India, but not when other workers can observe them making the choice. “Workers give up 38% of average weekly earnings in order to avoid being seen as breaking the social norm.” ( Breza, Kaur, & Krishnaswamy )
  • A youth training intervention subsidizing skills training and employment placement services in Nepal showed increased non-farm employment, hours worked and earnings one year after the program. The effects are mainly driven by women, who engage in non-farm self-employment activities carried out inside (but not outside) the house.  ( Chakravarty et al .) #RDD
  • The decline in Mexican net migration from 2006 to 2012 reduced employment for lower educated men and increased wages for higher education men and women. Informality does not change, and women switch from unpaid to salaried jobs (likely because of reduced remittances). ( Conover, Khamis, and Pearlman ) #IV
  • Fear of sexual assault reduces women’s labor market participation in India: a one standard deviation increase in sexual assault reports within one’s own district reduced women’s employment probability by 0.36 percentage points, especially among highly educated married urban women. There is no effect of lagged physical assault reports on employment outside home. ( Siddique )
  • Tax rate changes do not increase formal employment in Ghana, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda. ( McKay, Pirttilä, and Schimanski )
  • Risk averse children in Kenya are more likely to make an independent decision to work, as opposed to being sent by or negotiating with parents over the decision. This suggests a strategic decision by risk averse children who face a risky outside option in semi-nomadic pastoralism. ( Walker and Bartlett ) #LabInField
  • Effects of local labor demand shocks can differ significantly by gender. In 1991-2010 Brazil, male labor demand shocks, relative to equivalent female shocks, lead to larger increases in population (migration), own-gender wages, and the gender economic gap, particularly for those without high school education. ( Chauvin )
  • In the short run, job application workshops and transport subsidies increase the probability of finding employment for young job seekers in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The workshop also helped young people access stable jobs with an open-ended contract. Four years later, the workshop has a large and significant impact on earnings, while the effects of the subsidy have dissipated. ( Abebe et al. ) #RCT
  • Decision-making responsibilities shift towards women during the seasonal migration period in Bangladesh. Seasonal migration brings clear changes in some beliefs with respect to gender and income inequality, but no accompanying behavioral change. ( Mobarak, Reimão, and Shenoy ) #RCT
  • Migration generates bilateral cultural convergence even if migrants are excluded from the pool of respondents (hence eliminating social mixing). International migration appears as a stronger and more robust driver of cultural convergence than trade. ( Rapoport, Sardoschau, and Silve )
  • In the agrarian sector in the Philippines, self-selection effects accounts for 60% of the productivity difference between fixed wage and individual piece rate contracts. Social norms significantly alter the decision-making by workers: Guilt aversion and kinship taxation discourage workers to choose the remunerative option, whereas enviousness facilitates them to opt for it. ( Goto et al. )
  • Employment Protection Laws decreased employment of the disabled by 9 percentage points, particularly for women and employees. Employers reduce their demand for disabled labor to avoid the cost of workplace accommodations for disabled workers. ( Palmer and Williams )
  • What happens when a single sector is hit with a negative shock? The EU ban on black tiger shrimp pushed some workers out of the industry in Thailand, increasing incomes of those who stayed. But those who were pushed out also received a benefit in their children’s education. ( Banternghansa & Giannone )
  • “Countries’ dollar-denominated net external debt (dollar debt) helps explain the large differences in risk premia across currencies and how U.S. monetary policy affects the global economy.” ( Wiriadinata )
  • With novel data from Mexico, “larger firms (in terms of sales and employees) tend to use more interfirm trade credit relative to bank credit… These firms use interfirm trade credit as a mechanism to smooth variations in their prices. All else equal, firms with a higher trade-to-bank credit ratio tend to lower prices.” ( Shapiro et al. )
  • In China, the road network veers towards the birthplaces of top officials who were in power when it was built. ( Alder & Kondo )
  • When the poorest households in a cash transfer program in Kenya experience monetary penalties failing to comply with conditions, consumption drops significantly. Less poor households are better able to avoid getting fined in the future. ( Heinrich & Knowles )
  • A new model suggests the existence of a network-level poverty trap. “Transfer programs can be made more cost-effective by targeting communities at the threshold of the aggregate poverty trap.” Based on data in Bangladesh. ( Advani )
  • Not all marginalized groups in India are catching up! Mobility in India has remained the same overall since before the early 1990s, but in fact it has risen among some groups (the traditionally lowest castes) and fallen among others (Muslims). ( Asher, Novosad, & Rafkin )
  • Cash transfers in Indonesia decreased suicides by 18%. ( Christian, Hensel, & Roth )
  • How to incorporate ordinal measures (e.g., ranked positions rather than levels of income) into multidimensional poverty measurement. ( Seth & Yalonetsky )
  • Introducing formal insurance can crowd-out private redistributive transfers in Ethiopia’s rural communities. To donors, new information based on insurance decisions allows them to place recipients of private funds in a different light, and reduce their support. ( Anderberg and Morsink )
  • Increases in the generosity of in-kind food subsidies led to lower labor supply and higher wages, mostly in the low-skilled casual labor market in India. ( Shrinivas, Baylis, and Crost )
  • Insurance is an important factor in explaining effort supply and fertilizer use. Going from no sharing to full insurance, effort supply decreases by more than six times and fertilizer use drops by almost 50 percent in rural India. ( Pietrobon )
  • A large-scale HIV prevention program in public secondary schools in Malawi provided free circumcision and transport subsidies to clinics. Demand for circumcision increased in addition to positive peer effects among untreated students. In the long run, the preventive effect of circumcision is mitigated through risk compensation behavior in the group that got circumcised due to the intervention, but not for those induced by peer effects. ( Kim et al. ) #RCT
  • Access to a new financial product, offering guaranteed credit access after a shock, improves household welfare in Bangladesh through two channels: an ex-ante insurance effect where households increase investment in risky production and an ex-post effect where households are better able to maintain consumption and asset levels after a shock.  ( Lane ) #RCT
  • Without financial incentives such as discounts or rebates, farmers in Bangladesh do not use insurance to manage production risk during the monsoon season, even at actuarially-favorable prices. Purchasing insurance yields both ex ante risk management effects as well as ex post income effects on production practices ( Hill et al. ) #RCT
  • In India, the association between yield losses and rainfall index losses are stronger for large deviations. Therefore, demand for commercially priced rainfall insurance is more likely to be positive when coverage is restricted to extreme losses. ( Negi and Rawasmani )
  • A large-scale environmental disaster in 2016, when toxic industrial waste contaminated the marine ecosystem of Vietnam’s central coast, reduced fishing activities by 23 percent and fishermen’s income by 45 percent. ( Hoang et al. )
  • Do you want practical advice for your farm? Go to your local church or mosque! In Kenya, “shared attendance of two peers at” a religious institution “increases the likelihood of seeking out and receiving advice from their peer by 33 percentage points.” ( Murphy, Lee, & Nourani )
  • Based on a field experiment in Ethiopia, “conventional job referrals through social networks can reinforce labour market inequalities and prevent less socially connected individuals from getting access to jobs. However, when given referral opportunities, individuals can manage to escape exclusion.” ( Witte ) #RCT
  • Matching employers and employees using social networks can lead to bad matches, particularly among “less productive, poorer workers and firms” in Ethiopia. ( Matsuda & Nomura )
  • Business training for micro-entrepreneurs in Uganda rewires social networks, as entrepreneurs who don’t receive the training seek to network with trained peers. ( Stein )
  • When the social network is not completely informative, any self-report which is not supported by a third party must be discarded. ( Bloch and Olckers )
  • In Filipino villages with high social fragmentation, workers earn higher wages and occupations are disproportionately less likely to be dominated by a single social group. ( Caria and Labonne )
  • Households which experience climate shocks tend to invest more in family-caste (formal and informal) and vertical network relationships. Those networks bring benefits which are key to mitigating the impact of negative climate shocks. ( Ramsawak )
  • Income shocks facilitate altruistic giving that better targets the least well off within one’s network in Ghana. ( Barrett et al. )
  • What does major bridge construction do for economic activity (in Bangladesh)? In the formerly disconnected area, workers move from agriculture to services, population grows, and agricultural productivity rises. ( Blankespoor et al. )
  • Big, surprising oil and gas discoveries lead to lots of additional foreign direct investment (FDI). In Mozambique, each FDI job leads to between 4.4 and 6.5 additional other jobs. ( Toews & Vézina )
  • India’s Freight Equalization Scheme “contributed to the decline of industry in eastern India” but it took time. But repealing it reversed the decline, at least in some states. ( Firth & Liu )
  • In Brazil, trade with China reduced unemployment for areas exporting stuff and increased unemployment for areas importing stuff. ( Brummond & Connolly )
  • In Indonesia, “each percentage point of additional agriculture-driven poverty reduction also corresponds to around three percent of district area in forest loss since 2000.” ( Edwards )
  • New state-built formal housing on the outskirts of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, is popular among slum dwellers, despite longer, and slightly more expensive commutes. Moving to formal housing on the outskirts of the city has no effects on labor supply and earnings. ( Franklin )
  • Public housing projects in South Africa decrease close-by formal residential home prices by 16 percent. While there is greater access to services and improved home quality within project areas, surrounding neighborhoods experience substantial growth in informal housing which exacerbates congestions and generate declines in formal home prices.  ( Bradlow, Polloni, and Violette ) #DiD
  • Air pollution substantially lowers productivity among industries with labor intensive technology while industries that rely less on labor inputs are less affected. ( Hansen-Lewis ) #IV
  • The TransJakarta Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) system, a public transport initiative designed to improve mobility for the greater Jakarta metropolitan area, did not increase transit ridership and exacerbated congestion on the routes it served, leading to increased travel times for other modes. Motorcycle vehicle ownership increased substantially. ( Gaduh, Gračner, and Rothenberg )
  • Two light-touch psychological interventions – one that helped women improve planning and another that helped reduce impatience – both had impacts on sanitation behavior and health outcomes after ten weeks in Kenya. ( Haushofer, John, & Orkin ) #RCT
  • After training street food vendors in India on food safety, vendors knew a lot more but didn’t change what they actually did. ( Daniele, Mookerjee, & Tommasi ) #RCT
  • Providing subsidies lead more households to purchase latrines in India. “A household becomes more likely to invest if a larger fraction of its community are also offered a subsidy.” ( Guiteras, Levinsohn, & Mobarak ) #RCT
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    Development Economics

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    term paper topics in development economics

    • Debraj Ray 1 &
    • Clive Bell 1  

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    This article surveys the current state of development economics, a subject that studies growth, inequality, poverty and institutions in the developing world. The article is organized around a view that emphasizes the role of history in creating development traps or slow progress. This ‘non-convergence’ viewpoint stands in contrast to a more traditional view, also discussed, based on the notion of economic convergence (across individuals, regions or countries). Some specific research areas in development economics receive closer scrutiny under this overall methodological umbrella, among them political economy, credit markets, legal issues, collective action and conflict.

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    Development Economics from the Bubble Burst to the Search for a New Paradigm. A Few Historical Milestones and Theoretical Approaches


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    Perspectives: Feminist Economics, Institutionalist Economics, Marxian Political Economy
    Topic: North-South Relations & Development
    Format: Syllabus

      Exploring Economics for Teachers

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    This syllabus was originally taught at SOAS University of London Winter Semester 2018/19 Instructor: Dr. Hannah Bargawi |   Tutor: Dr. Aleksandra Peeroo

    Course Summary

    The objective of the course is to explore the main strengths and weaknesses of orthodox and heterodox paradigms within development economics.

    A wide range of issues are covered in this course, which focuses in the first term on different theoretical contributions to our understanding of growth and development in low income countries. The second term is devoted to considering major contemporary themes and topics relevant to low-income countries. This aims to provide students with knowledge and critical skills in the political economy of development. The second part of the course aims to foster the students' ability to assess critically the major policy debates (domestic and global) and to evaluate the empirical evidence with respect to these issues in developing countries. On successful completion of the course, students will be able to:

    • Understand and differentiate between different theories of growth and development.
    • Explain the major strengths and weaknesses of orthodox and heterodox theories of growth and development.
    • Recognise and explain the domestic issues of developing countries that influence their economies.
    • Identify and assess the influence and impact of international factors in the economies of developing countries.

    You will be taught through a combination of weekly lectures, weekly tutorials and guided reading. Occasionally your lecturer and tutor may also guide you to other materials relevant to topics you are studying. These can be Radio or Television documentaries or podcasts. Details of these are usually shared in the lecture and/or tutorial or over the BLE news pages. If you have material relevant to the module, please do share this by sending it to the module convenor over email on [email protected].

    Lectures: We will have weekly lectures of two hours that will cover the main theories, arguments and ideas in relation to a specific topic. Lectures are not intended to cover everything you may be questioned on in the exam or is discussed in the readings. Lectures are designed to explain core arguments and theories using selected examples.

    Tutorials: The purpose of tutorials is to help you digest, understand and discuss the material covered in the lecture and your readings. It is therefore crucial that you attend tutorials and have read in advance of these so that you can contribute to discussions

    Readings: The readings for each week’s topic have been carefully selected for you. The essential readings are there to cover the core principles of a certain topic and provide you with an exposition of theory or application of theory. The additional readings are for you to explore certain theories or their exposition and application further. These additional readings are particularly important if you are preparing a presentation on this topic or are preparing your essay on this topic.

    Assignments and Assessment

    You will have ten questions to choose from and must answer three in three hours. Previous exam papers are on the SOAS website but provide only a guide as to what might be asked; the scope of this course is defined by the topics covered in lectures and tutorials in this academic session. Note too that some of the questions set in the exam may not have been covered in any great detail in the lectures - to do well in the exam you therefore need to have done the reading provided in this module guide.

    Assessed Essay

    The two assessed essays, each worth 10% of the overall mark, need to be by the following Essay Questions (Term 1). Select ONE of the following:

    •  “Arthur Lewis is vindicated by recent developments in China”. Critically evaluate this statement using theory and evidence.
    • What is meant by the term ‘developmental state’? Discuss its usefulness and limitations for policy application in low income countries today.

    Essay Format

    Word length — each essay should consist of no more than 2,500 words. If you go over the 2,500 word limit, you will lose marks. Word count is defined as the number of words contained in the submitted work including quotations, footnotes, titles, summaries and tables of contents. Appendices and bibliographies are not included in the word count. Appendices will not normally be marked and they must not include material essential to the argument developed in the main body of the work.

    Course Overview

    Schedule of topics covered and mandatory readings, session 1 the role of agriculture in development.

    In this week’s lecture we will discuss the role of agriculture in economic development. We will highlight two particular debates: 1) the land reform debate; 2) the role of technology in agriculture. Finally, we will discuss the links between agriculture and industry and investigate the role of the agricultural sector in some case study countries.

    Key readings:

    • C&D – Chapter 11: Agriculture and Development
    • T&S – Chapter 9: Agricultural Transformation and Rural Development
    • Griffin, K., A. R. Khan and A. Ickowitz,(2002) ‘Poverty and the Distribution of Land’. Journal of Agrarian Change
    • 2(3).

    Additional Readings:

    • Bhaduri, Amit. 2006. “Strucural Change and Economic Development: On the Relative Roles of Effective Demand and the Price Mechanism in a ‘Dual Economy’.” In Rethinking Development Economics, by Ha-Joon Chang, 219–233. London: Anthem Press.
    • Besley, Timothy, Robin Burgess (2000) “Land Reform, Poverty Reduction, And Growth: Evidence From India.” Quarterly Journal of Economics 115( 2): 389-430.
    • Byres T.J. (1981), `The New Technology, Class Formation and Class Action in the Indian Countryside', Journal of Peasant Studies, 8(4)
    • Bryceson, D. (1999) ‘African Rural Labour, Income Diversification and Livelihood Approaches: A Long-term Development Perspective.’ Review of African Political Economy 26(80).
    • Cleaver, H.M. (1972)`The Contradictions of the Green Revolution', Monthly Review, June 1972; OR same article ,without footnotes, American Economic Review, LXII( 2), May 1972.
    • Dixon, C. (1990) Rural Development in the Third World, London: Routledge, chs.1 and 4
    • Duflo, Esther, Michael Kremer, and Jonathan Robinson. (2006) “Understanding Technology Adoption: Fertilizer in Western Kenya, Evidence from Field Experiments." Unpublished working paper. April 2006.
    • Figueroa, Mark. 2004. “W. Arthur Lewis Versus the Lewis Model: Agricultural or Industrial Development?” Manchester School 72 (6): 736–750.
    • Goldstein, Markus, and Chris Udry. (2005) “Addressing Unequal Economic Opportunities: A Case Study of Land Tenure in Ghana.” Development Outreach, World Bank Institute (Sept. 2005):7-9.
    • Kay, Cristóbal. 2002. “Why East Asia Overtook Latin America: Agrarian Reform, Industrialisation and Development.” Third World Quarterly 23 (6): 1073–1102.
    • Orr, A. (2012). 'Why were so many social scientists wrong about the Green Revolution?', Journal of Development Studies, 48 (11): 1565-1586. World Bank (2008). World Development Report: Agriculture for Development. Chapters 1 and 2.

    Topic: Redistributive land reform is the best way to raise productivity in the agricultural sectors of low-income countries.

    Required readings:

    Session 2 Topic: From Industrialisation to De-Industrialisation?

    In this lecture we will revisit some theories from term 1 and discuss the arguments made for and against rapid industrialisation in low-income countries and consider supporting empirical evidence. The lecture will also discuss the concept of “industrial policy” and how such policy has evolved over time, both in theoretical roots and in application to low-income countries.

    Core readings:

    • Szirmai, A. (2009), Industrialisation as an engine of growth in developing countries, UNU-WIDER Working Paper No. 2011/75
    • Amirapu, A. and A. Subramanian (2015), Manufacturing or Services? An Indian Illustration of a Development Dilemma, Centre for Global Development Working Paper 409.

    Optional readings:

    • C&D – Chapter 9: The Initial Structural Transformation: Initiating the Industrialization Process; and Chapter 10: Strategy Switching and Industrial Transformation
    • Jones, G.A. and Corbridge, S. (2010) ‘The continuing debate about urban bias: the thesis, its critics, its influence, and its implications for poverty reduction strategies’. Progress in Development Studies, 10 (1). pp. 1-18.
    • Hausmann, Ricardo and Dani Rodrik 2003. Economic Development as Self Discovery, Journal of Development Economics 72 (2): 603-33.
    • Haraguchi, N. et al. (2017). "The Importance of Manufacturing in Economic Development: Has This Changed?" World Development 93(Supplement C): 293-315.
    • Lall, Sanjaya, and Samuel Wangwe (1998) “Industrial Policy and Industrialisation in Sub-Saharan Africa.” Journal of African Economies 7:70–107.
    • Lin, Justin (2012) “From Flying Geese To Leading Dragons New Opportunities and Strategies for Structural Transformation in Developing Countries1.” Global Policy 3 (4): 397–409.
    • Kaplinsky, Raphael (2008) “What Does the Rise of China Do for Industrialisation in Sub-Saharan Africa?” Review of African Political Economy 35 (115): 7–22.
    • Karshenas,M. (1995) 'Dynamic Economies and the Critique of Urban Bias', in Henry Bernstein and Tom Brass (eds.), Agrarian Questions. Essays in Appreciation of T. J. Byres (1996). See also Karshenas, Industrialization and Agricultural Surplus: A Comparative Study of Economic Development in Asia.
    • Stiglitz, Lin and Monga (2013): The Rejuvenation of Industrial Policy. World Bank: Policy Research Working Paper 6628.
    • Sutcliffe, B. (1984) 'Industry and Underdevelopment Reexamined', Journal of Development Studies,21(1).
    • Szirmai, Adam. 2012. “Industrialisation as an Engine of Growth in Developing Countries, 1950-2005.” Structural Change and Economic Dynamics 23(4): 406–420.
    • Rodrik, D (2015), Premature de-industrialisation, NBER Working Paper 20935.
    • Rodrik, D (2013), “Unconditional Convergence in Manufacturing,” Quarterly Journal of Economics, 128 (1), 165-204 February.
    • Rodrik, D. 2009. “Industrial Policy: Don’t Ask Why, Ask How.” Middle East Development Journal 01 (01): 1–29.
    • Rowden, R. (2013). “The Myth of Africa’s Rise”, Foreign Policy, 4th January 2013.

    Newspaper articles on the “re-emergence” of industrial policy:

    • back/2012/04/09/gIQAHL7i5S_blog.html

    Topic: Low-income countries should not rely on industrialisation as an engine of growth and development. Discuss.

    Session 3 Public Utilities, Infrastructure and Development

    Public utilities such as electricity, water, transportation or telecommunications are the backbone of any economic activity. Industrialisation requires a reliable supply of electricity to enable production as well as transportation infrastructure to allow exchange of goods. A lack of access to drinking water involves high opportunity costs and explains informality of labour and poverty. Due to tight budgets, governments find it difficult to finance such infrastructure. Are Public-Private Partnerships a solution?

    • Bayliss, K. (2003). ‘Utility privatisation in Sub-Saharan Africa: A case study of water’. Journal of Modern African Studies, 41 (4): 507-531.
    • Ménard, C. and Peeroo, A. (2011). ‘Liberalization in the Water Sector: Three Leading Models’. In: Finger, M. and
    • Künneke, R. W. (eds.), International Handbook of Network Industries: The Liberalization of Infrastructure, pp. 310-327. Cheltenham and others: Edward Elgar Publishing.
    • Spiller, P. T. and Tommasi, M. (2005). ‘The Institutions of Regulation: An Application to Public Utilities’. In: Ménard, C. and Shirley, M.M. (eds.), Handbook of New Institutional Economics, pp. 515-543. Dordrecht and others: Springer.
    • Arup (2015). In Depth Water Yearbook. London: Arup Publications.
    • Baer, M. (2014). ‘Private water, public good: Water privatization and state capacity in Chile’. Studies in Comparative International Development, 49 (2): 141-167.
    • Bayliss, K. (2013). ‘Financing water in Africa’. SOAS Department of Economics Working Paper Series No 182.
    • Kessides, I. (2004). Reforming infrastructure: Privatization, regulation, and competition. Washington DC: World Bank and Oxford University Press.
    • Kishimoto, S. (2016). ‘Remunicipalization: A practical guide for communities and policy makers’. Water Justice Toolkit: Public Water for All. Unifor, December 2016.
    • OECD (2010). ‘Clear Water’. OECD Observer, 280 (July 2010): 55.
    • Savedoff, W. and Spiller, P. (1999). Spilled Water: Institutional Commitment in the Provision of Water Services. Washington DC: Inter-American Development Bank.
    • Shirley, M.M. and Ménard, C. (2002). ‘Cities Awash: A Synthesis of the Country Cases’. In: Shirley, M.M. (ed.) Thirsting for Efficiency: The Economics and Politics of Urban Water System Reform, pp. 1-41. Amsterdam and others: The World Bank.

    Topic: How can we explain the lack of water services in Sub-Saharan Africa?

    • Ménard, C. and Peeroo, A. (2011). ‘Liberalization in the Water Sector: Three Leading Models’. In: Finger, M. and Künneke, R. W. (eds.), International Handbook of Network Industries: The Liberalization of Infrastructure, pp. 310-327. Cheltenham and others: Edward Elgar Publishing.

    Session 4 Evolving Structures of Trade and Development

    In this lecture we will discuss the role of foreign trade in development. We will briefly consider orthodox theories of comparative advantage and related trade promoting theories. We will then revisit the Prebisch-Singer Hypothesis and consider the growth of global value chains and the implications for LICs and economic development. Finally we will critically evaluate policy recommendations that emerge.

    • T&S – Chapter 12: International Trade Theory and Development Strategy
    • Deranyiagala, S. (2005). “Neoliberalism in International Trade: Sound Economics or a Question of Faith?” in Neoliberalism: A Critical Reader, edited by D. Johnston and A. Saad-Filho. London: Pluto Press.
    • Balassa, B., (1988), “Outward orientation,” in H. Chenery and T.N. Srinivasan (eds.), Handbook of Development Economics, vol. 2, Amsterdam: North-Holland, pp.1645-1689.
    • Cashin, P. and J. McDermott (2002), “The Long-Run Behaviour of Commodity Prices: Small Trends and Big Variability”, IMF staff papers, vol.49
    • Fu, Xiaolan, Raphael Kaplinsky, and Jing Zhang. 2009. “The Impact of China’s Exports on Global Manufactures Prices”. No. 032. SLPTMD Working Paper Series. Oxford: Department of International Development, University of Oxford.
    • Kaplinsky, R. (2006) “Revisiting the revisited terms of trade: Will China make a difference?”, World Development, 34(6): 981-995
    • Krueger, A. (1998) “Why Trade Liberalisation is Good for Growth” The Economic Journal 108 (September): 1513-1522.
    • Krugman, Paul and Maurice Obstfeld. International Economics: Theory and Policy. Eight edition or earlier edition. Boston: Pearson/Addison Wesley, 2009
    • Lall, Sanjaya. (1999). The Technological Response to Import Liberalization in SubSaharan Africa. Houndmills: Macmillan.
    • Lo, Dic. (2011). Alternatives to Neoliberal Globalization: Studies in the Political Economy of Institutions and Late Development. London: Palgrave Macmillan. See Chapter 2, section 2.3 on the New International Division of Labour
    • Ocampo, Jose Antonio, and Lance Taylor. (1998). “Trade Liberalisation in Developing Economies: Modest Benefits but Problems with Productivity Growth, Macro Prices, and Income Distribution.” Economic Journal 108 (450): 1523–1546.
    • Prebisch, R. (1959), “Commercial Policy in the Underdeveloped Countries”, The American Economic Review, vol. 49(2)
    • Razmi, Arslan, and Robert A. Blecker. (2008). “Developing Country Exports of Manufactures: Moving Up the Ladder to Escape the Fallacy of Composition?” Journal of Development Studies 44 (1) (January): 21–48.
    • Rodriguez, F., and Rodrik, D., (2000), “Trade policy and economic growth: a skeptic’s guide to the cross-national evidence”, NBER Macroeconomics Annual 2000, Volume 15 on
    • Sindzingre, Nicole Alice, and Lee Robinson. 2012. “China’s Ambiguous Impacts on Commodity-Dependent Countries: The Example of Sub-Saharan Africa (with a Focus on Zambia)”. Working Paper 2012-39. Paris: Université Paris X Ouest Nanterre La Défense.
    • Smith S. and J. Toye, (1979) `Introduction: Three Stories About Trade and Poor Economies', Journal of Development Studies, 15(3), April 1979.
    • Stein, Howard, and Machiko Nissanke. (1999). “Structural Adjustment and the African Crisis: A Theoretical Appraisal.” Eastern Economic Journal 25 (4): 399–420.
    • UNECA (2013). Making the Most of Africa’s Commodities: Industrializing for Growth, Jobs and Economic Transformation, Economic Report on Africa 2013.
    • UNCTAD. (2008). Economic Development in Africa 2008: Export Performance Following Trade Liberalization: Some Patterns and Policy Perspectives. New York and Geneva: United Nations Publications.
    • Film:

    Topic: How are producers in LICs integrated into world trade and what problems does this create (think about the micro and macro channels)? Are ethical standards and codes, including the Fairtrade movement a solution?

    • *Deranyiagala, S. (2005). “Neoliberalism in International Trade: Sound Economics or a Question of Faith?” in Neoliberalism: A Critical Reader, edited by D. Johnston and A. Saad-Filho. London: Pluto Press.

    Session 5 From FDI and TNCs to ‘China in Africa’

    This lecture will discuss the potential opportunities and challenges of foreign direct investment (FDI) in developing countries. We will discuss the particular role of transnational corporations in the developing world and the recent rise of Chinese investment in sub-Saharan Africa. We will also consider the growing emergence of transnational corporations from the global South and the possible implications of this.

    • Markusen, J.R. and A.J. Venables (1997). “Foreign Direct Investment as a Catalyst for Industrial Development”. NBER Working Paper No.6241,
    • Kaplinsky, Raphael and Morris, Mike (2009). “Chinese FDI in Sub-Saharan Africa: engaging with large dragons”. European Journal of Development Research, 21(4), pp. 551–569.
    • Bhagwati, J (2007), “Why Multinationals Help Reduce Poverty”, The World Economy, pp. 211-228.
    • Buckley. P.J. (2010). Foreign Direct Investment, China and The World Economy, Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
    • Chang, Ha-Joon (1998) “Globalization, Transnational Corporations, and Economic Development: Can the Developing Countries Pursue Strategic Industrial Policy in a Globalizing World Economy?” Chp 4 (pp.97-114) in Baker, Dean, Epstein, Gerald and Pollin, Robert (1998) Globalization and Progressive Economic Policy, London: Cambridge University Press.
    • Dicken, P., H.W. Yeung, Weidong Liu (2006) "Transnational corporations and network effects of a local manufacturing cluster in mobile telecommunications equipment in China" World Development 34: 520-540
    • Dicken, P. (2003)"’Placing’ firms: grounding the debate on the ‘global’ corporation" In Remaking the Global Economy: Economic-Geographical Perspectives, J. Peck & H. Yeung (eds), pp. 27-44.Sage.
    • Dunning, J.H., R.V. Hoesel and R. Narula (1998), ‘Third World Multinationals Revisited: New Developments and Theoretical Implications’, in J.H. Dunning (ed.), Globalization, Trade, and Foreign Direct Investment, Amsterdam: Elsevier.
    • Drysdale, P. and S.J. Wei (2012). “The rise of Chinese foreign investment”, East Asian Forum Quarterly, April-June 2012,
    • Gorg, H. and D. Greenaway (2004). “Much Ado About Nothing? Do Domestic Firms Really Benefit from Foreign Direct Investment?” World Bank Research Observer, 19(2): 171-197
    • Lall, S. (2003). “Foreign Direct Investment, Technology Development and Competitiveness: Issues and Evidence”, in Lall and Urata (eds). Competitiveness, FDI and Technological Activity in East Asia, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar. Pp.12-56
    • Lall, S. and Narula, R. (2004). FDI and its Role in economic development: Do we need a new agenda, European Journal of Development Research, 16(3), pp. 447-464.
    • Lall, S. (2001) Competitiveness, Technology and Skills, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.
    • Lall, S. and Pietrobelli, C. (2002) Failing to Compete: Technology Development and Technology Systems in Africa, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.
    • Lall, S. and Teubal, M. (1998) ‘‘Market stimulating’ technology policies in developing countries: a framework with examples from East Asia’, World Development, 26(8), 1369-1386.
    • Moyo, D. (2012). Winner Takes All: China’s Race for Resources and what it means for the World, New York: Basic Book

    Topic: “The overall economic impact of Chinese investment on the economies of sub-Saharan Africa has been overwhelmingly positive”

    Discuss Required readings:

    • Kaplinsky, Raphael and Morris, Mike (2009). “Chinese FDI in Sub-Saharan Africa: engaging with large dragons”.  European Journal of Development Research, 21(4), pp. 551–569.

    Session 6 Aid and Development

    After having discussed various types of aid, a review of aid thinking over time will lay the foundations to better understand the contemporary debate on aid, namely whether it should focus on poverty reduction or on structural transformation. Special attention will be given to the political economy of aid as a way to explain changes in aid over time.

    • T&S – Chapter 14: Foreign Finance, Investment and Aid: Controversies and Opportunities
    • Easterly, William, Ross Levine, and David Roodman (2004) “Aid, Policies, and Growth: Comment.” American
    • Economic Review 94(3): 774-80.
    • Fraser A. (2010) “Aid-Recipient Sovereignty in Historical Perspective”, in: Whitfield, L. (ed.) The Politics of Aid:
    • African Strategies for Dealing with Donors. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Ch. 2, pp. 45-73.
    • Burnside, Craig, and David Dollar. “Aid, Policies, and Growth.” American Economic Review 90, no. 4 (Sept. 2000): 847–68.
    • Burnside, Craig, and David Dollar: “Aid, Policies, and Growth: Reply.” American Economic Review 94, no. 3 (June 2004): 781-84.
    • Dahman-Saidi, Myriam, and Christina Wolf. 2011. “Recalibrating Development Co-operation: How Can African Countries Benefit from Emerging Partners?” OECD Publishing, OECD Development Centre Working Papers No. 302. Paris: OECD Development Center.
    • Djankov, Simeon, Jose Montalvo, and Marta Reynal-Querol (2008) “The Curse of Aid.” Journal of Economic Growth 13(3): 169-94.
    • Easterly, William. “Can the West Save Africa?” Journal of Economic Literature 47, no. 2 (June 2009): 373-447.
    • Easterly, William, and Tobias Pfutze. “Where Does the Money Go? Best and Worst Practices in Foreign Aid.” Journal of Economic Perspectives 22, no. 2 (Spring 2008): 29-52.
    • Kaufmann, Daniel, Aart Kraay, and Massimo Mastruzzi. “Governance Matters VIII: Governance Indicators for 1996-2008.” The World Bank, Policy Research Working Paper 4978. 2009.
    • Mawdsley, E. (2012). From recipients to donors: Emerging powers and the changing development landscape. London and New York: Zed Books. Chapter 1.
    • Moyo, D. (2009) Dead Aid: Why Aid is Not Working and How There is a Better Way For Africa. London: Penguin
    • Nissanke, Machiko, and M. Söderberg (2011). “The Changing Landscape of Aid Relations in Africa – Can China’s Engagement Make a Difference to African Development.” Ul Papers 2011/02. Stockholm: Swedish Institute of International Affairs.
    • Olken, Benjamin, and Patrick Barron. “The Simple Economics of Extortion: Evidence from Trucking in Aceh.”
    • Mimeo. May 2007. Shleifer, Andrei, and Robert Vishny. “Corruption.” Quarterly Journal of Economics 108, no. 3 (Aug. 1993): 599-617.
    • Wade, Robert. “The System of Administrative and Political Corruption: Canal Irrigation in South India.” Journal of Development Studies 18, no. 3 (April 1982): 287-328.

    Topic: Critically discuss if foreign aid is beneficial or not for growth and development.

    • Oya, C. and N. Pons-Vignon (2010) “Aid, Development and the State in Africa”, in: Padayachee V. (ed.) The Political Economy of Africa, London: Routledge. Ch. 9, pp. 191-217.
    • Ramalingham, B. (2013) “A System to Change ‘the system’”, in: Aid on the Edge of Chaos: Rethinking International Cooperation In A Complex World Oxford: Oxford University Press. Ch. 1, pp. 3-16.
    • Whitfield, L. (2009) “Reframing the Aid Debate: Why Aid Isn’t Working and How It Should Be Changed”, DIIS Working Paper 2009:34.
    • Universe of Economies: Interdependence and Complexity, System Trajectories, Chaos, and Self-Organization. San Diego, Academic Press: 57-96 & 251-276

    Session 7 The Bretton Woods Institutions and their Role in Development

    The emergence of the Bretton Woods system after WWII also involved the creation of a new set of institutions to govern the international monetary system and international trade. Although the Bretton Woods system collapsed in the 1970s, its institutions persisted over time. The World Bank, the International Monetary Fund and the GATT’s successor, the World Trade Organisation, exist until today. Their role in the development of Low Income Countries will be studied in this lecture.

    • T&S - Chapter 13: Balance of Payments, Developing-Country Debt, and the Macroeconomic Stabilization Controversy
    • Easterly, W. (2001), The Effect of International Monetary Fund and World Bank Programs on Poverty. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 2517.
    • Steinberg, R. H. (2002), In the Shadow of Law or Power? Consensus-Based Bargaining and Outcomes in the GATT/WTO. International Organization, 56:2 (Spring, 2002), pp. 339-74.
    • Baqir, R., R. Ramcharan and R. Sahay (2003) ‘IMF Program Design and Growth: What is the Link?’, International Monetary Fund, April
    • Blanchard, O., G. Dell’Ariccia and P. Mauro (2010) ‘Rethinking Macroeconomic Policy’, International Monetary Fund Staff Position Note SPN/10/03, February.
    • Elson, D. and N. Cagatay (2000) ‘The social content of macroeconomic policies’, World Development, 28(7): 1347-1364
    • Fine, Ben (2006) 'Financial Programming and the IMF: the developmental state and the political economy of development.' In: Fine, Ben and Jomo, K.S., (eds.), The New Development Economics: After the Washington Consensus. New Delhi: Tulika, pp. 87-100.
    • Heintz, J. and R. Pollin (2008) ‘Targeting Employment Expansion, Economic Growth and Development in Sub-Saharan Africa: Outlines of an Alternative Economic Programme for the Region’, paper prepared for the UN Economic Commission for Africa, Addis Ababa, March.
    • Henning, C.R. (2009) ‘US Interests and the International Monetary Fund’, Peterson Institute for International Economics Policy Brief PB 09-12.
    • IMF (2009) ‘The Fund’s Facilities and Financing Framework for Low-Income Countries’, prepared by Strategy, Policy and Review Department, approved by Reza Moghadam and Andrew Tweedie, February 25
    • Rada, Codrina, and Rudiger von Arnim. (2011). “Structural Transformation in China and India: The Role of Macroeconomic Policies”. Department of Eoconomics Working Paper Series No. 2011/05. University of Utah.
    • Stiglitz, J. 2003. “The East Asia Crisis: How IMF Policies Brought the World to the Verge of a Global Meltdown”, Chapter 4 in Globalization and Its Discontents.
    • Wyplosz, C. (2007) ‘Debt Sustainability Assessment: the IMF Approach and Alternatives’, Graduate Institute of International Studies Working Paper 03/2007
    • Film:
    • Interview of John Perkins on Democracy Now- Confessions of an Economic Hit-man, On YOUTUBE at
    • Topic: Analysing a real life IMF Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP) from Ghana. ONLINE at (you are not expected to read the entire report; we will mainly be looking at Appendix II- Policy Matrix).

    Session 8 Capital Account Liberalisation, Financialisation and Development

    In the context of the Washington Consensus developing countries were expected to open up to international trade as well as to international capital flows. This lecture looks at the various types of international capital flows and then examines their impact on economic development by carefully weighing the arguments of proponents and opponents of capital account liberalisation.

    • M. Ayhan Kose, Eswar Prasad, Kenneth Rogoff, and Shang-Jin Wei (2006), Financial Globalization: A Reappraisal, IMF Working Paper WP/06/189.
    • Jonathan D. Ostry, Prakash Loungani, and Davide Furceri, Neoliberalism: Oversold? Finance & Development, June 2016, Vol. 53, No. 2.
    • Bhagwati, Jagdish (1998). “The Capital Myth: The Difference Between Trade in Widgets and Trade in Dollars”, Foreign Affairs, Vol. 77, pp. 7-12.
    • Cavallo, E, Eichengreen, B and Panizza, U (2016), Can Countries Rely on Foreign Saving for Investment and Economic Development?, CEPR Discussion Paper No. DP11451. Available at SSRN:
    • Atish R. Ghosh ; Mahvash Qureshi (2016), What’s In a Name? That Which We Call Capital Controls, Working Paper No. 16/25.
    • Schmukler, Sergio L (2004), “Financial Globalization: Gain and Pain for Developing Countries.” Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta Economic Review, Q2: 39–66.
    • Williamson, J., and Z. Drabek, (1999), Whether and When to Liberalize Capital Account and Financial Services.
    • Staff Working Paper ERAD-99-03. World Trade Organization. Economic Research and Analysis Division.
    • Ghosh, Atish R., Jonathan D. Ostry, and Mahvash S. Qureshi (2016) “When Do Capital Inflow Surges End in Tears?” American Economic Review, Vol. 106, No. 5.
    • Dell’Ariccia, Giovanni, Julian di Giovanni, André Faria, M. Ayhan Kose, Paolo Mauro, Jonathan D. Ostry, Martin Schindler, and Marco Terrones (2008), Reaping the Benefits of Financial Globalization, IMF Occasional Paper 264 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).
    • Edison, H., R. Levine, L. Ricci, and T. Slok. (2002) ‘Capital Account Liberalization and Economic Performance: Survey and Synthesis’, IMF Working Paper, 02/120.
    • Davide Furceri ; Prakash Loungani (2015), Capital Account Liberalization and Inequality, IMF Working Paper No. 15/243
    • Rodrik, Dani, 1998, “Who Needs Capital-Account Convertibility?” in Should the IMF Pursue Capital-Account Convertibility? Essays in International Finance 207 (Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University).
    • Asli Demirgüç-Kunt & Ross Levine (2008), Finance, Financial Sector Policies, and Long-Run Growth, Commission on Growth and Development.
    • Eichengreen, B., (2000),"Capital Account Liberalisation: What do Cross-Country Studies Tell us?" World Bank Economic Review, 15(3): 341-365.
    • Eswar S. Prasad & Raghuram G. Rajan (2008), A Pragmatic Approach to Capital Account Liberalization, Institute for the Study of Labor, Discussion Paper No. 3475 April 2008.

    Topic: What are the advantages and disadvantages of capital account liberalisation for developing countries?

    • Stiglitz, J.E., (2000),"Capital Market Liberalization, Economic Growth, and Instability." World Development, 28 (6): 1075-1086.
    • Maurice Obstfled (2009), International Finance and Growth in Developing Countries: What Have We Learned?, NBER Working Paper No. 14691
    • Wade, R (2000), Wheels Within Wheels: Rethinking the Asian Crisis and the Asian Model, Annual Review of Political Science, Vol. 3: 85-115.

    Session 9 The Development Challenges of Small Island States

    Small Island Developing States have specific characteristics that set them apart from other developing countries. In addition, climate change poses a particular threat for these islands. This lecture will consider how these specificities constrain development of SIDS and it will also link back to some of the topics already discussed, namely industrialisation, globalisation and trade, and the role of the State.

    • Briguglio, L. (1995). ‘Small Island Developing States and their economic vulnerabilities’. World Development, 23 (9): 1615-1632.
    • Bertram, G. and Poirine, B. (2007). ‘Island Political Economy’. In: UPEI (ed.), A world of islands: An island studies reader, Malta: PEI, pp. 325-373.
    • Sobhee, S. (2009). ‘The economic success of Mauritius: Lessons and policy options for Africa’. Journal of Economic Policy Reform, 12 (1): 29-42.
    • Baldacchino, G. and Bertram, G. (2009). ‘The Beak of the Finch: Insights into the Economic Development of Small Economies’. The Round Table, 98 (401): 141-160.
    • Bunwaree, S. (2005). ‘Small Island Developing States: Challenges, prospects and international cooperation for sustainable development’. Paper prepared for the IRFD World Forum, 10-13 January 2005.
    • Elahee, M.K. (2011). ‘Sustainable energy policy for small-island developing state: Mauritius’. Utilities Policy, 19 (2011): 71-9.
    • Gray, M. and Lalljee, B. (2012). ‘Climate change adaptation in Mauritius: Considering the role of institutions’. Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Sciences, 11 (1): 99-111.
    • Halstead, E. (2016). ‘Citizens of Sinking Islands: Early Victims of Climate Change’. Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies, 23 (2): 819-837.
    • Mohan, P. (2016). ‘Caribbean Diversification and Development’. The World Economy, 2016: 1434-1453.
    • Robinson, C.J. (2017). Corporate Ownership and Management in Small Island Developing States: Implications for Academia, Public Policy and Management Practices. At:

    Topic: What differentiates Small Island Developing States from other low and middle income economies? How do these specific characteristics influence development possibilities for small island states?

    Session 10 Changing Labour Markets in Low-Income Countries

    This week is devoted to understanding the main features and trends in relation to labour markets in LICs. We will record the shift towards self-employment, informalisation, and flexibilisation of work across some case study countries as well as the integration of workers into global value chains. We will also consider theoretical approaches towards labour markets in LICs including labour market segmentation and the human capital approach.

    • Al-Samarrai, S. y Bennell, P. (2003), Where Has All the Education Gone in Africa?: Employment Outcomes among Secondary School and University Leavers, Research Paper, August, Institute of Development Studies at the University of Sussex.
    • Fields, G. (2007). ‘Labor market policy in developing countries: a selective review of the literature and needs for the future ’, Washington, DC: World Bank, Policy Research Working Paper 4362.
    • Bain, C. (2010). ‘Structuring the Flexible and Feminized Labor Market: GlobalGAP Standards for Agricultural Labor in Chile’, Journal of Women in Culture and Society, 35(2j)
    • Bardasi, E.; K. Beegle; A. Dillon and P. Serneels. 2010. “Do Labor Statistics Depend on How and to Whom the Questions Are Asked? Results from a Survey Experiment in Tanzania”, in Policy Research Working Paper No 5192, Washington DC, World Bank.
    • Barrientos S. and S. Smith (2007), ‘Do Workers Benefit from Ethical Trade? Assessing Codes of Labour Practice in Global Production Systems’ Third World Quarterly , 28(4): 713-729.
    • Berg, J. (2011). ‘Laws or luck? Understanding rising formality in Brazil in the 2000s’. Regulating for Decent Work. New Directions in Labour Market Regulation. Geneva/Basingstoke: ILO/Palgrave Macmillan, 123-150.
    • Bryceson D., C. Kay and J. Mooij (eds.) (2000), Disappearing Peasantries? Rural labour in Africa, Asia and Latin America. Especially chapters 2, 7, 13 and 17. London: ITDG Publishing
    • Folbre, N. (2012). ‘The Political Economy of Human Capital’. Review of Radical Political Economics, 44(3), 281-292.
    • Fox, M. L., Haines, C., Munoz, M. J. H., & Thomas, M. A. H. (2013). Africa's Got Work to Do: Employment Prospects in the New Century. IMF Working Paper No. 13-201. International Monetary Fund: Africa department.
    • Gindling, T.H. (1991), “Labor Market Segmentation and the Determination of Wages in the Public, Private-Formal, and Informal Sectors in San José, Costa Rica”, Economic Development and Cultural Change Vol. 39, No. 3 (Apr., 1991), pp. 585-605.
    • Glewwe P. (2002), ‘Schools and Skills in Developing Countries: Education Policies and Socio-Economic Outcomes’, Journal of Economic Literature, Vol XL, June.
    • Li, H., Li, L., Wu, B., & Xiong, Y. (2012). ‘The end of cheap Chinese labor’. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 26(4), 57-74.
    • Luebker, M. 2008. Employment, unemployment and informality in Zimbabwe: Concepts and data for coherent policy-making. Issues Paper No. 32 and Integration Working Paper No. 90 (Harare and Geneva, ILO).
    • Maertens, M., & Swinnen, J. F. (2012). ‘Gender and modern supply chains in developing countries’. Journal of Development Studies, 48(10), 1412-1430.
    • Maloney, W. (1998), “Are labour markets in developing countries dualistic?”, and other working/research papers for the World Bank.
    • Portes A. and R. Schauffler (1993), “Competing Perspectives on the Latina American Informal Sector”, Population and Development Review, 19:1, 33-59
    • Schaffner J.A. (1993), ‘Rising incomes and the shift from self-employment to firm-based employment’, Economics Letters 41: pp. 435-440.
    • Schneider, F. and D. Enste (2000), “Informal Economies: Size, Causes, and Consequences”, The Journal of Economic Literature, 38/1, pp. 77-114.
    • Sender, John, Christopher Cramer and Carlos Oya (2005), Unequal Prospects: Disparities in the Quantity and Quality of Labour Supply in Sub-Saharan Africa, Social Protection Discussion Paper No.0525, Washington: World Bank.

    Topic: “To improve the situation of workers in LICs, policy-makers should focus on improving educational outcomes and skills of the workforce.” Discuss Required readings:

    • Al-Samarrai, S. y Bennell, P. (2003), Where Has All the Education Gone in Africa?: Employment Outcomes among Secondary School and University Leavers, Research Paper, August, Institute of Development Studies at the  University of Sussex.

    Learning and Teaching ressources 

    The main textbook for this module is:

    • Todaro, M. and Smith, S. C. (eleventh edition; 2011). Economic Development. London: Addison Wesley [there are many earlier editions which are almost as useful if you can't find the latest edition] -henceforth T&S

    Other very useful texts are:

    • Chang. H. (2003) Rethinking Development Economics. London: Anthem Press.
    • Cypher, J.M. and Dietz, J.L. (2009). The Process of Economic Development. London and New York: Routledge. (3rd Edition) – henceforth C&D (You can access this book online via the SOAS library).
    • Hunt, D. (1989) Economic Theories of Development. An Analysis of Competing Paradigms. Hemel Hempstead: Harvester Wheatsheaf
    • Jomo, K.S. and Fine, B. (eds) (2006) The New Development Economics After the Washington Consensus. Delhi, India: Tulika Books.
    • Kohli, A. (2004). State-Directed Development: Political Power and Industrialization in the Global Periphery. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (Good for country examples – India, South Korea, Brazil and Nigeria) – E-book available via SOAS library.
    • Meier, G. and Rauch, J. (2005). Leading Issues in Economic Development. Oxford: Oxford University Press [earlier editions are also useful]
    • Thirlwall, A. P. and P. Pacheco-López (tenth edition; 2017). Economics of Development. London: Palgrave Macmillan.
    • Ray, D. (1998). Development Economics. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
    • Reinert, E., J. Ghosh and R. Kattel (2016). Handbook of Alternative Theories of Economic Development, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar. – henceforth RGK (You can access this book online via the SOAS library).

    Below is a short selection of background reading relevant to the course:

    • Chang, H. (2002) Kicking Away the Ladder. Development Strategy in Historical Perspective. London:
    • Anthem Press
    • Easterly, W. (2002) The Elusive Quest for Growth. Cambridge MA: MIT Press
    • Jerven, M. (2015) Africa: Why Economists Get in Wrong. London: Zed Books

    Other Online Resources, Blogs, Podcasts and Websites

    Below are a selection of useful resources, blogs and websites that provide up-to-date commentary on the topics and issues covered in the IDE course. You may find it useful to consult these from time to time.

    • Conversations with Tyler Cowen Podcast : A great series of interview-style podcasts that touch upon issues in development economics, from conflict and war to crypto-currencies.
    • IDEAS Network:  IDEAS has been established with the purpose of building a pluralist network of heterodox economists engaged in the teaching, research and application of critical analyses of economic development.
    • Future Development:  This blog was first launched in September 2013 by the World Bank in an effort to hold governments more accountable to poor people and offer solutions to the most prominent development challenges. Continuing this goal, Future Development was re-launched in January 2015 at 
    • ELDIS : Our aim is to share the best in development policy, practice and research.
    • Aid Thoughts : Aid Thoughts is a blog on international development, economics and foreign aid.
    • Developing Economics : This blog takes critical approach to development economics. It seeks to stimulate debate and critical reflection on economic development among academics and practitioners from all relevant fields
    • The Guardian Newspaper Global Development Site : This website is funded by support provided, in part, by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. Content is editorially independent and its purpose is to focus on global development, with particular reference to the millennium development goals and their transition into the sustainable development goals from 2015.
    • Of interest might be the Poverty Matters blog in particular
    • From Poverty to Power:   This is a conversational blog written and maintained by Duncan Green, strategic adviser for Oxfam GBand author of ‘From Poverty to Power’.
    • Overseas Development Institute :  The Overseas Development Institute (ODI) is the UK's leading independent think tank on international development and humanitarian issues.
    • London International Development Centre :  The London International Development Centre (LIDC) facilitates interdisciplinary research and training to tackle complex problems in international development. We bring together social and natural scientists from across the University of London's Bloomsbury Colleges: Birkbeck, UCL Institute of Education, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, Royal Veterinary College, and SOAS.
    • Growth Econ Blog by Dietrich Vollrath

    On the Nobel Prize in Economics:


    Data Sources

    Below are number of relevant sites where you can obtain useful data for this course. You are encouraged to consult these sites and to obtain information from here for your essays and tutorial presentations. We will be discussing some of the limitations and concerns with some of this data in our classes, so please make use of such data with caution and with caveats in mind!

    • IMF (various databases ) 
    • World Bank World Development Indicators published and regularly updated by the World Bank. 
    • UK Data Service
    • ILO Employment and labour data including Key Labour Market Indicators – KILM and Labour Force Surveys 
    • FAO (Commodities and agriculture data) 
    • UNCTAD (Trade and Commodities data)
    • UNDP Human Development Report published annually by the UNDP
    • OECD Aid Statistics 
    • Historical Growth Trends Angus Maddison's estimates of historical GDP trends across countries up to 2016

     Stay tuned!

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    Social experiments to fight poverty

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    • New technology trends used in banks.
    • Cournot competition as an economic model.
    • Role of advertising in monopolistic competition and oligopoly advertising.
    • Economic crises in economic growth through economic history.
    • Competition in economics. Describe the concept of perfect competition. What the similarities and differences between oligopoly and monopoly? What are some difficulties in monopolistic competition? Support your ideas by providing strong arguments and appropriate examples.
    • John Locke’s and Karl Marx’s economic ideas . Compare and contrast the fundamental concepts of both theories. What economic problems do both scientists explore in their studies? Analyze how modern economists use Locke’s and Marx’s ideas as prerequisites to their researches?
    • Services in banks: strategies and plans . Analyze the services that are provided in banks in your country. Do they satisfy clients’ needs? Is there any way to test banks? Suggest some possible improvements to the banking system in your country.
    • The significance of formalizing economy . Give your own opinion regarding this issue. Are you for or against applying policies and predetermined rules to govern the economy? Support your position by providing clear arguments.
    • The economic explanation of political dishonesty. Explain how politics affects the economy of a country. How may some economic issues within a country lead to political deception? Should the economy depend on politics or not? State your position clearly and provide strong arguments.
    • Microeconomics should be before macroeconomics in the syllabus . Explain why microeconomics is a vital prerequisite for macroeconomics. Which fundamental concepts of one field are applied in another?

    🔍 Microeconomic Topics

    • Microeconomic theory: correlation between variables.
    • Opportunity cost in microeconomics .
    • Monopolistic competition as a market structure .
    • Demand, supply, and their interaction on markets .
    • Competition and monopoly as the most crucial market structures in microeconomics.
    • Price elasticity of demand role in microeconomics.
    • Concept of market equilibrium in business.

    When the supply and demand curves intersect, the market is in equilibrium.

    • Microeconomics principles in the flying automobiles industry
    • Income effect and substitution effect in microeconomics.
    • Economic factors on the stock market.
    • Elasticity and its importance for business.
    • Cost changes and the implementation of control mechanisms.
    • Market value concept from an economic perspective.
    • Operation of an efficient market and causes of market inefficiencies. Briefly describe a profitable market. What are some possible reasons for lowering the market efficiency level? Suggest how to maintain market efficiency.
    • Internationalization of small and medium enterprises . How internationalization affects the performance and operation of small and medium companies? Does it have a positive or negative effect? Comment on how the internalization influences macro- and macroeconomic concepts.
    • Price discrimination concept in microeconomics . Why do firms engage in price discrimination? Explain how and why these variables influence the price level. What are the underlying economic theories supporting price discrimination? Suggest how changes in the environment may affect pricing discrimination.
    • How a good’s price is determined? Using the supply and demand model, explain how the sellers determine the price of a good.
    • Supply and demand concepts. Describe the following microeconomics notions. How can supply and demand concepts be used to achieve the market equilibrium?
    • Consumer choice . Conduct a normative analysis and examine the factors that impact consumer choice. Discuss the correlation of the income effect, availability of substitutes, tastes, and preferences with the consumer choice. Provide appropriate examples to support your arguments.
    • Application of microeconomic concepts in personal life. For this assignment, think about the ways the microeconomics knowledge can be used in everyday life. Why is it helpful to know the basics of microeconomics to make wise decisions?

    🌎 Macroeconomic Topics

    • Macroeconomics theory and fundamentals .
    • Role of supply-side policies in balanced economic growth .
    • Sequestration and its impacts on an economy as the key aspects of macroeconomics.
    • Monetary policy and its impact on economic stabilization .
    • The rising cost of gas and its effect on the world economy .
    • Supply policies’ role in economic growth .
    • Demand and supply correlation in the market .

    Demand is based on needs and wants.

    • The significance of Adam Smith’s “invisible hand” concept in modern economics .
    • Macroeconomic environment: self-correction of the economy .
    • Men’s and women’s unemployment disparity .
    • Financial economics for infrastructure and fiscal policy.
    • Fundamentals of macroeconomics activities influence.
    • Fiscal policy: limitations and negative consequences .
    • The federal reserve and the inflation problem.
    • What went wrong? Present an initial inquiry into the causes of the 2008 financial crisis
    • Globalization: good for people, bad for humanity. Discuss the positive and negative aspects of globalization. Provide persuasive examples to support your ideas. Leave your readers with multiple-choice, whether it is worth preventing globalization or not?
    • Fluctuations in inflation rates and unemployment rates. Are you afraid of inflation and unemployment topics in your syllabus? No reasons to worry! Check out the example and become a professional in these fields.
    • Macroeconomics: Determination of GDP . Introduce the elements of GDP. How does the DGP of influence the life level of a country? Suggest possible ways to increase GDP.
    • Business Cycles . Discuss the features and causes of the business cycle. Comment on the recession and its occurrence. Wrap up your essay with a well-developed conclusion. Push the readers on further investigation of business cycles in macroeconomics.
    • Aggregate demand and aggregate supply curves . Examine the shape of the curves. Explain why the aggregate demand curve slopes downward. What is the reason for the upward sloping of the aggregate supply curve? Writing an essay on this topic is helpful. If you figure out the answers, you will succeed in your exam!

    👀 More Interesting Economic Topics

    Did you scroll through our essay ideas, but still don’t know what to write about? Then, the following section is for you! Here you can find more economic topics for your paper. For your convenience, our team divided our ideas into several categories.

    So, don’t stress out if you still don’t have a topic. We have much more to offer you!

    🤝 International Economics

    • Business challenges in the international market .
    • Governments and intervention in the allocation of resources in the market .
    • The problems of the modern global economy.
    • Economic Inequality as a Result of Globalisation
    • Sustainability and trends of the global trade imbalance.
    • Globalization effects on the business, economy, and health .
    • Ethical and integrity dilemma within employees in the global economy.
    • Multinational firms impacts on economic growth .
    • The concept of global trade imbalance as a policy issue.
    • International economics in the context of globalization.

    Globalization encourages each country to specialize in what it produces best using the least amount of resources.

    • The current economic crisis and lessons for economic theory .
    • International trade policies’ major controversies.
    • Globalization and foreign currency exchange.
    • Balance of trade: global markets and competition.
    • Cultural diversity in international trade.
    • Peterson institute for international economics is a center of global economic development.
    • International political economy and finance . Analyze the current economic situation in an international arena. What counties are leading ones? What countries need better economic development. Suggest some possible ways how to boost the financial status of undeveloped countries.
    • The economic development of Thailand . How do political instability and environmental issues in Thailand affect the economy? What place does the county take on the international economic arena? Suggest some possible ways of improving the economy of Thailand.
    • The international economy is seen as limiting developing countries’ interests . How does the international economy weaken the position of developing countries? Offer your solutions to deal with this problem.
    • Current developments of the business and economic environments . Comment on the progress of the modern international economy. How do the governments benefit from it? What impact does economic development have on ordinary people? Support your ideas by providing arguments and examples.

    💻 Digital Economics

    • The mystery of digital currencies.
    • The effect of technological change on the distribution of income .
    • Economies of scope and modern technology .
    • Internet infrastructure and payment across borders.
    • Concept of automation of services and their effect on unemployment .
    • E-commerce and risky shopping behaviors.
    • Information security in the era of digitalization: mining data for better business intelligence .
    • Computer-based communication technology in business communication.
    • The effect of digital disruption on modern economics.

    Advancements in the computer industry, strengthened economic growth.

    • The threats and risks of digital economics.
    • E-commerce platforms are the future of the world economy.
    • DIgital economics creates a perfect environment for cyber-crimes
    • How economic digitalization affect national identity countries? Due to technological progress, the phenomenon of globalization occurs. As a result, local enterprises lose their customers. Discuss this issue. Suggest some ways how to prevent the loss of cultural diversity caused by globalization.
    • The significance of digital economics in the 21st century . Explain why digitization is one of the most crucial factors of economic progress. How can investments in technological innovations increase the firms’ profit in the long run? Support your ideas with appropriate examples.
    • Digital economics in different parts of the world. Compare and contrast the progress of digital economics in the USA, China, Russia, and Germany.
    • Digital economy and unemployment issue. Due to rapid technological progress, the majority of tasks can be accomplished automatically. It resulted in firms requiring fewer employees than before the digitalization. Investigate the issue of unemployment caused by digital transformation.
    • How digital economy influences medium and small businesses? Small and medium companies are incapable of investing large sums of money into technologies. As a result, they become lost in the enterprises’ mist. Large corporations, capable of implementing digital technologies, block small businesses. Discuss the threats of dynamic digital economy progress for medium and small enterprises.
    • Digital economics requires specific workers . The spillover of modern technologies causes great economic progress. However, not every worker is capable of working with digital tools. How can companies solve the problem of digital illiteracy among employees? Give specific examples to support your thoughts.
    • The benefits of digital economics for tourism . Nowadays, tourists can plan their trips online. They can do everything: from booking a hotel room to purchasing a train ticket. These are the results of digital progress. Analyze the impact of digitalization on tourism commerce.

    🌳 Environmental Economics

    • International environmental concerns in economics .
    • Sustainable development: the banking sector.
    • Agricultural, economics, and environmental considerations of biofuels.
    • Environmental and natural resource management.
    • Developing a global biodiesel industry.
    • Implementing cuts in greenhouse gas emissions .
    • Environmental controversy: population growth and soil fertility.
    • The link between sustainable development and ecological footprint.
    • The environmental sustainability concept in the hospitality industry.
    • Pollution externalities role in management economics.
    • International environmental laws impact on oil and gas production.

    Valdez crisis demonstrated how oil spills can harm soil conditions and aquatic ecosystems.

    • Role of alternative energy resources in reshaping global transportation infrastructure.
    • The role of human economic activity in environmental degradation .
    • The implementation of environmentally-friendly sources of energy in the production of goods.
    • How to overcome negative externalities in environmental economics?
    • China: an example of economic progress or environmental destruction?
    • Making solar energy more affordable . Solar panels usage is a great way to protect the environment. However, the establishment of solar panels is quite expensive. How can economists make solar energy more affordable?
    • Neoclassical economics concepts and theories . Does neoclassical economics take into consideration the problems of environmental science? Comment on the ways the economists put effort into making the production of goods and services environmentally friendly.
    • Environmental sustainability vs. financial gains . Discuss the significance of environmentally friendly economic activities. Why is it essential to use natural resources wisely? Persuade the readers that in the battle of high profits and environment protection, the environment should win.
    • Earth Summit of 1992 . What should have been done differently? Why did the decisions of Earth Summit not prevent rapid environmental damage? If the summit were nowadays, it would be more focused on ecological economics. Do you agree or disagree with this statement? State your position clearly and provide strong arguments.

    ⌛ Development Economics

    • The role of industrialization in development economics.
    • What is the current outlook for growth and development in Africa?
    • Nigeria’s development: modernization and dependency theories .
    • Globalization in the new product development.
    • Latin America economic development.
    • Competing theories of economic development.
    • Theories of development and millennium development goals.
    • Economic prospects for the global economy impact on patterns of migration in developing countries.
    • Poverty as a peculiarity of economic development.
    • The relationship between sustainable development and economic growth.
    • Human development: democratization and economy relations.
    • Tourism role in economic development.

    For many countries, tourism is seen as the main instrument for regional development.

    • The economic development of Indonesia.
    • The role of the World Trade Organization (WTO) for the developing countries.
    • Future of the World Bank . Analyze the current economic state in the world. Then, forecast the Word Bank development throughout the time. How will any transformation influence the financial vector of the countries?
    • Marxist theory of development . Is it effective? How is it implemented nowadays? Suggest possible improvements for the Marxist approach to make it more sufficient.
    • Jordan’s economy and its comparison with Qatar. Both countries are considered to be developing. However, they are on different economic levels. Compare and contrast the national economies of both countries. Analyze the catch-up effect. Discuss the standards of living, unemployment rates, economic growth rates of both countries.
    • GDP growth rate and economic future of developing countries . Select three developing countries. For instance, consider Afganistan, Iran, and Bangladesh. What are their economic growth rates? Assume the financial future of the chosen countries. How to prevent poverty here? How to make them developed countries, not developing ones?
    • The role of ethnicity in economic development. How the ethical vector affects economic activity? Is ethnic diversity good or bad for economics? What are some threats of ethnicity for economic growth? Suggest possible commerce solutions for overcoming the problem. Provide clear arguments and appropriate examples to support your ideas.

    🤲 Econometrics Paper Topics

    • The multiple regression model and its relation to the consumer.
    • Statistics: chi-square test and regression analysis.
    • Independent samples t-test with SPSS.
    • P-value definition and role.
    • Relationship between population and economic growth through econometric modeling.
    • A linear regression analysis of a product.
    • Quantitative and analytical techniques for managers.
    • Predicting unemployment rates to manage inventory through advanced econometrics analysis.
    • Multiple regression and correlation.
    • The role of applied econometrics in economic science development.
    • What econometric models are applied for?
    • The application of econometric models for labor income analysis.
    • The history of econometrics as a science.

    Econometrics was pioneered by Lawrence Klein, Ragnar Frisch, and Simon Kuznets

    • Empirical relationships and theory testing in economics.
    • Okun’s Law in Econometrics . Discuss the relationship between output and unemployment through econometric analysis. What Okun’s Law is applied for?
    • Regression analysis of business statistics. Analyze the ways of estimation of a correlation coefficient. Comment on the relationship between the variables. Provide the regression results.
    • Linear regression of job satisfaction . Using econometric modeling, analyze three concepts: – Association of benefits and intrinsic job satisfaction – Association of benefits and extrinsic job benefits – Association of benefits and overall job benefits Compare and contrast the results and make the corresponding conclusions.
    • Implementation of econometrics in everyday life . From first sight, econometrics seems to be too complicated. However, knowledge of this subject can be helpful in everyday life situations. Think about the field where econometrics might be useful for ordinary people. Provide appropriate examples to support your ideas.
    • The rules of data search for econometric analysis . Explain how to select and analyze data for further analysis. What are the credible sources? How to prevent possible difficulties of data examination?
    • Topics in Structural VAR Econometrics by Gianni Amisano. Provide a brief overview of the book. What key econometric issues does the book cover? Emphasize on the crucial role of the book while studying econometrics.

    👨‍🏫 Great Economic Topics: Assignment

    Are you excited about the diversity of interesting economic topics we can offer you? Have you chosen some ideas already?

    Don’t leave our page yet! We have more topics to share with you.

    The following section includes a variety of ideas divided by the type of assignment you need to complete. We did it for your convenience. A thesis topic should be more complex and developed than an essay topic, right? So, here you can find outstanding ideas for all kinds of economic assignments.

    📝 Economics Essay Topics

    • Rethinking microeconomics competitiveness.
    • Innovative government’s role in economics.
    • Monetary policy management and its effects on the economy.
    • Effects of hedge funds on the global financial crisis.
    • Banks, bank firms, and financial intermediaries.
    • Managerial economic opportunity cost.
    • The link between borrowers’ risk and mortgage lending
    • Problems in banking regulation.
    • Financial markets and liquidity.
    • The contribution of the luxury fashion industry in the economic development of the world.
    • How has the role of the IMF changed since it was established in 1945?

    The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an organization of 189 countries.

    • The international monetary fund and the World Bank.
    • Bank of America: managerial economics and analysis.
    • Foreign direct investment benefits for Asian countries.
    • Global financial crisis problems. Analyze the issues caused by the financial crisis. Suggest some action plans to tackle the effects of the crisis. A small hint: as an example, you can use the world economic crisis of 2008. Also, consider discussing the financial crisis caused by the COVID-19 pandemic of 2020.
    • Tax cuts in Keynesian economics . Briefly introduce the economist John Maynard Keynes and his economics theory. Analyze his approaches to aggregate demand, multiplier effect, and fiscal policy. What was his tax cuts method? Do you consider it sufficient? State your position clearly and provide strong evidence to support your opinion.
    • Difference between microeconomics and macroeconomics. Need to write a compare and contrast essay? Use this topic. Analyze the similarities and differences between microeconomics and macroeconomics. How do they influence each other? Structure your paper correctly, so the readers can quickly get your ideas.
    • The relationship between money supply and inflation. Briefly introduce the notions of money supply and inflation. How are they connected? For better understanding, provide appropriate examples of the relationship between money supply and inflation.
    • Globalization, urban political economy, and economic restructuring. Comment on the globalization impact on world economics. Examine the positive and negative sides of globalization. How can financial restructuring improve the economic situation in the world? State your arguments clearly and support them with examples.
    • The issue of global trade imbalances in the US and China. What are trade imbalances? Comment on the world policymakers’ reaction to growing inequalities. Do global trade imbalances threaten free trade? Is it possible that global trade imbalances be sustained? Suggest some ways to reduce global imbalances.

    📜 Economics Term Paper Topics

    • Factors that influence international business.
    • The modern global economic problems.
    • Poverty as the deprivation of capabilities.
    • Globalization and the economics of child labor.
    • Sharing economy: benefits and difficulties.
    • Behavioral economics and finance.
    • Trade liberalization in international trade.
    • The banking industry and interest rates .
    • Public debt in managing macroeconomics.
    • The significance of Adam Smith’s “invisible hand” concept in modern economics.
    • Microeconomics principles in the flying automobiles industry.
    • The convergence of world economies .
    • Causes and consequences of the 2008 financial crisis.

    The 2008 crash was the greatest jolt to the global financial system in almost a century.

    • Federal reserve’s influence on interest rates.
    • Managerial economics and demand. Examine the theory in managerial economics. What are the types of demand? Compare and contrast them. Analyze the factors that affect the demand for goods and services.
    • Marxism perspective in production . Provide a brief overview of Max’s approach to production. Analyze the means, relations, and modes of production. Was Marx’s position regarding production effective? How could it be improved?
    • Private and public finance initiative. This topic is beneficial if you are searching for a compare and contrast essay idea. Examine the advantages and disadvantages of both finance initiatives. Moreover, consider the risks of private and public finance initiatives. Which one is more effective, in your opinion?
    • David Ricardo’s model of international free trade. Write a well-structured position paper regarding David Ricardo’s model. What are the positive and negative sides of the model? To make your essay persuasive, discuss David Ricardo’s model of international free trade with the other students. Considering all the opinions you have heard, state your position.
    • Adam Smith’s understanding of capitalism. Explore Adam Smith’s perception of the capitalistic approach. Briefly introduce the Keynes’ and Marx’s economic theories. Compare and contrast Smith’s understanding of capitalism to Keynes’ and Marx’s perceptions. Whose arguments are the most widely used in international economics nowadays?
    • Catch-up effect . Explore the catch-up growth phenomenon. How to explain the hypothesis that developing countries usually develop with faster rates than wealthy counties? To support your ideas, provide an example of developing countries that are experiencing the catch-up effect. An appropriate statistical data would be helpful for this assignment.

    📚 Economics Thesis Topics

    • The difference between the surplus and the neoclassical theories of general equilibrium .
    • Post-Keynesian and Austrian criticisms of the standard neoclassical view of competition .
    • The impact of premature finance liberalization on macroeconomic and financial stability .
    • Strategic cost and managerial accounting in the UAE.
    • International wage differential and migration between Germany and Turkey .
    • The current impact of inflation and unemployment on Germany’s political and economic system.
    • Understanding of the contemporary labor market by the Marxist concept of exploitation .
    • A critical assessment of the pros and cons of selected financial derivatives .
    • Corporate governance and informational disclosure on Internet financial reporting: the Saudi Arabia evidence.
    • Role of international financial institutions in the 2008 financial crisis .
    • The different roles played by the central bank, depository institutions, and depositors determine the money supply .

    Like any bank, the central bank’s balance sheet is composed of assets and liabilities.

    • Remittances role in spurring global economic growth.
    • Cultural diversity in international trade and international business management through globalization . This topic will perfectly suit and undergraduate majoring in the MBA program. Investigate the cultural diversity in international trade. Does it have a positive or negative influence on world economics? Suggest some ways on how to promote diversity and equity in international trade.
    • Interest rate disparity between RBA and major Australian banks . If you are looking for a master’s thesis idea, consider this topic. People who are interested in finances and banking will like it. Compare and contrast RBA and major Australian banks. State your position regarding the given financial institutions clearly.
    • International microeconomics trade dispute case: US-China dispute on the exportation of raw materials . Provide the historical background of the US-China dispute on the exportation of raw materials. What was the government’s’ response to the debate? What regulations should have been changed to prevent the conflict? Suggest some ways how to improve international trade to minimize the risks of disputes.
    • The Globalization Paradox: Democracy and the Future of the World Economy by Rodrik . Your bachelor thesis may look include a book or an article analysis. Investigate the work The Globalization Paradox: Democracy and the Future of the World Economy By Rodrik. State your position regarding the given book. How can the knowledge from this book be implemented in economic science?
    • Effect of a permanent increase in oil price on inflation and output. What threats growth as a result of the rising cost of oil? Discuss the effects of a rise in oil prices on inflation and output. Also, analyze the effects of the response of the Reserve Bank to the oil price increase. To make your arguments persuasive, illustrate your findings on the demand-aggregate supply model.
    • Economic growth in Kenya: past and future challenges. Conduct research on the economic development of Kenia. Using economic theories and hypotheses, predict the future of economics of Kenia. What challenges should the government and citizens be ready for? Note: any other county of your interest can replace Kenia here.
    • The domination of financial accounting on managerial accounting information. This topic is suitable for both: master’s thesis and the bachelor’s thesis. Develop the idea by providing strong arguments and appropriate examples.

    📈 Economic Topics for Project

    • Direct sales approach for selling crude oil in Nigeria .
    • John Locke’s and Karl Marx’s economic ideas.
    • International financial markets and institutions .
    • Banker to the poor: micro-lending and the battle against world poverty.
    • European macroeconomic policies and risks .
    • China’s banking sector analysis .
    • Keynesian explanation of recession .
    • The analysis of buying behavior simulation.
    • The US unemployment benefits evaluation.
    • Economic analysis of the Etihad airways company.
    • Finance issues in the book The Big Short: Inside the Doomsday Machine by Michael Lewis .
    • Economic impacts on talent management in the UK vs. China .
    • Instruments to encourage or discourage FDI and their implications for international business.

    There are three forms of Foreign Direct Investment.

    • The impact of algorithmic trading on mutual funds performance.
    • Economic principles and theories of Adam Smith: a case for free markets and capitalism .
    • Keynesianism vs. Neorealism. Explore both economic theories. Create a list of the advantages and disadvantages of Keynesianism and Neorealism. From your perspective, which approach is more effective? To make your project more professional, include appropriate statistics, charts, diagrams, etc.
    • Globalization: a blessing or a curse to US middle-class workers? It is a perfect idea for the capstone project in the final year of your university studies. Investigate the issue of globalization from an economic perspective. In your opinion, does it have more benefits or drawbacks? Support each of your arguments with clear evidence or an example.
    • Developing economic stimulus packages . Imagine yourself as a leader of a guided project to create economic stimulus packages. What would you include to prevent a financial crisis in a country?
    • Sustainable development of economics. Analyze the environmental harm caused by rapid economic progress. Develop a project focused on the protection of the environment under the current production conditions. Suggest more environmentally-friendly ways to produce goods and services.
    • A company’s financial analysis . Choose any business pf your interest. It can be Apple, Dior, Samsung, Nestle, etc. Analyze the income statement of a chosen company. Does its budget operate efficiently? What financial threats (if any) does the enterprise face? Suggest possible improvements to increase the gains from sales and the gains from trade.

    💡 Tips on Writing an Economic Paper

    Have you finally chosen a topic for your economic essay? Are you excited to start working on your paper? Then, the following section is for you. Read it carefully and know the essential tips on writing.

    First and foremost, economic papers differ from regular ones. Such written works requite research. Otherwise, there is no opportunity for you to get a high grade.

    You can still express your personal opinion in an economic essay.

    In case you might be wondering how to write a well-developed research paper, we know how to help you. Our team collected the most useful prompts. So read carefully and implement them in your writing process.

    • Select a compelling topic. An appropriate idea is a key to success. So, make sure yours fits the requirements of your professor. Moreover, among a wide variety of economic topics, select the one you are passionate about. Then, you will be able to make your writing process more accessible and pleasurable.
    • Find credible sources. No doubts, credible sources paly a crucial role in composing a research paper. Therefore, take time to find appropriate sources. They have to fit your topic and assignment criteria. Make sure you use academic sources for your research. Well-selected credible sources will make your paper more professional.
    • Outline your future paper. With an outline, you will be able to keep track of your ideas. Also, it ensures the quality of your paper. Defining your paper structure before writing makes it well-organized and highly-developed.
    • Review the literature. No matter what kind of paper you write: theoretical or empirical, the literature will always help you. So, don’t underestimate the power of books. Refer to them, if you need to revise a theory, some economic concepts, notions, etc.
    • Formulate a hypothesis. A well-formulated hypothesis plays an essential role in writing a research paper. It helps the readers to understand what you are focusing on. Moreover, it navigates you throughout your research process and makes it more structured.
    • Describe your results. After conducting economic analysis, describe your results. What did you find out? What results did you expect to see? Explain how your results can be used in further research.
    • Elaborate on your findings. Your findings are the central part of your research paper. So, make sure you state them clearly. Make appropriate conclusions based on your results and adequately summarize them.
    • Reference the sources you used . Finding credible sources is crucial, of course. Nevertheless, you also need to cite them properly. Making reference lists is not pure science. So, put enough effort to figure out all the details of references and in-text citations. Also, don’t mess up writing styles. The most popular ones are APA, MLA, ASA, Chicago style, etc. Thus, if you are unsure about something, double-check the formatting requirements.

    Your economic paper should fit all the required criteria of your institution.

    Thank you for visiting our page! Don’t hesitate to use our essay ideas and tips. And don’t forget to share the article with your friends.

    🔗 References

    • High School Economics Topics: Econlib
    • Writing in Economics: Writing Studio, Thompson Writing Program, Duke University
    • All Topics, Economics: tutor2u
    • How to Write the Introduction of Your Development Economics Paper: David Evans, Center For Global Development
    • Areas of research: Economic Policy Institute
    • Organizing an Essay: Jerry Plotnick, University College Writing Centre, Writing Advice, University of Toronto
    • Economics: Economist, World News, Politics, Economics, Business & Finance
    • How To Write An Economics Paper: Elmer Sterken, Athens University of Economics and Business
    • Academic Essay Writing, Some Guidelines: Department of Economics, Carleton University
    • Ideas about Economics: TED Talks, Ideas Worth Spreading
    • Microeconomics vs. Macroeconomics, What’s the Difference: Investopedia
    • International Economics: Journal, Elsevier
    • What Are the Various Subfields of Economics: Mike Moffatt, ThoughtCo
    • Economics: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System
    • Generate Topic Ideas Quickly and Easily: Online Research Library, Questia
    • The Basics of Essay Writing: UNSW Current Students
    • Basic Guide to Essay Writing: Kathy Livingston
    • Writing Essays: Learning Development: Plymouth University
    • Economic Growth Research Ideas
    • Acquisition Essay Ideas
    • Trade Questions
    • Monopoly Essay Topics
    • Procurement Research Ideas
    • World Trade Organization Questions
    • Banking Research Ideas
    • Cost Accounting Essay Topics
    • Chicago (A-D)
    • Chicago (N-B)

    IvyPanda. (2023, September 4). Economic Topics for Any Paper [with Great Tips & Examples].

    "Economic Topics for Any Paper [with Great Tips & Examples]." IvyPanda , 4 Sept. 2023,

    IvyPanda . (2023) 'Economic Topics for Any Paper [with Great Tips & Examples]'. 4 September.

    IvyPanda . 2023. "Economic Topics for Any Paper [with Great Tips & Examples]." September 4, 2023.

    1. IvyPanda . "Economic Topics for Any Paper [with Great Tips & Examples]." September 4, 2023.


    IvyPanda . "Economic Topics for Any Paper [with Great Tips & Examples]." September 4, 2023.


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    Welcome to our latest blog post on economics research topics! Whether you are an academic seeking inspiration or a student looking for a starting point for your next assignment, you've come to the right place. 

    With so many areas to explore in economics, it can be difficult to know where to begin. But don't worry, we've got your back. In this post, our online paper writers have shared some of the most interesting and hot economics research paper topics. So, grab a cup of coffee and let's dive in!

    What Are Economics Research Topics?

    Economics is a social science that studies how people, businesses, and governments make decisions about how to use resources. It deals with issues like production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services. 

    As a student, you might be given to write a research paper on research topics in economics. These types of social science topics can cover a wide range of subjects, including:

    • Macroeconomics
    • Microeconomics
    • International economics
    • Behavioral economics, and more.

    Whether you are interested in exploring current trends, global markets or history, or taxes, we collected a bunch of economics topics for a research paper to choose from. Stay with our service to spot the best idea for your upcoming project.

    Characteristics of Good Economics Research Paper Topics

    When it comes to selecting a research topic related to economics, it is important to decide on a subject that is not only interesting but also appropriate for your academic level. Consider these fundamental characteristics of good economics paper topics to make a wise choice:

    • Select a title that is both relevant and is intended to solve a current issue.
    • Choose a unique topic that has not been explored too much by other researchers.
    • Make sure you can easily access the data or sources needed to create your paper.
    • Consider if the topic has the potential to be of practical or social importance.
    • Pick an area that genuinely interests you and will keep you motivated throughout your project.

    How to Choose an Economics Research Paper Topic?

    Choosing between this selection of economics project ideas can be really difficult especially if you are first to this. However, with a little bit of guidance, you will see that there is nothing challenging about picking a proper topic for a research paper in economics. Take a look at these step-by-step instructions to make the right decision:

    • Brainstorm potential economics research topics that sound interesting to you in the first place. After all, you don’t want to work with boring aspects.
    • Narrow your list down and consider whether there are enough resources to back up your research.
    • Carry out preliminary investigation to see what you can write about. Use academic journals, newspapers, and other reputable sources to gather information.
    • Check if the topic complies with your instructor’s guidelines.
    • Based on your research and requirements alter a title to create a focused research question.

    Remember to choose a topic that you are passionate about and that aligns with your academic and professional goals.

    Economics Research Topics List

    Economics is a vast field that encompasses a wide range of topics and issues. If you're looking for inspiration for your next research paper, consider exploring one of these top research paper topics in economics:

    • What is the impact of trade policies on international trade patterns?
    • How does income inequality affect economic growth?
    • What role does entrepreneurship play in economic development?
    • How do government regulations affect market efficiency?
    • What are the economic implications of climate change and environmental policy?
    • How do automation and artificial intelligence affect the labor market?
    • What are the effects of healthcare policies on the economy and society?
    • How does education influence economic outcomes?
    • What are some economic aspects of taxation and fiscal policy?
    • How does globalization impact domestic economies and societies?

    Interesting Research Topics in Economics

    Are you searching for interesting topics in economics? Look no further than these cptivting economic paper topics ideas.

    • How do government policies impact income mobility?
    • What role do financial institutions play in economic growth?
    • Economics of housing and homelessness.
    • How do immigration policies shape the labor market?
    • Impact of gender inequality on economic growth.
    • Sustainable development and renewable energy.
    • What are some effects of globalization on income distribution?
    • How do minimum wage policies impact employment and poverty?
    • Economics of crime and punishment.
    • How does corruption relate to economic growth?
    • Effects of social welfare policies on income inequality.
    • Healthcare markets and insurance systems.
    • How does technology influence income distribution and employment?
    • Education financing and student loan debt.
    • How do economic sanctions affect international trade and diplomacy?

    Good Topics for Economic Research Papers

    Economics research topics are diverse and can be approached from various angles. Below are some great economic topics to write about:

    • What are some effects of social media on consumer behavior and advertising?
    • What is the relationship between corporate social responsibility and profitability?
    • Sharing economy and its impact on traditional industries.
    • How does climate change affect the tourism industry economically?
    • Economics of healthcare systems and policies in developing countries.
    • How does population aging influence labor markets and retirement policies?
    • How does artificial intelligence impact business and employment?
    • What factors are involved in energy transition and the shift to renewable energy?
    • Income inequality and political polarization.
    • How do digital streaming services and the music industry intersect economically?
    • How does cultural diversity contribute to growth and innovation?
    • Effects of trade agreements on income distribution.
    • Cryptocurrency and blockchain technology.
    • How does globalization impact labor standards and working conditions?
    • Natural disasters and economic growth.

    Best Economics Research Topics

    Want to take your project to the next level? Don’t skip these hot economic research questions. They suit any academic level and can be supported by credible evidence.

    • Big data and its role in economic forecasting.
    • How does public debt impact economic growth?
    • The economics of international migration.
    • What is the impact of technological innovation on income inequality?
    • The role of infrastructure investment in fostering economic growth.
    • The economics of the gig economy and freelance work.
    • How does foreign aid affect economic development?
    • The economics of natural resource management and sustainability.
    • What is the impact of urbanization on economic growth and development?
    • The economics of the entertainment industry and streaming services.
    • How do exchange rate fluctuations influence trade and investment?
    • The economics of food production and distribution systems.
    • How do government regulations affect small businesses economically?
    • The study of behavioral finance and decision-making in economics.
    • What is the impact of monetary policy on financial markets and inflation?

    Unique Economics Research Topics

    Economics is a constantly evolving field that offers endless possibilities for research and analysis. That’s why choosing unique economic research ideas shouldn’t be a big deal. Below we added a list of authentic topics you most likely won’t be able to find anywhere else.

    • How does mobile banking contribute to financial inclusion in emerging economies?
    • How do natural disasters affect supply chains?
    • What are some effects of gender bias in venture capital funding decisions?
    • How does population density influence the demand for public transportation in urban areas?
    • Virtual currencies and their potential as an alternative to traditional currencies.
    • How do government subsidies influence the adoption of renewable energy?
    • How do industrial policies shape innovation and contribute to economic growth?
    • Alternative meat and its potential impact on the food industry.
    • What is the relationship between public transit availability and property values in urban areas?
    • How does corruption impact economic growth and development?
    • Renewable energy storage systems and their impact on grid stability.
    • What are some effects of automation on job displacement and income inequality?
    • Blockchain technology in the banking industry and financial transactions.
    • International trade in cultural goods and services.
    • How does income inequality relate to health outcomes from an economic standpoint?

    Popular Economics Topics for Research Paper

    Do you want to focus on current and pressing issues? Consider these trending topics for economic research papers.

    • The impact of COVID-19 on the global economy.
    • What are economic implications of healthcare reform?
    • How does globalization affect labor markets economically?
    • Climate change and the role of carbon pricing.
    • Effects of income inequality on social mobility.
    • How does automation impact employment and wages in the workforce?
    • The economics of education and the burden of student loan debt.
    • How do government regulations influence business and innovation economically?
    • Income taxation and progressive taxation.
    • Impact of immigration on labor markets.
    • Behavioral economics and the use of nudges in decision-making.
    • How do trade policies influence international relations and diplomacy?
    • Mergers and acquisitions in the business world.
    • How do minimum wage policies affect low-wage workers economically?
    • Urbanization and transportation planning.

    Economics Research Paper Topics for Students

    As a student, picking decent economic topics for research papers can be a challenging task. It's important to focus on relevant and interesting aspects. Below you will find some economic research paper topics specifically geared toward students of all levels.

    Economics Research Topics for College Students

    College students majoring in economics have a range of choices when it comes to research topics. Below are some inspiring economic paper topics you can use as inspiration for your project in college:

    • Effects of gig economy on labor markets.
    • Economic growth and environmental sustainability.
    • Impact of sharing economy on traditional industries.
    • Housing affordability and homelessness.
    • How does trade liberalization affect domestic industries and consumers?
    • How does public policy influence small business growth?
    • Food waste and its impact on sustainability.
    • Income inequality and access to education.
    • Impact of automation on the future of work.
    • Online advertising and consumer behavior.
    • How does fiscal policy influence income distribution and poverty reduction?
    • How does tax reform impact business investment?
    • Economics of international tourism and its impact on local economies.
    • Effects of financial regulation on consumer behavior and investor confidence.
    • Demographic shifts and labor force participation.

    Economics Research Topics for Undergraduates

    Are you an undergraduate student looking for topics related to economics? Here are some amazing ideas you can pick from:

    • Financial implications of space exploration and commercial space travel.
    • Role of urban farming in city development for sustainability.
    • Impact of genetic engineering and biotechnology on the agricultural sector.
    • Financial consequences of digital privacy.
    • Implications of mass surveillance on consumer spending patterns.
    • How do remittances influence growth in developing countries?
    • Fiscal consequences of cybercrime and cybersecurity breaches.
    • Role of microfinance in alleviating poverty.
    • Potential financial implications of quantum computing.
    • Water scarcity and its worldwide financial implications.
    • Monetary consequences of epidemics, pandemics, and public health crises.
    • Transformation of markets by virtual and augmented reality.
    • Effect of corporate governance on shareholder value.
    • Financial aspects of aging societies and pension reform.
    • Role of intellectual property rights in promoting innovation and growth.

    Economics Research Topics for Grad Students

    Graduate students in economics are expected to delve deeper into economic theories, models, and concepts. They are also required to contribute new insights to the field. We suggest that you choose these economics topics for research to earn a high grade:

    • How does drug legalization influence national economies?
    • Impact of universal basic income on poverty levels and unemployment rates.
    • Financial implications of political instability and conflict.
    • Impact of cultural heritage sites on local and national finances.
    • Financial repercussions of biodiversity loss and species extinction.
    • Role of venture capital in fostering startups and growth.
    • Disaster risk management and its relevance to financial resilience.
    • Potential fiscal impacts of deep-sea mining.
    • Financial consequences of single-use plastics and transition to a circular economy.
    • Business aspects of the digital gaming industry and eSports.
    • Impact of the maker movement and DIY culture on traditional manufacturing.
    • How can nanotechnology shape future market economies?
    • Impact of drone technology on supply chain operations.
    • Financial aspects of mental health in the workplace.
    • Role of public-private partnerships in fostering growth and infrastructure development.

    Research Topics in Economics by Subject

    Economics paper topics ideas will also depend on your area of expertise. This block will offer topics by subject, so that you can choose a theme that fits your special needs. Whether you are interested in exploring the economics of renewable energy or the effects of globalization on income distribution,you will surely spot an idea or two right below.

    World Economics Research Paper Topics

    The global economy is a complex and interconnected system, and there are many world economics research paper topics that can shed light on global aspects. Between them are these ideas:

    • Evolving landscape of international trade in the post-COVID era.
    • Role of Special Economic Zones in boosting global competitiveness.
    • Impact of machine learning and artificial intelligence on global financial markets.
    • How do social impact bonds contribute to global development goals?
    • Cybersecurity risks in global financial institutions: Are we prepared?
    • Influence of social entrepreneurship on worldwide poverty reduction.
    • Green bonds and their role in global sustainable finance.
    • Economic prospects of the African Continental Free Trade Area.
    • Role of global remittance flows in socioeconomic development.
    • Impact of climate change on global supply chains: What can we do?
    • Global consequences of a cashless society: Are we ready?
    • How does geopolitics affect global energy markets?
    • Repercussions of cryptocurrency adoption on global financial stability.
    • Economies of scale in global manufacturing: A new era?
    • Role of international development assistance in achieving Sustainable Development Goals.

    >> More ideas: Politics Research Topics

    Microeconomics Research Paper Topics

    Microeconomics studies the behavior of individuals and firms in making decisions regarding the allocation of resources. If you need microeconomics topics for research paper, we collected great ideas below:

    • How do consumer ethics shape purchasing decisions?
    • What influences price elasticity of demand in luxury goods markets?
    • How does the gig economy affect individual financial stability?
    • What are the key economic factors determining college major choices?
    • How do credit scores influence personal finance management?
    • What impacts have peer-to-peer lending platforms had on traditional banking?
    • What drives consumer decisions between online and brick-and-mortar shopping?
    • How do economic considerations play into personal retirement planning?
    • What market dynamics and pricing strategies dominate the smartphone industry?
    • How does behavioral economics impact personal savings habits?
    • How significantly does brand loyalty influence consumer spending?
    • What strategies help businesses survive during economic downturns?
    • How does corporate social responsibility influence consumer choice?
    • What role does digital marketing play in shaping consumer behavior?
    • What are some economic impacts of identity theft on individuals and businesses?

    Macroeconomics Research Paper Topics

    Unlike microeconomics, macroeconomics explores the behavior and performance of entire economies. Below are some awesome macroeconomics research paper topics:

    • Exploring connections between inflation and unemployment.
    • Impact of quantitative easing on long-term economic growth.
    • How does fiscal deficit affect a country's economic stability?
    • The role of central banks in managing economic downturns.
    • Effects of government debt on interest rates and investment.
    • What factors contribute to business cycles and economic fluctuations?
    • Examination of macroeconomic factors influencing foreign direct investment.
    • How do monetary policies impact inflation and unemployment rates?
    • Role of technology advancements in macroeconomic productivity.
    • Impact of demographic changes on long-term economic growth.
    • Can green investment stimulate economic recovery?
    • What role do exchange rates play in a country's trade balance?
    • Comparative analysis of economic growth models.
    • Macroeconomic challenges of transitioning to a low-carbon economy.
    • How does income inequality affect economic growth at a macro level?

    Economics Research Paper Topics on International Trade

    International trade is a vital part of the global economy and has a significant impact on development, and international relations. Here are unique topics for an economic research paper focusing on international trade:

    • Impact of Brexit on international trade relations.
    • How do currency fluctuations affect international trade?
    • Economic consequences of trade wars: A case study of U.S.-China relations.
    • Role of World Trade Organization in shaping international trade norms.
    • How does international trade contribute to economic growth?
    • Evaluation of free trade agreements and their economic implications.
    • Role of emerging markets in shaping the future of international trade.
    • How do trade barriers influence domestic industries?
    • Fair trade vs. free trade: An economic analysis.
    • Global supply chain disruptions: Lessons from the COVID-19 pandemic.
    • Effects of international trade on income distribution within countries.
    • Economic impact of sanctions on international trade.
    • How do intellectual property rights issues affect international trade?
    • Role of e-commerce in transforming international trade.
    • What are the economic consequences of offshore outsourcing on international trade?

    Financial Economics Research Topics

    Financial economics is a subfield of economics that focuses on financial markets, institutions, and instruments. Here are outstanding financial economic topics for a paper:

    • Role of FinTech in shaping the future of banking.
    • Analysis of risk management strategies in investment banking.
    • How do hedge funds contribute to financial market stability?
    • Impact of regulatory changes on financial market competitiveness.
    • How does financial literacy influence individual investment decisions?
    • Examination of financial derivatives and their role in financial risk management.
    • Role of central banks in maintaining financial stability.
    • Analysis of market efficiency in cryptocurrency markets.
    • How do financial crises affect economies in the long term?
    • Financial inclusion and the role of mobile banking.
    • Impact of corporate governance on financial performance.
    • Examination of the link between financial markets and economic growth.
    • High-frequency trading: Impact on financial market stability.
    • Effect of algorithmic trading on financial market efficiency.
    • How do interest rate changes impact financial markets.

    Development Economics Research Topics

    Development economics studies the economic and social development of low-income countries. With this branch in mind, we prepared a list of development economic research paper topics ideas:

    •  Role of microfinance in economic empowerment in developing countries.
    • How do infrastructure projects affect economic development?
    • How do cultural factors shape economic progress in developing countries?
    • Impact of corruption on resource allocation in developing nations.
    • Impact of foreign aid on economic growth in recipient countries.
    • Evaluation of agricultural policies on rural development.
    • How do commodity price fluctuations affect developing economies?
    • Implications of population growth on resource management in emerging economies.
    • How does political stability influence economic growth in developing countries?
    • Impact of public health initiatives on economic development.
    • Analysis of sustainable development strategies in emerging economies.
    • How do migration patterns affect economic development?
    • How does technological adoption improve productivity in developing economies?
    • Role of social entrepreneurship in sustainable economic development.
    • How does tourism influence the economic development of low-income countries?

    Behavioral Economics Research Paper Topics

    Behavioral economics combines insights from psychology and economics to understand how people make financial decisions. Below you can find behavioral economics research topics:

    • Impact of cognitive biases on economic decision making.
    • Role of emotions in consumer purchasing behavior.
    • How does social influence shape spending habits?
    • What are the economic implications of procrastination?
    • Nudging for good: Can behavioral economics promote healthier lifestyles?
    • How does framing influence consumers' perception of price and value?
    • Role of incentives in shaping individual and collective behavior.
    • Examination of loss aversion in investment decisions.
    • Analysis of irrational behaviors in financial markets.
    • Behavioral economics in policy design: What works and why?
    • How does choice overload affect consumer decision making?
    • The effect of anchoring bias in pricing strategies.
    • Role of behavioral economics in promoting sustainable consumption.
    • How does scarcity mindset affect economic decisions?
    • Behavioral economics and personal finance: How to avoid common pitfalls?

    >> Read more: Psychology Topics to Research

    Environmental Economics Research Topics

    Environmental economics investigates the interaction between economic systems and the natural environment. This subfield also offers multiple perspectives for exploration. Here are some examples of project topics on economics with emphasis on environment:

    • Examining the economic impacts of biodiversity loss.
    • Impact of environmental policies on manufacturing industries.
    • Role of renewable energy investments in economic growth.
    • Does a carbon tax impact economic competitiveness?
    • Economic analysis of water resource management.
    • How do natural disasters affect economic performance?
    • The economic value of ecosystem services.
    • Cost-effectiveness of different strategies for reducing greenhouse gas emissions.
    • Role of environmental economics in climate change mitigation.
    • How does waste management contribute to sustainable economic growth?
    • The effects of air pollution on economic productivity.
    • What is the economic impact of deforestation?
    • Evaluation of economic tools for managing plastic waste.
    • Economics of transitioning to a circular economy.
    • How does sustainable agriculture contribute to economic development?

    >> View more: Environmental Research Topics

    Health Economics Research Topics

    Health economics examines how health care practices affect the health outcomes of individuals and whole populations.  Take a glance at these health economics research paper topics:

    • Economic impact of pandemics on healthcare systems.
    • Role of telemedicine in healthcare cost reduction.
    • How do health insurance policies influence medical spending?
    • Economic analysis of mental health issues and treatment access.
    • The cost-effectiveness of preventative healthcare measures.
    • Evaluating the economic burden of chronic diseases.
    • Economic implications of antibiotic resistance.
    • How does socioeconomic status influence health outcomes?
    • Impact of aging populations on healthcare costs.
    • Evaluation of the economic benefits of vaccination programs.
    • The effect of medical technology advancements on healthcare costs.
    • Role of behavioral economics in health promotion and disease prevention.
    • How does health literacy influence healthcare utilization and costs?
    • Economic analysis of substance abuse treatment.
    • Evaluating the economic impacts of health policy reforms.

    >> Read more: Public Health Topics for Research

    Extra Research Topics for Economics

    Sometimes, finding the right idea can be a challenging task. However, there are numerous resources available to help you find unique angles. Also, don't be afraid to ask your professors or research paper writer team for suggestions on the selection process. But if you don’t have enough time, we gathered some supplementary economics research topics.

    Economics Essay Topics

    An economics essay can cover a broad range of topics, from macroeconomic issues such as international trade and monetary policy to microeconomic aspects such as consumer behavior and market structure.

    • Can an increase in minimum wage curb poverty?
    • What are the potential economic effects of Brexit?
    • Impact of income inequality on societal cohesion.
    • How does the rise of remote work influence economic structures?
    • Examination of the economic benefits of public libraries.
    • Role of the informal economy in urban development.
    • Economic implications of increasing life expectancy.
    • How does piracy impact the music and film industry economically?
    • Impact of subsidies on agricultural economies.
    • Exploration of the economic factors influencing the housing market.
    • Analysis of the economic costs of obesity.
    • Role of child labor in global supply chains.
    • Examination of the economic implications of internet censorship.
    • Impact of single-use plastics on local and global economies.
    • Economic effects of urban green spaces.

    Economics Topics for a Short Project

    If you need to complete a short assignment, you may want to consider project topics in economics that can be analyzed within a limited timeframe. Don’t worry. We’ve added some simple ideas as well:

    • Examining the economic impacts of online privacy breaches.
    • Role of advertising in shaping consumer behavior.
    • Analysis of the economic effects of natural disasters.
    • Economic implications of self-driving cars.
    • Role of cooperatives in the economy.
    • Impact of e-waste on developing economies.
    • The role of micro-credit in alleviating poverty.
    • Examining the economic impacts of space exploration.
    • How do online reviews influence consumer purchasing decisions?
    • Economics of disaster recovery: Case studies.
    • Examination of the economic implications of cybercrime.
    • Impact of nutritional labeling on consumer behavior and market outcomes.
    • Economic analysis of the craft beer industry.
    • Examining the economic effects of animal agriculture.
    • How do tax incentives influence corporate behavior and economic outcomes?

    Economics Research Questions

    Formulating a research question is a crucial step in conducting an economics research project. A good research question should be specific, measurable, and relevant to the topic under study. Here are some economics research questions to consider:

    • How does widespread adoption of digital currencies impact traditional banking?
    • To what extent do economic factors contribute to obesity rates?
    • What are the consequences of large-scale solar power adoption?
    • How do parental leave policies shape labor markets?
    • What impacts do large-scale data breaches have on corporations?
    • Does green urban planning significantly contribute to city development?
    • How much does mental health contribute to workplace productivity?
    • What effects do fair trade agreements have on farmers in low-income countries?
    • How valuable are clean oceans for global trade?
    • How does political stability of a country influence foreign investments?
    • What are the consequences of patent wars in the tech industry?
    • How does the rise of freelancing shape labor laws?
    • What economic implications does the rise of eSports have?
    • How does nutrition education impact economic health?
    • What are some benefits and drawbacks of commercial space tourism?

    Economics Research Topics for Exams

    If you're preparing for an exam, it's important to have a good understanding of the concepts and theories that you'll be tested on. To help you prepare, we offer these economics research topics for exams to study:

    • Implications of autonomous vehicles on transportation.
    • Role of trade unions in contemporary job markets.
    • Analysis of gender disparities in retirement savings.
    • Influence of corporate social responsibility on brand reputation.
    • How do plant-based diets influence the global meat industry.
    • Evaluating efficiency of ride-sharing platforms.
    • Role of drones in shaping future commercial landscapes.
    • How public health initiatives influence workplace productivity.
    • Exploring the potential economic impact of asteroid mining.
    • How does fashion industry affect global economy and environmental sustainability?
    • Impact of video-on-demand services on traditional film industries.
    • Role of social entrepreneurship in poverty alleviation.
    • Role of energy-efficient appliances in electricity markets.
    • Influence of shifting demographics on global trends.
    • How does celebrity endorsement influence consumer buying behavior?

    Economics Research Paper Topics for Experts

    For those who are already experts in the field of economics, finding 100% original economics research topics can be an uphill struggle. But not with ideas attached below:

    • How does quantum computing pose an economic challenge to cybersecurity firms?
    • How do gene editing technologies affect agricultural markets?
    • In what ways does space commercialization affect global economies?
    • How does increased lifespan influence retirement and pension systems?
    • Financial viability of carbon capture and storage.
    • Influence of ethical consumerism on global supply chains.
    • How have nanotechnologies impacted manufacturing sectors?
    • Impact of rising sea levels on coastal economies.
    • Role of predictive analytics in preventing financial fraud.
    • Examining the economic consequences of major oil spills.
    • How does deep face technology pose an economic challenge to film industries?
    • Economic impacts of large-scale reforestation.
    • Implications of extensive antibiotic resistance.
    • Impacts of geopolitical tensions on global oil prices.
    • Universal basic income as a solution for automation-induced job loss.

    Bottom Line on Economics Papers Topics

    Hopefully, by now you have found a perfect economics research paper topic. Make sure you can find enough evidence to back up your points. But if you have any difficulties with the research or writing process, consider to buy coursework or any other project from academic experts.


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    220 Economics Essay Topics You Can Explore in Your Research

    Updated 18 Jun 2024

    Economics Essay Topics

    Economics is one of the most important social sciences. As it discusses and studies the flow of value in our society, it impacts almost every aspect of our lives. It can also be effectively used to improve our modern society.

    The list of economic essay topics is endless – the field focuses on multiple areas of human interactions on different scales. Choosing one of the economics topics for an essay relevant to your task and interesting to research can be hard. That’s why our essay writing service is here to help you.

    💡 Tips for Choosing Interesting Economics Topics

    Let’s review the main steps you can take to make the selection of topic ideas easier for you:

    • Select the relevant field of study – economics is a broad field, so it is often divided into several subcategories, including micro- and macroeconomics, social economics, and many more. If you want to select relevant economics paper topics, first you need to determine the field you’re focusing on;
    • Find something interesting to you – even the most interesting topics will not make for a good essay if they are not delivered well enough. Find something that you’re interested in learning more about and focus on economics essay questions connected to it;
    • Make sure there are enough trustworthy data sources on the subject – like many other social studies, economics is often manipulated to prove a point or an agenda. Make sure the sources you use are relevant and trustworthy;
    • Ensure you can keep the reader engaged – if most of your research will consist of raw data, it will most likely not be interesting to read. Make sure that the topic you choose is interesting and engaging enough for you to grasp the reader’s attention.

    Among the main topics you can discuss in economics research are:

    • Fundamental economics, cost to benefit analysis, and importance of decision-making;
    • Macroeconomics , supply, and demand;
    • Microeconomics, market structure, and strategies, competition;
    • International economics, trade, market, and more;
    • Personal economics, spending habits, personal investment;
    • Social economics, class structure, the cultural impact of economics.

    📈 List of Economics Essay Topics

    These general topics explore the specifics of the field, its difference from other studies, and relevant questions in the modern state of this science.

    • The Role of Cryptocurrencies in Modern Economics
    • Impact of Globalization on Emerging Economies
    • Behavioral Economics: How Psychology Influences Economic Decisions
    • The Economics of Climate Change and Sustainable Development
    • Universal Basic Income: Pros and Cons
    • The Effect of Trade Wars on Global Economic Stability
    • Gig Economy: Transforming Traditional Labor Markets
    • Economic Implications of Artificial Intelligence and Automation
    • The Future of Work: Economic Perspectives on Telecommuting and Remote Work
    • Income Inequality and Economic Growth: A Complex Relationship
    • The Economics of Renewable Energy: Costs and Benefits
    • Healthcare Economics: Analyzing the Cost-Effectiveness of Public Health Policies
    • The Impact of Economic Sanctions on Targeted Countries
    • Economic Strategies for Combating Poverty and Homelessness
    • The Role of Central Banks in Managing Economic Crises
    • Economic Analysis of the Student Loan Debt Crisis
    • The Economics of Internet Privacy and Data Security
    • Supply Chain Economics: Lessons from Global Disruptions
    • The Role of Innovation and Technology in Economic Growth
    • Economic Impacts of Immigration: A Balanced View

    🌎 World Economics Essay Questions

    • How do international trade agreements affect emerging economies?
    • What are the economic impacts of climate change on global agriculture?
    • How does the rise of China affect the global economic balance?
    • What role does the World Bank play in shaping the economies of developing countries?
    • How do economic policies in developed countries impact global poverty?
    • What are the effects of global economic sanctions on the targeted nations?
    • How does the digital economy influence global economic disparities?
    • What are the economic consequences of Brexit for the European Union and the UK?
    • How do multinational corporations influence economic policies in developing countries?
    • What is the impact of global pandemics, like COVID-19, on international trade and economy?
    • How does the global shift towards renewable energy sources affect oil-dependent economies?
    • What are the economic challenges and opportunities in Africa's rapidly growing economies?
    • How do remittances from migrants impact the economies of their home countries?
    • What are the economic implications of the increasing global population?
    • How does political instability in the Middle East affect global oil markets and economies?
    • What is the role of emerging technologies in shaping the future of global finance?
    • How do global economic inequalities impact international relations and security?
    • What are the economic effects of international tourism on small island developing states?
    • How do trade wars, particularly between the US and China, reshape global economic dynamics?
    • What are the economic strategies for sustainable development in underdeveloped regions?

    📊 Macroeconomics Essay Topics

    Macroeconomics deals with economic systems as a whole. It is extremely important to discuss, as it can help to learn more about how well the system is performing and what can be done to improve it.

    • Analyzing the Long-term Economic Impacts of the COVID-19 Pandemic
    • The Role of Fiscal Policy in Managing Economic Recessions
    • Inflation vs. Deflation: Causes, Consequences, and Control
    • The Impact of Monetary Policy on Economic Growth
    • Globalization and Its Effects on National Economies
    • The Economics of Income Inequality in Developed Countries
    • Understanding the Phillips Curve: Inflation and Unemployment
    • The Role of Government Spending in Stimulating Economic Growth
    • Exchange Rates and Their Impact on International Trade
    • The Effects of National Debt on a Country's Economic Health
    • Economic Indicators and Their Role in Policy Making
    • The Relationship Between Consumer Confidence and Economic Performance
    • The Impact of Oil Prices on the Global Economy
    • Quantitative Easing: Benefits and Risks
    • The Economics of Climate Change Policies in Developed Nations
    • Housing Markets and Their Influence on the Economy
    • The Role of Central Banks in Modern Economies
    • Supply-Side Economics: Theory and Practice
    • The Impact of Technological Innovation on Economic Growth
    • Demographic Changes and Their Macroeconomic Implications

    📉 Microeconomics Essay Topics

    Microeconomics, on the other hand, deals with the economy on an individual scale. Discussing the importance of personal decision making and how it impacts the system is actually just as important as paying attention to the large scale, so let’s take a look at the topics you can explore:

    • The Impact of Consumer Behavior on Market Demand
    • Price Elasticity of Demand: Analysis in Different Markets
    • The Role of Competition in Shaping Market Outcomes
    • Monopolies and Oligopolies: Their Impact on Consumers and Prices
    • Behavioral Economics: How Irrational Behaviors Affect Economic Decisions
    • The Economics of Labor Markets and Wage Determination
    • Supply Chain Economics: The Microeconomic Perspective
    • The Impact of Advertising on Consumer Preferences and Market Trends
    • Game Theory and Its Application in Competitive Business Strategies
    • The Economics of Healthcare: Demand, Supply, and Pricing
    • Environmental Economics: The Cost of Pollution and Its Microeconomic Impacts
    • The Role of Government in Market Failures: Subsidies, Taxes, and Regulations
    • Resource Allocation in Different Economic Systems
    • The Economics of Education: Human Capital and Labor Market Outcomes
    • The Impact of Technological Change on Small Businesses
    • Consumer Choice Theory and Its Implications for Marketing
    • Risk and Uncertainty in Microeconomic Decision-Making
    • The Microeconomics of Urban Development and Housing Markets
    • The Role of Information Asymmetry in Market Transactions
    • The Economics of Agriculture: Supply and Demand in Food Markets

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    🏥 Healthcare Economics Essay Topics

    • The Economic Impact of Universal Healthcare Systems vs. Private Healthcare Systems
    • Cost-Benefit Analysis of Public Health Campaigns
    • The Role of Health Insurance in Shaping Healthcare Economics
    • Economic Implications of Aging Populations on Healthcare Systems
    • The Impact of Pharmaceutical Patents on Drug Prices and Accessibility
    • Healthcare Expenditure: A Comparison Between Developed and Developing Countries
    • The Economics of Mental Health Care and Its Funding
    • Analyzing the Cost-Effectiveness of Preventive Medicine
    • The Role of Technology in Reducing Healthcare Costs
    • Economic Analysis of the Opioid Crisis in the United States
    • Healthcare Economics in the Context of a Pandemic
    • The Impact of Lifestyle Diseases on Healthcare Systems
    • Economic Challenges in Providing Rural Healthcare
    • The Effects of Healthcare Policy Reforms on Service Delivery
    • The Role of Private Sector Investment in Healthcare
    • Analyzing the Price Elasticity of Demand in Healthcare
    • The Economics of Emergency Medical Services and Critical Care
    • Healthcare Workforce Economics: Challenges and Solutions
    • The Impact of Medical Tourism on Domestic Healthcare Economics
    • Evaluating the Economic Efficiency of Telemedicine Services

    Consumerism Essay Topics

    • The Impact of Consumerism on Global Environmental Sustainability
    • Consumer Culture: Its Evolution and Impact on Society
    • The Psychology Behind Consumer Buying Behavior
    • The Effects of Advertising and Media on Consumer Choices
    • Ethical Consumerism: Balancing Profit and Social Responsibility
    • The Role of Branding in Modern Consumerism
    • Consumerism and Its Impact on Personal Debt and Financial Health
    • Fast Fashion: Consumerism and Its Environmental Footprint
    • The Influence of Social Media on Consumer Trends and Behaviors
    • Minimalism as an Antidote to Consumerism: Pros and Cons
    • The Relationship Between Consumerism and the Throwaway Culture
    • Consumerism in the Digital Age: Online Shopping and Its Impacts
    • The Effects of Globalization on Consumerism and Local Cultures
    • Consumer Rights and Protection: A Historical Perspective
    • The Impact of Consumerism on Mental Health and Well-being
    • Sustainable Consumerism: Is It Achievable in a Capitalist Society?
    • The Role of Government in Regulating Consumer Markets
    • Consumerism in Developing Countries: Trends and Challenges
    • The Evolution of Consumerism in the 21st Century
    • The Intersection of Consumerism and Technological Advancements

    💰 Finance Paper Topics

    • The Impact of Cryptocurrency on Traditional Financial Systems
    • Behavioral Finance: Understanding the Psychology of Investing
    • The Role of Fintech in Shaping the Future of Banking
    • Corporate Social Responsibility in Financial Decision-Making
    • The Effects of Interest Rate Changes on the Economy
    • Risk Management in Financial Institutions
    • The Global Impact of the US Federal Reserve's Monetary Policy
    • Sustainable Finance: Investing in Environmental and Social Governance (ESG)
    • The Evolution of International Financial Markets
    • Financial Inclusion: Strategies for Bridging the Gap in Developing Countries
    • The Role of Credit Ratings in Financial Markets
    • Impact of Financial Regulations on Banking Sector
    • Analysis of Stock Market Bubbles and Crashes
    • The Future of Digital Banking and Online Financial Services
    • Private Equity and Venture Capital: Their Role in Economic Growth
    • The Economics of Debt: National and International Perspectives
    • Financial Derivatives: Uses and Controversies
    • The Role of Artificial Intelligence in Financial Services
    • Microfinance and Its Impact on Poverty Alleviation
    • The Challenges of Pension Fund Management in an Aging Society

    ✏️ Socio-Economic Essay Topics

    • The Impact of Economic Inequality on Social Mobility
    • The Role of Education in Bridging the Socio-Economic Divide
    • Gender Disparities in the Workplace: Economic and Social Implications
    • The Effects of Urbanization on Socio-Economic Development
    • Social Entrepreneurship: Combining Economic Goals with Social Impact
    • The Relationship Between Poverty and Crime Rates
    • Economic Policies and Their Impact on Social Welfare
    • The Socio-Economic Challenges of Aging Populations
    • Income Inequality and Its Impact on Health Outcomes
    • The Role of Technology in Shaping Socio-Economic Trends
    • Child Labor: Socio-Economic Causes and Consequences
    • The Impact of Globalization on Local Cultures and Economies
    • Socio-Economic Factors Influencing Voter Behavior
    • The Economics of Immigration: Social and Economic Perspectives
    • Socio-Economic Implications of Climate Change
    • The Digital Divide: Socio-Economic Impacts of Internet Access
    • Racial and Ethnic Economic Disparities in Urban Areas
    • The Socio-Economic Effects of War and Conflict
    • Socio-Economic Determinants of Health in Developing Countries
    • The Role of Government in Addressing Socio-Economic Inequalities

    📖 Economic History Topics

    • The Economic Consequences of the Industrial Revolution
    • The Great Depression: Causes and Global Impact
    • The Role of Trade and Commerce in the Ancient World
    • Economic Factors Leading to the American Revolution
    • The History of the Gold Standard and Its Economic Impact
    • The Rise and Fall of the Roman Economy
    • The Economic Implications of European Colonialism
    • The Silk Road: Economic and Cultural Exchange
    • The Impact of the Agricultural Revolution on Societal Development
    • Mercantilism and Its Role in Shaping Modern Economics
    • The Economic Causes and Consequences of World War II
    • The Bretton Woods System and the Post-War Global Economy
    • The History of the Global Oil Economy
    • The Economic Impact of the Transatlantic Slave Trade
    • The Evolution of Central Banking and Its Role in Economic Stabilization
    • The Asian Financial Crisis of 1997: Causes and Effects
    • The Economic History of the European Union
    • The Role of Innovation and Technology in Economic Growth Through History
    • The Economic Impacts of the Cold War
    • The History and Development of Global Trade Agreements

    💲 Tax Topics for an Essay

    • The Economic Impact of Progressive vs. Regressive Tax Systems
    • Tax Evasion and Avoidance: Causes, Consequences, and Solutions
    • The Role of Taxation in Income Redistribution
    • Comparative Analysis of Tax Systems in Different Countries
    • The Impact of Corporate Taxation on Business Decisions and Growth
    • Carbon Taxes and Their Effectiveness in Combating Climate Change
    • The History and Evolution of Income Tax
    • Value-Added Tax (VAT): Pros and Cons
    • Tax Incentives for Small Businesses: Benefits and Drawbacks
    • The Relationship Between Tax Policies and Economic Growth
    • Digital Taxation: Taxing the Tech Giants
    • The Ethics of Taxation: Balancing Government Needs and Taxpayer Rights
    • Property Taxes and Their Impact on Housing Markets
    • Tax Havens: Economic and Legal Implications
    • The Effect of Sales Taxes on Consumer Behavior
    • Tax Reforms: Case Studies and Their Outcomes
    • The Role of Taxes in Healthcare Financing
    • Estate Taxes and Wealth Distribution
    • The Impact of Taxation on Investment and Savings
    • Sin Taxes on Alcohol and Tobacco: Economic and Social Perspectives

    Human Development Essay Topics

    • The Role of Education in Human Development
    • Impact of Early Childhood Development on Later Life Outcomes
    • Gender Inequality and Its Effects on Human Development
    • The Influence of Family Structure on Child Development
    • Economic Growth and Its Impact on Human Development Indices
    • The Role of Nutrition in Cognitive and Physical Development
    • Cultural Influences on Personality and Identity Formation
    • The Impact of Technology on Adolescent Development
    • Mental Health and Its Importance in Human Development
    • Social Policy and Its Effects on Vulnerable Populations
    • The Role of Play in Child Development
    • Adolescent Brain Development and Behavior
    • The Effects of Poverty on Human Development
    • The Impact of Globalization on Cultural Identity and Development
    • Environmental Factors and Their Influence on Human Growth
    • The Role of Language in Cognitive Development
    • The Impact of War and Conflict on Children's Development
    • Social Media and Its Influence on Youth Development
    • The Role of Community in Shaping Individual Development
    • Human Development and Disability: Challenges and Opportunities

    Final thoughts

    In summary, this list of economics essay topics covers a lot of important areas. From big-picture issues like world economies to smaller, everyday things like how we make choices about buying stuff, each topic helps us understand more about how money and business affect our lives and the world. Writing essays on these topics isn't just about schoolwork; it's also a way for students to really get into how economics works and how it touches everything we do. By studying these topics, students aren't just learning; they're getting ready to be smart and thoughtful members of society who understand the big economic issues that we all face.

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    term paper topics in development economics

    Economics Essay Topics: Valuable Tips

    term paper topics in development economics

    Economics is a subject that has gained immense popularity in recent times. It deals with interesting economics topics like the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services. Moreover, it is a social science that provides insights into how individuals, businesses, and governments make decisions that affect the overall economy. Given its importance, economics essays have become a crucial part of the curriculum for students pursuing various degrees.

    Short Description

    In this article, our essay writer will take you on a journey through various exciting topics in economics. We'll cover everything from big-picture concepts like macroeconomics to more focused ideas like microeconomics, international trade, and economic policy. Our goal is to help you find the perfect topic for your economics essay—one that matches your interests and demonstrates your understanding of how economics affects the real world.

    🎓 What is Economics: Understanding the Importance

    Before we dive into the different economics essay topics, it is crucial to understand what economics is and its importance. Economics is a social science that deals with the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services. It is concerned with how individuals, businesses, and governments make decisions about allocating resources to satisfy their unlimited wants and needs.

    Economics as a science provides a framework for analyzing society's production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services. It helps us understand how markets work and how they can be improved to increase efficiency and welfare. Moreover, economic principles have significant implications for various social issues, including poverty, inequality, environmental sustainability, and public policy. By studying economics essay topics, we can gain insights into these issues and develop policies that promote rapid economic growth and social welfare.

    what is economics

    When it comes to economics, the range of essay topics is vast and covers various aspects of human interactions on different levels. With so many possibilities to explore, we understand the difficulty of narrowing down your options. That's why our ' write me an essay ' experts are here to offer their guidance and support. We're ready to help you select the ideal topic if you wish to learn how to write informative essay on economics.

    economics paper

    🧩 Tips for Choosing Your Ideal Topic

    Choosing a topic is the first and most crucial step in writing an economics essay. Your topic will determine the direction and scope of your essay. Here are some tips for choosing the ideal topic from our finance essay writing service :

    Tip 1: Understand the relevance of economics to daily life and choose a topic with practical applications.

    Recognize that economics plays a significant role in our everyday lives, as it encompasses the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services. Therefore, when selecting a topic, ensure its societal relevance. For instance, you might consider exploring 'The Impact of Automation on Employment Rates' or 'The Role of Government Regulations in Controlling Inflation.'

    Tip 2: Opt for narrow economics research topics to make them more manageable and allow for in-depth exploration.

    Instead of tackling broad subjects like 'International Trade,' narrow down your focus to something like 'The Effects of Tariffs on Small Businesses in the Agriculture Sector' or 'The Relationship Between Exchange Rates and Export Performance in Developing Countries.' By delving deeper into a specific aspect, you can provide more detailed financial analysis and insights.

    Tip 3: Conduct preliminary research to identify current topics, debates, and research gaps.

    Before finalizing your topic, engage in preliminary research to gain an understanding of recent trends and issues in economics. Explore academic journals, news articles, and books to discover areas that warrant further exploration. For example, you might come across intriguing research gaps such as 'The Impact of Cryptocurrencies on Financial Markets' or 'The Role of Behavioral Economics in Shaping Consumer Decision-Making.'

    Tip 4: Seek input from peers or professors to enhance your topic selection process.

    Collaborate with your peers during brainstorming sessions to generate fresh ideas and gain different perspectives on potential topics. Additionally, seek guidance from your professor, who can offer valuable insights and feedback to refine your chosen topic. For instance, you can discuss your ideas with classmates and receive suggestions like 'The Influence of Economic Policies on Income Inequality' or receive expert advice from your professor on 'The Implications of Globalization on Developing Economies.'

    And if you want expert assistance in applying theoretical concepts to practice and creating an exceptional paper, then address your request to our custom essay writing services .

    topic ideas

    🗒 Economics Essay Topics: A Comprehensive List

    If you are looking for a comprehensive list of interesting economics essay topics, you have come to the right place. Here are some ideas that you can consider:

    economic essay topics

    • Central Banks in Fiscal Policy : Examine central banks' roles in setting interest rates, regulating money supply, and managing inflation.
    • Automation and Labor Market : Analyze the impact of automation on jobs, including worker displacement and new job creation.
    • Immigration and Labor Market : Explore immigration's effects on wages, job opportunities, and economic growth.
    • Economics of Climate Change : Discuss the costs and economic impact of climate change mitigation and adaptation.
    • Economics of Healthcare : Investigate healthcare costs, the role of insurance, and the impact of healthcare policies on the economy.
    • Government's Economic Role : Examine how government policies, both fiscal and monetary, affect the economy.
    • Globalization's Economic Impact : Analyze how globalization affects industries, trade, and employment.
    • Poverty and Inequality : Explore the causes and effects of poverty and inequality and the role of government interventions.
    • Economics of Education : Investigate education costs, its impact on economic growth, and the government's role in education.
    • Marketplace Competition : Discuss how competition promotes economic growth, innovation, and consumer welfare.
    • Economics of Entrepreneurshi p: Examine factors promoting entrepreneurship and its impact on the economy.
    • Quantitative Easing and Recovery : Analyze how large-scale asset purchases influence inflation, employment, and economic stability.
    • Renewable Energy Economics : Assess the costs, benefits, and challenges of transitioning to renewable energy.
    • Technological Innovation : Explore how R&D and digitalization impact productivity, job creation, and economic competitiveness.
    • Behavioral Economics and Decision-Making : Investigate how cognitive biases and heuristics influence consumer behavior and market outcomes.

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    🧮 Macroeconomics Essay Topics

    Macroeconomics is a fascinating and complex field of study that aims to understand the overall performance of an economy. It takes into account various factors such as economic growth, inflation, unemployment, and trade policies. If you are looking for some thought-provoking macroeconomics essay topics, here are a few that you might find interesting:

    • The Impact of Fiscal Policy on Economic Growth
    • Monetary Policy and Inflation Control: Case Studies from Different Countries
    • The Role of Central Banks in Modern Economies
    • The Effects of Globalization on National Economies
    • Unemployment Rates and Economic Stability
    • The Influence of Political Stability on Economic Development
    • The Economics of Recession and Recovery
    • Debt Crisis: Causes and Solutions
    • The Relationship Between Exchange Rates and International Trade
    • The Future of Cryptocurrencies in the Global Economy

    📉 Microeconomics Essay Topics

    Microeconomics focuses on the behavior of individual consumers and businesses in the market. The principles of microeconomics are used to analyze how these entities make decisions, interact with each other, and influence the overall economy. If you're interested in exploring this field further, here are some microeconomics essay topics that you might find interesting:

    • The Theory of Consumer Choice and Its Applications
    • Market Structures: Comparing Perfect Competition, Monopolies, and Oligopolies
    • Price Elasticity of Demand: Importance and Calculation
    • The Role of Government in Market Failures
    • The Economics of Labor Markets and Wage Determination
    • The Impact of Minimum Wage Laws on Small Businesses
    • Behavioral Economics: How Human Psychology Affects Economic Decisions
    • Game Theory and Its Applications in Business
    • The Economics of Information and Market Efficiency
    • The Impact of Technology on Production and Costs

    🎏 International Economics Essay Topics

    International economics deals with the economic interactions between countries, including trade, investment, and migration. Here are some international economic relations topics:

    • The Pros and Cons of Free Trade Agreements
    • The Impact of Tariffs and Trade Wars on Global Economies
    • Exchange Rate Dynamics and International Trade
    • The Role of International Organizations in Global Trade
    • Economic Integration: Case Studies of the EU and NAFTA
    • The Economics of Developing Countries: Challenges and Opportunities
    • Foreign Direct Investment: Benefits and Risks
    • Global Supply Chains and Their Economic Implications
    • The Role of Multinational Corporations in Globalization
    • The Impact of Currency Crises on Emerging Markets

    📉 Behavioral Economics Essay Topics

    Behavioral economics combines psychology and economics to analyze how people make decisions. Here are some behavioral economics essay topics:

    • The Role of Cognitive Biases in Economic Decision-Making
    • How Social Preferences Influence Market Outcomes
    • Behavioral Insights into Consumer Credit Usage
    • The Impact of Behavioral Economics on Public Policy
    • Nudging and Its Effectiveness in Changing Economic Behavior
    • The Psychology of Saving and Investment Decisions
    • The Influence of Emotions on Economic Decisions
    • Behavioral Economics and Health-Related Decision-Making
    • The Economics of Happiness: Measuring Well-Being
    • The Role of Heuristics in Financial Decision-Making

    🚑 Healthcare Economics Essay Topics

    Healthcare economics analyzes how the healthcare system operates, including the costs and benefits of healthcare interventions. Here are some healthcare economics essay topics:

    • The Economics of Universal Healthcare Systems
    • The Impact of Health Insurance on Medical Costs
    • The Role of Government Regulation in the Pharmaceutical Industry
    • Cost-Benefit Analysis of Preventive Healthcare
    • The Economics of Aging Populations and Healthcare Demand
    • The Effectiveness of Public Health Interventions
    • The Impact of Technological Advancements on Healthcare Costs
    • Healthcare Disparities: Economic Causes and Solutions
    • The Economics of Mental Health Services
    • The Role of Economic Incentives in Health Behavior Change

    🌎 Consumerism Essay Topics

    Consumerism refers to the cultural and economic mindset that encourages the acquisition of goods and services. Here are some consumerism essay topics:

    • The Impact of Advertising on Consumer Behavior
    • Consumerism and Its Effects on the Environment
    • The Role of Credit in Modern Consumerism
    • The Psychology Behind Impulse Buying
    • The Economic Implications of the Sharing Economy
    • The Relationship Between Consumerism and Economic Growth
    • Ethical Consumerism: Trends and Economic Impact
    • The Influence of Social Media on Consumer Spending
    • The Role of Consumer Protection Laws in Market Economies
    • The Impact of Globalization on Consumer Choices

    📚 Economic History Topics

    Economic history is a field of study that examines the historical development of economic systems, policies, and institutions, as well as the social, political, and cultural factors that have influenced economic outcomes over time. Here are the 10 interesting topics:

    • The Great Depression: Causes, Consequences, and Recovery
    • The Economic Impact of World War II
    • The Industrial Revolution and Economic Development
    • The Evolution of Trade and Commerce in Ancient Civilizations
    • The Economic Effects of Colonialism
    • The Rise and Fall of the Gold Standard
    • The History of Banking and Financial Institutions
    • Economic Reforms in Post-Soviet States
    • The Role of Agriculture in Early Economic Systems
    • The Economic History of the Silk Road

    📊 Public Finance Research Topics

    Public finance research focuses on the study of the government's role in the allocation, distribution, and management of resources within an economy. It encompasses the analysis of public revenues, expenditures, taxation policies, and the impact of government interventions on economic outcomes and social welfare. Here are 10 relevant economics papers topics:

    • The Role of Government in Economic Stabilization
    • The Impact of Taxation on Economic Growth
    • Public Debt and Its Implications for Future Generations
    • The Economics of Social Security Systems
    • Fiscal Policy and Income Inequality
    • The Effectiveness of Government Spending on Education and Healthcare
    • The Role of Public-Private Partnerships in Infrastructure Development
    • The Economic Impact of Environmental Taxes
    • The Challenges of Pension Fund Management
    • The Role of Fiscal Rules in Economic Governance

    Closing Remarks 

    To wrap up, economics is a subject that offers insights into how the world works. It provides a framework for analyzing complex social issues, including poverty, inequality, and public policy. Therefore, exploring economics essays topics is an excellent way of understanding the subject's relevance in the real world.

    By following the tips for choosing your ideal topic and exploring the comprehensive list of economics topics for an essay, you can write an insightful and inspiring paper that contributes to the ongoing dialogue on economics.

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    term paper topics in development economics

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    130 Best Economic Research Topics For Students

    The choice of economic research topics depends on the topic that students want to study. You can write about microeconomic or macroeconomic factors, or describe the current problems of countries and individual enterprises. There are also many interesting sections on agriculture, industry and foreign economic relations.

    In any case, economics topics are a chance to consider the main nuances of international countries' success or the peculiarities of a particular region's economy. Such studies require not only the search for reliable sources of information but also the authoritative research of economists. This will help you use the valuable economics papers topics in the context of your research activities.

    After you have considered all economics research paper topics, you can proceed to the stage of preparation. It is worth taking real research, facts, and statistics as a basis. However, you need to be original and make your emphases in your research paper.

    In some cases, you need the advice of experienced educators or watch interviews with the world's leading economists. Sometimes you can change the subject if you think you can't cope with the task at hand. There is nothing shameful about that.

    After you do your research and empirical calculations, you can collect a scientific database and prepare a draft version. Once it's finished, you can clean up your materials and create a tentative bibliography. It is important in the context of the study of the chosen topic.

    There is also a need to create strong theses and a definite purpose for your research work. You should answer the basic questions in your research paper that address a specific problem and its solution. Also, do not forget about the formatting that is relevant to your school. Economics research topics list lets you choose what works best for you.

    Microeconomics Research Topics

    Such research paper topics in economics are especially relevant because they allow us to consider the global processes of the financial well-being of many countries and the world trade. Students can prepare expert papers based on many studies and get high marks for considering microeconomic effects.

    • The consumer choice model in the context of improving economic performance.
    • Labor force and its impact on the country's budget.
    • The family economy in the context of the progress of an entire state.
    • Consumer relations and analysis from economic trends.
    • Inequality of wages as the main stimulus of the economy.
    • Consumption economics and progress in purchasing power.
    • Evolution of consumption in the USA.
    • The index of income inequality and purchasing power.
    • Dynamics of growth of a cashless economy in the context of modern society.
    • State enterprise and privatization system.
    • The main factors of behavioral microeconomics
    • The structural analysis of microeconomics on real examples.
    • The format for the microeconomic effects.

    Macroeconomics Research Topics

    Choosing the economics thesis topic, you must be ready to consider the main issues of macroeconomics in the context of a particular state, company, or individual organization. This is a good example of how you can choose a narrow direction to study certain economic environment factors and relationships.

    • Economic growth and a decrease in unemployment.
    • The main factors of the economic recession.
    • Cutting costs as a guarantee of the prosperity of the state.
    • The importance of tax revenue in the context of each US state.
    • Inflation and the dynamics of the pricing of the company's shares.
    • Correlation of government spending during inflation.
    • Devaluation as the main factor of problems in the economy.
    • Economic prerequisites for the growth of the digital economy.
    • The stock market as a cause of economic growth.
    • The connection between unemployment and modern digitalization.
    • Factors influencing the self-employment of the population.
    • Features of modern macroeconomic trends.
    • The nuances of managing macroeconomic indicators.
    • Preconditions for the formation of a stable macroeconomic.
    • The effect of macroeconomic equilibrium.

    Economic History Topics

    The choice of economics research topics for undergraduates may be related to the student's desire to study certain historical spheres of influence of countries and the moments of their formation on the world stage. It is also a good opportunity to study world trade and foreign economic research. A historical topic allows you to consider the structure of galloping inflation in developing countries and to study in detail the specifics of economic stagnation.

    • Economic revolution in Argentina.
    • Creation of the foreign exchange reserve.
    • The history of the formation of banking organizations.
    • Modern British economy.
    • The growth of the Chinese economy amid global depression.
    • Eastern European economy and the basis of its well-being.
    • Causes of the economic depression of the Netherlands.
    • The European currency as a replacement for the dollar.
    • History of the French economy.
    • German National Bank.
    • The history of the European Union as an economic factor of development.
    • The world economy and historical heritage.
    • The impact of economic progress on African countries.
    • The nuances of economic prosperity in European countries.

    Research Topics on International Trade

    International trade is a good option to write a research paper. The fact is that this section includes many historical and current aspects of the interaction between countries and individual organizations. Such economic research paper topics are very popular among students because everyone can find reliable information and verified facts.

    • The impact of international trade on the growth of the economy
    • The monetary union and its role in the US control
    • International trade and developing countries.
    • Investments as elements of international trade.
    • Banking crisis and trade wars.
    • Brexit as a factor in changing economic investment.
    • Dependence of countries on international investment.
    • The import control.
    • Developing countries and methods of their economic growth.
    • Foreign trade as a subject of liberalization of international relations.
    • The main factors in the development of international trade.
    • The trade relations between China and the United States.
    • The nuances of the interaction of world superpowers.
    • Consequences of successful economic activity.

    Environmental Economics Research Paper Topics

    Environmental economics is full of interesting areas for your research papers. In particular, this applies to different countries and continents. Using economics term paper topics, you can create truly expert material that will get a high mark. A significant advantage is the relevance of the topic and many scientific studies that you can use as a basis.

    • The economic prerequisites for waste disposal.
    • The nuances of the economy and human-made disasters.
    • The world economy in the context of the United States.
    • The influence of North America on economic trends in the world.
    • Water resources management policy.
    • Climate policy and economic preconditions.
    • World environment in the context of the US economy.
    • The economic study of investment in the environment.
    • The distribution of natural resources and a key factor in the economy.
    • The main technological innovations and their role in the environment.
    • The balance of the social ecosystem.
    • Financial subsidies as an incentive to buy organic products.
    • The influence of the environment on the behavioral factors of the economy.
    • The stagnation of world enterprises in the context of the economic crisis.
    • The environment and risk factors.

    Research Paper Topics on Behavioral Economics

    Behavioral economics structures knowledge about many aspects of the interaction of countries and individual nations. You can use existing scientific research to trace people's behavioral patterns that affect the unemployment rate, fluctuations in the currency exchange, and other nuances. It is worth noting that economics research topics are very relevant in modern times since the information space contributes to the regular change in behavioral factors.

    • Major behavioral factors of the avalanche of buyers.
    • Discount in the context of trade on amazon digitalization as the main driver of the economy.
    • Behavioral factors of the economy in the context of digital commerce.
    • Methods of investing in the US in the context of behavioral economics.
    • The customer demand and its incentive.
    • The value of the product then and the formation of behavioral economics.
    • What is the main motivation for consumers?
    • The formation of a behavioral economy as a task of the state.
    • The lifestyle and economic factors of US citizens.
    • The digital economy and behavioral factors.
    • Main methods of forming a buying habit.

    Law And Economics Paper Topics

    Choosing such economics research topics for students, you can rely on many countries' legal framework and the relationship with economic sectors. This will be especially interesting in the context of the United States or any other large state that conducts foreign trade and affects certain moments in the world. Legislation has a ton of interesting facts that you can explore in your paperwork.

    • The main risks of an innovative economy.
    • Taxation as a method of political economy.
    • The nuances of creating an optimal tax policy.
    • Main benefits of lowering the tax rate.
    • The economic organization and legal aspects.
    • The control of the economy through taxation.
    • Do you need a progressive tax scale?
    • The consequences of flexible taxes in the US economy.
    • Basic legal aspects of foreign economic activity.
    • Structuring law and economic investment.
    • Legislative innovations in the field of economics.
    • All nuances of promoting tax legislation for economic growth.
    • The format of taxation for small businesses.

    Labor Economics Research Topics

    Such a topic allows you to explore the nuances of labor law, taxation, and the reasons for demonstration in disadvantaged countries. This format allows you to maximize economic research geography and consider the main nuances of economic crises or new rounds of development.

    • Minimum wage and its impact on economic aspects.
    • The taxation and labor market demand.
    • The nuances of the formation of the structure of wages.
    • The impact of migration on the labor market point to common technologies and their economic impact on the labor market.
    • Main nuances of obtaining higher education in the context of economics.
    • Strikes as a major factor in an economic recession.
    • The firm's profitability in the context of the minimum wage.
    • The economic consequences of regulation of working hours.
    • The nuances of gender policy in the labor market.
    • The feasibility of creating trade unions.
    • The relationship between demography and economic growth.

    Basic Economics Topics

    Sometimes basic topics for economic research papers can be much better than narrow learning segments. The fact is that choosing such a free topic does not limit you to certain aspects, and you can consider the nuances of the economy in a broad sense. For example, your custom research paper may be about foreign trade, the risks of economic stagnation, or other nuances that apply to many countries.

    • The relationship between income and purchasing.
    • The risks of economic stagnation.
    • The lack of economic factors for income growth.
    • The main problem of the economies of developing countries.
    • The nuances of Western European economic culture.
    • Asian countries and economic progress.
    • The influence of external economic factors on the unemployment rate.
    • System of gender inequality.
    • The format of economic relations between countries.
    • The main aspects of the economic independence of states.
    • The influence of the United States on the world economy.
    • Lending and stimulating the economy world economic recessions.
    • Risk factors in the global economy.

    Other Economics Topics

    Such a list cannot be attributed to a specific segment or division of the economy. You can choose this option if you have no idea at all about what your research paper should look like. In fact, it allows you to prepare and get a good grade without taking too long practical research. So, you can check these economic research paper topics ideas.

    • The target market analysis.
    • Managerial accounting for apple Inc.
    • The Nissan operations management.
    • All Starbucks success factors.
    • The methodology of employee turnover study.
    • Maslow's hierarchy of needs.
    • Poverty in South Africa.
    • Signs of economic stagnation.
    • Memorandum for a paperless office.
    • The impact of social media as a business promotion instrument.
    • Main effects of employee turnover on the organization.

    How to Write a Good Economics Research Paper?

    You should adhere to all the technical guidelines and requirements of your high school or college. Don't forget about the formatting and proper structure of your research papers. You should browse the Internet and head to your local library to find the information you need as a basis for future research. It is worth noting that not all economic topics for research papers can be found quickly in printed books.

    Sometimes it is better to search for reputable scientific papers on the Internet, as this reduces the preparation time. Next, you need to make a plan, a strong introduction, and a clear message along with the main message you want to convey in your research paper. You should also rely on facts and figures to get a good estimate. Unfortunately, choosing a good economics essay topic is not always associated with a successful completion.

    If you can't do it on your own, then it is easier and more profitable for students to delegate work to someone else. Our company can help any person who is in a difficult situation and cannot cope with the research paper on their own. Our team of specialists has enough experience to prepare a high-quality paper for you.

    The Research Topics in Economics Inspiration List:

    • Business Cycle (Recession & Recovery)
    • Economic research
    • International Advances in Economic Research
    • Monetary Policy & Economic Research
    • Economic Research Reports
    • Glassdoor Economic Research
    • CASE - Center for Social and Economic Research

    Global Growth Is Stabilizing for the First Time in Three Years

    But 80% of world population will experience slower growth than in pre-COVID decade

    WASHINGTON, June 11, 2024 — The global economy is expected to stabilize for the first time in three years in 2024—but at a level that is weak by recent historical standards, according to the World Bank’s latest Global Economic Prospects report.

    Global growth is projected to hold steady at 2.6% in 2024 before edging up to an average of 2.7% in 2025-26. That is well below the 3.1% average in the decade before COVID-19. The forecast implies that over the course of 2024-26 countries that collectively account for more than 80% of the world’s population and global GDP would still be growing more slowly than they did in the decade before COVID-19.

    Overall, developing economies are projected to grow 4% on average over 2024-25, slightly slower than in 2023. Growth in low-income economies is expected to accelerate to 5% in 2024 from 3.8% in 2023. However, the forecasts for 2024 growth reflect downgrades in three out of every four low-income economies since January. In advanced economies, growth is set to remain steady at 1.5% in 2024 before rising to 1.7% in 2025.

    “Four years after the upheavals caused by the pandemic, conflicts, inflation, and monetary tightening, it appears that global economic growth is steadying,” said Indermit Gill, the World Bank Group’s Chief Economist and Senior Vice President. “ However, growth is at lower levels than before 2020. Prospects for the world’s poorest economies are even more worrisome. They face punishing levels of debt service, constricting trade possibilities, and costly climate events. Developing economies will have to find ways to encourage private investment, reduce public debt, and improve education, health, and basic infrastructure. The poorest among them—especially the 75 countries eligible for concessional assistance from the International Development Association—will not be able to do this without international support.”

    This year, one in four developing economies is expected to remain poorer than it was on the eve of the pandemic in 2019. This proportion is twice as high for countries in fragile- and conflict-affected situations. Moreover, the income gap between developing economies and advanced economies is set to widen in nearly half of developing economies over 2020-24 —the highest share since the 1990s. Per capita income in these economies—an important indicator of living standards—is expected to grow by 3.0% on average through 2026, well below the average of 3.8% in the decade before COVID-19.

    Global inflation is expected to moderate to 3.5% in 2024 and 2.9% in 2025, but the pace of decline is slower than was projected just six months ago. Many central banks, as a result, are expected to remain cautious in lowering policy interest rates. Global interest rates are likely to remain high by the standards of recent decades—averaging about 4% over 2025-26, roughly double the 2000-19 average.

    “Although food and energy prices have moderated across the world, core inflation remains relatively high—and could stay that way,” said Ayhan Kose, the World Bank’s Deputy Chief Economist and Director of the Prospects Group . “That could prompt central banks in major advanced economies to delay interest-rate cuts. An environment of ‘higher-for-longer’ rates would mean tighter global financial conditions and much weaker growth in developing economies.”

    The latest Global Economic Prospects report also features two analytical chapters of topical importance. The first outlines how public investment can be used to accelerate private investment and promote economic growth. It finds that public investment growth in developing economies has halved since the global financial crisis, dropping to an annual average of 5% in the past decade. Yet public investment can be a powerful policy lever. For developing economies with ample fiscal space and efficient government spending practices, scaling up public investment by 1% of GDP can increase the level of output by up to 1.6% over the medium term.

    The second analytical chapter explores why small states—those with a population of around 1.5 million or less—suffer chronic fiscal difficulties. Two-fifths of the 35 developing economies that are small states are at high risk of debt distress or already in it. That’s roughly twice the share for other developing economies. Comprehensive reforms are needed to address the fiscal challenges of small states. Revenues could be drawn from a more stable and secure tax base. Spending efficiency could be improved —especially in health, education, and infrastructure. Fiscal frameworks could be adopted to manage the higher frequency of natural disasters and other shocks. Targeted and coordinated global policies can also help put these countries on a more sustainable fiscal path.

    Download the full report:

    Download growth data:

    Download charts:

    Regional Outlooks:

    East Asia and Pacific:  Growth is expected to decelerate to 4.8% in 2024 and to 4.2% in 2025. For more, see  regional overview.

    Europe and Central Asia:  Growth is expected to edge down to 3.0% in 2024 before moderating to 2.9% in 2025. For more, see  regional overview .

    Latin America and the Caribbean:  Growth is expected to decline to 1.8% in 2024 before picking up to 2.7% in 2025. For more, see  regional overview .

    Middle East and North Africa:  Growth is expected to pick up to 2.8% in 2024 and 4.2% in 2025. For more, see  regional overview.

    South Asia:  Growth is expected to slow to 6.2% in 2024 and remain steady at 6.2% in 2025. For more, see regional overview.

    Sub-Saharan Africa: Growth is expected to pick up to 3.5% in 2024 and to 3.9% in 2025. For more, see  regional overview.



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