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From the chicago manual of style, how do i format a contents page in turabian/chicago style.

chicago style thesis table of contents

Here’s how to set up a Chicago-style table of contents page following the guidelines in Kate L. Turabian’s  A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations . (See section A.2.1.7 in the appendix called “Paper Format and Submission.”)

  • Label the first page Contents at the top of the page.
  • Leave two blank lines between the title and the first item listed.
  • Single-space individual items listed, but add a blank line after each item.
  • List in order the parts, chapters, or other units of the text, and then the elements of the back matter.
  • Between the lists for the front and back matter and the chapters, or between parts, leave two blank lines. Two blank lines can also intervene between an introduction and the first chapter or between the last chapter and a conclusion.  
  • Give page numbers only for the first page of each listed item.
  • Chapter titles appear flush left, with page numbers flush right.

For more details, see the sample contents page below and section A.2.1.7 of Turabian.

Sample Contents Page

chicago style thesis table of contents

IMPORTANT: Your instructor’s requirements may overrule Chicago’s formatting recommendations!  

Turabian Manual Ninth Edition

  • Margins and Page Numbers
  • Table of Contents
  • List of Tables and Figures
  • Introduction or Conclusion
  • Sections and Subheads
  • Chapter Opening Page
  • Figure and Figure Caption
  • Bibliography
  • Parenthetical Citations
  • Reference List

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General Formatting Notes

When writing a paper, it is important to follow any rules or guidelines set by your professor.  Make sure to check your assignment for specific instructions regarding format.  Different fields have different standards, and it will be important for you to know the standard for your future field.

The following formatting guides are the most widely accepted for the format and submission of theses and dissertations, but there may be differences from the requirements of your UVF department.  Always check with your professor if you have questions regarding format for your paper, especially if your assignment is a thesis or dissertation.

Most papers have three divisions: front matter, the text of the paper itself, and the back matter.  For a regular class paper, the front matter is usually just a title page and the back matter is the bibliography or reference list.  Theses and disserations will have more subsections depending on the paper.

Nearly all papers are published on 8 1/2 by 11 inch paper, regardless of physical or electronic submission.  Leave a margin of at least 1 inch on all four sides of your page.  For a thesis or dissertation meant to be bound, leave a slightly bigger margin on the left side of the page, usually 1 1/2 inches.

Be sure that all materials found in the footnotes and endnotes falls within the margins.

Choose a single, readable, and widely available font such as Times New Roman or Arial.  Avoid ornamental fonts as they can distract your readers or make your work appear less serious.  In general, use the equivalent of at least 10-point Arial or 12-point Times New Roman for the body of texts.  

Check your professor's guidelines for font and size for footnotes and endnotes.

Spacing and Indentation

Double space all text in papers, except for the following, which should be single spaced:

  • block quotations
  • table titles and figure captions
  • lists in appendixes

The following should be single spaced internally, but a blank line should be between items:

  • certain elements in the front matter (table of contents, lists of figures, tables, or abbreviations)
  • footnotes and endnotes
  • bibliographies and reference lists

Put only one space, not two, following sentences. Use tabs or indents for paragraph indentation and to adjust other content requiring consistent alignment.  Block quotations have their own guidelines for indentation, depending on whether they are prose or poetry.

If your only front matter is a title page, do not number that page.

Number the pages in the body of the paper and the back matter with arabic numerals, starting on the first page of text (page 2 if you count the title page.

If you are writing a thesis or dissertation, number front matter separately from the rest of the text.

Front matter includes the title page and various other elements.  Number these pages consecutively with lower case roman numerals (i, ii, iii, iv, etc.) Ask your professor about specific guidelines for numbering front matter.

Back matter is numbered consecutively using arabic numerals.

Page numbers are found in four possible locations

centered in the footer

flush right in the footer

centered in the header

flush right in the header

Remain consistent in the placement of your page numbers

Front Matter

The front matter of a thesis or dissertation may have some or all of the following elements:

  • Submission page - This is usually the first page of the document.  If it is in this position, it does not get a page number and is not counted in the pagination of the front matter.  The submission page states that the paper has been submitted in partial fulfillment of a Master's or PhD degree, and includes space for the signatures of the examining committee. Consult your professor for the wording and format of this page.
  • Title page - Class papers should begin with a title page (but your professor may want this on the first page of the text).  Place the title of the paper a third of the way down the page, centered.  If the title has a subtitle, put the main title on a single line, followed by a colon, and begin the subtitle on a new line with an intervening line space.  Several lines below that, place your name, any information requested by your professor (course title, department), and the date.
  • Copyright page - In a thesis or dissertation, insert a copyright page after the title page.  Count this as page ii, but do not put that number on the page.  Include the copyright notice near the top of this page, usually flush left, in this form:

Copyright © 20XX by Your Name

All rights reserved

You do not need to apply for formal copyright.

  • Abstract - The abstract summarizes the contents of the thesis or dissertation.  Count the first page of the abstract as page iii, and number all pages. Your department may have specific guidelines regarding the abstract for your paper.  
  • Dedication - Your department may allow for a dedication.  Number the dedication page with a roman numeral.  Place the dedication a third of the way down the page, centered, in regular type.  Simply say "To xx" with no terminal punctuation.
  • Epigraph - This can be used in place of a dedication if allowed by your department.  Number the page with a roman numeral.  Place it a third of the way down the page, centered or as a block quotation.  Do not enclose it in quotation marks, and give the source its own line, set flush right, preceded by a dash
  • Table of Contents - All papers divided into chapters require a table of contents.  Number this page with roman numerals.  Leave two blank lines between the title and the first item listed. Single space items listed, but leave a blank space between items.  Leave two blank spaces between lists of front matter, the body of the work, and the back matter.  The table of contents does not list pages that precedes it (Title page, etc.). Give page numbers only for the first page of the section.
  • List of Figures, Tables, or Illustrations - You may choose to list all figures in your paper.  This list should use roman numerals to list the pages for these items.  The names of these items should match what they are titled in your paper.
  • Preface - You may include a preface to explain the motivations of your study, its background, the scope of the research, or the purpose of the paper.  
  • Acknowledgements - Here you can thank mentors and colleagues or name the institutions and individuals that supported your research or provided assistance.  You should also acknowledge the owners of copyrighted materials who have given you permission to reproduce their work.  
  • List of Abbreviations - If there are an unusual number of abbreviations in your thesis or dissertation, you may choose to list them in the front matter.  Examples would be abbreviations for sources cited frequently or organizations that are not widely known.  Items should be arranged alphabetically by the abbreviation, not the spelled out term.
  • Glossary - If your thesis or dissertation includes many words from other language or technical terms and phrases that may be unfamiliar to your reader, include a glossary.  Some departments may want this in the back matter, so check with your professor.
  • Editorial or Research Method - Include this if your thesis or dissertation requires extensive preliminary discussion of your editorial method (such as choices between variant texts) or an explanation of research method.

The text of the paper is everything between the front matter and the back matter.  It begins with an introduction and ends with your conclusion.  In a thesis or dissertation, the text is usually separated into chapters and sometimes into parts, sections, and subsections.  Since most of the text consists of paragraphs laying out your findings, there are few format requirements.

Begin arabic numbering with the first page of the text (normally page 1 or 2).

  • Introduction - The introduction previews the contents of the paper and is distinct enough to be separate from the rest of the paper.  If the substance of the introductory material is not distinct from the following chapters, incorporate it into the first chapter.
  • Parts - If you divide your text into two or more parts containing at least two chapters each, begin each part with a part-title page.  Be sure to use consistent formatting for every part of your paper.  If one part has something, include that in every part.
  • Chapters - Each chapter should begin on a new page.  Label this page with "Chapter" followed by the chapter number at the top of the page.  Include the name of the chapter two lines down, following a blank line.  Leave two lines blank before the text following the title.  
  • Sections and Subsections - Long chapters in a thesis or dissertation may be divided into smaller subsections.  You may signal a change between sections informally by centering three asterisks (* * *) on their own line.  For more formal sections, you may give each section its own title (subheading).  You may have multiple levels of subheadings, designated as first-level, second-level, and so on.  Be consistent with the style of subheading you are using.
  • Notes or Parenthetical Citation - See the section on citation for instructions on footnotes, endnotes, and other citations.
  • Conclusion - The conclusion should sum up your findings or argument.  You may want to make your conclusion the final chapter of your paper.

Back Matter

The back matter may consist of all, some, or none of the following elements.

  • Illustrations - You may choose to have all of your tables, figures, and illustrations at the end of the paper, instead of incorporating them into the text.  Label the first page of the section "Illustrations."
  • Appendixes - This section will include essential supporting material that cannot easily be worked into the text of your paper.  This may include tables or figures that are marginally relevant to your topic or too large to include in the text; schedules and forms used in collecting materials; copies of documents not easily available to the reader; and case studies too long to be included in the text.  Different types of materials should be separated into different appendixes, each with a number or letter and a descriptive title.
  • Glossary - If you needed to include a glossary, and did not put it in the front matter, include it here.
  • Endnotes - If you are using notes-style citations, you may include notes in the back matter.  If you are using author-date citations, you will not have endnotes.
  • Bibliography or Reference List - If you are using notes-style citations, you will include a bibliography.  If you are using author-date style, you will include a reference list.  See the citation sections for guidelines.  Indent the second and following lines of a citation with a hanging indent.  Arrange references alphabetically by author.

Depending on the complexity of your paper, there will be many elements which should each have a title.

Use the same font, type size, and formatting style (bold, italic, etc.) for the titles of like elements.  Generally, titles should appear in bold.

On the title page, center each element and use headline-style capitalization for all, including the title of your paper.  

Titles for front and back matter are generally centered, as are chapter number designations and chapter titles.  

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Purdue Online Writing Lab Purdue OWL® College of Liberal Arts

General Format

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Welcome to the Purdue OWL

This page is brought to you by the OWL at Purdue University. When printing this page, you must include the entire legal notice.

Copyright ©1995-2018 by The Writing Lab & The OWL at Purdue and Purdue University. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, reproduced, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed without permission. Use of this site constitutes acceptance of our terms and conditions of fair use.

Since The Chicago Manual of Style (CMOS) is primarily intended as a style guide for published works rather than class papers, these guidelines will be supplemented with information from, Kate L. Turabian’s Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations (8th ed.), which is largely based on CMOS with some slight alterations.

To see a side-by-side comparison of the three most widely used citation styles, including a chart of all CMOS citation guidelines, see the Citation Style Chart.

Please use the example at the bottom of this page to cite the Purdue OWL in CMOS.

A Note on Citations

Unlike many citation styles, CMOS gives writers two different methods for documenting sources: the Author-Date System and the Notes-Bibliography (NB) System.  As its name suggests, Author-Date uses parenthetical citations in the text to reference the source's author's last name and the year of publication. Each parenthetical citation corresponds to an entry on a References page that concludes the document. In these regards, Author-Date is very similar to, for instance, APA style.

By contrast, NB uses numbered footnotes in the text to direct the reader to a shortened citation at the bottom of the page. This corresponds to a fuller citation on a Bibliography page that concludes the document. Though the general principles of citation are the same here, the citations themselves are formatted differently from the way they appear in Author-Date.

If you are using CMOS for school or work, don't forget to ensure that you're using your organization's preferred citation method. For examples of these two different styles in action, see our CMOS sample papers:

Author-Date Sample Paper

NB Sample Paper

General CMOS Guidelines

  • Text should be consistently double-spaced, except for block quotations, notes, bibliography entries, table titles, and figure captions.
  • A prose quotation of five or more lines, or more than 100 words, should be blocked.
  • CMOS recommends blocking two or more lines of poetry.
  • A blocked quotation does not get enclosed in quotation marks.
  • A blocked quotation must always begin a new line.
  • Blocked quotations should be indented with the word processor’s indention tool.
  • Page numbers begin in the header of the first page of text with Arabic number 1.
  • For CMOS and Turabian’s recommendations, see “Headings,” below.

Supplemental Turabian Style Guidelines

  • Margins should be set at no less than 1”.
  • Typeface should be something readable, such as Times New Roman or Courier.
  • Font size should be no less than 10 pt. (preferably, 12 pt.).

Major Paper Sections

  • The title should be centered a third of the way down the page.
  • Your name, class information, and the date should follow several lines later.
  • For subtitles, end the title line with a colon and place the subtitle on the line below the title.
  • Double-space each line of the title page.

This image shows the title page of a CMS paper.

CMOS Title Page

  • Different practices apply for theses and dissertations (see Kate L. Turabian’s A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, ad Dissertations [8 th ed.].
  • Titles mentioned in the text, notes, or bibliography are capitalized “headline-style,” meaning first words of titles and subtitles and any important words thereafter should be capitalized.
  • Book and periodical titles (titles of larger works) should be italicized.
  • Article and chapter titles (titles of shorter works) should be enclosed in double quotation marks.
  • The titles of most poems should be enclosed in double quotation marks, but the titles of very long poems should be italicized.
  • Titles of plays should be italicized.
  • For example, use lowercase terms to describe periods, except in the case of proper nouns (e.g., “the colonial period,” vs. “the Victorian era”).
  • A prose quotation of five or more lines should be “blocked.” The block quotation should match the surrounding text, and it takes no quotation marks. To offset the block quote from surrounding text, indent the entire quotation using the word processor’s indentation tool. It is also possible to offset the block quotation by using a different or smaller font than the surrounding text.
  • Label the first page of your back matter, your comprehensive list of sources, “Bibliography” (for Notes and Bibliography style) or “References” (for Author-Date style).
  • Leave two blank lines between “Bibliography” or “References” and your first entry.
  • Leave one blank line between remaining entries.
  • List entries in letter-by-letter alphabetical order according to the first word in each entry, be that the author's name or the title of the piece..
  • For two to three authors, write out all names.
  • For four to ten authors, write out all names in the bibliography but only the first author’s name plus “et al.” in notes and parenthetical citations.
  • When a source has no identifiable author, cite it by its title, both on the references page and in shortened form (up to four keywords from that title) in parenthetical citations throughout the text.
  • Write out publishers’ names in full.
  • Do not use access dates unless publication dates are unavailable.
  • If you cannot ascertain the publication date of a printed work, use the abbreviation “n.d.”
  • Provide DOIs instead of URLs whenever possible.
  • If no DOI is available, provide a URL.
  • If you cannot name a specific page number when called for, you have other options: section (sec.), equation (eq.), volume (vol.), or note (n.).

This image shows the bibliography page of a CMS paper.

CMOS Bibliography Page

  • Note numbers should begin with “1” and follow consecutively throughout a given paper.
  • Note numbers are superscripted.
  • Note numbers should be placed at the end of the clause or sentence to which they refer and should be placed after all punctuation, except for the dash.
  • Note numbers are full-sized, not raised, and followed by a period (superscripting note numbers in the notes themselves is also acceptable).
  • In parenthetical citation, separate documentation from brief commentary with a semicolon.
  • Do not repeat the hundreds digit in a page range if it does not change from the beginning to the end of the range.

For more information on footnotes, please see CMOS NB Sample Paper .

While  The Chicago Manual of Style does not include a prescribed system for formatting headings and subheads, it makes several recommendations.

  • Maintain consistency and parallel structure in headings and subheads.
  • Use headline-style for purposes of capitalization.
  • Subheadings should begin on a new line.
  • Subheadings can be distinguished by font-size.
  • Ensure that each level of hierarchy is clear and consistent.
  • Levels of subheads can be differentiated by type style, use of boldface or italics, and placement on the page, usually either centered or flush left.
  • Use no more than three levels of hierarchy.
  • Avoid ending subheadings with periods.

Turabian has an optional system of five heading levels.

Turabian Subheading Plan

Here is an example of the five-level heading system:

This image shows the levels of heading in a CMS paper.

CMOS Headings

Tables and Figures

  • Position tables and figures as soon as possible after they are first referenced. If necessary, present them after the paragraph in which they are described.
  • For figures, include a caption, or short explanation of the figure or illustration, directly after the figure number.
  • Cite a source as you would for parenthetical citation, and include full information in an entry on your Bibliography or References page.
  • Acknowledge reproduced or adapted sources appropriately (i.e., photo by; data adapted from; map by...).
  • If a table includes data not acquired by the author of the text, include an unnumbered footnote. Introduce the note by the word Source(s) followed by a colon, then include the full source information, and end the note with a period.

How to Cite the Purdue OWL in CMOS

On the new OWL site, contributors’ names and the last edited date are no longer listed at the top of every page. This means that most citations will now begin with the title of the resource, rather than the contributors' names.

Footnote or Endnote (N):

Corresponding Bibliographical Entry (B):

“Title of Resource.” List the OWL as Publishing Organization/Web Site Name . http://Web address for OWL resource.

“General Format.” The Purdue OWL. https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/717/02/.

Author Date In-text Citation:

("General Format" 2017).

Author Date References Page Citation:

Year of Publication. “Title of Resource.” List the OWL as Publishing Organization/Web Site Name . http://Web address for OWL resource.

2017. “General Format.” The Purdue OWL . https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/717/02.

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Chicago Citation Style Guide

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Theses & Dissertations

Citing a published thesis, citing an unpublished thesis, citing a thesis in online database or repository.

  • CMS 14.224: Theses and dissertations

Titles of unpublished works appear in "quotation marks"—not in italics . This treatment extends to theses and dissertations, which are otherwise cited like books.

The kind of thesis, the academic institution, and the date follow the title. Like the publication data of a book, these are enclosed in parentheses in a note but not in a bibliography.

If the document was consulted online, include a URL or, for documents retrieved from a commercial database, give the name of the database and, in parentheses, any identification number supplied or recommended by the database.

For dissertations issued on microfilm, see 14.120 . For published abstracts of dissertations, see 14.197 .

Note-Bibliography

First-name Last-name, "Title of Thesis: Subtitle," (Publisher, Year).

      Mihwa Choi, “Contesting Imaginaires in Death Rituals during the Northern Song Dynasty,” PhD diss., (University of Chicago, 2008).

Short Note:

Last-name, "Title of Thesis."

Choi. “Contesting Imaginaires ."

Bibliography Entry:

Last-name, First-name. "Title of Thesis: Subtitle." Year.

Choi, Mihwa. “Contesting Imaginaires in Death Rituals during the Northern Song Dynasty.” PhD diss. University      of Chicago, 2008.

Author-Date

Text Citation:

(Last-name Year)

(Mihwa 2008)

Reference Entry:

Last-name, First-name. Year. "Title of Thesis: Subtitle."

Choi, Mihwa. 2008. “Contesting  Imaginaires  in Death Rituals during the Northern Song Dynasty.”  PhD diss.       University of Chicago.

Note -Bibliography

Note #. First-name Last-name, "Title of Thesis: Subtitle," Unpublished thesis type, University. Year.

Barry C. Hosking, "The Control of Gastro-intestinal Nematodes in Sheep with the Amino-acetonitrile Derivative, Monepantel with a Particular Focus on Australia and New Zealand," PhD diss., (Ghent University, 2010).

Note #. Last-name,"Title of Thesis."

Barry C. Hosking, "The Control of Gastro-intestinal Nematodes."

Bibliography:

Last-name, First-name. "Title of Thesis: Subtitle." Unpublished thesis type. University. Year.

Hosking, Barry C. "The Control of Gastro-intestinal Nematodes in Sheep with the Amino-acetonitrile Derivative, Monepantel with a Particular Focus on Australia and New Zealand." PhD diss., Ghent University, 2010.

(Hosking 2010)

Last-name, First-name.  Year.  "Title of Thesis: Subtitle." Unpublished thesis type. University.

Hosking, Barry C.    2010.  "The Control of Gastro-intestinal Nematodes in Sheep with the Amino-acetonitrile Derivative, Monepantel with a Particular Focus on Australia and New Zealand." PhD diss., Ghent University.

Note #. First-name Last-name, "Title of Thesis: Subtitle," Database Name (Identifier if given), Year, Internet address.

      12. Meredith Stewart, "An Investigation into Aspects of the Replication of Jembrana Disease Virus, " Australasian Digital Theses Program (WMU2005.1222), 2005, http://wwwlib.murdoch.edu.au/adt/browse/view/adt-MU20051222.104106.

Note #. Last-name, "Title of Thesis."

21. Stewart, "An Investigation into Aspects."

Last-name, First-name. "Title of Thesis: Subtitle." Database Name (Identifier if given), Year. Internet address.

Stewart, Meredith. "An Investigation into Aspects of the Replication of Jembrana Disease Virus ." Australasian Digital Theses Program (WMU2005.1222),  2005. http://wwwlib.murdoch.edu.au/adt/browse/view/adt-MU20051222.104106.

(Stewart 2005)

Last-name, First-name. Year. "Title of Thesis: Subtitle."  Database Name  (Identifier if given), Internet address.

Stewart, Meredith. 2005. "An Investigation into Aspects of the Replication of Jembrana Disease Virus ." Australasian Digital Theses Program  (WMU2005.1222),    http://wwwlib.murdoch.edu.au/adt/browse/view/adt-MU20051222.104106.

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Guide to Chicago/Turabian Style for Seminarians

  • Elements of a Paper in Chicago Style
  • When and Why to Cite Your Sources
  • Citing Sources: The Three Requirements
  • How to Use "Ibid."
  • Creating Footnotes in MS Word or Google Docs
  • Examples of Citations in Chicago Style
  • Citing the Bible, and Citing the Notes in a Study Bible
  • Citing a Source Within a Source
  • Seminary Research Ring

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How Do I Format a Paper in Chicago Style?

First, you should always check with your professor to be sure she or he doesn't have specific formatting preferences s/he'd like you to follow. These will probably be in your course syllabus, so always start there!

The order of your pages should be:

  • Title/cover page
  • Body of the paper
  • Appendix (if there is one)

Bibliography

General page layout

  • One-inch margins on sides, top and bottom.
  • Use a standard 12-point font: Times New Roman or Garamond are most common.
  • Double-space the text in the body of the paper. (Block quotations are treated differently -- see the box below.)
  • Use left-justified text, which will have a ragged right edge. Do not use fully justified text (that is, even on both sides).
  • Use a half-inch indent at the beginning of paragraphs, block quotes, footnotes, and hanging indents in your bibliography.
  • Note: If you are writing a thesis, your paper format will include front matter such as a list of abbreviations and a table of contents; these pages should be numbered with lower-case Roman numerals, and you'll switch to Arabic numerals on the first page of the body of your paper. Additionally, the placement of page numbers may differ for theses (center bottom or in the lower right footer). Check your department's guidelines for thesis formatting.
  • If you are required to turn in a hard copy of your paper, ask your teacher if two-sided printing is acceptable. It is not standard to print on both sides of the page, but it is eco-friendly.
  • Center the title of your paper in the middle of the page, a third of the way down.
  • Space down several lines and center your name, Union Presbyterian Seminary, the course title, your professor's name, and the date near the bottom of the page.
  • Use Times or Times New Roman 12 pt font for the title page. Do not try to make your cover page decorative by using bold , underline , or creative fonts.
  • Do not put a page number on the cover page, and do not count it as part of the total page count.
  • Sample Cover Page

Body of the Paper

  • The Prolegomena to the History of Ancient Israel , by Julius Wellhausen
  • "The Outlaw Jesus, the Justice of God, and Paul's Letter to the Romans," by Beverly Roberts Gaventa
  • Book and journal titles (and titles of other larger works, like long epic poems and plays) should be italicized.
  • For example, "The Souls of Biblical Folks and the Potential for Meaning," an article by Brian Blount, is published in the Journal of Biblical Literature .
  • For example, use lowercase terms to describe eras, except in the case of proper nouns (e.g., “the colonial period,” vs. “the Victorian era”).

References to the Bible in the Body of the Paper

  • References to biblical texts go in parentheses in the body of the paper, not in footnotes.
  • The first time you refer to the name of a biblical book, it should be written out fully. Any subsequent references to it can be abbreviated or, if no citations to other works (biblical or otherwise) have intervened, the book name can be omitted completely. See the attached PDF sample page for examples.
  • The names of biblical books are neither italicized nor in quotations marks: Philemon, Ezekiel.
  • The book of Numbers
  • The gospel of Luke

Blocked Quotations

Long quotations should be used judiciously -- say, no more than two in a five- or six-page paper. It is easy for long quotes to take over, and then it can seem as if you are letting your secondary sources write your paper for you.

Use these guidelines for formatting block quotes in your paper:

  • A prose quotation of five or more lines, or more than 100 words, should be blocked.
  • Two or more lines of poetry should be blocked.
  • A blocked quotation is not enclosed in quotation marks.
  • A blocked quotation must always begin a new line.
  • Blocked quotations should be indented with the word processor’s indention tool. 
  • Blocked quotations should be single-spaced, not double-spaced.
  • Sample body text with biblical references & block quote

For detailed information on how to cite specific types of materials (an article in an edited volume, a book with an editor, etc.), see the "Examples of Citations in Chicago Style" tab at left.

  • Center the word “Bibliography" at the top of your comprehensive list of sources.
  • Leave two blank lines between “Bibliography” and your first entry.
  • Each entry should be single-spaced, with one blank line between entries.
  • List entries in alphabetical order according to the first word in each entry. (That's usually the author's last name, but sometimes it might be the title of the source.)
  • Multiple references by the same author should be arranged chronologically, with the oldest work first. Use a 3-em dash (___) instead of the author's name
  • Use hanging indents: The first line of each entry should be justified with the left margin; each subsequent line in that entry should be indented half an inch.
  • Use “and,” not “&,” for multi-author entries.
  • Write out all the contributing authors' names -- first and last (and middle initials or suffixes if they have them) -- in both the bibliography and your footnotes.
  • When a source has no identifiable author, cite it by its title, both on the bibliography page and in shortened form (up to four keywords from that title) in footnote citations throughout the text.
  • Write out publishers’ names in full.
  • You do not need to include the date you accessed the source.
  • If you cannot ascertain the publication date of a printed work, use the abbreviation “n.d.”
  • Provide DOIs for journal articles and periodicals instead of URLs whenever possible. If no DOI is available, provide a URL.
  • If you cannot identify a specific page number or page range in the bibliography, you have other options: section (sec.), equation (eq.), volume (vol.), or note (n.). Remember, you're leaving a road map for your reader to follow your trail. Give them as much information as you can.
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Chicago Citation Style, 17th Edition: Thesis or Dissertation

  • Bibliography
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Thesis or Dissertation (14.215)

Example 1 – Print

N:           1. Lindsey Bingley, "From Overalls to Aprons? The Paid and Unpaid Labour of Southern Alberta Women, 1939-1959" (master's thesis, University of Lethbridge, 2006), 58.

B:     Bingley, Lindsey. "From Overalls to Aprons? The Paid and Unpaid Labour of Southern Alberta Women,              1939-1959." Master's thesis, University of Lethbridge, 2006.

Example 2 – Online (Commercial Database)

N:           1. Libra Rose Hilde, "Worth a Dozen Men: Women, Nursing, and Medical Care during the American Civil War" (PhD diss., Harvard University, 2003), 295, ProQuest ( 3091579).

B:     Hilde, Libra Rose. "Worth a Dozen Men: Women, Nursing, and Medical Care during the American              Civil War." PhD diss., Harvard University, 2003. ProQuest (3091579).

Example 3 – Online (Institutional Repository)

N:           1. Hiroshi Ishida, "A Geography of Contemporary Maori Agriculture." (PhD diss., University of Auckland, 1966), 110-16, https://researchspace.auckland.ac.nz/handle/2292/2489.

B:     Ishida, Hiroshi. "A Geography of Contemporary Maori Agriculture" PhD diss., University of Auckland,              1966. https://researchspace.auckland.ac.nz/handle/2292/2489.

Help & Guide Contents

Home General Guidelines     Notes     Bibliography Books     One Author or Editor     Multiple Authors or Editors     Author and Editor     Author and Translator     Organization as Author     Anonymous Work     Chapter from an Edited Work     Multivolume Work     Edition Other than the First     Dictionary or Encyclopedia     E-Book Articles     Journal Article     Magazine Article     Newspaper Article     Book Review Websites     Basic Webpage     Blogs and Social Media     Government Website Audiovisual Media     Audio/Video Recording     Online Multimedia Other Sources     Interview or Personal Communication     Lecture or Presentation    Primary Source Published in an Edited Collection     Thesis or Dissertation     Pamphlet or Brochure     Sacred Text     Indirect Source     Government Document     Paintings, Illustrations, Tables Plagiarism

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Senior Thesis Formatting Guidelines

Contents and form.

Length : The required length is between 10,000 and 20,000 words, not counting notes, bibliography, and appendices. The precise length of the main body text must be indicated on the word count page  immediately following the title page . If a student expects the thesis to exceed 20,000 words, the student’s tutor should consult the Director of Studies. Please note that students’ requests to exceed 20,000 words must go through their tutors and that these requests must be made in early February. Any extension of the thesis beyond the maximum must be justified by the nature of the topic, or sustained excellence in the treatment of the subject, or both. Theses that receive permission to exceed 20,000 words can still be penalized if readers do not think that the excess length is warranted.

Acknowledgments : Please do not include acknowledgments in your final copy of the thesis. If you wish, you can add acknowledgments after your thesis has been read. Readers prefer not to know who directed your thesis, lest they be somehow swayed by that knowledge.

Illustrations : Illustrations, also called figures, might include anything from a photograph to a printed advertisement to a map to a chart. Illustrations may be inserted in the body of your thesis or included in an appendix at the end. Writers often choose to reference an illustration in the body of text, signaling to readers to refer to a particular figure that’s being discussed by turning to a nearby page or to an appendix (e.g., “See Figure 1.”) The inclusion of illustrations in a senior thesis, which has a fairly circumscribed audience, falls under fair use, so you do not need permissions to reproduce illustrations in your thesis. However, all images should be accompanied by a caption that identifies the image and may include brief explanatory text. You may also use the caption to attribute the source where you found the illustration (e.g., a url or the name of the archive where you photographed the item), or you can cite the illustration in a footnote or endnote. You do not need to cite your images in your bibliography. For more detailed guidelines on including illustrations in your thesis, see The Chicago Manual of Style or the MLA Style Manual .

Format : Pages should be 8 1/2" x 11". Margins should be 1 inch, and pages should be numbered. Do not right-justify. The lines of type must be double-spaced, except for quotations of five lines or more, which should be indented and single-spaced.

Style : If you have questions beyond those covered on this page, consult the University of Chicago's A Manual of Style or the Modern Language Association's Style Manual . Kate L. Turabian's A Manual for Writers is a good, inexpensive, brief guide to Chicago style. The Expository Writing Program guide, Writing with Sources , is very useful.

Table of Contents : Every thesis requires a Table of Contents to guide the reader.

Quotations : Quotations of four lines or fewer, surrounded by quotation marks, may be incorporated into the body of the text. Longer extracts should be indented and single-spaced; they should not be included in quotation marks. Each full quotation should be accompanied by a reference. Follow the general practice in the best periodicals in your field, and be consistent. Foreign words that are not quotations should be underlined or italicized.

Appendices : An appendix provides additional material that helps support your argument and is too lengthy to be included as a footnote or endnote. Appendices might include images, passages from primary texts in a non-English language or in your translation, or archival material that is difficult to access. It is rare but perfectly acceptable for theses to include appendices, so make sure to discuss with your tutor whether an appendix makes sense for your project.

Notes : You may use either footnotes (at bottom of page), endnotes (at end of the thesis) or MLA style parenthetical notes. However, for a History & Literature thesis, Chicago style is generally better. Footnote or endnotes are properly used:

  • To state precisely the source or other authority for a statement in the text, or to acknowledge indebtedness for insights or arguments taken from other writers. Quotations should be given when necessary.
  • To make minor qualifications, to prevent misunderstanding, or otherwise to clarify the text when such statements, if put in the text, would interrupt the flow.
  • To carry further some topic discussed in the text, when such discussion is needed but does not fit into the text.

Bibliography : You must append a list of works cited to your thesis. It's a good idea to compile your bibliography as you write, rather than try to put it together all at once at the end (there are very powerful bibliography programs available, such as Zotero and Endnote, that generate bibliographies automatically). The purpose of the bibliography is to be a convenience to your reader. In the works cited list, primary and secondary sources should be listed under separate headings.

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Use the 9th edition of A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations (Turabian) for footnote and bibliographic citations. However, you can choose another style manual after consulting with your advisor (eg. SBL). Keep in mind that you must use a selected style consistently. The Learning Commons provides access to the following style guides:

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Formatting Guidelines for Theses and Dissertations

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The Chicago Manual focuses more on how to display one's own original research findings than on citing data from other sources. When using data from other sources, be sure to still follow these rules:

  • Position the figure or table within the body of your assignment
  • Example: Table 1, Table 2, Figure 1, Figure 2
  • In text, identify the tables and figures by number (ie. "in figure 1") rather than by location (ie. "below")
  • Chicago Style - Tables and Figures Handout By Sheridan Library

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  • 11.3   Russian alphabet (and Unicode numbers) and romanization
  • 11.4   Greek alphabet (and Unicode numbers) and romanization
  • 11.5   Greek numerals
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  • 12.2   Standard abbreviated notations in mathematical copy
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  1. How to make bibliography in thesis?? Chicago Manual of style?? How to write a thesis? Research work?

  2. APA style thesis and article writing #sk notes ugc net

  3. Thesis Table Format

  4. Claim of Fact Essay Conclusion and General Advice

  5. How to Structure a Thesis (w. Example Table of Contents)

  6. 10 Basic Formatting Elements to Consider before Writing in Microsoft Word

COMMENTS

  1. How Do I Format a Contents Page in Turabian/Chicago Style?

    Here's how to set up a Chicago-style table of contents page following the guidelines in Kate L. Turabian's A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations. (See section A.2.1.7 in the appendix called "Paper Format and Submission.") Label the first page Contents at the top of the page. Leave two blank lines between the ...

  2. Turabian Table of Contents Page

    2Defining a Project: Topic, Question, Problem, Working Hypothesis. 2.1Find a Question in Your Topic. 2.2Understanding Research Problems. 2.3Propose a Working Hypothesis. 2.4Build a Storyboard to Plan and Guide Your Work. 2.5Join or Organize a Writing Group. 3Finding Useful Sources. 3.1Three Kinds of Sources and Their Uses. 3.2Search for Sources ...

  3. PDF Turabian Tip Sheet

    Chicago-Style Paper Formats Table of Contents Place the title Contents at the top of the first page, centered. Leave two blank lines between the title and the first item. Begin the list with items that follow the contents page. Use the same tab stop for each chapter title. Before and after the list of chapters (including any introduction and

  4. Chicago Style Format for Papers

    General formatting. Chicago doesn't require a specific font or font size, but recommends using something simple and readable (e.g., 12 pt. Times New Roman). Use margins of at least 1 inch on all sides of the page. The main text should be double-spaced, and each new paragraph should begin with a ½ inch indent.

  5. Student-Tip-Sheets

    Official Chicago style, in easy-to-use, printable PDF paper-writing tip sheets for students, teachers, and librarians. Guidelines are per Kate L. Turabian, A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations (9th ed.) and are fully compatible with The Chicago Manual of Style (17th ed.). [Important: Directions from your teacher ...

  6. Dissertation Table of Contents in Word

    Right-click the style that says "Heading 1.". Select "Update Heading 1 to Match Selection.". Allocate the formatting for each heading throughout your document by highlighting the heading in question and clicking the style you wish to apply. Once that's all set, follow these steps: Add a title to your table of contents.

  7. Chicago/Turabian Format Style Guide: Format

    Margins. Nearly all papers are published on 8 1/2 by 11 inch paper, regardless of physical or electronic submission. Leave a margin of at least 1 inch on all four sides of your page. For a thesis or dissertation meant to be bound, leave a slightly bigger margin on the left side of the page, usually 1 1/2 inches.

  8. PDF The Chicago Manual of Style 17 Edition Theses, and Dissertations

    Chicago style according to The Chicago Manual of Style 17th Edition and A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations (Turabian). The Writing Centers of TTU 806.742.2476 Schedule a consultation at Weeks Hall, 3 rd Floor For UWC ext. 2 uwc.ttu.edu For GWC ext. 1 Chicago and Turabian: Format and Footnotes. Paolo Veronese (1528

  9. General Format

    Different practices apply for theses and dissertations (see Kate L. Turabian's A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, ad Dissertations [8 th ed.].; Main Body. Titles mentioned in the text, notes, or bibliography are capitalized "headline-style," meaning first words of titles and subtitles and any important words thereafter should be capitalized.

  10. Format

    If the dissertation is divided into parts, the division should be noted in the table of contents. Page numbers should not be listed for separate part-opening pages. Generating the table of contents automatically will ensure consistency. Titles and page numbers appearing in the table of contents must match the contents of the dissertation exactly.

  11. Chicago Citation Style Guide

    Theses & Dissertations. CMS 14.224: Theses and dissertations. Titles of unpublished works appear in "quotation marks"—not in italics. This treatment extends to theses and dissertations, which are otherwise cited like books. The kind of thesis, the academic institution, and the date follow the title. Like the publication data of a book, these ...

  12. PDF Center for WRITING EXCELLENCE

    presentation of a dissertation or thesis is slightly different from the layout of a research paper. This guide ... Not all papers will need a table of contents. Chicago style is intended to present information in a way that reflects your progress from research question and hypothesis to research and conclusions. Keep this in mind, both with ...

  13. Elements of a Paper in Chicago Style

    Note: If you are writing a thesis, your paper format will include front matter such as a list of abbreviations and a table of contents; these pages should be numbered with lower-case Roman numerals, and you'll switch to Arabic numerals on the first page of the body of your paper.

  14. PDF A Sample Paper for the Purpose of Correct Formatting In

    Thesis, and Dissertations: Chicago Style for Students & Researchers, which is currently in its 9th printed edition. 1 This sample paper will strive to provide students with all the foundational

  15. Chicago Citation Style, 17th Edition: Thesis or Dissertation

    Example 1 - Print. N: 1. Lindsey Bingley, "From Overalls to Aprons? The Paid and Unpaid Labour of Southern Alberta Women, 1939-1959" (master's thesis, University of Lethbridge, 2006), 58.

  16. The Chicago Manual of Style Online: Contents

    About The Chicago Manual of Style | About the University of Chicago Press Terms of Use | Privacy Policy | Site Map. The Chicago Manual of Style 16th edition text ...

  17. Chicago Style Citation Guide

    The Chicago Manual of Style (17th edition) contains guidelines for two styles of citation: notes and bibliography and author-date.. Notes and bibliography is the most common type of Chicago style citation, and the main focus of this article. It is widely used in the humanities. Citations are placed in footnotes or endnotes, with a Chicago style bibliography listing your sources in full at the end.

  18. DOCX Contents

    THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO. DISSERTATION TITLE: IF YOUR TITLE IS. LONGER THAN TWO LINES, WE CAN HELP WITH THE SPACING ... of Contents. Each table or figure must have a unique number assigned to it, along with a title or description of the table or figure. ... The Chicago Manual of Style, 17th ed. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2017.

  19. Senior Thesis Formatting Guidelines

    Kate L. Turabian's A Manual for Writers is a good, inexpensive, brief guide to Chicago style. The Expository Writing Program guide, Writing with Sources, is very useful. Table of Contents: Every thesis requires a Table of Contents to guide the reader.

  20. The Chicago Manual of Style, 17th Edition

    Find it. Write it. Cite it. The Chicago Manual of Style Online is the venerable, time-tested guide to style, usage, and grammar in an accessible online format. ¶ It is the indispensable reference for writers, editors, proofreaders, indexers, copywriters, designers, and publishers, informing the editorial canon with sound, definitive advice. ¶ Over 1.5 million copies sold!

  21. Format

    However, you can choose another style manual after consulting with your advisor (eg. SBL). Keep in mind that you must use a selected style consistently. The Learning Commons provides access to the following style guides: Quick Tip. Turabian is the abridged version of the Chicago Manual of Style developed for students.

  22. Chicago In-text Citations

    Option 1: Author-date in-text citations. Author-date style places citations directly in the text in parentheses. In-text citations include the author's last name, the year of publication, and if applicable, a page number or page range: This style of Chicago in-text citation looks the same for every type of source.

  23. All Guides: Chicago Style Guide: Tables & Figures

    Position the figure or table within the body of your assignment. Number tables and figures consecutively as they appear in your assignment. Example: Table 1, Table 2, Figure 1, Figure 2. In text, identify the tables and figures by number (ie. "in figure 1") rather than by location (ie. "below") Official Tip Sheet: List of Tables and Figures.

  24. Applied Sciences

    Preventing rebar corrosion in reinforced concrete (RC) structures has been actively researched worldwide. One of the most powerful solutions is the use of fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) rebars. However, there are limitations in the mechanical design and construction of FRP rebars because their tensile characteristics are extremely different from those of conventional rebars and they have a ...

  25. The Chicago Manual of Style Online: Tables

    Tables. 6 Punctuation. 6.1 Punctuation relative to closing quotation marks and parentheses or brackets. 9 Numbers. 9.1 Roman and arabic numerals. 11 Foreign Languages. 11.1 Special characters (and Unicode numbers) for languages using the Latin alphabet. 11.2 Special characters (and Unicode numbers) for transliterated Arabic, Hebrew, Japanese ...