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How to Write the Results/Findings Section in Research

what is the results section in a research paper

What is the research paper Results section and what does it do?

The Results section of a scientific research paper represents the core findings of a study derived from the methods applied to gather and analyze information. It presents these findings in a logical sequence without bias or interpretation from the author, setting up the reader for later interpretation and evaluation in the Discussion section. A major purpose of the Results section is to break down the data into sentences that show its significance to the research question(s).

The Results section appears third in the section sequence in most scientific papers. It follows the presentation of the Methods and Materials and is presented before the Discussion section —although the Results and Discussion are presented together in many journals. This section answers the basic question “What did you find in your research?”

What is included in the Results section?

The Results section should include the findings of your study and ONLY the findings of your study. The findings include:

  • Data presented in tables, charts, graphs, and other figures (may be placed into the text or on separate pages at the end of the manuscript)
  • A contextual analysis of this data explaining its meaning in sentence form
  • All data that corresponds to the central research question(s)
  • All secondary findings (secondary outcomes, subgroup analyses, etc.)

If the scope of the study is broad, or if you studied a variety of variables, or if the methodology used yields a wide range of different results, the author should present only those results that are most relevant to the research question stated in the Introduction section .

As a general rule, any information that does not present the direct findings or outcome of the study should be left out of this section. Unless the journal requests that authors combine the Results and Discussion sections, explanations and interpretations should be omitted from the Results.

How are the results organized?

The best way to organize your Results section is “logically.” One logical and clear method of organizing research results is to provide them alongside the research questions—within each research question, present the type of data that addresses that research question.

Let’s look at an example. Your research question is based on a survey among patients who were treated at a hospital and received postoperative care. Let’s say your first research question is:

results section of a research paper, figures

“What do hospital patients over age 55 think about postoperative care?”

This can actually be represented as a heading within your Results section, though it might be presented as a statement rather than a question:

Attitudes towards postoperative care in patients over the age of 55

Now present the results that address this specific research question first. In this case, perhaps a table illustrating data from a survey. Likert items can be included in this example. Tables can also present standard deviations, probabilities, correlation matrices, etc.

Following this, present a content analysis, in words, of one end of the spectrum of the survey or data table. In our example case, start with the POSITIVE survey responses regarding postoperative care, using descriptive phrases. For example:

“Sixty-five percent of patients over 55 responded positively to the question “ Are you satisfied with your hospital’s postoperative care ?” (Fig. 2)

Include other results such as subcategory analyses. The amount of textual description used will depend on how much interpretation of tables and figures is necessary and how many examples the reader needs in order to understand the significance of your research findings.

Next, present a content analysis of another part of the spectrum of the same research question, perhaps the NEGATIVE or NEUTRAL responses to the survey. For instance:

  “As Figure 1 shows, 15 out of 60 patients in Group A responded negatively to Question 2.”

After you have assessed the data in one figure and explained it sufficiently, move on to your next research question. For example:

  “How does patient satisfaction correspond to in-hospital improvements made to postoperative care?”

results section of a research paper, figures

This kind of data may be presented through a figure or set of figures (for instance, a paired T-test table).

Explain the data you present, here in a table, with a concise content analysis:

“The p-value for the comparison between the before and after groups of patients was .03% (Fig. 2), indicating that the greater the dissatisfaction among patients, the more frequent the improvements that were made to postoperative care.”

Let’s examine another example of a Results section from a study on plant tolerance to heavy metal stress . In the Introduction section, the aims of the study are presented as “determining the physiological and morphological responses of Allium cepa L. towards increased cadmium toxicity” and “evaluating its potential to accumulate the metal and its associated environmental consequences.” The Results section presents data showing how these aims are achieved in tables alongside a content analysis, beginning with an overview of the findings:

“Cadmium caused inhibition of root and leave elongation, with increasing effects at higher exposure doses (Fig. 1a-c).”

The figure containing this data is cited in parentheses. Note that this author has combined three graphs into one single figure. Separating the data into separate graphs focusing on specific aspects makes it easier for the reader to assess the findings, and consolidating this information into one figure saves space and makes it easy to locate the most relevant results.

results section of a research paper, figures

Following this overall summary, the relevant data in the tables is broken down into greater detail in text form in the Results section.

  • “Results on the bio-accumulation of cadmium were found to be the highest (17.5 mg kgG1) in the bulb, when the concentration of cadmium in the solution was 1×10G2 M and lowest (0.11 mg kgG1) in the leaves when the concentration was 1×10G3 M.”

Captioning and Referencing Tables and Figures

Tables and figures are central components of your Results section and you need to carefully think about the most effective way to use graphs and tables to present your findings . Therefore, it is crucial to know how to write strong figure captions and to refer to them within the text of the Results section.

The most important advice one can give here as well as throughout the paper is to check the requirements and standards of the journal to which you are submitting your work. Every journal has its own design and layout standards, which you can find in the author instructions on the target journal’s website. Perusing a journal’s published articles will also give you an idea of the proper number, size, and complexity of your figures.

Regardless of which format you use, the figures should be placed in the order they are referenced in the Results section and be as clear and easy to understand as possible. If there are multiple variables being considered (within one or more research questions), it can be a good idea to split these up into separate figures. Subsequently, these can be referenced and analyzed under separate headings and paragraphs in the text.

To create a caption, consider the research question being asked and change it into a phrase. For instance, if one question is “Which color did participants choose?”, the caption might be “Color choice by participant group.” Or in our last research paper example, where the question was “What is the concentration of cadmium in different parts of the onion after 14 days?” the caption reads:

 “Fig. 1(a-c): Mean concentration of Cd determined in (a) bulbs, (b) leaves, and (c) roots of onions after a 14-day period.”

Steps for Composing the Results Section

Because each study is unique, there is no one-size-fits-all approach when it comes to designing a strategy for structuring and writing the section of a research paper where findings are presented. The content and layout of this section will be determined by the specific area of research, the design of the study and its particular methodologies, and the guidelines of the target journal and its editors. However, the following steps can be used to compose the results of most scientific research studies and are essential for researchers who are new to preparing a manuscript for publication or who need a reminder of how to construct the Results section.

Step 1 : Consult the guidelines or instructions that the target journal or publisher provides authors and read research papers it has published, especially those with similar topics, methods, or results to your study.

  • The guidelines will generally outline specific requirements for the results or findings section, and the published articles will provide sound examples of successful approaches.
  • Note length limitations on restrictions on content. For instance, while many journals require the Results and Discussion sections to be separate, others do not—qualitative research papers often include results and interpretations in the same section (“Results and Discussion”).
  • Reading the aims and scope in the journal’s “ guide for authors ” section and understanding the interests of its readers will be invaluable in preparing to write the Results section.

Step 2 : Consider your research results in relation to the journal’s requirements and catalogue your results.

  • Focus on experimental results and other findings that are especially relevant to your research questions and objectives and include them even if they are unexpected or do not support your ideas and hypotheses.
  • Catalogue your findings—use subheadings to streamline and clarify your report. This will help you avoid excessive and peripheral details as you write and also help your reader understand and remember your findings. Create appendices that might interest specialists but prove too long or distracting for other readers.
  • Decide how you will structure of your results. You might match the order of the research questions and hypotheses to your results, or you could arrange them according to the order presented in the Methods section. A chronological order or even a hierarchy of importance or meaningful grouping of main themes or categories might prove effective. Consider your audience, evidence, and most importantly, the objectives of your research when choosing a structure for presenting your findings.

Step 3 : Design figures and tables to present and illustrate your data.

  • Tables and figures should be numbered according to the order in which they are mentioned in the main text of the paper.
  • Information in figures should be relatively self-explanatory (with the aid of captions), and their design should include all definitions and other information necessary for readers to understand the findings without reading all of the text.
  • Use tables and figures as a focal point to tell a clear and informative story about your research and avoid repeating information. But remember that while figures clarify and enhance the text, they cannot replace it.

Step 4 : Draft your Results section using the findings and figures you have organized.

  • The goal is to communicate this complex information as clearly and precisely as possible; precise and compact phrases and sentences are most effective.
  • In the opening paragraph of this section, restate your research questions or aims to focus the reader’s attention to what the results are trying to show. It is also a good idea to summarize key findings at the end of this section to create a logical transition to the interpretation and discussion that follows.
  • Try to write in the past tense and the active voice to relay the findings since the research has already been done and the agent is usually clear. This will ensure that your explanations are also clear and logical.
  • Make sure that any specialized terminology or abbreviation you have used here has been defined and clarified in the  Introduction section .

Step 5 : Review your draft; edit and revise until it reports results exactly as you would like to have them reported to your readers.

  • Double-check the accuracy and consistency of all the data, as well as all of the visual elements included.
  • Read your draft aloud to catch language errors (grammar, spelling, and mechanics), awkward phrases, and missing transitions.
  • Ensure that your results are presented in the best order to focus on objectives and prepare readers for interpretations, valuations, and recommendations in the Discussion section . Look back over the paper’s Introduction and background while anticipating the Discussion and Conclusion sections to ensure that the presentation of your results is consistent and effective.
  • Consider seeking additional guidance on your paper. Find additional readers to look over your Results section and see if it can be improved in any way. Peers, professors, or qualified experts can provide valuable insights.

One excellent option is to use a professional English proofreading and editing service  such as Wordvice, including our paper editing service . With hundreds of qualified editors from dozens of scientific fields, Wordvice has helped thousands of authors revise their manuscripts and get accepted into their target journals. Read more about the  proofreading and editing process  before proceeding with getting academic editing services and manuscript editing services for your manuscript.

As the representation of your study’s data output, the Results section presents the core information in your research paper. By writing with clarity and conciseness and by highlighting and explaining the crucial findings of their study, authors increase the impact and effectiveness of their research manuscripts.

For more articles and videos on writing your research manuscript, visit Wordvice’s Resources page.

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Table of Contents

At its core, a research paper aims to fill a gap in the research on a given topic. As a result, the results section of the paper, which describes the key findings of the study, is often considered the core of the paper. This is the section that gets the most attention from reviewers, peers, students, and any news organization reporting on your findings. Writing a clear, concise, and logical results section is, therefore, one of the most important parts of preparing your manuscript.

Difference between results and discussion

Before delving into how to write the results section, it is important to first understand the difference between the results and discussion sections. The results section needs to detail the findings of the study. The aim of this section is not to draw connections between the different findings or to compare it to previous findings in literature—that is the purview of the discussion section. Unlike the discussion section, which can touch upon the hypothetical, the results section needs to focus on the purely factual. In some cases, it may even be preferable to club these two sections together into a single section. For example, while writing  a review article, it can be worthwhile to club these two sections together, as the main results in this case are the conclusions that can be drawn from the literature.

Structure of the results section

Although the main purpose of the results section in a research paper is to report the findings, it is necessary to present an introduction and repeat the research question. This establishes a connection to the previous section of the paper and creates a smooth flow of information.

Next, the results section needs to communicate the findings of your research in a systematic manner. The section needs to be organized such that the primary research question is addressed first, then the secondary research questions. If the research addresses multiple questions, the results section must individually connect with each of the questions. This ensures clarity and minimizes confusion while reading.

Consider representing your results visually. For example, graphs, tables, and other figures can help illustrate the findings of your paper, especially if there is a large amount of data in the results.

Remember, an appealing results section can help peer reviewers better understand the merits of your research, thereby increasing your chances of publication.

Practical guidance for writing an effective results section for a research paper

  • Always use simple and clear language. Avoid the use of uncertain or out-of-focus expressions.
  • The findings of the study must be expressed in an objective and unbiased manner. While it is acceptable to correlate certain findings in the discussion section, it is best to avoid overinterpreting the results.
  • If the research addresses more than one hypothesis, use sub-sections to describe the results. This prevents confusion and promotes understanding.
  • Ensure that negative results are included in this section, even if they do not support the research hypothesis.
  • Wherever possible, use illustrations like tables, figures, charts, or other visual representations to showcase the results of your research paper. Mention these illustrations in the text, but do not repeat the information that they convey.
  • For statistical data, it is adequate to highlight the tests and explain their results. The initial or raw data should not be mentioned in the results section of a research paper.

The results section of a research paper is usually the most impactful section because it draws the greatest attention. Regardless of the subject of your research paper, a well-written results section is capable of generating interest in your research.

For detailed information and assistance on writing the results of a research paper, refer to Elsevier Author Services.

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The results section is where you report the findings of your study based upon the methodology [or methodologies] you applied to gather information. The results section should state the findings of the research arranged in a logical sequence without bias or interpretation. A section describing results should be particularly detailed if your paper includes data generated from your own research.

Annesley, Thomas M. "Show Your Cards: The Results Section and the Poker Game." Clinical Chemistry 56 (July 2010): 1066-1070.

Importance of a Good Results Section

When formulating the results section, it's important to remember that the results of a study do not prove anything . Findings can only confirm or reject the hypothesis underpinning your study. However, the act of articulating the results helps you to understand the problem from within, to break it into pieces, and to view the research problem from various perspectives.

The page length of this section is set by the amount and types of data to be reported . Be concise. Use non-textual elements appropriately, such as figures and tables, to present findings more effectively. In deciding what data to describe in your results section, you must clearly distinguish information that would normally be included in a research paper from any raw data or other content that could be included as an appendix. In general, raw data that has not been summarized should not be included in the main text of your paper unless requested to do so by your professor.

Avoid providing data that is not critical to answering the research question . The background information you described in the introduction section should provide the reader with any additional context or explanation needed to understand the results. A good strategy is to always re-read the background section of your paper after you have written up your results to ensure that the reader has enough context to understand the results [and, later, how you interpreted the results in the discussion section of your paper that follows].

Bavdekar, Sandeep B. and Sneha Chandak. "Results: Unraveling the Findings." Journal of the Association of Physicians of India 63 (September 2015): 44-46; Brett, Paul. "A Genre Analysis of the Results Section of Sociology Articles." English for Specific Speakers 13 (1994): 47-59; Go to English for Specific Purposes on ScienceDirect;Burton, Neil et al. Doing Your Education Research Project . Los Angeles, CA: SAGE, 2008; Results. The Structure, Format, Content, and Style of a Journal-Style Scientific Paper. Department of Biology. Bates College; Kretchmer, Paul. Twelve Steps to Writing an Effective Results Section. San Francisco Edit; "Reporting Findings." In Making Sense of Social Research Malcolm Williams, editor. (London;: SAGE Publications, 2003) pp. 188-207.

Structure and Writing Style

I.  Organization and Approach

For most research papers in the social and behavioral sciences, there are two possible ways of organizing the results . Both approaches are appropriate in how you report your findings, but use only one approach.

  • Present a synopsis of the results followed by an explanation of key findings . This approach can be used to highlight important findings. For example, you may have noticed an unusual correlation between two variables during the analysis of your findings. It is appropriate to highlight this finding in the results section. However, speculating as to why this correlation exists and offering a hypothesis about what may be happening belongs in the discussion section of your paper.
  • Present a result and then explain it, before presenting the next result then explaining it, and so on, then end with an overall synopsis . This is the preferred approach if you have multiple results of equal significance. It is more common in longer papers because it helps the reader to better understand each finding. In this model, it is helpful to provide a brief conclusion that ties each of the findings together and provides a narrative bridge to the discussion section of the your paper.

NOTE :   Just as the literature review should be arranged under conceptual categories rather than systematically describing each source, you should also organize your findings under key themes related to addressing the research problem. This can be done under either format noted above [i.e., a thorough explanation of the key results or a sequential, thematic description and explanation of each finding].

II.  Content

In general, the content of your results section should include the following:

  • Introductory context for understanding the results by restating the research problem underpinning your study . This is useful in re-orientating the reader's focus back to the research problem after having read a review of the literature and your explanation of the methods used for gathering and analyzing information.
  • Inclusion of non-textual elements, such as, figures, charts, photos, maps, tables, etc. to further illustrate key findings, if appropriate . Rather than relying entirely on descriptive text, consider how your findings can be presented visually. This is a helpful way of condensing a lot of data into one place that can then be referred to in the text. Consider referring to appendices if there is a lot of non-textual elements.
  • A systematic description of your results, highlighting for the reader observations that are most relevant to the topic under investigation . Not all results that emerge from the methodology used to gather information may be related to answering the " So What? " question. Do not confuse observations with interpretations; observations in this context refers to highlighting important findings you discovered through a process of reviewing prior literature and gathering data.
  • The page length of your results section is guided by the amount and types of data to be reported . However, focus on findings that are important and related to addressing the research problem. It is not uncommon to have unanticipated results that are not relevant to answering the research question. This is not to say that you don't acknowledge tangential findings and, in fact, can be referred to as areas for further research in the conclusion of your paper. However, spending time in the results section describing tangential findings clutters your overall results section and distracts the reader.
  • A short paragraph that concludes the results section by synthesizing the key findings of the study . Highlight the most important findings you want readers to remember as they transition into the discussion section. This is particularly important if, for example, there are many results to report, the findings are complicated or unanticipated, or they are impactful or actionable in some way [i.e., able to be pursued in a feasible way applied to practice].

NOTE:   Always use the past tense when referring to your study's findings. Reference to findings should always be described as having already happened because the method used to gather the information has been completed.

III.  Problems to Avoid

When writing the results section, avoid doing the following :

  • Discussing or interpreting your results . Save this for the discussion section of your paper, although where appropriate, you should compare or contrast specific results to those found in other studies [e.g., "Similar to the work of Smith [1990], one of the findings of this study is the strong correlation between motivation and academic achievement...."].
  • Reporting background information or attempting to explain your findings. This should have been done in your introduction section, but don't panic! Often the results of a study point to the need for additional background information or to explain the topic further, so don't think you did something wrong. Writing up research is rarely a linear process. Always revise your introduction as needed.
  • Ignoring negative results . A negative result generally refers to a finding that does not support the underlying assumptions of your study. Do not ignore them. Document these findings and then state in your discussion section why you believe a negative result emerged from your study. Note that negative results, and how you handle them, can give you an opportunity to write a more engaging discussion section, therefore, don't be hesitant to highlight them.
  • Including raw data or intermediate calculations . Ask your professor if you need to include any raw data generated by your study, such as transcripts from interviews or data files. If raw data is to be included, place it in an appendix or set of appendices that are referred to in the text.
  • Be as factual and concise as possible in reporting your findings . Do not use phrases that are vague or non-specific, such as, "appeared to be greater than other variables..." or "demonstrates promising trends that...." Subjective modifiers should be explained in the discussion section of the paper [i.e., why did one variable appear greater? Or, how does the finding demonstrate a promising trend?].
  • Presenting the same data or repeating the same information more than once . If you want to highlight a particular finding, it is appropriate to do so in the results section. However, you should emphasize its significance in relation to addressing the research problem in the discussion section. Do not repeat it in your results section because you can do that in the conclusion of your paper.
  • Confusing figures with tables . Be sure to properly label any non-textual elements in your paper. Don't call a chart an illustration or a figure a table. If you are not sure, go here .

Annesley, Thomas M. "Show Your Cards: The Results Section and the Poker Game." Clinical Chemistry 56 (July 2010): 1066-1070; Bavdekar, Sandeep B. and Sneha Chandak. "Results: Unraveling the Findings." Journal of the Association of Physicians of India 63 (September 2015): 44-46; Burton, Neil et al. Doing Your Education Research Project . Los Angeles, CA: SAGE, 2008;  Caprette, David R. Writing Research Papers. Experimental Biosciences Resources. Rice University; Hancock, Dawson R. and Bob Algozzine. Doing Case Study Research: A Practical Guide for Beginning Researchers . 2nd ed. New York: Teachers College Press, 2011; Introduction to Nursing Research: Reporting Research Findings. Nursing Research: Open Access Nursing Research and Review Articles. (January 4, 2012); Kretchmer, Paul. Twelve Steps to Writing an Effective Results Section. San Francisco Edit ; Ng, K. H. and W. C. Peh. "Writing the Results." Singapore Medical Journal 49 (2008): 967-968; Reporting Research Findings. Wilder Research, in partnership with the Minnesota Department of Human Services. (February 2009); Results. The Structure, Format, Content, and Style of a Journal-Style Scientific Paper. Department of Biology. Bates College; Schafer, Mickey S. Writing the Results. Thesis Writing in the Sciences. Course Syllabus. University of Florida.

Writing Tip

Why Don't I Just Combine the Results Section with the Discussion Section?

It's not unusual to find articles in scholarly social science journals where the author(s) have combined a description of the findings with a discussion about their significance and implications. You could do this. However, if you are inexperienced writing research papers, consider creating two distinct sections for each section in your paper as a way to better organize your thoughts and, by extension, your paper. Think of the results section as the place where you report what your study found; think of the discussion section as the place where you interpret the information and answer the "So What?" question. As you become more skilled writing research papers, you can consider melding the results of your study with a discussion of its implications.

Driscoll, Dana Lynn and Aleksandra Kasztalska. Writing the Experimental Report: Methods, Results, and Discussion. The Writing Lab and The OWL. Purdue University.

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Research Paper Results Section

Last updated on: Mar 27, 2024

How To Write The Results Section of A Research Paper | Steps & Tips

By: Donna C.

Reviewed By: Rylee W.

Published on: Jan 9, 2024

How To Write The Results Section of A Research Paper

Many researchers find themselves at a crossroads when it comes to crafting the results section of their research papers. 

It's not just about displaying data; it's about creating a narrative that captivates readers and communicates the significance of your findings.

How do you ensure your data is not just presented but truly understood by your audience? 

In this comprehensive guide, we will walk you through the process of writing an effective results section that transforms your research paper . 

Whether you're struggling with data interpretation or seeking ways to make your findings resonate, our step-by-step guide will help you create outstanding result sections.

Let’s get started!

How To Write The Results Section of A Research Paper

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What is the Result Section of a Research Paper? 

The results section of a research paper is a critical component that presents the key findings derived from the study. 

It serves as a factual and objective account of the data collected during the research process. 

In this section, researchers report their observations and measurements of the hypothesis, often utilizing tables, graphs, or statistical measures to convey the information effectively.

What Does the Results Section of a Research Paper Include?

In the results section, you show off what you found in your research. Here's a quick look at what it includes:

  • Data Presentation: Display your information using figures and tables.
  • Descriptive Statistics: Use numbers like average and middle values to summarize your data.
  • What It Means: Explain what your results say and if there are any patterns.
  • Correlations and Relationships: Look for a correlation between two variables or different factors and talk about them.
  • Limitations: Mention any problems or limits your study might have.
  • Compare with Others: See how your findings relate to what others have discovered before.

How To Write The Results Section of A Research Paper Step-by-Step

Crafting an effective Results section is a crucial aspect of any research paper. Follow these steps to ensure your findings are presented clearly and concisely:

Step 1: Organize Your Data

Organizing your data is a critical first step in the Results section of a research paper. This involves structuring your raw data in a way that is clear, logical, and easily digestible for your readers.

  • Raw Data Arrangement: Group similar data logically, such as by time or experimental conditions.
  • Visual Representation: Use tables, graphs, or charts for clarity; pick the format that suits your data best.
  • Clarity in Design: Ensure visuals are clear with labels, colors, and consistent formatting.
  • Quick Understanding: Aim for simplicity; make sure readers can grasp the main points at a glance.
  • Consistency: Keep a consistent writing style across visuals for a cohesive presentation.

Step 2: Start With Descriptive Statistics 

In this section, dive into the specifics of your data through systematic description, providing a snapshot that captures both central tendencies and variability. 

  • Calculate the Mean: Find the average value of your data points, offering a central measure indicative of the overall trend.
  • Explore the Median: Identify the middle point of your data, a robust measure that remains unaffected by extreme values.
  • Assess Standard Deviation: Understand the dispersion of your data around the mean, highlighting the degree of variability.

Step 3: Visualize Your Data

Enhance understanding by incorporating visual representations. Graphs and charts can convey trends and patterns effectively, providing readers with a more intuitive grasp of your results.

  • Select Appropriate Visuals: Choose the right type of graph or chart based on your data—bar charts for comparisons, line graphs for trends, and pie charts for proportions.
  • Ensure Clarity: Design visuals with clear labels, legible fonts, and distinctive colors to facilitate easy interpretation.
  • Highlight Trends: Emphasize significant trends or patterns in your data, guiding readers to key insights.

Step 4: Inferential Statistics

If applicable, apply inferential statistics to analyze the significance of your findings. Use tests to show statistically meaningful positive and negative results.

  • Select Relevant Tests: Choose appropriate statistical tests based on your research question—ANOVA for multiple groups, t-tests for two groups, etc.
  • Establish Significance Levels: Define significance levels (usually p-values) to determine whether observed differences are likely due to chance.

Step 5: Provide Textual Explanations 

Accompany visual elements with clear and concise textual explanations. Explain the significance of observed trends or patterns in your visuals, ensuring readers grasp their relevance to your research problem.

Acknowledge and explain any unexpected results, offering insights into potential factors or nuances that may have influenced the outcomes.

Always tie your explanations back to your research question, emphasizing how each finding contributes to the broader understanding of the results of your study.

Step 6: Compare with Previous Studies

By discussing similarities, differences, or advancements in knowledge, you can highlight the uniqueness of your contribution to the field.

Summarize relevant findings from the literature review and review articles related to your research problem . Compare or contrast your results with those of previous studies. Discuss similarities and differences, emphasizing the novel aspects of your research.

In the end, identify any contributions your study makes to advancing knowledge in the field. Highlight how your findings build upon or challenge existing understandings.

Step 7: Address Limitations

Acknowledge and address any limitations in your study. Discuss how these limitations may have influenced your results, maintaining transparency about the potential impact on the study's outcomes.

Lastly, propose avenues for future research that could address the identified limitations, offering insights for researchers interested in building upon your study.

By following these steps, you can engage your audience, providing a comprehensive and insightful view of your research findings.

Results Section for Quantitative Research

When crafting the Results section for quantitative research, there are several key qualities that can enhance the clarity, validity, and overall impact of your presentation. 

Here are the main qualities to consider for crafting a results section for quantitative research:

  • Comprehensive Descriptions: Clearly state what each statistical test or measure represents and how it contributes to your study. 
  • Appropriate Visual Elements: Ensure that these visuals are accurately labeled, easy to interpret, and directly support the points made in the text.
  • Inclusion of Key Statistical Measures: Include essential statistical measures relevant to your study, such as means, standard deviations, p-values, confidence intervals, and effect sizes. 
  • Concise Interpretation: Highlight the most salient patterns or trends and their implications. Save in-depth interpretation and discussion for the dedicated Discussion section.

Here is an example for quantitative results of a research paper:

Results Section Of A Quantitative Research Paper

Results Section for Qualitative Research

Writing the Results section for qualitative research involves presenting and interpreting the data collected through methods such as interviews, observations, or content analysis. 

Here are the main qualities of a results section of qualitative research:

  • Participant Voice: Prioritize the voices of the participants. Include direct quotes to give the participants a presence in the Results section.
  • Negotiation of Bias: Acknowledge and discuss the potential biases and subjectivities that may have influenced the interpretation of the data.
  • Negative Instances:  Discuss instances where the data deviate from the identified themes and explore the reasons behind these variations.
  • Comparison and Contrast: If applicable, compare and contrast themes across different participant groups, contexts, or time points. This adds depth to the analysis and helps in identifying patterns or variations within the data.
  • Transition to Discussion: Conclude the Results section with a seamless transition to the Discussion section. Briefly summarize the main findings and indicate how they will be further explored and interpreted in the subsequent section.

Here is an example for qualitative results of a research paper:

Results Section Of A Qualitative Research Paper

Result Section Examples 

Here are some examples for learning how to write the results section of a research paper.

Results Section Of A Research Paper Example

Summary Of Results In Research Example

Research Findings Example Pdf

How To Write The Results Section of A Research Paper APA

Mistakes to Avoid When Writing Results Section of Research Paper

Understanding the Results section of a research paper needs carefulness and attention to detail. To present your findings well, avoid these common mistakes:

Wrapping up, mastering the results section demands precision and clarity. By sidestepping common mistakes, you enhance the credibility of your findings. 

Keep it simple, stay focused on your main question, and be transparent about limitations. 

But still, if you think this work is too much for you, turn to the best paper writing service online . 

We are experts who can craft an outstanding research paper as well as different sections of your research paper. 

So, let experts handle all your academic affairs!

Frequently Asked Questions

What is the difference between the results and the discussion section.

Results present raw data and findings, while Discussion interprets and contextualizes results, providing explanations and exploring broader significance. Results are about "what," Discussion is about "why" and "what it means."

How Long Should the Results Section a Research Paper Be?

In general, the ideal length of this section is often several pages long, but there's no fixed rule. It's essential to balance thoroughness with conciseness. 

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The Principles of Biomedical Scientific Writing: Results

Zahra bahadoran.

1 Nutrition and Endocrine Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

Parvin Mirmiran

2 Department of Clinical Nutrition and Diet Therapy, Faculty of Nutrition Sciences and Food Technology, National Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

Azita Zadeh-Vakili

3 Cellular and Molecular Endocrine Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

Farhad Hosseinpanah

4 Obesity Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

Asghar Ghasemi

5 Endocrine Physiology Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

The “results section” of a scientific paper provides the results related to all measurements and outcomes that have been posted earlier in the materials and methods section. This section consists of text, figures, and tables presenting detailed data and facts without interpretation and discussion. Results may be presented in chronological order, general to specific order, most to least important order, or may be organized according to the topic/study groups or experiment/measured parameters. The primary content of this section includes the most relevant results that correspond to the central question stated in the introduction section, whether they support the hypothesis or not. Findings related to secondary outcomes and subgroup analyses may be reported in this section. All results should be presented in a clear, concise, and sensible manner. In this review, we discuss the function, content, and organization of the “results section,” as well as the principles and the most common tips for the writing of this section.

The “results section” is the heart of the paper, around which the other sections are organized ( 1 ). Research is about results and the reader comes to the paper to discover the results ( 2 ). In this section, authors contribute to the development of scientific literature by providing novel, hitherto unknown knowledge ( 3 ). In addition to the results, this section contains data and statistical information for supporting or refuting the hypothesis proposed in the introduction ( 4 ).

“Results section” should provide an objective description of the main findings, clearly and concisely, without interpretation ( 5 , 6 ). The authors need to use an interesting combination of text, tables, and figures to answer the study questions and to tell the story without diversions ( 7 ). The systemic assessment of published articles highlights the fact that the literature frequently suffers from selective reporting of results only for certain assessed outcomes, selective reporting of statistical analyses, and confused, ambiguous, incomplete, or misleading presentation of data ( 8 , 9 ).

In this section of our series on the principles of biomedical scientific writing ( 10 , 11 ), we describe the function, content, and organization of the “results section” in a scientific paper (mostly for hypothesis-testing papers) and provide common recommendations that can help authors to write this section more effectively.

2. The Function of the Results Section

The function of the “results section” is to present the main results of experiments described in the materials and methods section ( 12 , 13 ) and to present the supporting data in the form of text, tables, and figures ( 13 ). This section should answer the basic question: “What did the authors find in research?” By providing the results, authors try to elucidate the research data, making it to the point and meaningful ( 13 ).

3. Content of the Results Section

The “results section” includes both results and data that are presented in text, tables, and figures. Results are presented in the text; data (the most important) are presented in figures and tables, with a limited amount presented in the text ( 13 ). Statistically relevant parameters including sample size, P values, and the type of statistics used are also presented in this section ( 13 ).

3.1. Difference Between Data and Results

Data and results are not the same ( 14 ); providing results but no data vs. data but no results should be avoided ( 14 , 15 ). Results are general statements in the main text that summarize or explain what the data (facts and numbers) show ( 13 , 14 ); in other words, results are text descriptions of what is important about data ( 16 ) and give meaning to the data ( 15 ). When reporting data or results, make sure that they are logical ( 2 ). See Box 1 for more differences between results and data.

a The text presented in square brackets is data and the remainder is a result.

3.2. The Appropriate Format for Presenting Data/Results

Depending on how the data best support the findings of the study, the “results section” is structured as text, tables, and figures ( 12 ) and should consist of a dynamic interplay between text and figures/tables; the most important data are usually presented in both formats ( 17 ). The reader should select the mode of presentation in a way that optimizes comprehension of the data; however, as a general rule, if you want to present three or fewer numbers, you should use a sentence; otherwise, you consider a table or a graph ( 18 ).

Selecting the best format for presenting results/data depends on the level of details (exact values or patterns) to present ( 19 ). Tables are useful to present specific information or exact values ( 19 ), and function as reference tools for readers ( 20 ) whereas figures are useful to show comparisons and patterns ( 19 ), functioning as analytic tools ( 20 ).

Tables are meant to summarize large amounts of data, to organize and display data more clearly than words, to compare groups of data, to simplify found information, and to facilitate calculations ( 19 ). A table typically has three or more interrelated columns and three or more interrelated rows; otherwise, presenting the information in the text may be more appropriate ( 19 ).

The functions of figures include: (1) showing the underlying patterns of data that are not presentable in text or tables, (2) displaying data more clearly than they can be done in text or tables, (3) more summarizing a large amount of data than they can be done in text or tables, and (4) improving the understanding and locating the specific information easily and rapidly ( 21 ).

3.3. Results

The primary content of this section includes the most relevant (but not all) results corresponding to the central question posed in the introduction section, whether they support the hypothesis or not ( 12 , 13 ). The secondary findings, e.g., results related to secondary outcomes and subgroup analyses, may also be reported in this section ( 22 ). Results must be presented for both experimental and control groups ( 13 ). Results of each item mentioned in the materials and methods should be given in the results section ( 12 , 15 ).

The text of the “results section” should state and summarize the main results and explain the data presented within tables and/or figures ( 23 ); reiteration of all numbers presented in tables and figures is not recommended ( 22 ); however, readers must be given the main messages derived from a table or figure without having to interpret the data themselves ( 7 ). It means that if there is a large amount of data in a table or figure, restating a key piece of data in the text is acceptable and helps the reader zero in on important data ( 14 ).

3.3.1. Reporting Negative Findings

Authors are highly recommended excluding irrelevant results but not ignoring valid anomalous results that contradict the research hypothesis or do not support the current scientific literature ( 22 ). The Feynman, says “if you are doing an experiment, you should report everything that you think might make it invalid-not only what you think is right about it” ( 24 ). Although reporting null or negative findings is not as straightforward as positive findings, it may lead to reexamining current scientific thinking, and guide scientists towards unabridged science ( 25 ). Reporting negative findings can also prevent the replication of the study and prevent the waste of time and resources ( 25 ). The ignorance of null or negative findings also leads to an overestimation of an effect size or treatment effect in available data ( 9 ).

3.3.2. Referring to Unpublished Results

Referring to unpublished results is not recommend unless there is a strong argument supporting their inclusion ( 14 ); therefore, authors are advised to avoid using the term “data not shown” ( 4 ).

3.3.3. Methods or Interpretation in the Results Section

Generally, the “results section” is not the place for presenting methods and experimental details or interpreting data ( 14 ). When experiments are described in this section, if a result leads to additional experiments, it is better to report the new experimental details in the “results section” ( 14 ). Sometimes authors want to refer to a specific experiment or method in results; in these cases, they should not repeat experimental details, but preferably use a transition phrase to link methods with results ( 14 ). To justify the rationale behind the experiment, using topic sentences/phrases (e.g. in order to determine whether…) provides an overview before giving details ( 12 ); however, in this case, the method statement should not be used as a topic sentence and the main verbs should describe results, not methods (e.g., “ when propranolol was administered during normal ventilation, phospholipids decreased ”; here “ method ” is subordinated in a transition clause and result is the main clause) ( 13 ). Two patterns of sentence structure are recommended for including methods in a result statement: making the method the subject of the sentence or stating the method using a transition phrase or clause and the result in the main clause ( 13 ).

The traditional view of writing the “results section” is just to report data and results without any interpretation; accordingly, the result is not expected to contain statements that need to be referenced (comparisons of findings) ( 13 , 26 ). In another view, some interpretation or brief comparisons that do not fit into the discussion may be included ( 13 , 27 ).

Data are facts and numbers, mostly presented as non-textual elements (usually in tables and figures) where they are easy to read ( 13 , 14 , 28 ). A limited amount of data may also be presented in the text, following a result statement ( 13 ) although too much data in the text make it too long ( Box 1 ) ( 28 ). Data may be in the form of raw data, summarized data, or transformed data ( 13 ); however, it is suggested that raw data (i.e. patients’ records, individual observations) not be presented in results ( 12 ). Note that numerical data are absolute while some data, e.g. microscopic data, are subjective ( 2 ).

3.4.1. Non-Textual Elements

Providing study findings visually, rather than entire textualizing, enables authors to summarize a great deal of data compactly within the text with an appropriate reference; some images convey more than words ( 29 ). The primary purpose of non-textual elements, i.e. tables, graphs, figures, and maps, is to present data such that they can be easily and quickly grasped ( 23 ) while being more informative than when appearing in the text ( 6 ). Tables and figures should be complete/comprehensible, being able to stand alone without the text ( 5 , 12 ).

Non-textual elements should be referred to in the text at the appropriate point ( 5 , 6 , 12 ). Location statements, i.e. statements referring to non-textual elements, may be presented in different patterns (e.g., A. X is shown in table/figure; B. table/figure shows; C. see table/figure; D. as shown in table/figure); pattern B is more and pattern C is less common ( 27 ).

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is ijem-17-02-92113-i001.jpg

Some general tips about using non-textual elements in the “results section” are reviewed in Box 2 . The most common rules in organizing tables and figures are given in the following. For more information about designing different types of tables/figures/graphs, please refer to additional references ( 7 , 19 , 20 , 30 , 31 ).

3.4.1.1. Tables

The use of tables is an effective way to summarize demographic information and descriptive statistics ( 23 ). Note that tables must have a purpose and be integrated into the text ( 21 ). Tables are most useful to present counts, proportions, and percentages ( 8 ), and are appropriate also for presenting details especially when exact values matter ( 32 ), being are more informative than graphs ( 29 ). However, limited information should be presented in tables; otherwise, most readers find them difficult to read and thus, may ignore them ( 5 , 23 ). Data in tables can be arranged horizontally or vertically; whenever possible, primary comparisons are preferably presented horizontally from left to right ( 19 ).

3.4.1.1.1. Basic Elements of Tables

Tables usually have at least six elements: (1) table number, (2) table title, (3) row headings (stubs), and (4) column headings (boxes), identifying information in rows and columns, (5) data in data field, and (6) horizontal lines (rules). Most also have footnotes, row subheadings, spanner headings (identifying subgroups in column headings), and expanded forms of abbreviations in the table ( 19 , 21 , 31 , 33 ).

The table title should clearly state what appears in it and provide sufficient information on the study, i.e. provide a context helping readers interpret the table information ( 19 ). Some specific details may also be provided including the type and number of subjects or the period of study ( 30 ). For developing the title of a table, one can describe the main cell entries, followed by qualification or more description ( 32 ). The table’s title is presented as a phrase not a full sentence ( 19 ). Authors need to refer to the journal’s style for rules on which words in titles are capitalized.

As a rule, comparing two (or even three) numbers should be side-by-side rather than above and below ( 30 ). Column and row headings help readers find information and they should be included group sizes and measurement units ( 19 ). Tables should be in borderless grids of rows and columns ( 5 , 32 ) with no vertical rule and limited horizontal rules ( 32 ). The first column of a table includes usually a list of variables that are presented in the table; although the first column usually does not need a header, sometimes a simple description of what appears in each row may be provided as the heading of the first column. Units for variables may be placed in parentheses immediately below the row descriptions ( 30 ).

Headings for other columns should also be informative without vague labels, e.g. group A, group B, group C, etc.; instead, a brief description summarizing group characteristics is used ( 30 ). The last column may show P values for comparison between study groups ( 34 ), except for randomized clinical trials, where P values are not needed to compare baseline characteristics of participants ( 7 ). The first letters of lines and column headings in tables should be capitalized.

The fields of tables are points at which columns and rows intersect ( 19 ). Cells of a table are the data field of the table, other than those containing row and column headings ( 21 ). Cells contain information as numerals, text, or symbols ( 19 ). Every cell must contain information; if no information is available, one can use NA in the cell and define it in the footnote as not available or not applicable; alternatively, a dash mark may be inserted ( 19 ). The content of columns need to be aligned ( 19 ); words are usually left aligned, numerals are aligned at decimals, parenthesis, and factors of 10 ( 19 , 21 ).

Table footnotes should be brief, and define abbreviations, provide statistical results, and explain discrepancies in data, e.g., “percentages do not total 100 because of rounding” ( 19 , 30 ). In addition to asterisks usually used to show statistical significance ( 33 ), the following symbols are used, in sequence, for further notes: †, ‡, §, ¶, #, ††, ‡‡ ( 30 ).

3.4.1.1.2. Different Types of Tables

Table of lists, table of baseline or clinical characteristics of subjects, table of comparisons, and table of multivariable results are various types of tables that may be used ( 30 ). The table’s format should be selected according to the purpose of the table ( 30 ). A table of lists just presents a list of items including diagnostic criteria or causes of a disease; it is critical to arrange such tables based on their contents by order (e.g., alphabetical order) or their importance (most to least) ( 30 ). Tables of study participants’ characteristics usually provide a general overview of the essential characteristics of subjects, such as age, sex, race, disease stage, and selected risk factors ( 30 ). The table of comparisons (≥ two groups) provides details for each group and differences between the groups. Tables of multivariable results elaborate results of statistical analyses assessing relationships between predictor (independent) and outcome (dependent) variables, and usually include regression coefficients, standard errors, slopes, partial correlation coefficients, and P values or odds ratio, hazard ratios, and 95% confidence intervals for regression models ( 30 ).

3.4.1.2. Figures

Graphical elements convey the important messages of research ( 20 ). A figure is “any graphical display to present information or data” ( 20 ), and it effectively presents complicated patterns ( 32 ), best used for presenting an important point at a glance or indicating trends or relationships ( 20 ). Like tables, figures should have a purpose and be integrated with the rest of the text ( 21 ).

3.4.1.2.1. Basic Elements of Figures

Most figures that present quantitative information (charts and graphs) have at least seven elements, including figure number, figure caption/legend, data field, vertical scale, horizontal scale, labels, and data (plotting symbols, lines, and so on) ( 21 ). Some figures also have reference lines in the data field to help orient readers and keys that identify data ( 21 ).

Figure caption/legend, usually given below the figure, describes the figure and must reflect the figure entirely, independent of the main text ( 21 , 31 ). For the figure to stand alone, a figure legend needs to be included four parts (a brief title, experimental or statistical information/details, definitions of symbols, line, or bar patterns, and abbreviations) ( 31 ).

Data field is a space in the figure in which data are presented; it is usually bordered on the left by the X-axis (abscissa) and on the bottom by the Y-axis (ordinate) ( 20 , 21 ). Labels identify the variables graphed and the units of measurement ( 21 ). Figure lines should be broad and the labeling text should be large enough to be legible after reduction to a single- or two-column size ( 32 ). Appropriate font size should be used to maintain legibility after fitting figures to publication size ( 31 ).

Scales on each axis should match the data range and be slightly above the highest value ( 20 ). Symbols should be uniform across the figures ( 20 ). The data point symbols should be easily distinguishable; using black and white circles (● - ∘) is the easiest way when two are needed ( 31 ); if more are needed, using up-pointing triangles (▲ - Δ) and squares (■ - □) is suggested ( 31 ). Using symbols, line types, and colors is also effective in differentiating important strata in figures ( 8 ).

3.4.1.2.2. Emphasizing Important Data on Figures

To make figures visually efficient, the subordination of all non-data elements vs. data elements is advised (gridlines should be used as thin as possible and very faint). Directly labeling objects, instead of legends, may keep readers’ attention on the most important parts of the figure ( 8 ). Using different line weights may also be helpful to emphasize the important information/data in figures ( 31 ). The use of color, shading, or 3D perspectives is not suggested unless they serve a specific explanatory function in figure ( 8 ).

3.4.1.2.3. Different Types of Figures

Two major categories of figures are statistical figures (graphs) and non-statistical figures (clinical images, photographs, diagrams, illustrations, and textual figures) ( 20 ). Graphs are suitable for presenting relationships whereas non-statistical figures are used to confirm findings or provide explanatory information ( 20 ).

In statistical figures, selecting a graphical format (bar graph, line graph, dot plot, and scatterplot) is done according to the type of relationship that authors wish to communicate ( 20 ); for example, line graphs are appropriate for showing trends and bar graphs for magnitudes ( 20 ). Using a graphing format that is easy to interpret is preferred ( 20 ); pie graphs are sparingly used because comparing different angles is complicated with them ( 20 ). Graphs should accurately represent findings; when possible, scales should start at zero, and figure axes should not be altered in order to make data more meaningful ( 20 ).

Non-statistical figures are those that visually present information that does not contain data ( 20 ). Clinical images and photographs [ultrasonograms, computed tomographic scans (CT scans), magnetic resonance images (MRI), images of patients, tissue samples, microscopic findings, and so on] provide absolute proof of findings ( 20 ). Illustrations are used for explaining structures (parts of a cell), mechanisms, and relationships ( 20 ). Diagrams (flowcharts, algorithms, pedigrees, and maps) are useful for displaying complex relations ( 20 ). Textual figures, containing only text, are mostly used for describing steps of a procedure or summarizing guidelines ( 20 ). For photographs, patient information or identifiers should be removed ( 20 ).

3.5. Statistics in the Results Section

Statistics in the “results section” must report data in a way that enables readers to assess the degree of experimental variation and to estimate the variability or precision of the findings ( 22 ). For more details, one can see SAMPL (Statistical Analysis and methods in the Published Literature) guidelines ( 35 ). To report normally distributed data, the mean and estimated variation from mean should be stated ( 13 ). Variability should be reported using standard deviation (SD), which is a descriptive statistic ( 36 ) and reflects the dispersion of individual sample observation of the sample mean ( 37 ). The standard error (SE), an inferential statistic ( 36 ) reflecting the theoretical dispersion of sample means about some population means, characterizes uncertainty about true values of population means ( 37 ). It is useful for assessing the precision of an estimator ( 36 ) and is not an appropriate estimate of the variability in observations ( 37 ). Using “mean (SD or SE)” is preferred to “mean ± SD or SE” because the “±” sign can cause confusion ( 22 ). Increasing sample size decreases SE but not SD ( 36 ). To report data with a skewed distribution, the median and the interquartile range (between 25th and 75th percentiles) should be provided ( 22 ).

To report risk, rates, and ratios, one should use a type of rate (incidence rate, survival rate), ratio (odds ratio, hazards ratio), or risk (absolute risk, relative risk, relative risk reduction) ( 35 ). The measure of precision (95% CI) for estimated risks, rates, and ratios should also be provided ( 35 ). For correlation analysis, the exact values of the correlation coefficient and 95% CI should be reported. Describing correlation using qualitative words (low, moderate, high) without providing a clear definition is not acceptable ( 35 ). Results of regression analysis should include regression coefficients (β) of each explanatory variable, corresponding 95% CI and/or P value and a measure of the “goodness-of-fit” of the model ( 35 ).

3.5.1. Significance Levels

A P value is the probability of consistency between data and the hypothesis being tested ( 38 ). Reporting the exact P values ( P = 0.34 or P = 0.02) rather than the conventional P ( P < 0.05) is recommended for all primary analyses ( 12 , 37 ) as it conveys more information ( 37 ). The use of the term “partially significant” or “marginally significant”, where the P value is almost significant (e.g. P = 0.057) is not acceptable if the significance level is defined as P = 0.05 ( 39 ). Some, however, argue that it is not always necessary to stick to P = 0.05 for the interpretation of results and it is better to report the exact P value and confidence interval for the estimator ( 40 ).

The use of the 95% confidence interval (95% CI) can provide further information compared to P values per se, and prefigures the direction of the effect size (negative or positive), its magnitude, and the degree of precision ( 17 ). A confidence interval characterizes uncertainty about the true value of population parameters ( 37 ). It is essential to provide the sample size (n) and probability values for tests of statistical significance ( 13 ).

Statements about significance must be qualified numerically ( 41 ). In the text, it is suggested that P values be reported as equalities rather than as inequalities in relation to the alpha criterion ( 41 ). In tables and figures, inequalities may be useful for groups of data ( 41 ) where asterisks *, **, and *** are usually used to show statistical significance at 0.05, 0.01, and 0.001 probability levels, respectively ( 33 ).

Although not consistent, P values < 0.001 are reported as P < 0.001; for 0.001 ≤ P values < 0.01, a three-significant digit is recommended, e.g. P = 0.003; for 0.01 ≤ P values < 0.1, a two-significant digit is sufficient (e.g. P = 0.05); for 0.1 ≤ P values ≤ 0.9, a one-significant digit is sufficient (e.g. P = 0.4); and P values > 0.9 are reported as P > 0.9 ( 42 ). For genome-wide association studies, the power of 10 is used for reporting P values, e.g. 6 × 10 -9 ( 42 ). It is generally suggested that zero be used before a decimal point when the value is below one, e.g. 0.37 ( 43 ). According to the American Psychological Association, zero before a decimal point is used for numbers that are below one, but it can also be used for values that may exceed one (e.g. 0.23 cm). Therefore, when statistics cannot be greater than one (e.g. correlations, proportions, and P values), do not use a zero before decimal fraction, e.g. P = .028 not P = 0.028 ( 18 ); this recommendation, however, is not always adopted by everyone. The international standard is P (large italic) although both ‘p’ and ‘P’ are allowed ( 40 ).

4. Organization of the Results Section

There are different ways for organizing the “results section” including ( 1 , 12 , 14 , 22 , 44 ): (1) chronological order, (2) general to specific, (3) most to least important, and (4) grouping results by topic/study groups or experiment/measured parameters. Authors decide which format is more appropriate for the presentation of their data ( 12 ); anyway, results should be presented in a logical manner ( 4 ).

4.1. Different Ways of Organizing the Results Section

4.1.1. chronological order.

The best order for organizing “results section” may be the chronological order ( 22 ). It is considered as the most straightforward approach using subheadings that parallel methods ( 14 ). This order facilitates referring to a method associated with a given result ( 14 ) such that results are presented in the same order as methods ( 15 ).

4.1.2. General to Specific

This format is mostly used in clinical studies involving multiple groups of individuals receiving different treatments ( 14 ). The “results section” usually proceeds from general to more specific findings ( 1 ). Characteristics of the overall study population (sex and age distribution and dropouts) are first given ( 14 ), followed by data and results for each group starting with the control group or the group receiving the standard treatment ( 14 ); finally, the disease group or group receiving the experimental treatment are addressed ( 14 ). As a general rule, secondary results should be given after presenting more important (primary) results, followed by any supporting information ( 22 ). A common order is stating recruitment/response, characteristics of the sample/study participants, findings from the primary analyses, findings from secondary analyses, and any additional or unexpected findings ( 17 ). In other words, the “results section” should be initiated by univariate statistics, followed by bivariate analyses to describe associations between explanatory and outcome variables; finally, it gets through by any multivariate analyses ( 7 ).

4.1.3. Most to Least Important

This format is used in case that the order of presenting results is not critical to their being comprehendible and allows the author to immediately highlight important findings ( 14 ). Results that answer the main question are presented at the beginning of the “results section,” followed by other results in next paragraphs ( 13 ).

4.1.4. Grouping by Topic or Experiment

Comparison of the diagnostic and analytical performance of a number of assays for analytes is an example of using this format ( 14 ).

4.2. Paragraphing of the Results Section

The “results section” may be initiated by two approaches: (1) by giving a general (not detailed) overview of the experiment and (2) by going directly to the results by referring to tables or figures ( 44 ). The first paragraph of this section, along with table 1, describes the characteristics of the study population (number, sex, age, and symptoms) ( 23 ). These data show the comparability of the study groups at baseline and the distribution of potential confounders between groups, as a source of bias that can affect the study findings ( 7 ). It allows the reader to decide whether or not the case and control groups are similar and represent the patient population in their private practice ( 23 ).

For clinical trials, the number of patients completing the protocol in each treatment/study group, the number of patients lost to follow-up, and the number and reasons for excluded/withdrawn subjects should be given. Commenting on whether baseline characteristics of study groups are statistically similar or different is also important ( 1 ). For further information, authors can consult reporting guidelines for the main study types available at http://www.equator-network.org.

The number of the middle paragraphs depends on the number of research questions/hypotheses and the types of statistical analyses; each hypothesis or specific analysis typically devotes at least a paragraph to itself ( 1 ). Figure legends, description of the methods and results for control groups should not be given at the beginning of paragraphs, as they do not narrate the story ( 28 ). However, sometimes, it is needed that results of the control group are presented first (e.g. for establishing the stability of baseline) ( 13 ).

5. Emphasizing Important Results

Since not all results are equally important, the reader must be able to distinguish important results and authors have to emphasize important information and de-emphasize less important information ( 13 ). There are various techniques for emphasizing important information, including condensing or omitting less important information, subordinating less important information, placing important results at the power position, and labeling, stating, and repeating important information ( 13 ).

For condensing or omitting less important information, you should be careful not to duplicate/repeat data in tables and figures or repeat them in the text ( 4 , 6 , 12 ); one or two values from tables/figures can be repeated in the text for emphasis ( 13 ).

For subordinating less important information, one should not use table titles, figure legends or methods statement as a topic sentence in the text ( 13 , 22 ). Instead, after stating the first result relevant to the table/figure, you can cite it in parenthesis ( 13 ). Since a result states a message and creates an expectation, it is a more powerful topic sentence than a figure legend or table title ( 13 ). Sometimes, control results can be subordinated by incorporating them into experimental results ( 13 ).

To highlight more important results (those that help answer questions), authors can put these results at the beginning of paragraphs, the strongest power position ( 12 , 22 , 28 ), followed by supporting details and control results ( 28 ).

Moreover, key findings may receive more attention by using a signal (e.g. we found or we observed) at the beginning of the sentence ( 13 ).

6. Other Considerations

6.1. length and paragraphing.

To see the forest for the tree, the “results section” should be as brief and uncluttered as possible ( 13 ), which can be accomplished by having a well-organized “materials and methods” section ( 3 ) and avoiding unnecessary repetition ( 13 ); for example, similar results for several variables can be reported together. The “results section” of an original manuscript usually includes 2 - 3 pages (~1000 words) with a 1.5 line spacing, font size 11 (including tables and figures) ( 45 ), and 4 - 9 paragraphs (each 130 words) on average ( 45 ); a paragraph should be devoted to one or more closely related figures ( 4 ).

Presenting additional results/data as supplementary materials is a suggestion for keeping the “results section” brief ( 17 ). In addition to save the text space, supplementary materials improve the presentation and facilitate communications among scientists ( 46 , 47 ). According to Springer, supplementary materials can be used for presenting data that are not needed to support the major conclusions but are still interesting. However, keep in mind that the unregulated use of supplementary materials is harmful to science ( 47 ). Supplementary materials should be referred to at the appropriate points in the main text.

For referring to results obtained in hypothesis testing studies, using past tenses is recommended ( 4 , 12 - 14 ); non-textual elements should be referred using present tenses, e.g. “as seen in table 1 …” or “table 1 shows …” in descriptive studies, results are reported in the present tense ( 13 ).

6.3. Word Choice

Although adverbs/adjectives are commonly used to highlight the importance of results, it is recommended altogether avoiding the use of such qualitative/emotive words in the “results section” ( 7 , 13 ). Some believe that qualitative words should not be used because they may imply an interpretation of findings ( 17 ). In biomedical publications, the terms ‘significant, significance, and significantly’ (followed by P values) are used to show statistical relationships and should not be used for other purposes for which, other terms such as substantial, considerable, or noteworthy can be used ( 14 ). See Box 3 for appropriate word choice for the “results section.”

In the “results section,” to make a comparison between the results, i.e. stating the similarity/equivalence or difference/non-equivalence, using appropriate signals is recommended ( 27 ). To show a similarity, a signal to the reader may be used such as “like”, “alike”, “similar to”, and “the same as”; to show differences, the following signals can be used: “but”, “while”, “however”, “in contrast”, “more likely than”, and “less likely than” ( 27 ).

6.4. Reporting Numbers

Numbers play an important role in scientific communication and there are some golden rules for reporting numbers in a scientific paper ( 43 , 48 ). Significant figures (significant digits) should reflect the degree of precision of the original measurement ( 12 ). The number of digits reported for a quantity should be consistent with scientific relevance ( 37 ); for example, a resolution to 0.001 units is necessary for pH but a resolution of < 1 mm Hg is unimportant for blood pressure ( 37 ). Avoid using “about” or “approximately” to qualify a measurement or calculation ( 12 ). The use of percentage for sample sizes of < 20 and decimal for sample sizes of < 100 is not recommended ( 43 ).

The numbers should be spelled out at the beginning of a sentence or when they are less than 10, e.g., twelve students improved… ( 43 ). In a sentence, the authors should be consistent where they use numbers as numerals or spelled-out ( 43 ). Before a unit of a measure, time, dates, and points, numbers should be used as numerals, e.g. 12 cm; 1 h 34 min; at 12:30 A.M., and on a 7-point scale ( 18 ).

A space between the numeral and the unit should be considered, except in the case of %. Because the terms “billion,” “trillion,” and “quadrillion” imply different numbers in Europe and the USA, they should not be used ( 48 ). To express ranges in text, the terms “to” or “through” are preferred to dashes; in tables, the use of dashes or hyphens is recommended ( 48 ).

7. Conclusions

The “results section” of a biomedical manuscript should clearly present findings of the study using an effective combination of results and data. Some dos and don’ts of writing the “results section” are provided in Box 4 . Authors should try to find the best format using a dynamic interplay between text and figures/tables. Results can be organized in different ways including chronological order or most to least important; however, results should be presented in a manner that makes sense.

Acknowledgments

The authors wish to acknowledge Ms. Niloofar Shiva for critical editing of English grammar and syntax of the manuscript.

Conflict of Interests: It is not declared by the authors.

Funding/Support: Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences supported the study.

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Writing a scientific paper.

  • Writing a lab report
  • INTRODUCTION

Writing a "good" results section

Figures and Captions in Lab Reports

"Results Checklist" from: How to Write a Good Scientific Paper. Chris A. Mack. SPIE. 2018.

Additional tips for results sections.

  • LITERATURE CITED
  • Bibliography of guides to scientific writing and presenting
  • Peer Review
  • Presentations
  • Lab Report Writing Guides on the Web

This is the core of the paper. Don't start the results sections with methods you left out of the Materials and Methods section. You need to give an overall description of the experiments and present the data you found.

  • Factual statements supported by evidence. Short and sweet without excess words
  • Present representative data rather than endlessly repetitive data
  • Discuss variables only if they had an effect (positive or negative)
  • Use meaningful statistics
  • Avoid redundancy. If it is in the tables or captions you may not need to repeat it

A short article by Dr. Brett Couch and Dr. Deena Wassenberg, Biology Program, University of Minnesota

  • Present the results of the paper, in logical order, using tables and graphs as necessary.
  • Explain the results and show how they help to answer the research questions posed in the Introduction. Evidence does not explain itself; the results must be presented and then explained. 
  • Avoid: presenting results that are never discussed;  presenting results in chronological order rather than logical order; ignoring results that do not support the conclusions; 
  • Number tables and figures separately beginning with 1 (i.e. Table 1, Table 2, Figure 1, etc.).
  • Do not attempt to evaluate the results in this section. Report only what you found; hold all discussion of the significance of the results for the Discussion section.
  • It is not necessary to describe every step of your statistical analyses. Scientists understand all about null hypotheses, rejection rules, and so forth and do not need to be reminded of them. Just say something like, "Honeybees did not use the flowers in proportion to their availability (X2 = 7.9, p<0.05, d.f.= 4, chi-square test)." Likewise, cite tables and figures without describing in detail how the data were manipulated. Explanations of this sort should appear in a legend or caption written on the same page as the figure or table.
  • You must refer in the text to each figure or table you include in your paper.
  • Tables generally should report summary-level data, such as means ± standard deviations, rather than all your raw data.  A long list of all your individual observations will mean much less than a few concise, easy-to-read tables or figures that bring out the main findings of your study.  
  • Only use a figure (graph) when the data lend themselves to a good visual representation.  Avoid using figures that show too many variables or trends at once, because they can be hard to understand.

From:  https://writingcenter.gmu.edu/guides/imrad-results-discussion

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How to Write an APA Results Section

Kendra Cherry, MS, is a psychosocial rehabilitation specialist, psychology educator, and author of the "Everything Psychology Book."

what is the results section in a research paper

Emily is a board-certified science editor who has worked with top digital publishing brands like Voices for Biodiversity, Study.com, GoodTherapy, Vox, and Verywell.

what is the results section in a research paper

Verywell / Nusha Ashjaee 

What to Include in an APA Results Section

  • Justify Claims
  • Summarize Results

Report All Relevant Results

  • Report Statistical Findings

Include Tables and Figures

What not to include in an apa results section.

Psychology papers generally follow a specific structure. One important section of a paper is known as the results section. An APA results section of a psychology paper summarizes the data that was collected and the statistical analyses that were performed. The goal of this section is to report the results of your study or experiment without any type of subjective interpretation.

At a Glance

The results section is a vital part of an APA paper that summarizes a study's findings and statistical analysis. This section often includes descriptive text, tables, and figures to help summarize the findings. The focus is purely on summarizing and presenting the findings and should not include any interpretation, since you'll cover that in the subsequent discussion section.

This article covers how to write an APA results section, including what to include and what to avoid.

The results section is the third section of a psychology paper. It will appear after the introduction and methods sections and before the discussion section.

The results section should include:

  • A summary of the research findings.
  • Information about participant flow, recruitment, retention, and attrition. If some participants started the study and later left or failed to complete the study, then this should be described. 
  • Information about any reasons why some data might have been excluded from the study. 
  • Statistical information including samples sizes and statistical tests that were used. It should report standard deviations, p-values, and other measures of interest.

Results Should Justify Your Claims

Report data in order to sufficiently justify your conclusions. Since you'll be talking about your own interpretation of the results in the discussion section, you need to be sure that the information reported in the results section justifies your claims.

When you start writing your discussion section, you can then look back on your results to ensure that all the data you need are there to fully support your conclusions. Be sure not to make claims in your discussion section that are not supported by the findings described in your results section.

Summarize Your Results

Remember, you are summarizing the results of your psychological study, not reporting them in full detail. The results section should be a relatively brief overview of your findings, not a complete presentation of every single number and calculation.

If you choose, you can create a supplemental online archive where other researchers can access the raw data if they choose.

How long should a results section be?

The length of your results section will vary depending on the nature of your paper and the complexity of your research. In most cases, this will be the shortest section of your paper.

Just as the results section of your psychology paper should sufficiently justify your claims, it should also provide an accurate look at what you found in your study. Be sure to mention all relevant information.

Don't omit findings simply because they failed to support your predictions.

Your hypothesis may have expected more statistically significant results or your study didn't support your hypothesis , but that doesn't mean that the conclusions you reach are not useful. Provide data about what you found in your results section, then save your interpretation for what the results might mean in the discussion section.

While your study might not have supported your original predictions, your finding can provide important inspiration for future explorations into a topic.

How is the results section different from the discussion section?

The results section provides the results of your study or experiment. The goal of the section is to report what happened and the statistical analyses you performed. The discussion section is where you will examine what these results mean and whether they support or fail to support your hypothesis.

Report Your Statistical Findings

Always assume that your readers have a solid understanding of statistical concepts. There's no need to explain what a t-test is or how a one-way ANOVA works. Your responsibility is to report the results of your study, not to teach your readers how to analyze or interpret statistics.

Include Effect Sizes

The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association recommends including effect sizes in your results section so that readers can appreciate the importance of your study's findings.

Your results section should include both text and illustrations. Presenting data in this way makes it easier for readers to quickly look at your results.

Structure your results section around tables or figures that summarize the results of your statistical analysis. In many cases, the easiest way to accomplish this is to first create your tables and figures and then organize them in a logical way. Next, write the summary text to support your illustrative materials.

Only include tables and figures if you are going to talk about them in the body text of your results section.

In addition to knowing what you should include in the results section of your psychology paper, it's also important to be aware of things that you should avoid putting in this section:

Cause-and-Effect Conclusions

Don't draw cause-effect conclusions. Avoid making any claims suggesting that your result "proves" that something is true. 

Interpretations

Present the data without editorializing it. Save your comments and interpretations for the discussion section of your paper. 

Statistics Without Context

Don't include statistics without narration. The results section should not be a numbers dump. Instead, you should sequentially narrate what these numbers mean.

Don't include the raw data in the results section. The results section should be a concise presentation of the results. If there is raw data that would be useful, include it in the appendix .

Don't only rely on descriptive text. Use tables and figures to present these findings when appropriate. This makes the results section easier to read and can convey a great deal of information quickly.

Repeated Data

Don't present the same data twice in your illustrative materials. If you have already presented some data in a table, don't present it again in a figure. If you have presented data in a figure, don't present it again in a table.

All of Your Findings

Don't feel like you have to include everything. If data is irrelevant to the research question, don't include it in the results section.

But Don't Skip Relevant Data

Don't leave out results because they don't support your claims. Even if your data does not support your hypothesis, including it in your findings is essential if it's relevant.

More Tips for Writing a Results Section

If you are struggling, there are a few things to remember that might help:

  • Use the past tense . The results section should be written in the past tense.
  • Be concise and objective . You will have the opportunity to give your own interpretations of the results in the discussion section.
  • Use APA format . As you are writing your results section, keep a style guide on hand. The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association is the official source for APA style.
  • Visit your library . Read some journal articles that are on your topic. Pay attention to how the authors present the results of their research.
  • Get a second opinion . If possible, take your paper to your school's writing lab for additional assistance.

What This Means For You

Remember, the results section of your paper is all about providing the data from your study. This section is often the shortest part of your paper, and in most cases, the most clinical.

Be sure not to include any subjective interpretation of the results. Simply relay the data in the most objective and straightforward way possible. You can then provide your own analysis of what these results mean in the discussion section of your paper.

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Tuncel A, Atan A. How to clearly articulate results and construct tables and figures in a scientific paper ? Turk J Urol . 2013;39(Suppl 1):16-19. doi:10.5152/tud.2013.048

By Kendra Cherry, MSEd Kendra Cherry, MS, is a psychosocial rehabilitation specialist, psychology educator, and author of the "Everything Psychology Book."

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The Quintessence of Basic and Clinical Research and Scientific Publishing pp 717–731 Cite as

How to Present Results in a Research Paper

  • Aparna Mukherjee 4 ,
  • Gunjan Kumar 4 &
  • Rakesh Lodha 5  
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The results section is the core of a research manuscript where the study data and analyses are presented in an organized, uncluttered manner such that the reader can easily understand and interpret the findings. This section is completely factual; there is no place for opinions or explanations from the authors. The results should correspond to the objectives of the study in an orderly manner. Self-explanatory tables and figures add value to this section and make data presentation more convenient and appealing. The results presented in this section should have a link with both the preceding methods section and the following discussion section. A well-written, articulate results section lends clarity and credibility to the research paper and the study as a whole. This chapter provides an overview and important pointers to effective drafting of the results section in a research manuscript and also in theses.

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Acknowledgments

The book chapter is derived in part from our article “Mukherjee A, Lodha R. Writing the Results. Indian Pediatr. 2016 May 8;53(5):409-15.” We thank the Editor-in-Chief of the journal “Indian Pediatrics” for the permission for the same.

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Mukherjee, A., Kumar, G., Lodha, R. (2023). How to Present Results in a Research Paper. In: Jagadeesh, G., Balakumar, P., Senatore, F. (eds) The Quintessence of Basic and Clinical Research and Scientific Publishing. Springer, Singapore. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-99-1284-1_44

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Have you ever felt stuck and confused when trying to share the results of your research in a paper? You're not alone! 

Many students and researchers struggle with making their findings easy to understand while still sounding smart. It can get pretty frustrating when you're not sure how to talk about all the data and numbers in your research. 

Without clear guidelines, it's easy to feel lost and unsure about how to make your results section both detailed and easy to read.

Don't worry! This guide is here to help you figure it all out. 

We'll break down the process of writing a results section into simple steps. From explaining tricky stats to showing your data clearly, we've got your back.

Let's get started!

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  • 1. What Exactly is the Result Section of a Research Paper?
  • 2. Importance of the Result Section of a Research Paper
  • 3. How to Write the Results Section of a Research Paper?
  • 4. Differences Between Qualitative and Quantitative Data 
  • 5. How To Write The Results Section of A Research Paper - Examples 
  • 6. Result vs Discussion Section vs Conclusion - What’s the Difference?
  • 7. Mistakes to Avoid While Writing the Results Section

What Exactly is the Result Section of a Research Paper?

The results section of a research paper is where you get to showcase the findings of your study. 

Think of it as the big reveal, where you share all the important information and data you've gathered. This section is crucial because it's where your reader learns about the outcomes of your research and whether your hypotheses were supported or not.

Importance of the Result Section of a Research Paper

The results section in a research paper is really important. It's like a hub where you put all the main findings and results from your study. 

This part is crucial because it shows exactly what data you gathered and how you analyzed it.

In the academic world, the research results act as a kind of checkpoint. It lets other researchers and scholars review and confirm the reliability of your study methods. This helps ensure that your research is trustworthy and adds valuable information to the wider pool of knowledge in a specific field.

Also, the results section helps either prove or disprove the hypothesis you set up in your study. It's the part where the numbers and trends either support what you expected or reveal surprising insights.

What's Included in the Result Section of a Research Paper

When you're talking about the results of a research paper, it's important to know the key parts that make it clear and complete. 

Let’s see what the results section of a research paper includes:

Key Points To Consider In The Result Section:

  • Clarity: Present the results in a straightforward manner, making it easy for readers to comprehend.
  • Objectivity: Avoid interpretation or discussion at this stage; stick to presenting the observed data.
  • Consistency: Organize the results logically, following the same order as your research questions or hypotheses.

How to Write the Results Section of a Research Paper?

The results section of a research paper is crucial for conveying the outcomes of your study in a clear and organized manner. 

Follow these steps to learn how to write the findings section of a research paper:

Step 1: Start With a Clear Organization 

Begin the results section with a brief introductory paragraph that outlines the purpose of the results. Mention the research questions or hypotheses that the study aimed to address.

  • Order of Presentation

Present your results in a systematic and coherent order. Make sure the logical sequence with the research questions or hypotheses established in the earlier sections of your paper. 

This helps readers follow a logical flow and easily locate information related to specific aspects of your study.

  • Use of Subheadings

Divide the Results section into meaningful subsections using clear and descriptive subheadings.

Subheadings provide a roadmap for readers, guiding them through different parts of your results.

For example, if your research involves multiple variables or distinct analyses, create subheadings for each, making it easy for readers to navigate.

Step 2: Use Concise Text and Visuals

When writing the result section, use clear and concise language to communicate your results.

Avoid unnecessary details and focus on conveying the key research findings succinctly. Present each piece of data or result once, eliminating redundancy for a streamlined presentation.

  • Utilize Tables and Figures : Tables and figures should be self-explanatory, with titles and captions providing essential context.
  • Choose Appropriate Detail : Strike a balance between providing essential information and avoiding information overload.

Step 3: Be Objective and Specific

Present your findings without adding personal interpretation or analysis. Focus on conveying the observed outcomes in a straightforward and unbiased manner.

  • Stick to the Facts : State what was found during the study without speculating on the reasons or implications.
  • Include Numerical Data : Include means, medians, standard deviations, percentages, or any other statistical measures that accurately represent your results.
  • Quantify Results : Use precise numbers to quantify your findings wherever possible. This adds clarity and concreteness to your presentation.

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Step 4: Refer to Appendices

Evaluate the volume and complexity of your data to determine if it warrants inclusion in appendices. If your dataset is extensive and might overwhelm the main text, consider creating appendices.

Transfer detailed data, additional analyses, or supplementary information to appendices. Use separate appendices for different types of information, maintaining clarity.

  • Highlight Relevance : Explain how the appendices supplement and enrich the content presented in the main text.
  • Use Clear Labeling : Number or letter of each appendix for easy reference in the main text.

Step 5: Use Subheadings for Different Analyses

Recognize the various analyses conducted in your study, each addressing specific research questions or hypotheses. Introduce subheadings to distinguish and separate different analyses in the Results section.

Each subheading should correspond to a unique analysis, providing clarity to readers.

  • Clearly Label Subsections : The subheading should succinctly convey the focus of the analysis without ambiguity.
  • Guide Readers Effectively : The use of subheadings allows readers to locate specific information related to each analysis with ease.

Step 6: Highlight Patterns and Trends

Thoroughly examine your results to identify any recurring patterns or trends. Look for consistencies or variations in data points that are noteworthy for your study.

  • Consider Multiple Analyses : Explore patterns across different analyses if applicable, ensuring a comprehensive understanding of your findings.
  • Use Emphatic Language : Clearly convey the significance of identified trends in the context of your research questions.
  • Connect to Research Questions: Explain how the observed trends contribute to answering the main queries of your study.

Step 7: Address Negative or Unexpected Results

Approach unexpected or negative results with transparency and honesty. Clearly state that the outcomes were not as anticipated.

Make sure to resist the temptation to downplay unexpected or negative results and acknowledge them as integral parts of the scientific process.

For Example:

Step 8: Relate to Research Questions/Hypotheses

At the last, revisit the research questions or hypotheses established at the beginning of your paper. This serves as a reminder of the primary objectives of your study.

Explicitly connect each set of findings to the corresponding research question or hypothesis. Make sure you clearly state how the results address the specific inquiries posed at the outset.

Differences Between Qualitative and Quantitative Data 

Understanding the difference between qualitative and quantitative data is fundamental in research methodology. 

These two distinct types of data collection offer unique insights, each contributing to a comprehensive understanding of phenomena.

In this section, we explore the key characteristics that set qualitative and quantitative data apart.

Tips for Presenting Quantitative Data in the Results Section

  • Use clear and concise tables or graphs to present numerical results.
  • Include descriptive statistics (mean, median, etc.) to summarize central tendencies.

Tips for Presenting Qualitative Data in the Results Section

  • Summarize key themes or patterns derived from qualitative analysis.
  • Use quotes or excerpts to illustrate significant findings.

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How To Write The Results Section of A Research Paper - Examples 

Here are a few examples that show how to write the results part of a research paper. 

Results Section of a Research Paper - Apa

Results Section of a Qualitative Research Paper

Results Section of a Research Report

Result vs Discussion Section vs Conclusion - What’s the Difference?

The Results section presents a factual showcase of observed or measured outcomes.

In contrast, the discussion section goes beyond the facts, interpreting results, providing context to findings, and exploring their broader implications. 

Finally, the conclusion section summarizes key points, discusses implications, and often suggests avenues for future research.

Mistakes to Avoid While Writing the Results Section

The results section of a research paper demands precision and clarity to communicate the study's outcomes effectively. However, several common mistakes can compromise the quality of this section. 

To ensure an insightful results section, be mindful of the following pitfalls:

In summary, by following these tips and avoiding common mistakes, you can create a results section that meets academic standards and clearly shows why your research is important. 

Remember, the results section sets the stage for the subsequent discussion. If you present your findings well, it makes your whole research paper better and easier to understand.

If you ever feel stuck while writing a research paper, especially in the results section, consider reaching out to MyPerfectWords.com!  

Our experts can craft an outstanding result section that resonates with your whole research paper. We can also craft different parts of a research paper upon customized requests! 

So, do not delay! Get your custom paper from a professional essay writing service now! 

Frequently Asked Questions

How long should the results section of a research paper be.

FAQ Icon

The length varies, but keep it concise. Include enough information to support your discussion and conclusion without unnecessary details. A balanced Results section enhances the overall flow of your research paper.

What is the Difference between Results And Discussion Sections?

The results section presents the raw findings of a study, focusing on data and observations.

In contrast, the Discussion section interprets and analyzes these results, offering insights, context, and help readers understand the significance of the findings.

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what is the results section in a research paper

How to Write the Results Section of a Research Paper

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Laura Moro-Martin, freelance scientific writer on Kolabtree, provides expert tips on how to write the results section of a research paper . 

You have prepared a detailed −but concise− Methods section . Now it is time to write the Results of your research article. This part of the paper reports the findings of the experiments that you conducted to answer the research question(s). The Results can be considered the nucleus of a scientific article because they justify your claims, so you need to ensure that they are clear and understandable. You are telling a story −of course, a scientific story− and you want the readers to picture that same story in their minds. Let’s see how to avoid that your message ends up as in the ‘telephone game’.

The Results Section: Goals and Structure

Depending on the discipline, journal, and the nature of the study, the structure of the article can differ. We will focus on articles were the Results and Discussion appear in two separate sections, but it is possible in some cases to combine them.

In the Results section, you provide an overall description of the experiments and present the data that you obtained in a logical order, using tables and graphs as necessary. The Results section should simply state your findings without bias or interpretation. For example, in your analysis, you may have noticed a significant correlation between two variables never described before. It is correct to explain this in the Results section. However, speculation about the reasons for this correlation should go in the Discussion section of your paper.

In general, the Results section includes the following elements:

  • A very short introductory context that repeats the research question and helps to understand your results.
  • Report on data collection, recruitment, and/or participants. For example, in the case of clinical research, it is common to include a first table summarizing the demographic, clinical, and other relevant characteristics of the study participants.
  • A systematic description of the main findings in a logical order (generally following the order of the Methods section), highlighting the most relevant results.
  • Other important secondary findings, such as secondary outcomes or subgroup analyses (remember that you do not need to mention any single result).
  • Visual elements, such as, figures, charts, maps, tables, etc. that summarize and illustrate the findings. These elements should be cited in the text and numbered in order. Figures and tables should be able to stand on its own without the text, which means that the legend should include enough information to understand the non-textual element.

How to Write the Results Section of a Research Paper: Tips

The first tip −applicable to other sections of the paper too− is to check and apply the requirements of the journal to which you are submitting your work.

In the Results section, you need to write concisely and objectively, leaving interpretation for the Discussion section. As always, ‘learning from others’ can help you. Select a few papers from your field, including some published in your target journal, which you consider ‘good quality’ and well written. Read them carefully and observe how the Results section is structured, the type and amount of information provided, and how the findings are exposed in a logical order. Keep an eye on visual elements, such as figures, tables, and supplementary materials. Understand what works well in those papers to effectively convey their findings, and apply it to your writing.

Your Results section needs to describe the sequence of what you did and found, the frequency of occurrence of a particular event or result, the quantities of your observations, and the causality (i.e. the relationships or connections) between the events that you observed.

To organize the results, you can try to provide them alongside the research questions. In practice, this means that you will organize this section based on the sequence of tables and figures summarizing the results of your statistical analysis. In this way, it will be easier for readers to look at and understand your findings. You need to report your statistical findings, without describing every step of your statistical analysis. Tables and figures generally report summary-level data (for example, means and standard deviations), rather than all the raw data.

Following, you can prepare the summary text to support those visual elements. You need not only to present but also to explain your findings, showing how they help to address the research question(s) and how they align with the objectives that you presented in the Introduction . Keep in mind that results do not speak for themselves, so if you do not describe them in words, the reader may perceive the findings differently from you. Build coherence along this section using goal statements and explicit reasoning (guide the reader through your reasoning, including sentences of this type: ‘In order to…, we performed….’; ‘In view of this result, we ….’, etc.).

In summary, the general steps for writing the Results section of a research article are:

  • Check the guidelines of your target journal and read articles that it has published in similar topics to your study.
  • Catalogue your findings in relation to the journal requirements, and design figures and tables to organize your data.
  • Write the Results section following the order of figures and tables.
  • Edit and revise your draft and seek additional input from colleagues or experts.

The Style of the Results Section

‘If you are out to describe the truth, leave elegance to the tailor’, Austrian physicist Ludwig Boltzmann said. Although the scope of the Results section −and of scientific papers in general− is eminently functional, this does not mean that you cannot write well. Try to improve the rhythm to move the reader along, use transitions and connectors between different sections and paragraphs, and dedicate time to revise your writing.

The Results section should be written in the past tense. Although writing in the passive voice may be tempting, the use of the active voice makes the action much more visualizable. The passive voice weakens the power of language and increases the number of words needed to say the same thing, so we recommend using the active voice as much as possible. Another tip to make your language visualizable and reduce sentence length is the use of verbal phrases instead of long nouns. For example, instead of writing ‘As shown in Table 1, there was a significant increase in gene expression’, you can say ‘As shown in Table 1, gene expression increased significantly’.

Get a Second (And Even Third) Opinion

Writing a scientific article is not an individual work. Take advantage of your co-authors by making them check the Results section and adding their comments and suggestions. Not only that, but an external opinion will help you to identify misinterpretations or errors. Ask a colleague that is not directly involved in the work to review your Results and then try to evaluate what your colleague did or did not understand. If needed, seek additional help from a qualified expert.

Common Errors to Avoid While Writing the Results Section

Several mistakes frequently occur when you write the Results section of a research paper. Here we have collected a few examples:

  • Including raw results and/or endlessly repetitive data. You do not need to present every single number and calculation, but a summary of the results. If relevant, raw data can be included in supplementary materials.
  • Including redundant information. If data are contained in the tables or figures, you do not need to repeat all of them in the Results section. You will have the opportunity to highlight the most relevant results in the Discussion .
  • Repeating background information or methods , or introducing several sentences of introductory information (if you feel that more background information is necessary to present a result, consider inserting that information in the Introduction ).
  • Results and Methods do not match . You need to explain the methodology used to obtain all the experimental observations.
  • Ignoring negative results or results that do not support the conclusions. In addition to posing potential ethical concerns on your work, reviewers will not like it. You need to mention all relevant findings, even if they failed to support your predictions or hypotheses. Negative results are useful and will guide future studies on the topic. Provide your interpretation for negative results in the Discussion .
  • Discussing or interpreting the results . Leave that for the Discussion , unless your target journal allows preparing one section combining Results and Discussion .
  • Errors in figures/tables are varied and common . Examples of errors include using an excessive number of figures/tables (it is a good idea to select the most relevant ones and move the rest to supplementary materials), very complex figures/tables (hard-to-read figures with many subfigures or enormous tables may confuse your readers; think how these elements will be visualized in the final format of the article), difficult to interpret figures/tables (cryptic abbreviations; inadequate use of colors, axis, scales, symbols, etc.), and figures/tables that are not self-standing (figures/tables require a caption, all abbreviations used need to be explained in the legend or a footnote, and statistical tests applied are frequently reported). Do not include tables and figures that are not mentioned in the body text of your Results .

In summary, the Results section is the nucleus of your paper that justifies your claims. Take time to adequately organize it and prepare understandable figures and tables to convey your message to the reader. Good writing!

  • The Structure, Format, Content, and Style of a Journal-Style Scientific Paper. https://abacus.bates.edu/~ganderso/biology/resources/writing/HTWsections.html – methods (accessed on 30th September 2020)
  • Organizing Academic Research Papers: 7. The Results. https://library.sacredheart.edu/c.php?g=29803&p=185931 (accessed on 30th September 2020)
  • Kendra Cherry. How to Write an APA Results Section. https://www.verywellmind.com/how-to-write-a-results-section-2795727 (accessed on 30th September 2020)
  • Chapin Rodríguez. Empowering your scientific language by making it “visualizable”. http://creaducate.eu/wp-content/uploads/2019/11/tipsheet36_visualizable-lang-tip-sheet.pdf (accessed on 1st October 2020)
  • IMRaD Results Discussion. https://writingcenter.gmu.edu/guides/imrad-results-discussion (accessed on 1st October 2020)
  • Writing the Results Section for a Research Paper. https://wordvice.com/writing-the-results-section-for-a-research-paper/ (accessed on 1st October 2020)
  • Scott L. Montgomery. The Chicago Guide to Communicating Science , Chapter 9. Second edition, The University of Chicago Press, 2017.
  • Hilary Glasman-Deal . Science Research Writing for Non-Native Speakers of English, Unit 2 . Imperial College Press, 2010.

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How to Write an Effective Results Section

Affiliation.

  • 1 Rothman Orthopaedics Institute, Philadelphia, PA.
  • PMID: 31145152
  • DOI: 10.1097/BSD.0000000000000845

Developing a well-written research paper is an important step in completing a scientific study. This paper is where the principle investigator and co-authors report the purpose, methods, findings, and conclusions of the study. A key element of writing a research paper is to clearly and objectively report the study's findings in the Results section. The Results section is where the authors inform the readers about the findings from the statistical analysis of the data collected to operationalize the study hypothesis, optimally adding novel information to the collective knowledge on the subject matter. By utilizing clear, concise, and well-organized writing techniques and visual aids in the reporting of the data, the author is able to construct a case for the research question at hand even without interpreting the data.

  • Data Analysis
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Organizing Academic Research Papers: 7. The Results

  • Purpose of Guide
  • Design Flaws to Avoid
  • Glossary of Research Terms
  • Narrowing a Topic Idea
  • Broadening a Topic Idea
  • Extending the Timeliness of a Topic Idea
  • Academic Writing Style
  • Choosing a Title
  • Making an Outline
  • Paragraph Development
  • Executive Summary
  • Background Information
  • The Research Problem/Question
  • Theoretical Framework
  • Citation Tracking
  • Content Alert Services
  • Evaluating Sources
  • Primary Sources
  • Secondary Sources
  • Tertiary Sources
  • What Is Scholarly vs. Popular?
  • Qualitative Methods
  • Quantitative Methods
  • Using Non-Textual Elements
  • Limitations of the Study
  • Common Grammar Mistakes
  • Avoiding Plagiarism
  • Footnotes or Endnotes?
  • Further Readings
  • Annotated Bibliography
  • Dealing with Nervousness
  • Using Visual Aids
  • Grading Someone Else's Paper
  • How to Manage Group Projects
  • Multiple Book Review Essay
  • Reviewing Collected Essays
  • About Informed Consent
  • Writing Field Notes
  • Writing a Policy Memo
  • Writing a Research Proposal
  • Acknowledgements

The results section of the research paper is where you report the findings of your study based upon the information gathered as a result of the methodology [or methodologies] you applied. The results section should simply state the findings, without bias or interpretation, and arranged in a logical sequence. The results section should always be written in the past tense. A section describing results [a.k.a., "findings"] is particularly necessary if your paper includes data generated from your own research.

Importance of a Good Results Section

When formulating the results section, it's important to remember that the results of a study do not prove anything . Research results can only confirm or reject the research problem underpinning your study. However, the act of articulating the results helps you to understand the problem from within, to break it into pieces, and to view the research problem from various perspectives.

The page length of this section is set by the amount and types of data to be reported . Be concise, using non-textual elements, such as figures and tables, if appropriate, to present results more effectively. In deciding what data to describe in your results section, you must clearly distinguish material that would normally be included in a research paper from any raw data or other material that could be included as an appendix. In general, raw data should not be included in the main text of your paper unless requested to do so by your professor.

Avoid providing data that is not critical to answering the research question . The background information you described in the introduction section should provide the reader with any additional context or explanation needed to understand the results. A good rule is to always re-read the background section of your paper after you have written up your results to ensure that the reader has enough context to understand the results [and, later, how you interpreted the results in the discussion section of your paper].

Bates College; Burton, Neil et al. Doing Your Education Research Project . Los Angeles, CA: SAGE, 2008; Results . The Structure, Format, Content, and Style of a Journal-Style Scientific Paper. Department of Biology. Bates College.

Structure and Writing Style

I. Structure and Approach

For most research paper formats, there are two ways of presenting and organizing the results .

  • Present the results followed by a short explanation of the findings . For example, you may have noticed an unusual correlation between two variables during the analysis of your findings. It is correct to point this out in the results section. However, speculating as to why this correlation exists, and offering a hypothesis about what may be happening, belongs in the discussion section of your paper.
  • Present a section and then discuss it, before presenting the next section then discussing it, and so on . This is more common in longer papers because it helps the reader to better understand each finding. In this model, it can be helpful to provide a brief conclusion in the results section that ties each of the findings together and links to the discussion.

NOTE: The discussion section should generally follow the same format chosen in presenting and organizing the results.

II.  Content

In general, the content of your results section should include the following elements:

  • An introductory context for understanding the results by restating the research problem that underpins the purpose of your study.
  • A summary of your key findings arranged in a logical sequence that generally follows your methodology section.
  • Inclusion of non-textual elements, such as, figures, charts, photos, maps, tables, etc. to further illustrate the findings, if appropriate.
  • In the text, a systematic description of your results, highlighting for the reader observations that are most relevant to the topic under investigation [remember that not all results that emerge from the methodology that you used to gather the data may be relevant].
  • Use of the past tense when refering to your results.
  • The page length of your results section is guided by the amount and types of data to be reported. However, focus only on findings that are important and related to addressing the research problem.

Using Non-textual Elements

  • Either place figures, tables, charts, etc. within the text of the result, or include them in the back of the report--do one or the other but never do both.
  • In the text, refer to each non-textual element in numbered order [e.g.,  Table 1, Table 2; Chart 1, Chart 2; Map 1, Map 2].
  • If you place non-textual elements at the end of the report, make sure they are clearly distinguished from any attached appendix materials, such as raw data.
  • Regardless of placement, each non-textual element must be numbered consecutively and complete with caption [caption goes under the figure, table, chart, etc.]
  • Each non-textual element must be titled, numbered consecutively, and complete with a heading [title with description goes above the figure, table, chart, etc.].
  • In proofreading your results section, be sure that each non-textual element is sufficiently complete so that it could stand on its own, separate from the text.

III. Problems to Avoid

When writing the results section, avoid doing the following :

  • Discussing or interpreting your results . Save all this for the next section of your paper, although where appropriate, you should compare or contrast specific results to those found in other studies [e.g., "Similar to Smith [1990], one of the findings of this study is the strong correlation between motivation and academic achievement...."].
  • Reporting background information or attempting to explain your findings ; this should have been done in your Introduction section, but don't panic! Often the results of a study point to the need to provide additional background information or to explain the topic further, so don't think you did something wrong. Revise your introduction as needed.
  • Ignoring negative results . If some of your results fail to support your hypothesis, do not ignore them. Document them, then state in your discussion section why you believe a negative result emerged from your study. Note that negative results, and how you handle them, often provides you with the opportunity to write a more engaging discussion section, therefore, don't be afraid to highlight them.
  • Including raw data or intermediate calculations . Ask your professor if you need to include any raw data generated by your study, such as transcripts from interviews or data files. If raw data is to be included, place it in an appendix or set of appendices that are referred to in the text.
  • Be as factual and concise as possible in reporting your findings . Do not use phrases that are vague or non-specific, such as, "appeared to be greater or lesser than..." or "demonstrates promising trends that...."
  • Presenting the same data or repeating the same information more than once . If you feel the need to highlight something, you will have a chance to do that in the discussion section.
  • Confusing figures with tables . Be sure to properly label any non-textual elements in your paper. If you are not sure, look up the term in a dictionary.

Burton, Neil et al. Doing Your Education Research Project . Los Angeles, CA: SAGE, 2008;  Caprette, David R. Writing Research Papers . Experimental Biosciences Resources. Rice University; Hancock, Dawson R. and Bob Algozzine. Doing Case Study Research: A Practical Guide for Beginning Researchers . 2nd ed. New York: Teachers College Press, 2011; Introduction to Nursing Research: Reporting Research Findings. Nursing Research: Open Access Nursing Research and Review Articles. (January 4, 2012); Reporting Research Findings. Wilder Research, in partnership with the Minnesota Department of Human Services. (February 2009); Results . The Structure, Format, Content, and Style of a Journal-Style Scientific Paper. Department of Biology. Bates College; Schafer, Mickey S. Writing the Results . Thesis Writing in the Sciences. Course Syllabus. University of Florida.

Writing Tip

Why Don't I Just Combine the Results Section with the Discussion Section?

It's not unusual to find articles in social science journals where the author(s) have combined a description of the findings from the study with a discussion about their implications. You could do this. However, if you are inexperienced writing research papers, consider creating two sections for each element in your paper as a way to better organize your thoughts and, by extension, your  paper. Think of the results section as the place where you report what your study found; think of the discussion section as the place where you interpret your data and answer the "so what?" question. As you become more skilled writing research papers, you may want to meld the results of your study with a discussion of its implications.

  • << Previous: Quantitative Methods
  • Next: Using Non-Textual Elements >>
  • Last Updated: Jul 18, 2023 11:58 AM
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Results Section Of A Research Paper: How To Write It Properly

results section of a research paper

The results section of a research paper refers to the part that represents the study’s core findings from the methods that the researcher used to collect and analyze data. This section presents the results logically without interpretation or bias from the author.

Thus, this part of a research paper sets up the read for evaluation and analysis of the findings in the discussion section. Essentially, this section breaks down the information into several sentences, showing its importance to the research question. Writing results section in a research paper entails summarizing the gathered data and the performed statistical analysis. That way, the author presents or reports the results without subjective interpretation.

What Is The Results Section Of A Research Paper?

In its simplest definition, a research paper results section is where the researcher reports the findings of a study based on the applied methodology for gathering information. It’s the part where the author states the research findings in a logical sequence without interpreting them. If the research paper has data from actual research, this section should feature a detailed description of the results.

When writing a dissertation, a thesis, or any other academic paper, the result section should come third in sections’ sequence. It should follow the Methods and Materials presentation and the Discussion section comes after it. But most scientific papers present the Results and Discussion sections together. However, the results section answers the question, “What did your research uncover?”

Ideally, this section allows you to report findings in research paper, creating the basis for sufficiently justified conclusions. After writing the study findings in the results section, you interpret them in the subsequent discussion part. Therefore, your results section should report information that will justify your claims. That way, you can look back on the results section when writing the discussion part to ensure that your report supports your conclusions.

What Goes in the Results Section of a Research Paper?

This section should present results in research paper. The findings part of a research paper can differ in structure depending on the study, discipline, and journal. Nevertheless, the results section presents a description of the experiment while presenting the research results. When writing this part of your research paper, you can use graphs and tables if necessary.

However, state the findings without interpreting them. For instance, you can find a correlation between variables when analyzing data. In that case, your results section can explain this correlation without speculating about the causes of this correlation.

Here’s what to include in the results section of research paper:

A brief introductory of the context, repeating the research questions to help the readers understand the results A report about information collection, participants, and recruitment: for instance, you can include a demographic summary with the participants’ characteristics A systematic findings’ description, with a logical presentation highlighting relevant and crucial results A contextual data analysis explaining the meaning in sentences Information corresponding to the primary research questions Secondary findings like subgroup analysis and secondary outcomes Visual elements like charts, figures, tables, and maps, illustrating and summarizing the findings

Ensure that your results section cites and numbers visual elements in an orderly manner. Every table or figure should stand alone without text. That means visual elements should have adequate non-textual content to enable the audiences to understand their meanings.

If your study has a broad scope, several variables, or used methodologies that yielded different results, state the most relevant results only based on the research question you presented in your Introduction section.

The general rule is to leave out any data that doesn’t present your study’s direct outcome or findings. Unless the professor, advisor, university faulty, or your target journal requests you to combine the Results and Discussion sections, omit the interpretations and explanations of the results in this section.

How Long Should A Results Section Be?

The findings section of a research paper ranges between two and three pages, with tables, text, and figures. In most cases, universities and journals insist that this section shouldn’t exceed 1,000 words over four to nine paragraphs, usually with no references.

But a good findings section occupies 5% of the entire paper. For instance, this section should have 500 words if a dissertation has 10,000 words. If the educator didn’t specify the number of words to include in this chapter, use the data you collect to determine its length. Nevertheless, be as concise as possible by featuring only relevant results that answer your research question.

How To Write Results Section Of Research Paper

Perhaps, you have completed researching and writing the preceding sections, and you’re now wondering how to write results. By the time you’re composing this section, you already have findings or answers to your research questions. However, you don’t even know how to start a results section. And your search for guidelines landed you on this page.

Well, every research project is different and unique. That’s why researchers use different strategies when writing this section of their research papers. The scientific or academic discipline, specialization field, target journal, and the author are factors influencing how you write this section. Nevertheless, there’s a general way of writing this section, although it might differ slightly between disciplines. Here’s how to write results section in a research paper.

Check the instructions or guidelines. Check their instructions or guidelines first, whether you’re writing the research paper as part of your coursework or for an academic journal. These guidelines outline the requirements for presenting results in research papers. Also, check the published articles to know how to approach this section. When reviewing the procedures, check content restrictions and length. Essentially, learn everything you can about this section from the instructions or guidelines before you start writing. Reflect on your research findings. With instructions and guidelines in mind, reflect on your research findings to determine how to present them in your research paper. Decide on the best way to show the results so that they can answer the research question. Also, strive to clarify and streamline your report, especially with a complex and lengthy results section. You can use subheadings to avoid peripheral and excessive details. Additionally, consider breaking down the content to make it easy for the readers to understand or remember. Your hypothesis, research question, or methodologies might influence the structure of the findings sections. Nevertheless, a hierarchy of importance, chronological order, or meaningful grouping of categories or themes can be an effective way of presenting your findings. Design your visual presentations. Visual presentations improve the textual report of the research findings. Therefore, decide on the figures and styles to use in your tables, graphs, photos, and maps. However, check the instructions and guidelines of your faculty or journal to determine the visual aids you can use. Also, check what the guidelines say about their formats and design elements. Ideally, number the figures and tables according to their mention in the text. Additionally, your figures and tables should be self-explanatory. Write your findings section. Writing the results section of a research paper entails communicating the information you gathered from your study. Ideally, be as objective and factual as possible. If you gathered complex information, try to simplify and present it accurately, precisely, and clearly. Therefore, use well-structured sentences instead of complex expressions and phrases. Also, use an active voice and past tense since you’ve already done the research. Additionally, use correct spelling, grammar, and punctuation. Take your time to present the findings in the best way possible to focus your readers on your study objectives while preparing them for the coming speculations, interpretations, and recommendations. Edit Your Findings Section. Once you’ve written the results part of your paper, please go through it to ensure that you’ve presented your study findings in the best way possible. Make sure that the content of this section is factual, accurate, and without errors. You’ve taken a considerable amount of time to compose the results scientific paper audiences will find interesting to read. Therefore, take a moment to go through the draft and eliminate all errors.

Practical Tips on How to Write a Results Section of a Research Paper

The results part of a research paper aims to present the key findings objectively in a logical and orderly sequence using text and illustrative materials. A common mistake that many authors make is confusing the information in the discussion and the results sections. To avoid this, focus on presenting your research findings without interpreting them or speculating about them.

The following tips on how to write a results section should make this task easier for you:

Summarize your study results: Instead of reporting the findings in full detail, summarize them. That way, you can develop an overview of the results. Present relevant findings only: Don’t report everything you found during your research. Instead, present pertinent information only. That means taking time to analyze your results to know what your audiences want to know. Report statistical findings: When writing this section, assume that the audiences understand statistical concepts. Therefore, don’t try to explain the nitty-gritty in this section. Remember that your work is to report your study’s findings in this section. Be objective and concise: You can interpret the findings in the discussion sections. Therefore, focus on presenting the results objectively and concisely in this section. Use the suitable format: Use the correct style to present the findings depending on your study field.

Get Professional Help with the Research Section

Maybe you’re pursuing your graduate or undergraduate studies but cannot write the results part of your paper. Perhaps, you’re done researching and analyzing information, but this section proves too tricky for you to write. Well, you’re not alone because many students across the world struggle to present their research findings.

Luckily, our highly educated, talented, and experienced writers are always ready to assist such learners. If you are stuck with the results part of your paper, our professionals can help you . We offer high-quality, custom writing help online. We’re a reliable team of experts with a sterling reputation for providing comprehensive assistance to college, high school, and university learners. We deliver highly informative academic papers after conducting extensive and in-depth research. Contact us saying something like, “please do my thesis” to get quality help with your paper!

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How to Write an APA Methods Section | With Examples

Published on February 5, 2021 by Pritha Bhandari . Revised on June 22, 2023.

The methods section of an APA style paper is where you report in detail how you performed your study. Research papers in the social and natural sciences often follow APA style. This article focuses on reporting quantitative research methods .

In your APA methods section, you should report enough information to understand and replicate your study, including detailed information on the sample , measures, and procedures used.

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Table of contents

Structuring an apa methods section.

Participants

Example of an APA methods section

Other interesting articles, frequently asked questions about writing an apa methods section.

The main heading of “Methods” should be centered, boldfaced, and capitalized. Subheadings within this section are left-aligned, boldfaced, and in title case. You can also add lower level headings within these subsections, as long as they follow APA heading styles .

To structure your methods section, you can use the subheadings of “Participants,” “Materials,” and “Procedures.” These headings are not mandatory—aim to organize your methods section using subheadings that make sense for your specific study.

Note that not all of these topics will necessarily be relevant for your study. For example, if you didn’t need to consider outlier removal or ways of assigning participants to different conditions, you don’t have to report these steps.

The APA also provides specific reporting guidelines for different types of research design. These tell you exactly what you need to report for longitudinal designs , replication studies, experimental designs , and so on. If your study uses a combination design, consult APA guidelines for mixed methods studies.

Detailed descriptions of procedures that don’t fit into your main text can be placed in supplemental materials (for example, the exact instructions and tasks given to participants, the full analytical strategy including software code, or additional figures and tables).

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what is the results section in a research paper

Begin the methods section by reporting sample characteristics, sampling procedures, and the sample size.

Participant or subject characteristics

When discussing people who participate in research, descriptive terms like “participants,” “subjects” and “respondents” can be used. For non-human animal research, “subjects” is more appropriate.

Specify all relevant demographic characteristics of your participants. This may include their age, sex, ethnic or racial group, gender identity, education level, and socioeconomic status. Depending on your study topic, other characteristics like educational or immigration status or language preference may also be relevant.

Be sure to report these characteristics as precisely as possible. This helps the reader understand how far your results may be generalized to other people.

The APA guidelines emphasize writing about participants using bias-free language , so it’s necessary to use inclusive and appropriate terms.

Sampling procedures

Outline how the participants were selected and all inclusion and exclusion criteria applied. Appropriately identify the sampling procedure used. For example, you should only label a sample as random  if you had access to every member of the relevant population.

Of all the people invited to participate in your study, note the percentage that actually did (if you have this data). Additionally, report whether participants were self-selected, either by themselves or by their institutions (e.g., schools may submit student data for research purposes).

Identify any compensation (e.g., course credits or money) that was provided to participants, and mention any institutional review board approvals and ethical standards followed.

Sample size and power

Detail the sample size (per condition) and statistical power that you hoped to achieve, as well as any analyses you performed to determine these numbers.

It’s important to show that your study had enough statistical power to find effects if there were any to be found.

Additionally, state whether your final sample differed from the intended sample. Your interpretations of the study outcomes should be based only on your final sample rather than your intended sample.

Write up the tools and techniques that you used to measure relevant variables. Be as thorough as possible for a complete picture of your techniques.

Primary and secondary measures

Define the primary and secondary outcome measures that will help you answer your primary and secondary research questions.

Specify all instruments used in gathering these measurements and the construct that they measure. These instruments may include hardware, software, or tests, scales, and inventories.

  • To cite hardware, indicate the model number and manufacturer.
  • To cite common software (e.g., Qualtrics), state the full name along with the version number or the website URL .
  • To cite tests, scales or inventories, reference its manual or the article it was published in. It’s also helpful to state the number of items and provide one or two example items.

Make sure to report the settings of (e.g., screen resolution) any specialized apparatus used.

For each instrument used, report measures of the following:

  • Reliability : how consistently the method measures something, in terms of internal consistency or test-retest reliability.
  • Validity : how precisely the method measures something, in terms of construct validity  or criterion validity .

Giving an example item or two for tests, questionnaires , and interviews is also helpful.

Describe any covariates—these are any additional variables that may explain or predict the outcomes.

Quality of measurements

Review all methods you used to assure the quality of your measurements.

These may include:

  • training researchers to collect data reliably,
  • using multiple people to assess (e.g., observe or code) the data,
  • translation and back-translation of research materials,
  • using pilot studies to test your materials on unrelated samples.

For data that’s subjectively coded (for example, classifying open-ended responses), report interrater reliability scores. This tells the reader how similarly each response was rated by multiple raters.

Report all of the procedures applied for administering the study, processing the data, and for planned data analyses.

Data collection methods and research design

Data collection methods refers to the general mode of the instruments: surveys, interviews, observations, focus groups, neuroimaging, cognitive tests, and so on. Summarize exactly how you collected the necessary data.

Describe all procedures you applied in administering surveys, tests, physical recordings, or imaging devices, with enough detail so that someone else can replicate your techniques. If your procedures are very complicated and require long descriptions (e.g., in neuroimaging studies), place these details in supplementary materials.

To report research design, note your overall framework for data collection and analysis. State whether you used an experimental, quasi-experimental, descriptive (observational), correlational, and/or longitudinal design. Also note whether a between-subjects or a within-subjects design was used.

For multi-group studies, report the following design and procedural details as well:

  • how participants were assigned to different conditions (e.g., randomization),
  • instructions given to the participants in each group,
  • interventions for each group,
  • the setting and length of each session(s).

Describe whether any masking was used to hide the condition assignment (e.g., placebo or medication condition) from participants or research administrators. Using masking in a multi-group study ensures internal validity by reducing research bias . Explain how this masking was applied and whether its effectiveness was assessed.

Participants were randomly assigned to a control or experimental condition. The survey was administered using Qualtrics (https://www.qualtrics.com). To begin, all participants were given the AAI and a demographics questionnaire to complete, followed by an unrelated filler task. In the control condition , participants completed a short general knowledge test immediately after the filler task. In the experimental condition, participants were asked to visualize themselves taking the test for 3 minutes before they actually did. For more details on the exact instructions and tasks given, see supplementary materials.

Data diagnostics

Outline all steps taken to scrutinize or process the data after collection.

This includes the following:

  • Procedures for identifying and removing outliers
  • Data transformations to normalize distributions
  • Compensation strategies for overcoming missing values

To ensure high validity, you should provide enough detail for your reader to understand how and why you processed or transformed your raw data in these specific ways.

Analytic strategies

The methods section is also where you describe your statistical analysis procedures, but not their outcomes. Their outcomes are reported in the results section.

These procedures should be stated for all primary, secondary, and exploratory hypotheses. While primary and secondary hypotheses are based on a theoretical framework or past studies, exploratory hypotheses are guided by the data you’ve just collected.

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This annotated example reports methods for a descriptive correlational survey on the relationship between religiosity and trust in science in the US. Hover over each part for explanation of what is included.

The sample included 879 adults aged between 18 and 28. More than half of the participants were women (56%), and all participants had completed at least 12 years of education. Ethics approval was obtained from the university board before recruitment began. Participants were recruited online through Amazon Mechanical Turk (MTurk; www.mturk.com). We selected for a geographically diverse sample within the Midwest of the US through an initial screening survey. Participants were paid USD $5 upon completion of the study.

A sample size of at least 783 was deemed necessary for detecting a correlation coefficient of ±.1, with a power level of 80% and a significance level of .05, using a sample size calculator (www.sample-size.net/correlation-sample-size/).

The primary outcome measures were the levels of religiosity and trust in science. Religiosity refers to involvement and belief in religious traditions, while trust in science represents confidence in scientists and scientific research outcomes. The secondary outcome measures were gender and parental education levels of participants and whether these characteristics predicted religiosity levels.

Religiosity

Religiosity was measured using the Centrality of Religiosity scale (Huber, 2003). The Likert scale is made up of 15 questions with five subscales of ideology, experience, intellect, public practice, and private practice. An example item is “How often do you experience situations in which you have the feeling that God or something divine intervenes in your life?” Participants were asked to indicate frequency of occurrence by selecting a response ranging from 1 (very often) to 5 (never). The internal consistency of the instrument is .83 (Huber & Huber, 2012).

Trust in Science

Trust in science was assessed using the General Trust in Science index (McCright, Dentzman, Charters & Dietz, 2013). Four Likert scale items were assessed on a scale from 1 (completely distrust) to 5 (completely trust). An example question asks “How much do you distrust or trust scientists to create knowledge that is unbiased and accurate?” Internal consistency was .8.

Potential participants were invited to participate in the survey online using Qualtrics (www.qualtrics.com). The survey consisted of multiple choice questions regarding demographic characteristics, the Centrality of Religiosity scale, an unrelated filler anagram task, and finally the General Trust in Science index. The filler task was included to avoid priming or demand characteristics, and an attention check was embedded within the religiosity scale. For full instructions and details of tasks, see supplementary materials.

For this correlational study , we assessed our primary hypothesis of a relationship between religiosity and trust in science using Pearson moment correlation coefficient. The statistical significance of the correlation coefficient was assessed using a t test. To test our secondary hypothesis of parental education levels and gender as predictors of religiosity, multiple linear regression analysis was used.

If you want to know more about statistics , methodology , or research bias , make sure to check out some of our other articles with explanations and examples.

  • Normal distribution
  • Measures of central tendency
  • Chi square tests
  • Confidence interval
  • Quartiles & Quantiles

Methodology

  • Cluster sampling
  • Stratified sampling
  • Thematic analysis
  • Cohort study
  • Peer review
  • Ethnography

Research bias

  • Implicit bias
  • Cognitive bias
  • Conformity bias
  • Hawthorne effect
  • Availability heuristic
  • Attrition bias
  • Social desirability bias

In your APA methods section , you should report detailed information on the participants, materials, and procedures used.

  • Describe all relevant participant or subject characteristics, the sampling procedures used and the sample size and power .
  • Define all primary and secondary measures and discuss the quality of measurements.
  • Specify the data collection methods, the research design and data analysis strategy, including any steps taken to transform the data and statistical analyses.

You should report methods using the past tense , even if you haven’t completed your study at the time of writing. That’s because the methods section is intended to describe completed actions or research.

In a scientific paper, the methodology always comes after the introduction and before the results , discussion and conclusion . The same basic structure also applies to a thesis, dissertation , or research proposal .

Depending on the length and type of document, you might also include a literature review or theoretical framework before the methodology.

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The Effects of Climate Change

The effects of human-caused global warming are happening now, are irreversible for people alive today, and will worsen as long as humans add greenhouse gases to the atmosphere.

what is the results section in a research paper

  • We already see effects scientists predicted, such as the loss of sea ice, melting glaciers and ice sheets, sea level rise, and more intense heat waves.
  • Scientists predict global temperature increases from human-made greenhouse gases will continue. Severe weather damage will also increase and intensify.

Earth Will Continue to Warm and the Effects Will Be Profound

Effects_page_triptych

Global climate change is not a future problem. Changes to Earth’s climate driven by increased human emissions of heat-trapping greenhouse gases are already having widespread effects on the environment: glaciers and ice sheets are shrinking, river and lake ice is breaking up earlier, plant and animal geographic ranges are shifting, and plants and trees are blooming sooner.

Effects that scientists had long predicted would result from global climate change are now occurring, such as sea ice loss, accelerated sea level rise, and longer, more intense heat waves.

The magnitude and rate of climate change and associated risks depend strongly on near-term mitigation and adaptation actions, and projected adverse impacts and related losses and damages escalate with every increment of global warming.

what is the results section in a research paper

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

Some changes (such as droughts, wildfires, and extreme rainfall) are happening faster than scientists previously assessed. In fact, according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) — the United Nations body established to assess the science related to climate change — modern humans have never before seen the observed changes in our global climate, and some of these changes are irreversible over the next hundreds to thousands of years.

Scientists have high confidence that global temperatures will continue to rise for many decades, mainly due to greenhouse gases produced by human activities.

The IPCC’s Sixth Assessment report, published in 2021, found that human emissions of heat-trapping gases have already warmed the climate by nearly 2 degrees Fahrenheit (1.1 degrees Celsius) since 1850-1900. 1 The global average temperature is expected to reach or exceed 1.5 degrees C (about 3 degrees F) within the next few decades. These changes will affect all regions of Earth.

The severity of effects caused by climate change will depend on the path of future human activities. More greenhouse gas emissions will lead to more climate extremes and widespread damaging effects across our planet. However, those future effects depend on the total amount of carbon dioxide we emit. So, if we can reduce emissions, we may avoid some of the worst effects.

The scientific evidence is unequivocal: climate change is a threat to human wellbeing and the health of the planet. Any further delay in concerted global action will miss the brief, rapidly closing window to secure a liveable future.

Here are some of the expected effects of global climate change on the United States, according to the Third and Fourth National Climate Assessment Reports:

Future effects of global climate change in the United States:

sea level rise

U.S. Sea Level Likely to Rise 1 to 6.6 Feet by 2100

Global sea level has risen about 8 inches (0.2 meters) since reliable record-keeping began in 1880. By 2100, scientists project that it will rise at least another foot (0.3 meters), but possibly as high as 6.6 feet (2 meters) in a high-emissions scenario. Sea level is rising because of added water from melting land ice and the expansion of seawater as it warms. Image credit: Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0

Sun shining brightly over misty mountains.

Climate Changes Will Continue Through This Century and Beyond

Global climate is projected to continue warming over this century and beyond. Image credit: Khagani Hasanov, Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0

Satellite image of a hurricane.

Hurricanes Will Become Stronger and More Intense

Scientists project that hurricane-associated storm intensity and rainfall rates will increase as the climate continues to warm. Image credit: NASA

what is the results section in a research paper

More Droughts and Heat Waves

Droughts in the Southwest and heat waves (periods of abnormally hot weather lasting days to weeks) are projected to become more intense, and cold waves less intense and less frequent. Image credit: NOAA

2013 Rim Fire

Longer Wildfire Season

Warming temperatures have extended and intensified wildfire season in the West, where long-term drought in the region has heightened the risk of fires. Scientists estimate that human-caused climate change has already doubled the area of forest burned in recent decades. By around 2050, the amount of land consumed by wildfires in Western states is projected to further increase by two to six times. Even in traditionally rainy regions like the Southeast, wildfires are projected to increase by about 30%.

Changes in Precipitation Patterns

Climate change is having an uneven effect on precipitation (rain and snow) in the United States, with some locations experiencing increased precipitation and flooding, while others suffer from drought. On average, more winter and spring precipitation is projected for the northern United States, and less for the Southwest, over this century. Image credit: Marvin Nauman/FEMA

Crop field.

Frost-Free Season (and Growing Season) will Lengthen

The length of the frost-free season, and the corresponding growing season, has been increasing since the 1980s, with the largest increases occurring in the western United States. Across the United States, the growing season is projected to continue to lengthen, which will affect ecosystems and agriculture.

Heatmap showing scorching temperatures in U.S. West

Global Temperatures Will Continue to Rise

Summer of 2023 was Earth's hottest summer on record, 0.41 degrees Fahrenheit (F) (0.23 degrees Celsius (C)) warmer than any other summer in NASA’s record and 2.1 degrees F (1.2 C) warmer than the average summer between 1951 and 1980. Image credit: NASA

Satellite map of arctic sea ice.

Arctic Is Very Likely to Become Ice-Free

Sea ice cover in the Arctic Ocean is expected to continue decreasing, and the Arctic Ocean will very likely become essentially ice-free in late summer if current projections hold. This change is expected to occur before mid-century.

U.S. Regional Effects

Climate change is bringing different types of challenges to each region of the country. Some of the current and future impacts are summarized below. These findings are from the Third 3 and Fourth 4 National Climate Assessment Reports, released by the U.S. Global Change Research Program .

  • Northeast. Heat waves, heavy downpours, and sea level rise pose increasing challenges to many aspects of life in the Northeast. Infrastructure, agriculture, fisheries, and ecosystems will be increasingly compromised. Farmers can explore new crop options, but these adaptations are not cost- or risk-free. Moreover, adaptive capacity , which varies throughout the region, could be overwhelmed by a changing climate. Many states and cities are beginning to incorporate climate change into their planning.
  • Northwest. Changes in the timing of peak flows in rivers and streams are reducing water supplies and worsening competing demands for water. Sea level rise, erosion, flooding, risks to infrastructure, and increasing ocean acidity pose major threats. Increasing wildfire incidence and severity, heat waves, insect outbreaks, and tree diseases are causing widespread forest die-off.
  • Southeast. Sea level rise poses widespread and continuing threats to the region’s economy and environment. Extreme heat will affect health, energy, agriculture, and more. Decreased water availability will have economic and environmental impacts.
  • Midwest. Extreme heat, heavy downpours, and flooding will affect infrastructure, health, agriculture, forestry, transportation, air and water quality, and more. Climate change will also worsen a range of risks to the Great Lakes.
  • Southwest. Climate change has caused increased heat, drought, and insect outbreaks. In turn, these changes have made wildfires more numerous and severe. The warming climate has also caused a decline in water supplies, reduced agricultural yields, and triggered heat-related health impacts in cities. In coastal areas, flooding and erosion are additional concerns.

1. IPCC 2021, Climate Change 2021: The Physical Science Basis , the Working Group I contribution to the Sixth Assessment Report, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

2. IPCC, 2013: Summary for Policymakers. In: Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Stocker, T.F., D. Qin, G.-K. Plattner, M. Tignor, S.K. Allen, J. Boschung, A. Nauels, Y. Xia, V. Bex and P.M. Midgley (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA.

3. USGCRP 2014, Third Climate Assessment .

4. USGCRP 2017, Fourth Climate Assessment .

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A Degree of Difference

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what is the results section in a research paper

What’s the difference between climate change and global warming?

“Global warming” refers to the long-term warming of the planet. “Climate change” encompasses global warming, but refers to the broader range of changes that are happening to our planet, including rising sea levels; shrinking mountain glaciers; accelerating ice melt in Greenland, Antarctica and the Arctic; and shifts in flower/plant blooming times.

what is the results section in a research paper

Is it too late to prevent climate change?

Humans have caused major climate changes to happen already, and we have set in motion more changes still. However, if we stopped emitting greenhouse gases today, the rise in global temperatures would begin to flatten within a few years. Temperatures would then plateau but remain well-elevated for many, many centuries.

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  1. How to Write a Results Section

    Here are a few best practices: Your results should always be written in the past tense. While the length of this section depends on how much data you collected and analyzed, it should be written as concisely as possible. Only include results that are directly relevant to answering your research questions.

  2. Research Results Section

    The results section of the research paper presents the findings of the study. It is the part of the paper where the researcher reports the data collected during the study and analyzes it to draw conclusions. In the results section, the researcher should describe the data that was collected, the statistical analysis performed, and the findings ...

  3. PDF Results Section for Research Papers

    The results section of a research paper tells the reader what you found, while the discussion section tells the reader what your findings mean. The results section should present the facts in an academic and unbiased manner, avoiding any attempt at analyzing or interpreting the data. Think of the results section as setting the stage for the ...

  4. Reporting Research Results in APA Style

    The results section of a quantitative research paper is where you summarize your data and report the findings of any relevant statistical analyses. The APA manual provides rigorous guidelines for what to report in quantitative research papers in the fields of psychology, education, and other social sciences.

  5. How to Write the Results/Findings Section in Research

    The Results section of a scientific research paper represents the core findings of a study derived from the methods applied to gather and analyze information. It presents these findings in a logical sequence without bias or interpretation from the author, setting up the reader for later interpretation and evaluation in the Discussion section.

  6. How to write the results section of a research paper

    The results section of a research paper is usually the most impactful section because it draws the greatest attention. Regardless of the subject of your research paper, a well-written results section is capable of generating interest in your research. For detailed information and assistance on writing the results of a research paper, refer to ...

  7. 7. The Results

    However, spending time in the results section describing tangential findings clutters your overall results section and distracts the reader. A short paragraph that concludes the results section by synthesizing the key findings of the study. Highlight the most important findings you want readers to remember as they transition into the discussion ...

  8. How To Write The Results Section of A Research Paper

    The results section of a research paper is a critical component that presents the key findings derived from the study. It serves as a factual and objective account of the data collected during the research process. In this section, researchers report their observations and measurements of the hypothesis, often utilizing tables, graphs, or ...

  9. How to write Results Section of your Research Paper

    The result section is the third major part of the research paper and it's probably the most important part because it contains actual outcomes about your experiment. The other sections contain a plan, hope and interpretations but the result section is the actual truth of your study.

  10. The Principles of Biomedical Scientific Writing: Results

    The "results section" is the heart of the paper, around which the other sections are organized . Research is about results and the reader comes to the paper to discover the results . In this section, authors contribute to the development of scientific literature by providing novel, hitherto unknown knowledge .

  11. Research Guides: Writing a Scientific Paper: RESULTS

    Present the results of the paper, in logical order, using tables and graphs as necessary. Explain the results and show how they help to answer the research questions posed in the Introduction. Evidence does not explain itself; the results must be presented and then explained. Avoid: presenting results that are never discussed; presenting ...

  12. How to Write an APA Results Section

    One important section of a paper is known as the results section. An APA results section of a psychology paper summarizes the data that was collected and the statistical analyses that were performed. The goal of this section is to report the results of your study or experiment without any type of subjective interpretation.

  13. How to Present Results in a Research Paper

    The results section is the core of a research paper where the study data and analyses are presented in an organized, uncluttered manner such that the reader can easily understand and interpret the findings. It is often embellished with self-explanatory tables and figures which assist in presenting data in addition to the text.

  14. How to Write the Results Section of a Research Paper

    Step 4. Outlining the results section based on the research findings. Once you have organized your outcomes and figures, you should start writing your results section to clearly and precisely present complex information. Writing concise and precise sentences is the most effective way to accomplish this.

  15. How to write a "results section" in biomedical scientific research

    The "Results section" is the third most important anatomical structure of IMRAD (Introduction, Method and Material, Result, And Discussion) frameworks, the almost universally accepted framework in many journals in the late nineteenth century. 3 Before using a structured IMRAD format, research findings in scientific papers were presented in chronological order "First, I saw this, and then ...

  16. How To Write The Results Section of A Research Paper

    Importance of the Result Section of a Research Paper. The results section in a research paper is really important. It's like a hub where you put all the main findings and results from your study. This part is crucial because it shows exactly what data you gathered and how you analyzed it. In the academic world, the research results act as a ...

  17. How to Write the Results Section of a Research Paper

    Build coherence along this section using goal statements and explicit reasoning (guide the reader through your reasoning, including sentences of this type: 'In order to…, we performed….'; 'In view of this result, we ….', etc.). In summary, the general steps for writing the Results section of a research article are:

  18. How to Write an Effective Results Section

    Developing a well-written research paper is an important step in completing a scientific study. This paper is where the principle investigator and co-authors report the purpose, methods, findings, and conclusions of the study. A key element of writing a research paper is to clearly and objectively report the study's findings in the Results section.

  19. Organizing Academic Research Papers: 7. The Results

    The results section of the research paper is where you report the findings of your study based upon the information gathered as a result of the methodology [or methodologies] you applied. The results section should simply state the findings, without bias or interpretation, and arranged in a logical sequence. The results section should always be ...

  20. A Guide to Writing an Effective Results Section for Your Research Paper

    A results section is the third component of a research paper that follows the introduction and methodology sections. This third component provides researchers with the opportunity to objectively ...

  21. Results Section Of Research Paper: All You Need To Know

    The results section of a research paper refers to the part that represents the study's core findings from the methods that the researcher used to collect and analyze data. This section presents the results logically without interpretation or bias from the author. Thus, this part of a research paper sets up the read for evaluation and analysis ...

  22. PDF Results/Findings Sections for Empirical Research Papers

    The Results (also sometimes called Findings) section in an empirical research paper describes what the researcher(s) found when they analyzed their data. Its primary purpose is to use the data collected to answer the research question(s) posed in the introduction, even if the findings challenge the hypothesis.

  23. How to Write an APA Methods Section

    Research papers in the social and natural sciences often follow APA style. This article focuses on reporting quantitative research methods. ... Their outcomes are reported in the results section. These procedures should be stated for all primary, secondary, and exploratory hypotheses. While primary and secondary hypotheses are based on a ...

  24. Scientific Consensus

    Explore This Section Scientific Consensus. Temperature data showing rapid warming in the past few decades, the latest data going up through 2023. ... citing multiple peer-reviewed studies from research groups across the world, 1 illustrating the accuracy and consensus of research results (in this case, the scientific consensus on climate change

  25. The Effects of Climate Change

    Global climate change is not a future problem. Changes to Earth's climate driven by increased human emissions of heat-trapping greenhouse gases are already having widespread effects on the environment: glaciers and ice sheets are shrinking, river and lake ice is breaking up earlier, plant and animal geographic ranges are shifting, and plants and trees are blooming sooner.

  26. Risk-Neutral Higher Moments and the Cross-Section of Stock Returns

    I examine the pricing of risk-neutral moments in the cross-section of stock returns. Contradicting theory predictions, stocks with high option-implied skewness have empirically high average returns. While stocks with high option-implied volatility have high average returns, stocks with high option-implied kurtosis tend to have low returns.