research paper and research report similarities

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Research Paper vs Report: Breaking Down the Difference

The purpose of this article is to discuss the distinct differences between a research paper and a report. As academic writing has evolved, so too have the structures used to convey information in an organized and succinct manner. The distinctions between these two types of scholarly work are important for any student or researcher engaging in research-based activities as they can make all the difference when it comes to effectively conveying ideas and results accurately. This article will take an in-depth look at both reports and papers, discussing their similarities, differences, components, uses, and best practices for producing quality products that serve their intended purpose properly.

I. Introduction to Research Paper and Report Writing

Ii. defining the differences between a research paper and report, iii. creating an outline for your project, iv. structuring the body of your work, v. ensuring proper citation techniques are utilized in your work, vi. finalizing, editing and publishing the completed project, vii. conclusion: comparing the benefits of writing either a research paper or report.

Research Paper and Report Writing: Writing research papers and reports can be challenging, especially for students who are new to the field of academic writing. Yet these two distinct forms of written communication are essential components in higher education. It is important to understand the differences between a research paper and a report so that one can approach each assignment with clarity of purpose and expectation from their readers.

In academic writing, there are two distinct types of documents which have important distinctions: the research paper and the report. Both styles require different approaches in terms of structure and content.

A research paper is a type of composition that requires its author to investigate an idea or concept through scholarly sources; it must then be presented in a written format. This style typically focuses on one particular point or argument with evidence used to back up assertions made throughout the document.

The main purpose of this type of work is usually to inform readers about certain topics while utilizing personal analysis as well as gathering information from credible sources. As such, it often contains detailed descriptions and explanations based upon current findings within relevant subject areas.

It’s also worth noting that most research papers will contain conclusions drawn by their authors regarding their respective fields – although these can take many forms including opinions, deductions, predictions etc.

A report differs from a research paper primarily because its focus lies more upon summarizing existing material rather than introducing new ideas. It’s generally defined as an orderly account containing facts pertaining to some aspect or aspects being investigated; reports tend not to offer recommendations nor do they include critical assessments. Reports are designed for specific audiences – academics, businesses etc., meaning they should always adhere closely to established guidelines depending on their target reader-base. Additionally, while visual elements may be included such as diagrams/charts/pictures etc.; text makes up the majority of any given report – usually accompanied by headings so points can easily be referenced at later stages.

Organizing Your Ideas Developing an outline for your project is one of the most important steps in the writing process. Not only will it help you get organized, but it also helps to set up a timeline and structure that can be followed while working on each section. Additionally, creating an outline allows you to brainstorm ideas related to your topic and decide which points are worth exploring further during research. When crafting an outline, two main elements must be taken into account: the type of paper being written (research paper or report) as well as its purpose (informative or persuasive). Depending on whether a student is tasked with producing a research paper or report for their assignment, they should tailor their outlining approach accordingly. Research papers typically include more detailed information compared to reports because they explore topics from different angles and require greater analysis from the author’s end; whereas reports focus mainly on summarising collected data rather than drawing conclusions about them.

When writing a research paper, you are creating something that is meant to be read and understood by an audience. It’s important to structure the body of your work in such a way as to make it easier for readers to follow along with the information being presented. The same holds true when structuring reports.

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When putting together your research paper, create clear and concise points which explain why or how certain things occur within the subject material being discussed. Additionally, try including sources from credible authors who have conducted similar studies on this topic for added credibility. Finally, use subheadings throughout each section of your essay so that readers can easily move between topics without having to re-read previous paragraphs or pages.

Correct Citation Practices for Reports and Research Papers

Having the correct citation practices in place is essential to any report or research paper. Properly citing sources helps ensure accuracy of information, provides readers with further resources for additional context, and helps to protect you from plagiarism. To create effective citations, there are a few key steps that should be followed.

The first step is understanding the difference between reports and research papers – as each type will have different requirements when it comes to citation techniques. A report is an organized collection of facts related to a certain topic; these types of documents usually do not require citations but still need accurate documentation if needed information came from another source (such as books or articles). On the other hand, a research paper requires more than just listing facts – it requires critical analysis which means citations must be used throughout in order reference work done by other authors. When creating citations within this kind of document its important they follow whatever format has been specified (e.g., APA style).

  • (Italicize) Report: An organized collection of facts relating to a certain topic.
  • (Bold) Research Paper: Requires critical analysis and needs references throughout using an appropriate citation style such as APA.

The process of finalizing, editing and publishing a completed project can be overwhelming but also highly rewarding. Once you have achieved the desired results from your hard work and research, it’s time to bring all the pieces together for presentation to an audience.

It is important to note that there are different approaches when finalizing projects depending on whether it is a report or a research paper. Reports typically involve summarizing findings in easy-to-understand language, while research papers may require more depth as well as citing sources throughout the document.

  • When finalizing reports:

Ensure data accuracy by verifying facts before presenting them; make sure content is concisely written with clarity; review any visuals included in order to ensure they accurately portray ideas being discussed; proofread multiple times before sharing information with colleagues or readership at large.

  • When finalizing research papers:

Perform extensive literature reviews on topics related to main argument(s) made within paper; include citations where appropriate according to chosen formatting style guidelines (APA, MLA etc); double check if any interviews conducted during course of investigation need additional context added prior to submission/publication; use own voice throughout text but remain objective when making statements about other scholars’ works.

In conclusion, both research papers and reports offer distinct advantages. While it may be difficult to definitively say which type of writing is better overall, the right one for a given situation can depend on an individual’s needs or interests.

Research papers are beneficial when trying to dive deeply into any given topic. They often involve extensive research from outside sources as well as original analysis by the author. Additionally, they can also provide valuable perspectives that help readers gain new insights about their subject matter in a unique way.

On the other hand, reports present information in a more straightforward manner with fewer details than what’s found in research papers but still enough substance to make them useful for decision-making processes or problem solving tasks where precise facts need to be presented quickly and accurately. They tend to focus more on summaries rather than interpretations while avoiding excessive technical jargon so they remain accessible even if readers don’t have expert knowledge of the subject being discussed.

  • It’s clear that each form of writing has its own set of benefits

, making them both essential components of scholarly communication no matter what field you specialize in!

English: In conclusion, the difference between a research paper and a report is of great significance. Research papers require more in-depth exploration into the subject matter while reports are typically summaries or reviews of relevant information on an issue. It is important to recognize this distinction when approaching any writing assignment that may require either format. By understanding what constitutes each type of document, students can develop their skills in both areas as well as become better equipped to tackle challenging academic tasks with confidence.

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Q. What's the difference between a report and a research paper?

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Answered By: Brooke Gilmore Last Updated: Jan 12, 2022     Views: 62405

research paper and research report similarities

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research paper and research report similarities

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Writing a Paper: Comparing & Contrasting

A compare and contrast paper discusses the similarities and differences between two or more topics. The paper should contain an introduction with a thesis statement, a body where the comparisons and contrasts are discussed, and a conclusion.

Address Both Similarities and Differences

Because this is a compare and contrast paper, both the similarities and differences should be discussed. This will require analysis on your part, as some topics will appear to be quite similar, and you will have to work to find the differing elements.

Make Sure You Have a Clear Thesis Statement

Just like any other essay, a compare and contrast essay needs a thesis statement. The thesis statement should not only tell your reader what you will do, but it should also address the purpose and importance of comparing and contrasting the material.

Use Clear Transitions

Transitions are important in compare and contrast essays, where you will be moving frequently between different topics or perspectives.

  • Examples of transitions and phrases for comparisons: as well, similar to, consistent with, likewise, too
  • Examples of transitions and phrases for contrasts: on the other hand, however, although, differs, conversely, rather than.

For more information, check out our transitions page.

Structure Your Paper

Consider how you will present the information. You could present all of the similarities first and then present all of the differences. Or you could go point by point and show the similarity and difference of one point, then the similarity and difference for another point, and so on.

Include Analysis

It is tempting to just provide summary for this type of paper, but analysis will show the importance of the comparisons and contrasts. For instance, if you are comparing two articles on the topic of the nursing shortage, help us understand what this will achieve. Did you find consensus between the articles that will support a certain action step for people in the field? Did you find discrepancies between the two that point to the need for further investigation?

Make Analogous Comparisons

When drawing comparisons or making contrasts, be sure you are dealing with similar aspects of each item. To use an old cliché, are you comparing apples to apples?

  • Example of poor comparisons: Kubista studied the effects of a later start time on high school students, but Cook used a mixed methods approach. (This example does not compare similar items. It is not a clear contrast because the sentence does not discuss the same element of the articles. It is like comparing apples to oranges.)
  • Example of analogous comparisons: Cook used a mixed methods approach, whereas Kubista used only quantitative methods. (Here, methods are clearly being compared, allowing the reader to understand the distinction.

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Research Proposal vs. Research Report

What's the difference.

A research proposal and a research report are both essential components of the research process, but they serve different purposes. A research proposal is a document that outlines the objectives, methodology, and significance of a research project. It is typically submitted to gain approval and funding for the research. On the other hand, a research report is a detailed account of the research findings, analysis, and conclusions. It presents the results of the research in a structured and organized manner, often including tables, graphs, and references. While a research proposal focuses on the planning and design of the study, a research report focuses on the actual execution and outcomes of the research.

Further Detail

Introduction.

Research is an essential component of academic and professional endeavors, providing a systematic approach to gather and analyze information. Two crucial elements of the research process are the research proposal and the research report. While both serve distinct purposes, they share common attributes that contribute to the overall success of a research project. This article aims to explore and compare the attributes of research proposals and research reports, highlighting their significance in the research process.

Research Proposal

A research proposal is a document that outlines the objectives, methodology, and potential outcomes of a research project. It serves as a blueprint for the research, providing a comprehensive plan that guides the researcher throughout the process. The key attributes of a research proposal include:

  • Introduction: The research proposal begins with an introduction that provides background information on the topic, highlights the research problem, and establishes the significance of the study.
  • Research Questions or Objectives: The proposal clearly states the research questions or objectives that the study aims to address. These questions or objectives guide the entire research process and help in formulating a focused approach.
  • Literature Review: A research proposal includes a literature review that critically analyzes existing research and identifies gaps in knowledge. This review helps to establish the rationale for the proposed study and demonstrates the researcher's familiarity with the subject area.
  • Methodology: The methodology section outlines the research design, data collection methods, and data analysis techniques that will be employed. It provides a detailed plan for how the research will be conducted, ensuring transparency and replicability.
  • Timeline and Budget: A research proposal often includes a timeline that outlines the expected duration of the study and a budget that estimates the required resources. These elements help to assess the feasibility and practicality of the proposed research.

Research Report

A research report is a comprehensive document that presents the findings, analysis, and conclusions of a research study. It serves as a means of communicating the research outcomes to the intended audience, whether it be academic peers, industry professionals, or policymakers. The key attributes of a research report include:

  • Abstract: The research report begins with an abstract that provides a concise summary of the study, including the research questions, methodology, key findings, and conclusions. It allows readers to quickly grasp the essence of the research.
  • Introduction: Similar to the research proposal, the research report includes an introduction that provides background information and establishes the context for the study. It also outlines the research problem and objectives.
  • Methodology: The methodology section in the research report describes in detail the research design, data collection methods, and data analysis techniques employed. It allows readers to assess the validity and reliability of the study.
  • Results and Analysis: The research report presents the findings of the study, often accompanied by statistical analysis, graphs, and tables. It provides a detailed account of the data collected and the outcomes of the analysis.
  • Discussion and Conclusion: The discussion section interprets the results in light of the research objectives and compares them with existing literature. It highlights the significance of the findings and their implications. The conclusion summarizes the key findings and offers recommendations for future research or practical applications.
  • References: A research report includes a comprehensive list of references cited throughout the document. This allows readers to access the sources and verify the accuracy of the information presented.

Comparing Attributes

While research proposals and research reports have distinct purposes, they share several common attributes that contribute to the overall success of a research project. These attributes include:

  • Clarity and Structure: Both research proposals and research reports require clear and logical organization. They should be well-structured, with headings and subheadings that guide the reader through the document.
  • Research Objectives: Both documents clearly state the research objectives or questions that guide the study. This ensures that the research remains focused and addresses the intended goals.
  • Methodology: Both research proposals and research reports describe the research methodology, including the research design, data collection methods, and data analysis techniques. This transparency allows others to assess the validity and reliability of the research.
  • Relevance and Significance: Both documents establish the relevance and significance of the research. They provide a rationale for why the study is important and how it contributes to existing knowledge or addresses a research gap.
  • Evidence-Based Approach: Both research proposals and research reports rely on evidence-based approaches. They draw upon existing literature, theories, and empirical data to support their arguments and findings.

In conclusion, research proposals and research reports are integral components of the research process, each serving distinct purposes. While the research proposal outlines the plan and objectives of the study, the research report presents the findings and conclusions. However, both documents share common attributes such as clarity, structure, research objectives, methodology, relevance, and evidence-based approaches. Understanding and effectively utilizing these attributes contribute to the success of a research project, ensuring that it is well-planned, executed, and communicated to the intended audience.

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Home » Education » Difference Between Research Proposal and Research Report

Difference Between Research Proposal and Research Report

Main difference –  research proposal vs research report.

Research proposal and research report are two terms that often confuse many student researchers. A research proposal describes what the researcher intends to do in his research study and is written before the collection and analysis of data. A research report describes the whole research study and is submitted after the competition of the whole research project. Thus, the main difference between research proposal and research report is that a research proposal describes the proposed research and research design whereas a research report describes the completed research, including the findings, conclusion, and recommendations.

This article explains, 

1. What is a Research Proposal?      – Definition, Purpose, Content, and Characteristics

2. What is a Research Report?      – Definition, Purpose, Content, and Characteristics

Difference Between Research Proposal and Research Report - Comparison Summary

What is a Research Proposal

A research proposal is a brief and coherent summary of the proposed research study, which is prepared at the beginning of a research project. The aim of a research proposal is to justify the need for a specific research proposal and present the practical methods and ways to conduct the proposed research. In other words, a research proposal presents the proposed design of the study and justifies the necessity of the specific research. Thus, a research proposal describes what you intend to do and why you intend to do it.

A research proposal generally contains the following segments:

  • Introduction / Context/ Background
  • Literature Review
  • Research Methods and Methodology
  • Research question
  • Aims and Objectives
  • List of Reference

Each of these segments is indispensable to a research proposal. For example, it’s impossible to write a research proposal without reading related work and writing a literature review. Similarly, it’s not possible to decide a methodology without determining specific research questions.

Main Difference - Research Proposal vs Research Report

What is a Research Report

A research report is a document that is submitted at the end of a research project. This describes the completed research project. It describes the data collection, analysis, and the results as well. Thus, in addition to the sections mentioned above, this also includes sections such as,

  • Conclusions
  • Shortcomings
  • Recommendations

A research report is also known as a thesis or dissertation. A research report is not research plan or a proposed design. It describes what was actually done during the research project and what was learned from it. Research reports are usually longer than research proposals since they contain step-by-step processes of the research.

Difference Between Research Proposal and Research Report

Research Proposal: Research Proposal describes what the researcher intends to do and why he intends to do it.

Research Report: Research report describes what the researcher has done, why he has done it, and the results he has achieved.

Research Proposal: Research proposals are written at the beginning of a research proposal before the research project actually begins.

Research Report: Research reports are completed after the completion of the whole research project.

Research Proposal: Research proposals contain sections such as introduction/background, literature review, research questions, methodology, aims and objective.

Research Report: Research reports contain sections such as introduction/background, literature review, research questions, methodology, aims and objective, findings, analysis, results, conclusion, recommendations, citation.

Research Proposal: Research proposals are shorter in length.

Research Report: Research reports are longer than research proposals.

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Know the Differences & Comparisons

Difference Between Research Proposal and Research Report

research-proposal-vs-research-report

On the other hand, a research report is the culmination of the research endeavour. It is a great way to explain the research work and its outcome to a group of people. It is the outcome of the study conducted at the time of the research process.

This article will help you understand the difference between research proposal and research report.

Content: Research Proposal Vs Research Report

Comparison chart, definition of research proposal.

Research Proposal can be defined as the document prepared by the researcher so as to give a description of the research program in detail. It is typically a request for research funding, for the subject under study. In other words, a research proposal is a summary of the research process, with which the reader can get quick information regarding the research project.

The research proposal seeks final approval, for which it is submitted to the relevant authority. After the research proposal is submitted, it is being evaluated, considering a number of factors like the cost involved, potential impact, soundness of the plan to undertake the project.

It aims at presenting and justifying the need and importance to carry out the study, as well as to present the practical ways, of conducting the research. And for this, persuasive evidence should be provided in the research proposal, to highlight the necessity of the research.

Further, it must discuss the main issues and questions, which the researcher will address in the study. Along with that, it must highlight the fundamental area of the research study.

A research proposal can be prepared in a number of formats, which differs on the basis of their length. It contains an introduction, problem hypothesis, objectives, assumptions, methodology, justification and implication of the research project.

Definition of Research Report

Research Report can be defined as the document in which the researched and analysed data is organized and presented by the researcher in a systematic manner. It is a publication, comprising of the purpose, scope, hypothesis, methodology, findings, limitations, recommendations and conclusion of the research project.

Simply put, a research report is the record of the research process. It is one of the most important segments of the research, as the research work is said to be incomplete if the report is not prepared.

A research report is a document containing collected and considered facts, taken to provide succinct and comprehensible information to people.

Once the research process is over, the entire work is produced in a written material, which is called a research report . It covers the description of the research activities, in an elaborated manner. It contains Introduction, Literature Review, Methodology, Data Collection, Data Analysis, Discussion of Results and Findings, Bibliography and Appendices.

A research report acts as a method to record the research work and its outcome, for future reference.

Key Differences Between Research Proposal and Research Report

The difference between research proposal and research report is discussed as under:

  • A research proposal signifies a theoretical framework within which the research is carried out. In finer terms, a research proposal is a sketch for the collection, measurement and analysis of data. A research report implies a scientific write-up on the research findings, which is prepared in a specific format.
  • While the preparation of a research proposal is considered as the first step to research work, preparation of a research report is the final step to the research work.
  • A research proposal is prepared at the beginning of the project. In contrast, the research report is prepared after the completion of the project
  • A research proposal is written in the future tense, whereas the tense used in the research report is past tense, as well as it is written in the third person
  • The length of a research proposal is about 4-10 pages. On the contrary, the length of the research report is about 100 to 300 pages.
  • The research proposal is concerned with the problem or topic to be investigated. Conversely, the research report focuses on the results of the completed research work.
  • The research proposal determines what will be researched, the relevance of the research and the ways to conduct the researched. As against, the research report determines what is researched, sources of data collection, ways of data collection (i.e. survey, interview, or questionnaire), result and findings, recommendations for future research, etc.
  • Research Proposal includes three chapters i.e. Introduction, Literature Review, Research Methodology. Contrastingly, Research Report covers the following chapters – Introduction, Literature Review, Research Methodology, Results, Interpretation and Analysis, Conclusion and Recommendation.

Basically, a research proposal defines the planning stage of the research work, which is prepared in written format, to know its worth. On the other hand, the research report signifies the concluding stage of the research work.

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Difference Between Research Paper and Research Report

Difference Between Research Paper and Research Report

Research Paper Definition

The research paper is, in fact, the complete & careful exploration of some specific topic or issue and reaching the results by interpreting the facts. In the research paper , the author writes about all the realistic implications of the research and its uses in the real scenario.

Research Report Definition

The research report is, in fact, a totally different piece of document that encloses the information regarding your research that what kind of investigation has been conducted in your research paper and for what purpose & in which circumstances you have conducted that research.

Research Paper and Research Report Comparison

Major Differences Between the Research Paper and Research Report

  • By reading the definition only, it is easily recognized able fact that research paper represents the whole research process; on the other hand research report actually represents the concise overview and description about the complete research paper .
  • Besides the definition of both, the main difference between a research paper and research report can be easily recognized only by having an overview of its complete format . Research paper encloses more chapters than the research report as a complete document. A fine research paper starts with a general introduction of the topic, and then includes a literature review of the other researchers regarding the same topic, a methodology that how you are going to do that research, results, and interpretation of the figures presented in the results. Most effective and thorough researches also narrate the importance of the research, implications and also the shortfalls of your research as well. Contrary to it, the research report cannot explain too much data about the research. Its main purpose is to enclose the course of action, results, and significance of the specific research papers which is to be discussed.
  • From the above point discussed, it becomes obvious that research paper is a lengthy document because it encloses more chapters than that of the research report. Contrary to it the research report is the summarised overview of the important points of a specific research paper.
  • Research paper in its literature section reviews the ideas and analysis of other researchers who already have done work on the same topic but may be in the different scenario. On the other hand, research report cannot discuss the research or investigations of other researchers but it only explains the procedure, conclusion, and importance of a specific research paper.
  • The research paper can present the citations and quotations from other author’s papers along with their references or it can also narrate the ideas presented in books or movies about that topic or research in order to support your own research. However, the research report cannot narrate any kind of supportive material but only about the specifications and findings of your research work.
  • Research paper and research report both are different from each other because the main purpose of both documents varies from each other. The main purpose of the research paper is to convince the readers that variables discussed in the specific research have some sort of relationship with each other and to persuade effectively writer have to quote previous researches with the same kind of experimentation or research done. On the other hand, the purpose of the research report is to provide information only. The research report provides the summarise information about the research being done; it can never be used to convince about any argument.
  • Another distinction between both of them is that research paper will be based on a question or a query. Main focus of the author of the research paper will be to address the query which is stated as question or ambiguity in the start of the research paper. All efforts of the author will be inclined to provide the logic to the given or anticipated relation between two or more variables. On the other hand, the research report can never address any question or query. It is developed just to recap the important details of the targeted research paper.
  • Moreover, the research report is focused to scrutinize and infer from given information. It involves arguments & logics along with gathering data. In contrast to it, the research report doesn’t need to involve any argument, analysis or interpretation of the results.
  • Last but not the least research paper is a document that will be helpful in bringing distinctive and unique knowledge at the end of the research. Because research done in it is necessary to be conducted in different scenario or experimentation with a new combination of variables but research report is never inclined to do the same, It can never bring any new idea or knowledge in any case.

Also Study: 800+ Research Paper Examples

Characteristics of a Good Research Paper and Research Report

It has become very clear from all the above discussion that research paper and research report, both are a very different document from each other. But another fact is that there are some qualities and characteristics that may be common in both and all these qualities must be there in both documents to make them meaningful and worthy for reading.

  • All the information given in the script should be based on facts only. No information should be imaginary or doubtful in any manner. Moreover, the information provided quotations or any research done by other researchers being quoted in the research paper should be provided with proofs and proper references.
  • Language used for writing both types of documents must be clear and easy to understand. Use of jargons is strictly prohibited. Moreover, technical words must be used if necessary because more use of technical words will make it difficult for the reader to maintain attention in reading the whole paper. Easy and clear wording will make it more reader-friendly and understandable.
  • It is also very necessary that document developed must be free of errors and there must be no duplication of any information in a single document. Duplication of information will directly lead to the decline in the interest of the reader & he will stop reading that document. Moreover, errors and doubtful information will decline the worth of the paper as well as the writer.
  • The format of the research should be well prepared and its structure must be according to requirements. Otherwise, the document will lose its authenticity in the real sense.
  • The manuscript developed, whether the research paper or research report must be oriented towards the result. Procedure, survey, and methodology every step should be inclined towards factual and clear results. If the results are ambiguous until the end, the whole effort of writing the document will be devastated. Moreover, each and every line is written should maintain an ethical reporting style in itself.

These qualities must be there in both documents in order to maintain the quality of the work and enhance the understanding of the manuscript for the readers. Any document, whether Research paper or research report must have these qualities, to attract the attention of the reader and make them read & understand the complete manuscript till the end.

Importance of understanding the differences between the research paper and Research Report

It is really necessary to understand the differences between the research paper and research report both. Because commonly these terms may be confused if asked generally but both types of documents have very different formats and designed to serve very different purposes. As research paper is a complete document in which each and every step of exploring a specific issue is documented along with guidance & support from the previous researches which are properly cited and referenced. On the other hand, the research report doesn’t have any concern with other researches, but it is restricted to give a concise summary of a specific research only. No other previous research is being discussed in the research report. So understanding and learning about the differences and characteristics of a good research paper and a research report will really contribute to add in the worth of the research.

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  • v.35(27); 2020 Jul 13

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Similarity and Plagiarism in Scholarly Journal Submissions: Bringing Clarity to the Concept for Authors, Reviewers and Editors

Aamir raoof memon.

Institute of Physiotherapy & Rehabilitation Sciences, Peoples University of Medical & Health Sciences for Women, Nawabshah (Shaheed Benazirabad), Sindh, Pakistan.

INTRODUCTION

What constitutes plagiarism? What are the methods to detect plagiarism? How do “plagiarism detection tools” assist in detecting plagiarism? What is the difference between plagiarism and similarity index? These are probably the most common questions regarding plagiarism that many research experts in scientific writing are usually faced with, but a definitive answer to them is less known to many. According to a report published in 2018, papers retracted for plagiarism have sharply increased over the last two decades, with higher rates in developing and non-English speaking countries. 1 Several studies have reported similar findings with Iran, China, India, Japan, Korea, Italy, Romania, Turkey, and France amongst the countries with highest number of retractions due to plagiarism. 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 A study reported that duplication of text, figures or tables without appropriate referencing accounted for 41.3% of post-2009 retractions of papers published from India. 5 In Pakistan, Journal of Pakistan Medical Association started a special section titled “Learning Research” and published a couple of papers on research writing skills, research integrity and scientific misconduct. 6 , 7 However, the problem has not been adequately addressed and specific issues about it remain unresolved and unclear. According to an unpublished data based on 1,679 students from four universities of Pakistan, 85.5% did not have a clear understanding of the difference between similarity index and plagiarism (unpublished data). Smart et al. 8 in their global survey of editors reported that around 63% experienced some plagiarized submissions, with Asian editors experiencing the highest levels of plagiarized/duplicated content. In some papers, journals from non-English speaking countries have specifically discussed the cases of plagiarized submissions to them and have highlighted the drawbacks in relying on similarity checking programs. 9 , 10 , 11 The cases of plagiarism in non-English speaking countries have a strong message for honest researchers that they should improve their English writing skills and credit used sources by properly citing and referencing them. 12

Despite aggregating literature on plagiarism from non-Anglophonic countries, the answers to the aforementioned questions remain unclear. In order to answer these questions, it is important to have a thorough understanding of plagiarism and bring clarity to the less known issues about it. Therefore, this paper aims to 1) define plagiarism and growth in its prevalence as well as literature on it; 2) explain the difference between similarity and plagiarism; 3) discuss the role of similarity checking tools in detecting plagiarism and the flaws on completely relying on them; and 4) discuss the phenomenon called Trojan citation. At the end, suggestions are provided for authors and editors from developing countries so that this issue maybe collectively addressed.

Defining plagiarism and its prevalence in manuscripts

To begin with, plagiarism maybe defined as “ when somebody presents the published or unpublished work of others, including ideas, scholarly text, images, research design and data, as new and original rather than crediting the existing source of it. ” 13 The common types of plagiarism, including direct, mosaic, paraphrasing, intentional (covert) or unintentional (accidental) plagiarism, and self-plagiarism have been discussed in previous reviews. 14 , 15 , 16

Evidence suggests that the first paper accused for plagiarism was published in 1979 and there has been a substantial growth in the cases of plagiarism over time. 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 8 , 17 Previous studies have pointed that plagiarism is prevalent in developing and non-English speaking countries but the occurrence of plagiarism in developed countries suggests that it is rather a global problem. 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 18 , 19 , 20 As of today (1 April 2020), the search conducted in Retraction Database ( http://retractiondatabase.org/RetractionSearch.aspx ?) for papers retracted for plagiarism found 2,280 documents. Similarly, Scopus search for plagiarism in title of journal articles found 2,159 results. This suggests that the papers retracted for plagiarism are in fact higher than the papers published on this issue. However, what we see now may not necessary be true i.e., the cases of plagiarism might be higher than we know. Certainly, database search for papers tagged for plagiarism is limited to indexed journals only, which keeps non-indexed journals (both low-quality and deceptive journals) out of focus. 5 , 21 Moreover, journal coverage may vary from one database to the other as reported in a recent paper on research dissemination in South Asia. 22 Therefore, both the prevalence of plagiarism and literature published on it as reported by database search are most likely “ understated as of today .” 5

Reasons for plagiarism: lack of understanding and poor citing practices

Although reasons for plagiarism are complex, previous papers have suggested possible causes for plagiarism by authors. 16 , 23 , 24 , 25 , 26 One of the major but less known reason for this might be that the students, naïve researchers, and even some faculty members either lack clarity about what constitutes plagiarism or are unable to differentiate similarity index versus plagiarism. 24 , 26 , 27 For example, a recent online survey conducted on the participants in the AuthorAID MOOC on Research Writing found that 84.4% of the survey participants were unaware of the difference between similarity index and plagiarism, though almost all of them had reported having an understanding of plagiarism. 24 The same paper reported that one in three participants admitted that they had plagiarized at some point during their academic career. 24 Therefore, it is important to have clarity about what constitutes plagiarism and the difference between similarity index and plagiarism so that the increasing rates of plagiarism could be deterred.

The ‘existing source’ or ‘original source’ in the definition of plagiarism refers to the main (primary) source and not the source (secondary) from where the author extracts the information. For example, someone cites a paper for a passage on mechanism of how exercise affects sleep but the cited paper aims to determine the prevalence of sleep disorders and exercise level rather than the mechanistic association. A thorough evaluation finds that the cited paper had used the text from another review paper that talked about the mechanisms relating sleep with exercise behavior. This phenomenon of improper secondary (or indirect) citations may be common among students and novice researchers, particularly from developing countries, and should be discouraged. 27

SIMILARITY INDEX

Plagiarism vs. similarity index and the role of similarity checking tools.

Plagiarism as defined above refers to the intentional (covert) or unintentional (accidental) theft of published or unpublished intellectual property (i.e., words or ideas), whereas similarity index refers to “ the extent of overlap or match between an author's work compared to other existing sources (books, websites, student thesis, and research articles) in the databases of similarity checking tools. ” 9 , 24 The advancements in information technology has helped researchers get help from various freely available (i.e., Viper, eTBLAST/HelioBLAST, PlagScan, PlagiarismDetect, Antiplagiat, Plagiarisma, DupliChecker) and subscription-based (i.e., iThenticate, Turnitin, Similarity Check) similarity checking tools. 8 , 24 Many journal editors use iThenticate and/or Similarity Check (Crossref) for screening submitted manuscripts for similarity detection whereas Turnitin is commonly used by universities and faculty to assess text similarity in students' work; however, there is a fairness issue that not every journal or university, particularly those from developing countries, can afford to pay for using these subscription-based services. 28 For instance, an online survey found that only about 18% participants could use Turnitin through their university subscription. 24 Another problem is the way these tools are commonly referred to as i.e., plagiarism detection tools, plagiarism checking software, or plagiarism detection programs. However, based on the function they perform, it would be appropriate to call them differently, such as similarity checking tools, similarity checkers, text-matching tools, or simply text-duplicity detection tools. 5 , 8 , 23 This means that these tools help locate matching or overlapping text (similarity) in submitted work, without directly flagging up plagiarism. 24

Taking Turnitin as an example, these tools reflect the text similarity through color codes, each linked to an online source of it; details for this have been described elsewhere. 23 , 28 Journal editors, universities and some organizations consider text above specific cutoff values for the percentage of similarity as problematic. According to a paper, 5% or less text similarity (overlap of the text in the manuscript with text in the online literature) is acceptable to some journal editors, while others might want to put the manuscript under scrutiny if the text similarity is over 20%. 29 , 30 Another paper observed that journal editors tend to reject a manuscript if text similarity is above 10%. 31 The study on participants completing the AuthorAID MOOC on Research Writing also found that some participants reported that their institutions consider text similarity of less than 20% as acceptable. 24 As an example, the guidelines of the University Grants Commission of India allow for similarity up to 10% as acceptable or minor (Level 0), but anything above is categorized into different levels (based on the percentages), each with separate list of repercussions for students and researchers. 32 This approach might miss the cases where the acceptable similarity of 10% comes from a single source, especially if the editors relied on the numbers only. In addition, this approach has the potential for punishing authors who have not committed plagiarism at all. To illustrate this, the randomly written text presented in Fig. 1 would be considered plagiarism based on the rule of cutoff values. Some authors opine that text with over four consecutive words or a number of word strings should be treated as plagiarized. 28 , 33 This again is not a good idea as the text “the International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to measure …” would be same in several papers, but this is definitely not plagiarism because the methodology of different papers on the same topic could be similar; so, the decision should not be based on the numbers reflected by similarity detection tools. 28 Therefore, it would be prudent not to set any cutoff values for text similarity as it will lead to a slippery slope (“a course of action that seems to lead inevitably from one action or result to another with unintended consequences” –defined by Merriam-Webster Dictionary ) and give “a sense of impunity to the perpetrators.” 32

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Drawbacks of similarity checking tools

There are a few drawbacks on completely relying on the similarity checking tools. First, these tools are not foolproof and might miss the incidents of translational plagiarism and figure plagiarism. 24 Translational plagiarism is the most invisible type of copying in non-Anglophone countries where an article published in languages other than English is copied (with or without minor modifications) and published in an English journal or vice versa. 10 This is indeed extremely difficult type of plagiarism to detect, and different approaches (e.g., use of Google translator) to address it have been recently reported. 34 , 35 Nevertheless, there might be some cases where this practice maybe acceptable, such as publishing policy papers (see “ Identifying predatory or pseudo-journals” – this paper was published in International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine , National Medical Journal of India , and Biochemia Medica in 2017 by authors affiliated with World Association of Medical Editors (WAME) – or “The revised guidelines of the Medical Council of India for academic promotions: Need for a rethink” – this paper was published in over ten journals during 2016 by four journal editors and endorsed by members (not all) of the Indian Association of Medical Journal Editors, for example). Second, text similarity in some parts of manuscript (i.e., methods and results) should be weighed differently from other sections (i.e., introduction and discussions) and its conclusions. 31 In addition, based on the personal experience of the author of this paper, some individuals might use a sophisticated technique to avoid detection of high similarity through the use of inappropriate synonyms, jargon, and deliberate grammatical and structural errors in the text of the manuscript. Third, plagiarism of ideas may be missed by these tools as they can only detect plagiarism of words. 23 , 32 Therefore, similarity checking tools tend to underestimate plagiarized text or sometimes overestimate non-plagiarized material as problematic ( Fig. 1 ). 24 , 36 It should be noted that these tools serve as only an aid to determine suspected instances of plagiarism and the text of the manuscript should always be evaluated by experts, so “a careful human cannot be replaced.” 31 , 37 A few papers published in the Journal of Korean Medical Science have presented the examples where plagiarized content was missed by similarity checking tools and later noticed after a careful examination of the text. 9 , 10 Finally, plagiarism of unpublished work cannot be detected by these tools as they are limited to online sources only. 23 This is particularly important in the context of developing countries where research theses/dissertations of students are not deposited in research repositories, and where commercial, predatory editing and brokering services exist. 10 , 38 For example, the research repository of the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan allows deposition of doctoral theses only, and less than five universities (out of over 150) across the country have a research repository allowing for deposition of scholarly content. 38 Recently some strange trend of predatory editing and brokering services has emerged that offer clones of previously published papers or unpublished work to non-Anglophone or some lazy authors demanding quick and easy route to publications for promotion and career advancement. 10 Although plagiarism of unpublished work would not be easy for experts to detect, this may be possible through their previous experience and scholarly networks.

TROJAN CITATION: PERSONAL EXPERIENCE

A recent experience worth discussion in context to plagiarism comes in the shape of the Trojan citation where someone “ makes reference to a source one time to in order to evade detection (by editors and readers) of bad intentions and provide cover for a deeper, more pervasive plagiarism. ” 39 This practice is particularly common in those with an intent of deceiving the readers and playing with the system. A few months ago, the author of this paper was invited to review a manuscript on predatory publishing by a journal. The content of the manuscript appeared suspicious but was not labelled “plagiarized” during the first round of the review. However, during the second round, it was noticed that this was a case of Trojan citation where the author(s) cited the main source for a minor point and copied the major part of the manuscript from a paper published in Biochemia Medica (a Croatian journal) with slight modification in the content. 40 The editor of the journal was informed about this and the manuscript was rejected further processing. This example suggests that careful human intervention by experts is required to highlight the cases of plagiarism.

In conclusion, what we know about the growth in the prevalence of plagiarism may be ‘just the tip of the iceberg’. Therefore, collective contribution from authors, reviewers, and editors, particularly from Asia-Pacific region, is required. Authors from the Asia-Pacific region and developing countries, with an expertise on this topic, should play their role by supporting journal editors and through their mentorship skills. Furthermore, senior researchers should encourage and help their honors and master students to publish their unpublished work before it gets stolen by commercial, brokering agencies. They should also work in close collaboration with universities and organizations related with higher education in countries where this issue is not properly addressed, and should facilitate education and training sessions on plagiarism as previous evidence suggests that workshops and online training sessions may be helpful. 5 On the other hand, journal editors from Asia-Pacific region and developing countries should not judge the manuscripts solely on the basis of percentage of similarity as reflected by similarity checking services. They should have a database of their own where manuscripts about plagiarism in scientific writing, for example, should be sent for review to the experts on this subject. As journal editors may not be experts in all fields, networking and seeking help from experts would be helpful in avoiding the cases of plagiarism in the future. It would be appropriate that the journal editors and the trainee editors, particularly from the resource-limited countries, are educated about the concept of scientific misconduct and the advancement in knowledge around this area. Moreover, journal editors should publish and publically discuss the cases of plagiarism as a learning experience for others. The Journal of Korean Medical Science has used this approach regarding cases of plagiarism, which other journals from the region are encouraged to adopt. 9 , 10 Likewise, a paper discussing case scenarios of salami publication (i.e., “ a distinct form of redundant publication which is usually characterized by similarity of hypothesis, methodology or results but not text similarity ”) serves as a good example of how journal editors may facilitate authors to utilize their mentorship skills and support journals in educating researchers. 41 There should be strict penalties on cases of plagiarism, and safety measures for security of whistleblowers should be in place and be ensured. By doing so, evil and lazy authors who bypass the system would be punished and honest authors would be served. Thus, the take-home message for editors from Asia-Pacific region is that a collective effort and commitment from authors, reviewers, editors and policy-makers is required to address the problem of plagiarism, especially in the developing and non-English speaking countries.

Disclosure: The author has no potential conflicts of interest to disclose.

AI Index Report

Welcome to the seventh edition of the AI Index report. The 2024 Index is our most comprehensive to date and arrives at an important moment when AI’s influence on society has never been more pronounced. This year, we have broadened our scope to more extensively cover essential trends such as technical advancements in AI, public perceptions of the technology, and the geopolitical dynamics surrounding its development. Featuring more original data than ever before, this edition introduces new estimates on AI training costs, detailed analyses of the responsible AI landscape, and an entirely new chapter dedicated to AI’s impact on science and medicine.

Read the 2024 AI Index Report

The AI Index report tracks, collates, distills, and visualizes data related to artificial intelligence (AI). Our mission is to provide unbiased, rigorously vetted, broadly sourced data in order for policymakers, researchers, executives, journalists, and the general public to develop a more thorough and nuanced understanding of the complex field of AI.

The AI Index is recognized globally as one of the most credible and authoritative sources for data and insights on artificial intelligence. Previous editions have been cited in major newspapers, including the The New York Times, Bloomberg, and The Guardian, have amassed hundreds of academic citations, and been referenced by high-level policymakers in the United States, the United Kingdom, and the European Union, among other places. This year’s edition surpasses all previous ones in size, scale, and scope, reflecting the growing significance that AI is coming to hold in all of our lives.

Steering Committee Co-Directors

Jack Clark

Ray Perrault

Steering committee members.

Erik Brynjolfsson

Erik Brynjolfsson

John Etchemendy

John Etchemendy

Katrina light

Katrina Ligett

Terah Lyons

Terah Lyons

James Manyika

James Manyika

Juan Carlos Niebles

Juan Carlos Niebles

Vanessa Parli

Vanessa Parli

Yoav Shoham

Yoav Shoham

Russell Wald

Russell Wald

Staff members.

Loredana Fattorini

Loredana Fattorini

Nestor Maslej

Nestor Maslej

Letter from the co-directors.

A decade ago, the best AI systems in the world were unable to classify objects in images at a human level. AI struggled with language comprehension and could not solve math problems. Today, AI systems routinely exceed human performance on standard benchmarks.

Progress accelerated in 2023. New state-of-the-art systems like GPT-4, Gemini, and Claude 3 are impressively multimodal: They can generate fluent text in dozens of languages, process audio, and even explain memes. As AI has improved, it has increasingly forced its way into our lives. Companies are racing to build AI-based products, and AI is increasingly being used by the general public. But current AI technology still has significant problems. It cannot reliably deal with facts, perform complex reasoning, or explain its conclusions.

AI faces two interrelated futures. First, technology continues to improve and is increasingly used, having major consequences for productivity and employment. It can be put to both good and bad uses. In the second future, the adoption of AI is constrained by the limitations of the technology. Regardless of which future unfolds, governments are increasingly concerned. They are stepping in to encourage the upside, such as funding university R&D and incentivizing private investment. Governments are also aiming to manage the potential downsides, such as impacts on employment, privacy concerns, misinformation, and intellectual property rights.

As AI rapidly evolves, the AI Index aims to help the AI community, policymakers, business leaders, journalists, and the general public navigate this complex landscape. It provides ongoing, objective snapshots tracking several key areas: technical progress in AI capabilities, the community and investments driving AI development and deployment, public opinion on current and potential future impacts, and policy measures taken to stimulate AI innovation while managing its risks and challenges. By comprehensively monitoring the AI ecosystem, the Index serves as an important resource for understanding this transformative technological force.

On the technical front, this year’s AI Index reports that the number of new large language models released worldwide in 2023 doubled over the previous year. Two-thirds were open-source, but the highest-performing models came from industry players with closed systems. Gemini Ultra became the first LLM to reach human-level performance on the Massive Multitask Language Understanding (MMLU) benchmark; performance on the benchmark has improved by 15 percentage points since last year. Additionally, GPT-4 achieved an impressive 0.97 mean win rate score on the comprehensive Holistic Evaluation of Language Models (HELM) benchmark, which includes MMLU among other evaluations.

Although global private investment in AI decreased for the second consecutive year, investment in generative AI skyrocketed. More Fortune 500 earnings calls mentioned AI than ever before, and new studies show that AI tangibly boosts worker productivity. On the policymaking front, global mentions of AI in legislative proceedings have never been higher. U.S. regulators passed more AI-related regulations in 2023 than ever before. Still, many expressed concerns about AI’s ability to generate deepfakes and impact elections. The public became more aware of AI, and studies suggest that they responded with nervousness.

Ray Perrault Co-director, AI Index

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Computer Science > Machine Learning

Title: megalodon: efficient llm pretraining and inference with unlimited context length.

Abstract: The quadratic complexity and weak length extrapolation of Transformers limits their ability to scale to long sequences, and while sub-quadratic solutions like linear attention and state space models exist, they empirically underperform Transformers in pretraining efficiency and downstream task accuracy. We introduce Megalodon, a neural architecture for efficient sequence modeling with unlimited context length. Megalodon inherits the architecture of Mega (exponential moving average with gated attention), and further introduces multiple technical components to improve its capability and stability, including complex exponential moving average (CEMA), timestep normalization layer, normalized attention mechanism and pre-norm with two-hop residual configuration. In a controlled head-to-head comparison with Llama2, Megalodon achieves better efficiency than Transformer in the scale of 7 billion parameters and 2 trillion training tokens. Megalodon reaches a training loss of 1.70, landing mid-way between Llama2-7B (1.75) and 13B (1.67). Code: this https URL

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Diverse Cultures and Shared Experiences Shape Asian American Identities

About six-in-ten feel connected to other asians in the u.s., table of contents.

  • The making of Asian American identity and knowledge of Asian history in the U.S.
  • Immigrant ties shape Asian Americans' identities and their life in the U.S.
  • Asians in the U.S. share similar views among themselves and with the U.S. public on what it means to be American
  • How Asians in the U.S. describe their identity
  • Asian adults and the general public agree: U.S. Asians have many different cultures
  • Whom do U.S. Asians consider Asian?
  • A majority of Asian adults say others would describe them as Asian when walking past them on the street
  • For many Asian adults, where they were born shapes friendships formed in the U.S.
  • Most Asian adults are comfortable with intermarriage
  • Some Asians say they have hidden their heritage
  • Connections with other Asian Americans, politics and political parties
  • Need for a national leader advancing the concerns of Asian Americans
  • Asian American registered voters and political party
  • About one-quarter of Asian adults say they are informed about U.S. Asian history
  • What being ‘truly American’ means to U.S. Asians
  • Fewer than half of U.S. Asians consider themselves typical Americans
  • What do Asian Americans view as important for the American dream?
  • Most Asian adults say the American dream is within reach, but about a quarter say they will never achieve it
  • Acknowledgments
  • Sample design
  • Data collection
  • Weighting and variance estimation
  • Largest origin groups
  • Educational attainment
  • Immigration status
  • Length of time living in the U.S. among immigrants
  • Citizenship status among immigrants

Pew Research Center conducted this analysis to understand the rich diversity of people of Asian origin or ancestry living in the United States and their views of identity. The study is part of the Center’s multiyear, comprehensive, in-depth quantitative and qualitative research effort focused on the nation’s Asian population. Its centerpiece is this nationally representative survey of 7,006 Asian adults exploring the experiences, attitudes and views of Asians living in the U.S. The survey sampled U.S. adults who self-identify as Asian, either alone or in combination with other races or Hispanic ethnicity. It was offered in six languages: Chinese (Simplified and Traditional), English, Hindi, Korean, Tagalog and Vietnamese. Responses were collected from July 5, 2022, to Jan. 27, 2023, by Westat on behalf of Pew Research Center.

The Center recruited a large sample to examine the diversity of the U.S. Asian population, with oversamples of the Chinese, Filipino, Indian, Korean and Vietnamese populations. These are the five largest origin groups among Asian Americans. The survey also includes a large enough sample of self-identified Japanese adults, making findings about them reportable. In this report, the six largest ethnic groups include those who identify with one Asian ethnicity only, either alone or in combination with a non-Asian race or ethnicity. Together, these six groups constitute 81% of all U.S. Asian adults, according to a Pew Research Center analysis of the Census Bureau’s 2021 American Community Survey (ACS), and are the six groups whose attitudes and opinions are highlighted throughout the report. Survey respondents were drawn from a national sample of residential mailing addresses, which included addresses from all 50 states and the District of Columbia. Specialized surnames list frames maintained by the Marketing Systems Group were used to supplement the sample. Those eligible to complete the survey were offered the opportunity to do so online or by mail with a paper questionnaire. For more details, see the Methodology . For questions used in this analysis, see the Topline Questionnaire .

The survey research plan and questionnaire were reviewed and approved by Westat’s institutional review board (IRB), which is an external and independent committee of experts specializing in protecting the rights of research participants.

Even though the U.S. Asian population was the fastest growing racial and ethnic group in the country from 2000 to 2019 , it is still a relatively small population. According to the 2021 American Community Survey, the country’s Asian population constitutes 7% of the U.S. population (of all ages) and 7% of adults (those ages 18 and older).

Pew Research Center designed this study with these details in mind to be as inclusive as possible of the diversity of Asian American experiences. Even so, survey research is limited when it comes to documenting the views and attitudes of the less populous Asian origin groups in the U.S. To address this, the survey was complemented by 66 pre-survey focus groups of Asian adults , conducted from Aug. 4 to Oct. 14, 2021, with 264 recruited participants from 18 Asian origin groups. Focus group discussions were conducted in 18 different languages and moderated by members of their origin groups.

Findings for less populous Asian origin groups in the U.S., those who are not among the six largest Asian origin groups, are grouped under the category “Other” in this report and are included in the overall Asian adult findings in the report. These ethnic origin groups each make up about 2% or less of the Asian population in the U.S., making it challenging to recruit nationally representative samples for each origin group. The group “Other” includes those who identify with one Asian ethnicity only, either alone or in combination with a non-Asian race or Hispanic ethnicity. Findings for those who identify with two or more Asian ethnicities are not presented by themselves in this report but are included in the overall Asian adult findings.

To learn more about how members of less populous Asian origin groups in the U.S. identify, see the quote sorter based on our focus group discussions. There, you can read how participants describe their identity in their own words.

For this analysis, an additional national survey of 5,132 U.S. adults was conducted from Dec. 5 to 11, 2022, using Pew Research Center’s American Trends Panel . The survey of U.S. adults was conducted in English and Spanish. Respondents are recruited through national, random sampling of residential addresses.

Pew Research Center has conducted multiple studies that focus on Asian Americans. Previous demographic studies examined the diversity of origins , key facts , and rising income inequality among Asians living in the U.S. and key findings about U.S. immigrants. Qualitative studies have focused on what it means to be Asian in America as well as barriers to English language learning among Asian immigrants. Previous surveys have focused on concerns over discrimination and violence against Asian Americans, as well as studies about their religious beliefs . Find these publications and more on the Center’s Asian Americans topic page .

Pew Research Center is a subsidiary of The Pew Charitable Trusts, its primary funder. The Center’s Asian American portfolio was funded by The Pew Charitable Trusts, with generous support from The Asian American Foundation; Chan Zuckerberg Initiative DAF, an advised fund of the Silicon Valley Community Foundation; the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation; the Henry Luce Foundation; the Doris Duke Foundation; The Wallace H. Coulter Foundation; The Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation; The Long Family Foundation; Lu-Hebert Fund; Gee Family Foundation; Joseph Cotchett; the Julian Abdey and Sabrina Moyle Charitable Fund; and Nanci Nishimura.

We would also like to thank the Leaders Forum for its thought leadership and valuable assistance in helping make this survey possible.

The strategic communications campaign used to promote the research was made possible with generous support from the Doris Duke Foundation.

The terms Asian, Asians living in the United States , U.S. Asian population and Asian Americans are used interchangeably throughout this report to refer to U.S. adults who self-identify as Asian, either alone or in combination with other races or Hispanic identity.

Ethnicity and ethnic origin labels, such as Chinese and Chinese origin, are used interchangeably in this report for findings for ethnic origin groups, such as Chinese, Filipino, Indian, Japanese, Korean or Vietnamese. For this report, ethnicity is not nationality. For example, Chinese in this report are those self-identifying as of Chinese ethnicity, rather than necessarily being a current or former citizen of the People’s Republic of China. Ethnic origin groups in this report include those who self-identify as one Asian ethnicity only, either alone or in combination with a non-Asian race or ethnicity.

Less populous Asian origin groups in this report are those who self-identify with ethnic origin groups that are not among the six largest Asian origin groups. The term includes those who identify with only one Asian ethnicity. These ethnic origin groups each represent about 2% or less of the overall Asian population in the U.S. For example, those who identify as Burmese, Hmong or Pakistani are included in this category. These groups are unreportable on their own due to small sample sizes, but collectively they are reportable under this category.

The terms Asian origins and Asian origin groups are used interchangeably throughout this report to describe ethnic origin groups.

Immigrants in this report are people who were not U.S. citizens at birth – in other words, those born outside the U.S., Puerto Rico or other U.S. territories to parents who are not U.S. citizens. I mmigrant , first generation and foreign born are used interchangeably to refer to this group.  

Naturalized citizens are immigrants who are lawful permanent residents who have fulfilled the length of stay and other requirements to become U.S. citizens and who have taken the oath of citizenship.

U.S. born refers to people born in the 50 U.S. states or the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico or other U.S. territories.

Second generation refers to people born in the 50 states or the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico or other U.S. territories with at least one first-generation (immigrant) parent.

Third or higher generation refers to people born in the 50 states or the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico or other U.S. territories with both parents born in the 50 states, D.C., Puerto Rico or other U.S. territories.

The nation’s Asian population is fast growing and diverse. Numbering more than 23 million, the population has ancestral roots across the vast, ethnically and culturally rich Asian continent. For Asians living in the United States, this diversity is reflected in how they describe their own identity. According to a new, nationwide, comprehensive survey of Asian adults living in the U.S., 52% say they most often use ethnic labels that reflect their heritage and family roots, either alone or together with “American,” to describe themselves. Chinese or Chinese American, Filipino or Filipino American, and Indian or Indian American are examples of these variations.

There are other ways in which Asians living in the U.S. describe their identity. About half (51%) of Asian adults say they use American on its own (10%), together with their ethnicity (25%) or together with “Asian” as Asian American (16%) when describing their identity, highlighting their links to the U.S.

And while pan-ethnic labels such as Asian and Asian American are commonly used to describe this diverse population broadly, the new survey shows that when describing themselves, just 28% use the label Asian (12%) on its own or the label Asian American (16%).

The survey also finds that other labels are used by Asian Americans. Some 6% say they most often prefer regional terms such as South Asian and Southeast Asian when describing themselves.

Bar chart showing while half of Asian adults in the U.S. identify most often by their ethnicity, many other labels are also used to express Asian identity in the U.S.

Asian adults see more cultural differences than commonalities across their group as well. When asked to choose between two statements – that Asians in the U.S. share a common culture, or that Asians in the U.S. have many different cultures – nearly all (90%) say U.S. Asians have many different cultures. Just 9% say Asians living in the U.S. share a common culture. This view is widely held across many demographic groups among Asian Americans, according to the survey.

The view that Asian Americans have many different cultures is also one held by the general public, according to another Pew Research Center survey of U.S. adults, conducted in December 2022. Among all U.S. adults, 80% say Asians in the U.S. have many different cultures, while 18% say they share a common culture. 1

Bar chart showing despite diverse origins, many Asian Americans report shared experiences in the U.S. and feel connected to other Asians in the U.S.

Though Asian Americans’ identities reflect their diverse cultures and origins, Asian adults also report certain shared experiences. A majority (60%) say most people would describe them as “Asian” while walking past them on the street, indicating most Asian adults feel they are seen by others as a single group, despite the population’s diversity. One-in-five say they have hidden a part of their heritage (their ethnic food, cultural practices, ethnic clothing or religious practices) from others who are not Asian, in some cases out of fear of embarrassment or discrimination. Notably, Asian adults ages 18 to 29 are more likely to say they have done this than Asians 65 and older (39% vs. 5%).

Asian adults in the U.S. also feel connected with other Asian Americans. About six-in-ten (59%) say that what happens to Asians in the U.S. affects their own lives, at least to some extent. 2 And about two-thirds (68%) of Asian Americans say it is extremely or very important to have a national leader advocating for the concerns and needs of the Asian population in the U.S.

The new survey also shows that large majorities of Asian adults share similar views on what it takes to be considered truly American. And they consider many of the same factors to be important in their views of the American dream.

These are among the key findings from Pew Research Center’s new survey of Asian American adults, conducted by mail and online from July 5, 2022, to Jan. 27, 2023. This is the largest nationally representative survey of its kind to date that focused on Asian Americans. The survey was conducted in English and five Asian languages, among a representative sample of 7,006 Asian adults living in the United States. 

Asian Americans are 7% of the U.S. population, according to a Pew Research Center analysis of the 2021 American Community Survey. Their population is diverse, with roots in more than 20 countries in East Asia, Southeast Asia and the Indian subcontinent. About 54% of the national Asian population are immigrants. The six largest origin groups (Chinese, Filipino, Indian, Japanese, Korean and Vietnamese), a focus of this survey and report, together account for 79% of all Asian Americans.

Overall, about 34% of Asian Americans are the U.S.-born children of immigrant parents, and another 14% are of third or higher generation (meaning their parents were born in the U.S. as well), according to a Pew Research Center analysis of the 2022 Current Population Survey, March Annual Social and Economic Supplement.

This survey and report focus on Asian adults in the U.S. The six largest origin groups together account for 81% of Asian adults. And 68% of Asian American adults are immigrants, according to Center analysis of the 2021 American Community Survey. Additionally, 25% are the U.S.-born children of immigrant parents and 10% are of third or higher generation, according to Center analysis of government data.

The pan-ethnic term “Asian American” emerged in Berkeley, California, in the 1960s as part of a political movement to organize the diverse U.S. Asian population. The creation of an Asian American identity was in reaction to a long history of exclusion of Asians in the country, including the 1882 Chinese Exclusion Act and a pair of Supreme Court cases in the 1920s clarifying that Asians, including South Asians, are not “free White persons” and therefore were excluded from becoming naturalized U.S. citizens. 3 Subsequently, the term was adopted by the federal government and today is the principal identity label used by media, academics, researchers and others to describe today’s diverse Asian American population.

In most cases today, someone is considered Asian or Asian American if they self-identify as such. But Asian Americans do not necessarily agree on which regional or ethnic groups from the Asian continent they consider to be Asian, according to the new survey. The vast majority of Asian adults say they consider those from East Asia, such as Chinese or Koreans (89%); Southeast Asia, such as Vietnamese or Filipinos (88%); and to a lesser extent South Asia such as Indians or Pakistanis (67%) to be Asian.

But Asian adults are split on whether they consider Central Asians such as Afghans or Kazakhs to be Asian (43% of Asian adults say they are). While about half of Indian adults (56%) say they would include Central Asians in the category Asian, fewer than half of Filipino (40%), Chinese (39%), Japanese (34%), Korean (32%) and Vietnamese (30%) adults consider them Asian.

Few Asians say they are knowledgeable about U.S. Asian history

Asian Americans have a long history in the United States. From Chinese laborers who helped build the first transcontinental railroad, to Japanese immigrants who arrived as plantation workers in what is now the state of Hawaii, to the incarceration of Japanese Americans during World War II, to Filipinos being treated as U.S. nationals while the Philippines was a U.S. territory, the Asian American experience has been a part of U.S. history.

Bar chart showing one-in-four Asian Americans are extremely or very informed about the history of Asians in the U.S

With the passage of the landmark Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965, a new wave of immigrants from Asia began arriving in the United States, creating a new, contemporary U.S. Asian history. The Vietnam War and other conflicts in Southeast Asia brought Vietnamese and other Southeast Asian refugees to the U.S. , first with the passage of the 1975 Indochina Migration and Refugee Assistance Act and then with the Refugee Act of 1980. The 1990 Immigration Act raised immigration ceilings and set in place processes that allowed the flows of Asian immigrants, particularly of high-skilled immigrants, to continue and expand. The U.S. technology boom of the 1990s and 2000s attracted many high-skilled immigrants, particularly from India and China, to tech centers around the country.

This rich history, however, is little-known to Asian adults, according to the new survey. One-in-four (24%) say they are very or extremely informed about history of Asians in the United States, while an equal share (24%) say they are little or not at all informed.

The majority of those very or extremely informed about the history of Asians in the U.S. say they learned about this history through informal channels: internet (82%), media (76%) and family and friends (70%). In contrast, 49% learned about it from college or university courses and 39% from elementary through high school.

Immigrant ties shape Asian Americans’ identities and their life in the U.S.

Immigration experiences, connections with home countries, and how long someone has lived in the U.S. shape many Asian Americans’ identities. Among Asian adults in the U.S., immigrants are more likely than those who are U.S. born to describe their identity most often with their ethnic labels, either alone or together with the label American (56% vs. 41%).

Bar chart showing place of birth shapes Asian American identities and life in America

Meanwhile, Asian immigrants are less likely than U.S.-born Asians (46% vs. 65%) to say they most often describe themselves as American in some way – whether by their ethnic label combined with American, as Asian American, or simply as American. Still, nearly half of Asian immigrants describe themselves in one of these three ways.

When it comes to identifying with the label Asian – either alone or as Asian American – immigrant and U.S.-born Asians are about equally likely to say they do so (28% and 29% respectively). Immigrant Asians are less likely than U.S.-born Asians to identify most often as Asian American (14% vs. 21%).

On the question of seeing themselves more as a “typical American” or “very different from a typical American,” Asian immigrant adults are far less likely than those born in the U.S. to think of themselves as a typical American (37% vs. 69%).

Nativity is also tied to how Asians in the U.S. develop their friendships. Those who immigrated to the U.S. are more likely to have friends who are Asian or of the same ethnicity as them than are U.S.-born Asians (56% vs. 38%).

Asian immigrants (15%) are also less likely than U.S.-born Asians (32%) to have ever hidden a part of their heritage from people who are not Asian. When asked in an open-ended question to explain why they hide aspects of their culture, some U.S.-born respondents mentioned phrases such as “fear of discrimination,” “being teased” and “embarrassing.”

Views of identity among Asian American immigrants are often tied to time spent in the U.S.

Bar chart showing among Asian American immigrants, recent arrivals are more likely than longtime residents to use their ethnicity alone to describe themselves

How long Asian immigrants have lived in the U.S. also shapes their identity and experiences. Those who arrived in the U.S. in the past 10 years are more likely than those who arrived more than 20 years ago to say they most often use their ethnicity, such as Filipino or Vietnamese, to describe themselves. And about two-thirds (65%) of those who arrived in the U.S. in the past decade describe their identity most often with their ethnicity’s name, either alone or combined with American, compared with 54% among those who have been in the country for more than two decades.

Roughly half (54%) of those who have arrived in the past 10 years say they most often use only their ethnicity to describe themselves, compared with just 21% of those who arrived more than two decades ago who say the same.

On the other hand, just 17% of Asian immigrants who arrived in the country in the past 10 years describe themselves most often as American, by their ethnic label combined with American, or as Asian American, while 59% of those who arrived more than 20 years ago do so.

When it comes to their circle of friends, 60% of Asian immigrants who arrived in the past 10 years say most or all of their friends are also Asian Americans, while 50% of those who arrived more than 20 years ago say the same.

And when asked if they think of themselves as typical Americans or not, Asian immigrants who arrived in the U.S. in the past decade are substantially less likely than those who arrived more than two decades ago to say they are typical Americans (20% vs. 48%).

The new survey also explored the views Asian Americans have about traits that make one “truly American.” Overall, Asian Americans and the general U.S. population share similar views of what it means to be American. Nearly all Asian adults and U.S. adults say that accepting people of diverse racial and religious backgrounds (94% and 91%), believing in individual freedoms (92% and 94%) and respecting U.S. political institutions and laws (89% and 87%) are important for being truly American.

Similarly, Asian Americans and the U.S. general population share in their views about the American dream. They say having freedom of choice in how to live one’s life (96% and 97% respectively), having a good family life (96% and 94%), retiring comfortably (96% and 94%) and owning a home (both 86%) are important to their view of the American dream. Smaller shares of Asian and U.S. adults (30% and 27%) say owning a business is important to their view of the American dream.

Here are other survey findings highlighting the diverse views and attitudes of Asian adults living in the U.S.:

  • Indian adults are the most likely of the six largest Asian origin groups to say they most often use their ethnicity, without the addition of “American,” to describe themselves. About four-in-ten Indian adults (41%) say they do this. By comparison, smaller shares of Korean (30%), Filipino (29%), Chinese (26%) and Vietnamese (23%) adults do the same. Japanese adults (14%) are the least likely among the largest groups to use their ethnic identity term alone.
  • Japanese adults are the least likely among the largest Asian origin groups to say they have friendships with other Asians. About one-in-three Japanese adults (34%) say most or all their friends share their own ethnicity or are otherwise Asian. By contrast, about half of all Indian (55%), Vietnamese (55%), Chinese (51%), Korean (50%) and Filipino (48%) respondents say the same.
  • One-in-four Korean adults (25%) say they have hidden part of their heritage from people who are not Asian. Some 20% of Indian, 19% of Chinese, 18% of Vietnamese, 16% of Filipino and 14% of Japanese adults say they have done the same.
  • Across the largest ethnic groups, about half or more say that what happens to Asians in the U.S. affects what happens in their own lives. About two-thirds of Korean (67%) and Chinese (65%) adults say this. By comparison, 61% of Japanese, 54% of Filipino, 55% of Indian and 52% of Vietnamese adults say they are impacted by what happens to Asians nationally.
  • Most Asian adults among the largest ethnic origin groups say a national leader advancing the U.S. Asian community’s concerns is important. Roughly three-in-four Filipino (74%) and Chinese (73%) adults say it is very or extremely important to for the U.S. Asian community to have a national leader advancing its concerns. A majority of Vietnamese (69%), Korean (66%), Japanese (63%) and Indian adults (62%) says the same.  
  • About half of Vietnamese registered voters (51%) identify with or lean to the Republican Party. In contrast, about two-thirds of Indian (68%), Filipino (68%) and Korean (67%) registered voters identify with or lean toward the Democratic Party. And 56% of Chinese registered voters also associate with the Democratic Party. 
  • This finding is from a nationally representative survey of 5,132 U.S. adults conducted by Pew Research Center from Dec. 5 to 11, 2022, using the Center’s American Trends Panel . ↩
  • In recent years, a major source of concern and fear among many Asian adults in the U.S. has been the rise in reported violence against Asian Americans . ↩
  • For more on the history of the creation of an Asian American identity, see Lee, Jennifer and Karthick Ramakrishnan. 2019. “ Who counts as Asian .” Ethnic and Racial Studies. ↩

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