Abstract Submission

Call for abstracts, the international conference on humanities and social sciences invites researchers from around the world to submit their abstracts for presentation at irchss 2023, to be held in a hybrid format on 16th and 17th, march 2023..

IRCHSS 2023 will feature a wide range of talks on humanities and social sciences and a symposium on English Language Teaching and Learning. Submit your abstract on or before  30th May 2022  for any of the following categories:

General Conference

Symposium on english language teaching, abstract submission guidelines.

We invite abstracts of two pages.

Paper: A4 Margins: Right 3 cm, Left 2.5 cm Medium: Sinhala or English (For abstract writing guidelines in Sinhala please refer the Sinhala Abstract Template attached below)

Title of the abstract : maximum 18 words, font type Calibri, font size 14, bold, centered, line space 1)

The author details must be included below the title, as per the following guidelines.

  • Names of the authors: font type Calibri, font size 12, line space 1
  • Affiliations of the authors: font type Calibri, font size 11, line space 1
  • Email address of the corresponding author: font type Calibri, font size 10, line space 1, Italic
  • Body of the abstract: font type Calibri, font size 11, Line space 1

The body of the abstract should include the following main sections WITH or WITHOUT headings.

  • Introduction
  • Research Problem/s, Objective/s
  • Methodology
  • Results and Discussion
  • Conclusion and Recommendations
  • Keywords (05 Keywords)

Figures and tables  (if any) must be included within the two pages of the abstract.

  • Number and the title of the tables should be indicated above them. e.g., Table1. The Distribution of Population
  • Number and the title of the figures should be indicated below them. e.g., Figure 1. The Fertilizer Producing System
  • Cross referencing should be made between the main text and the figures and tables.

References: Use APA 7 Referencing Style

The abstract should be sent both as a Word and PDF file . We encourage all of you to use the templates provided below in writing the abstract.

Please read following instructions before submitting your abstract through the Conference Management Toolkit (CMT)

  • The abstract should be according to the Abstract submission guidelines and the template given above.
  • Click on the “Submit Your Abstract” button below
  • Create a new account or log in to CMT account.
  • Click on “Create New Submission”.
  • Select the Track or The Special Symposium on ELT.
  • Type/copy-paste the tittle of your abstract on the title bar.
  • Add your email address.
  • Drop or upload both a word and a PDF file of your abstract.
  • Fill in the additional instructions.
  • To complete your submission, click “Submit”.
  • 21 Days to Sign Severance Agreement | Legal Expert Advice
  • You Don`t Have to Follow Software License Agreement
  • Workers Agreement Template
  • Why Use Contract Manufacturing
  • Who Is Subject to International Law
  • Which of the following Describes an Executed Contract
  • When Should a Tenancy Agreement Be Renewed
  • What to Do before Signing a Contract to Buy a House
  • What Is the Topic of Article Iv
  • What Is the Meaning of Cohabitation in Law
  • What Is the Difference between Car Leasing and Contract Hire
  • What Is the Best Definition of a Controlled Substance
  • What Is on a Sales Agreement
  • What Is Hold Statement in Hdfc Bank
  • What Is Conditional Sales Contract
  • What Is an Eei Usppi Export Information Form
  • What Is a Special Contract
  • What Is a Mortgage in Principle Agreement
  • What Is a Delegation Agreement
  • What Is a 401K Plan Trust Agreement

Academia.edu no longer supports Internet Explorer.

To browse Academia.edu and the wider internet faster and more securely, please take a few seconds to  upgrade your browser .

Enter the email address you signed up with and we'll email you a reset link.

  • We're Hiring!
  • Help Center

paper cover thumbnail

සාරසංක්ෂේප (Abstract)

Profile image of Ganushka Randula


dimasukin12 CHANNEL

Brazilian Journal of Development

Patricia Machado Bueno Fernandes

Maria Elena Madrid

Stephanie Rap

Assaig De Teatre Revista De L Associacio D Investigacio I Experimentacio Teatral

Iris Nolasco

Journal of the American College of Cardiology

Gonzalo López-martín

Selçuk Üniversitesi Türkiyat Araştırmaları Dergisi

Özgür Türker

Tarisma Fitriya

Religare: Revista do Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências das Religiões da UFPB

José Gomes de Sá

Journal of Clinical Investigation

Maharshi Panchal

Nauka Przyroda Technologie

Magdalena Szymańska

DePaul journal of health care law

Lisa Ikemoto

Angewandte Chemie

Beatrice Kumba Alpha

Food Hydrocolloids

Ali Rashidinejad

Journal of Nano- and Electronic Physics

Natural Product Research

fouad al bayath

Veterinary Microbiology

Caroline Fossum

Procedia Computer Science

Hamza Abbasi

Marius Junge

World journal of orthopedics

Quanjun Cui

Beate Brand-Saberi

Rimantas Želvys

See More Documents Like This

  •   We're Hiring!
  •   Help Center
  • Find new research papers in:
  • Health Sciences
  • Earth Sciences
  • Cognitive Science
  • Mathematics
  • Computer Science
  • Academia ©2024


Sinhala journal

About the journal.

The Sinhala Journal publishes the results of Sinhala related researches. It is open for the publication of Research Articles, Reviews and Research Communications in sinhala disciplines. The journal provides a forum for local and international scholars to publish high quality research from broader disciplines.

Publication frequency:

Two issues per year (June and December each year)

Editorial Policy

Authors submitting the manuscripts to the journal need to follow instructions given in the authors' guidelines. Manuscripts that do not conform to the format and style of the Journal may be rejected at the preliminary screening process. The Journal reserves the right to make any further formal changes and language corrections necessary in a manuscript accepted for publication so that it conforms to the formatting requirements of the Journal.

Workshop on ‘Writing Research Abstracts’ - 28th Feb.

Workshop on ‘Writing Research Abstracts’ – 28th Feb.

Workshop on ‘Writing Research Abstracts’ – 28th Feb.

A workshop on ‘ Writing Research Abstracts ’ was held on  28th February 2019  at the M. B. Ariyapala Auditorium, Department of Sinhala. The workshop was a preliminary step to the first Undergraduate Research Symposium, to be held on  12th March 2019 .

The purpose of the workshop was to give an understanding of how to write a coherent and well-structured abstract suitable for presentation at a conference. The resource persons, Emeritus Professor Jayadeva Uyangoda and Senior Professor Premakumara de Silva, conducted an immensely helpful session on writing abstracts, motivating student interest for engaging in research. Students who made submissions were able to revise their abstracts, incorporating ideas and suggestions discussed at the workshop. The objective of the Undergraduate Research Symposium, a brainchild of Senior Professor Premakumara de Silva, Dean, Faculty of Arts, is to develop and promote a culture of research among the undergraduates of the Faculty of Arts.

research abstract in sinhala

Guest Lecture on “The two types of Saṃskāra-s in Sarvāstivāda Abhidharma” - 27th Feb.

Regional workshop on external vulnerabilities in south asia, 28th feb - 1st march, news & events.

research abstract in sinhala

Women’s Day 2024 Celebration of United Nations in Collaboration with Faculty of Arts

research abstract in sinhala

Ceremonial Launch of Academic Journals

research abstract in sinhala

Diploma in Sinhala Awards Ceremony – 2023

Featured courses.

research abstract in sinhala

Study Programmes in Demography – 2021

research abstract in sinhala

Master of Arts in Buddhist Studies & Masters in Buddhist Studies 2021 / 2022

research abstract in sinhala

Certificate Course in Disaster Risk Management (DRM) – 2020

research abstract in sinhala

Certificate Course on Chinese Language – 2020

research abstract in sinhala

Professional Course on Capacity Building on Research and Data Analysis using SPSS – 2020

  • University Home
  • Officers and Authorities
  • Former Deans
  • Faculty Board
  • Privacy Policy
  • Email Policy
  • Social Media Guidelines
  • Departments
  • Buddhist Studies
  • Communication & Creative Arts
  • English Language Teaching
  • Information Technology
  • International Relations
  • Political Science & Public Policy
  • Arabic and Islamic Civilization
  • Mathematics
  • Career Guidance Unit (CGU)
  • Sustainable Tourism Unit (STU)
  • Disability Research, Education and Practice (CEDREP)
  • Information and Documentation (IDC)
  • Multi-Cultural Centre – Department of Sociology
  • Social Policy Analysis and Research (SPARC)
  • Youth Wellness Center (YWC)
  • Confucius Institute
  • Undergraduate Programs
  • Study Streams
  • Special Degree
  • Bachelor of Education (B.Ed.)
  • Postgraduate Programs
  • Postgraduate Diploma
  • Masters Programs
  • M.Phil / Ph.D. Programs
  • Other Courses
  • Diploma Courses
  • Certificate Courses
  • Research Projects
  • Research Committee
  • CVCD Excellence Awards
  • Vice Chancellor’s Awards for Research Excellence
  • Honorary Awards
  • International Collaborations
  • Ethics Review Committee
  • Staff Notices
  • Single Sign-On (SSO) Service
  • LMS – Staff Login
  • Exam Monitoring system
  • Overseas Leave Application System
  • Zoom Conferencing
  • Guidelines for eLearning Videos
  • G Suite for Education & Work
  • Updating Academic Profiles
  • Emeritus Professors
  • Undergraduate Courses
  • Postgraduate Courses
  • Extension Courses
  • Student Counsellors – Faculty of Arts
  • Student Notices
  • Faculty e-Journal
  • “KOLAMBA”-Journal
  • The Colombo Economic Journal (CEJ)
  • Journal of Colombo Geographer
  • ‘The Demographer’ Journal
  • Sri Lanka Journal of International Relations
  • International Journal of Sustainable Tourism (IJST)
  • Kolumpu Tamil E-Journal 2023
  • Main Library
  • Undergraduate LMS
  • Postgraduate LMS
  • Alumni Association
  • Centenary Celebrations
  • About the Symposium – 2023
  • Abstract Guidelines – 2023
  • Workshops -2023
  • About Symposium
  • Abstract Guidelines
  • Previous Symposia
  • Symposium Proceedings

Reading and Writing Sinhala

  • First Online: 12 June 2019

Cite this chapter

Book cover

  • Marasinghe A. D. K. Wijaythilake 10 &
  • Rauno Parrila 11  

Part of the book series: Literacy Studies ((LITS,volume 17))

469 Accesses

2 Citations

Sinhala is one of the two official languages in Sri Lanka spoken by about 74% of the population. It belongs to the Indo-Aryan family of languages and is written with a distinct, highly cursive akshara script. The extensive Sinhala akshara set (600 plus) is mostly consistent from akshara to sounds, and the basic literacy rates in Sri Lanka are high. Advanced literacy skills, however, require extended study due to strong diglossia: Spoken Sinhala has been open to influences from Dravidian (mainly Tamil) and European (Portuguese, Dutch, and English) languages, but Literary Sinhala has mostly maintained the classic vocabulary, spelling, and grammar. As a result, spelling and writing are complicated by significant differences between the two forms. In this chapter, we will first describe both forms of Sinhala and then review the limited existing research on Sinhala literacy.

  • Orthography
  • Reading development
  • Writing development

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this chapter

  • Available as PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
  • Available as EPUB and PDF
  • Durable hardcover edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info

Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout

Purchases are for personal use only

Institutional subscriptions

Abu-Rabia, S., & Taha, H. (2006). Reading in Arabic orthography: Characteristics, research findings, and assessment. In R. M. Joshi & P. G. Aaron (Eds.), Handbook of orthography and literacy (pp. 321–338). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Google Scholar  

Census of India. (2011). Provisional population totals-Karnataka-Data sheet . Retrieved from http://www.censusindia.gov.in/2011-prov-results/census2011_PPT_paper1.html

Central Bank of Sri Lanka. (2016). Sri Lanka socio-economic data . Colombo, Sri Lanka: Central Bank of Sri Lanka.

Chandralal, D. (2010). Sinhala . Amsterdam, The Netherlands: John Benjamins Publishing Company.

Book   Google Scholar  

Daniels, P. T., & Share, D. L. (2017). Writing system variation and its consequences for reading and dyslexia. Scientific Studies of Reading, 22 , 101–116.

Article   Google Scholar  

Das, T., Kumar, U., Bapi, R. S., Padakannaya, P., & Singh, N. C. (2010). Neural representation of an alphasyllabary – The story of Devanagari. Current Science, 97 , 1033–1038.

Department of Examination, Sri Lanka. (2015). Reviewing of performance at grade 5 scholarship examination . Retrieved from http://www.doenets.lk/exam/docs/comm/Grade%2005%20-%202015%20Symposium.pdf

De Silva, M. W. S. (1967). Effects of purism on the evolution of written language. Linguistics, 36 , 5–17.

De Silva, M. W. S. (1976). Diglossia and literacy . Mysore, India: Central Institute of Indian Languages.

De Silva, M. W. S. (1979). Sinhalese and other island languages in South Asia . Tübingen, Germany: Gunther Narr Verla.

Dharmadasa, K. N. O. (1967). Spoken and written Sinhalese: A contrastive study . (Unpublished Master of Philosophy dissertation). University of York, UK.

Disanayaka, J. B. (1991). The structure of spoken Sinhala . Maharagama, Sri Lanka: National Institute of Education.

Elizarenkova, T. (1972). Influence of Dravidian phonological system on Sinhalese. International Journal of Dravidian Linguistics, 1 , 126–137.

Fernando, P. E. E. (1949). Palaeographical development of the Brahmi script in Ceylon from 3rd century B.C. to 7th century A. D. University of Ceylon Review, 7 , 282–301.

Fernando, P. E. E. (1950). Development of the Sinhalese script from 8th century A. D. to 15th century A. D. University of Ceylon Review, 8 , 222–243.

Gair, J. W. (1967). Colloquial Sinhala inflectional categories and parts of speech. Indian Linguistics, 27 , 31–45.

Gair, J. W. (1968). Sinhalese diglossia. Anthropological Linguistics, 10 , 1–15.

Gair, J. W. (1970). Colloquial Sinhalese clause structures . The Hague, The Netherlands: Mouton.

Gair, J. W. (1982). Sinhala, an Indo-Aryan isolate. South Asian Review, 6 , 51–64.

Gair, J. W. (1985). How Dravidianized was Sinhala phonology? Some conclusions and cautions. In V. Z. Acson & R. L. Leed (Eds.), Festschrift for Gordon H. Fairbanks, Oceanic Linguistics Special Publication (pp. 37–55). Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/20006708.pdf

Gair, J. W. (1986). Sinhala diglossia revisited, or diglossia dies hard. In B. Krishnamurti, C. P. Masica, & A. K. Sinha (Eds.), South Asian languages: Structure, convergence and diglossia (pp. 322–336). Delhi, India: Motilal Banarsidass (Reprinted in Gair, 1998a, pp. 224–236).

Gair, J. W. (1996). Sinhala writing. In P. T. Daniels & W. Bright (Eds.), The world’s writing systems (pp. 408–412). New York, NY/Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

Gair, J. W. (1998). Selections from the verb in Sinhala, with some preliminary remarks on Dravidianization. In J. W. Gair & B. C. Lust (Eds.), Studies in South Asian linguistics, Sinhala and other South Asian languages (pp. 202–209). New York, NY/Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

Gair, J. W. (2006). Sinhala. In Concise encyclopedia of languages of the world (Vol. 1, pp. 964–968). Oxford, UK: Elsevier Ltd.

Gair, J. W., & Paolillo, J. C. (1997). Sinhala . Munich, Germany: Lincom Europa.

Geiger, W. (1938). A grammar of the Sinhalese language . Colombo, Sri Lanka: Royal Asiatic Society.

Gunasekara, A. M. (1981/1999). A comprehensive grammar of the Sinhalese language . New Delhi, India: Asian Educational Services.

Gunawardhana, W. F. (1918). The origin of the Sinhalese language . Colombo, Sri Lanka: W. E. Bastian & Co.

Hettiaratchi, D. E. (1965). Influence of Portuguese on the Sinhala language. Journal of the Ceylon Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, 9 , 229–238.

Inoue, T., Georgiou, G., Muroya, N., Maekawa, H., & Parrila, R. (2017). Cognitive predictors of literacy acquisition in syllabic Hiragana and morphographic Kanji. Reading & Writing, 30 , 1335–1360.

Jayarajan, P. M. (2006). History of the evolution of the Sinhala alphabet (2nd ed.). Michigan: Colombo Apothecaries’ Company, Ltd.

Jayawardena, R., & Winskel, H. (2016). Assessing the modified receptive field (MRF) theory: Evidence from Sinhalese-English bilinguals. Acta Psychologica, 171 , 65–71.

Jhingran, D. (2011). Reading failure in early primary grades: A serious challenge to equity in primary education [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from www.create-rpc.org/pdf_documents/Delhi2011D.Jhingran.pdf

Kandhadai, P., & Sproat, R. (2010). Impact of spatial ordering of graphemes in alphasyllabic scripts on phonemic awareness in Indic languages. Writing Systems Research, 2 , 105–116.

Karanth, P., Mathew, A., & Kurien, P. (2004). Orthography and reading speed: Data from native readers of Kannada. Reading & Writing, 17 , 101–120.

Karunatillake, W. S. (1987). Category of gender in Sinhala. In M. Hiran & F. Jayasoriya (Eds.), Gate Mudaliyar W. F. Gunawardhana conmemoration volume . Colombo, Sri Lanka: Sri Lanka.

Karunatillake, W. S. (2004). An introduction to spoken Sinhala (5th ed.). Colombo, Sri Lanka: M.D. Gunasena & Ltd.

Ministry of Education, Sri Lanka (2016). Annual performance report. Retrieved from http://www.moe.gov.lk/english/images/publications/2018/Anual_performance_report/anual_performance_report_e.pdf

Nag, S. (2007). Early reading in Kannada: The pace of acquisition of orthographic knowledge and phonemic awareness. Journal of Research in Reading, 30 , 7–22.

Nag, S. (2014). Akshara-phonology mappings: The common yet uncommon case of the consonant cluster. Writing Systems Research, 6 , 105–119.

Nag, S. (2017). Learning to read alphasyllabaries. In K. Cain, D. Compton, & R. Parrila (Eds.), Theories of reading development (pp. 78–95). Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Benjamins.

Nag, S., & Snowling, M. J. (2011). Cognitive profiles of poor readers of Kannada. Reading and Writing, 24 , 657–676.

Nag, S., & Snowling, M. J. (2012). Reading in an alphasyllabary: Implications for a language universal theory of learning to read. Scientific Studies of Reading, 16 , 404–423.

Nag, S., Snowling, M. J., Quinlan, P., & Hulme, C. (2014). Child and symbol factors in learning to read a visually complex writing. Scientific Studies in Reading, 18 , 309–324.

Nag, S., Treiman, R., & Snowling, M. J. (2010). Learning to spell in an alphasyllabary: The case of Kannada. Writing Systems Research, 2 , 41–52.

Nakamura, P. R., Koda, K., & Joshi, R. M. (2014). Biliteracy acquisition in Kannada and English: A developmental study. Writing Systems Research, 6 , 132–147.

Nicholas, C. W. (1949). Palaeographical development of the Brahmi script in Ceylon from the 3 rd century B. C. to the 7 th century A. C. UCR, 7 , 60–65.

Padakannaya, P., & Chaitra, R. (2002). Effect of word frequency and lexicality on reading speed. The Second International Conference on Neurology, Language and Cognition . Institute for Communicative and Cognitive Neurosciences, Cochin, India.

Paolillo, J. C. (1997). Sinhala diglossic variation: Continuous or discrete? Language in Society, 26 , 269–296.

Prakash, P., Rekha, D., Nigam, R., & Karanth, P. (1993). Phonological awareness, orthography and literacy. In R. Scholes (Ed.), Literacy and language analysis (pp. 55–70). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Ramanayake, R. (2006). Characteristics of Sinhala pronunciation [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from https://www.w3.org/2006/10/SSML/slides/Ruvini/Presentation_on_Sinhala.pdf

Saiegh-Haddad, E. (2003). Linguistic distance and initial reading acquisition: The case of Arabic diglossia. Applied PsychoLinguistics, 24 , 431–451.

Sandyanganie, M. S. V., Jeewandara, K. C., & Perera, H. (2016). Prevalence and correlates of reading and spelling difficulty in 10 year old children in a semi-urban population in Sri Lanka. Sri Lanka Journal of Child Health, 45 , 193–198.

Share, D. L., & Daniels, P. T. (2016). Aksharas, alphasyllabaries, abujidas, alphabets and orthographic depth: Reflections on Rimzhim, Katz and Fowler. Writing Systems Research, 8 , 17–31.

Sircar, S., & Nag, S. (2013). Akshara-syllable mappings in Bengali: A language-specific skill for reading. In H. Winskel & P. Padakannaya (Eds.), South and south-east Asian psycholinguistics (pp. 202–211). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Chapter   Google Scholar  

Tiwari, S., Nair, R., & Krishnan, G. (2011). A preliminary investigation of akshara knowledge in the Malayalam Alphasyllabary: Extension of Nag’s (2007) study. Writing Systems Research, 3 , 145–151.

UNESCO Institute for Statistics. (2015). Adult literacy rate, population 15+ years, both sexes (%). Retrieve from http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.ADT.LITR.ZS?locations=LK

Vaid, J., & Gupta, A. (2002). Exploring word recognition in a semi-alphabetic script: The case of Devanagari. Brain and Language, 81 , 679–690.

Vasanta, D. (2004). Processing phonological information in a semi-syllabic script: Developmental data fromTelugu. Reading & Writing, 17 , 59–78.

Wasala, A. & Gamage, K. (2004–2007). Research report on phonetics and phonology of Sinhala . Retrieved March 26, 2015 from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/266296671_Research_Report_on_Phonetics_and_Phonology_of_Sinhala

Weerasinghe, R., Wasala, A., & Gamage, K. (2005). A rule based syllabification algorithm for Sinhala. In R. Dale, K. F. Wong, J. Su, & O. Y. Kwong (Eds.), Natural language processing – IJCNLP 2005. Lecture notes in computer science (Vol. 3651, pp. 438–449). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Wijayaratne, D. J. (1956). History of the Sinhalese noun . Colombo, Sri Lanka: University of Ceylon Press.

Wijaythilake, M. A. D. K., & Parrila, R. (2014). Predictors of word reading in good and struggling readers in Sinhala. Writing Systems Reseach, 6 , 120–131.

Download references

Author information

Authors and affiliations.

Department of Educational Psychology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada

Marasinghe A. D. K. Wijaythilake

Department of Educational Studies, Macquarie University, NSW, Sydney, Australia

Rauno Parrila

You can also search for this author in PubMed   Google Scholar

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Rauno Parrila .

Editor information

Editors and affiliations.

Department of Teaching, Learning, and Culture, College of Education and Human Development, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA

R. Malatesha Joshi

Department of Psychology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China

Catherine McBride

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

Copyright information

© 2019 Springer Nature Switzerland AG

About this chapter

Wijaythilake, M.A.D.K., Parrila, R. (2019). Reading and Writing Sinhala. In: Joshi, R.M., McBride, C. (eds) Handbook of Literacy in Akshara Orthography. Literacy Studies, vol 17. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-05977-4_11

Download citation

DOI : https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-05977-4_11

Published : 12 June 2019

Publisher Name : Springer, Cham

Print ISBN : 978-3-030-05976-7

Online ISBN : 978-3-030-05977-4

eBook Packages : Education Education (R0)

Share this chapter

Anyone you share the following link with will be able to read this content:

Sorry, a shareable link is not currently available for this article.

Provided by the Springer Nature SharedIt content-sharing initiative

  • Publish with us

Policies and ethics

  • Find a journal
  • Track your research
  • Agriculture Ministers
  • Board of Governors
  • International Collaborations
  • Annual Reports
  • Action Plan
  • Corporate Plan
  • Research Staff Ordered by Alphabetically
  • Research Staff Ordered by Designation
  • Support Staff
  • Research Report

Research Report [Sinhala]

  • Documentation Series
  • Occasional Publications
  • Sri Lanka Journal of Agrarian Studies
  • Govi Katayuthu Adhyanaya
  • Newsletters
  • Working Papers (Sinhala)
  • Policy Briefs
  • Contact Details
  • Make Inquiry
  • You are here:  
  • Ongoing Research Projects
  • Completed Training Programmes
  • Completed Research Projects
  • Research Consultancies
  • Training Consultancies
  • Conference Facilities
  • Residential Facilities
  • Latest from HARTI
  • Daily Food Commodities Bulletin
  • Weekly Food Commodities Bulletin
  • Monthly Food Commodities Bulletin

ශ්‍රී ලංකාවේ කුළුබඩු කර්මාන්තයේ සමාජ - ආර්ථික තත්ත්වය සහ වර්තමානයේ එම කර්මාන්තය මුහුණ දී ඇති ගැටලු සහ විභවතා (ගම්මිරිස් වගාව ආශ්‍රිත අධ්‍යයනය)

සිංහල පර්යේෂණ වාර්තාව : 70 

ශ්‍රී ලංකාවේ කහ වගාව : ගැටලු සහ විභවතා

සිංහල පර්යේෂණ වාර්තාව : 54

පොළොන්නරුව දිස්ත්‍රික්කයේ ක්‍රියාත්මක ස්වයංරැකියා සදහා තරුණ දායකත්වය වැඩිකිරීමේ වැඩසටහන ඇගයීමේ අධ්‍යයනය

(පර්යේෂණ වාර්තා අංක: 55)

සහල් සැකසුම් ගම්මාන ව්‍යාපෘතිය ඇගයීම

(සිංහල පර්යේෂණ වාර්තා අංක: 56)

ශ්‍රී ලංකාවේ කුරුඳු පත්‍ර හා පැඟිරි පත්‍ර ආශ්‍රිත සගන්ධ තෙල් කර්මාන්තයේ වර්තමාන තත්ත්වය හා සංවර්ධන විභවතා

 (පර්යේෂණ වාර්තා අංක: 58)

කිතුල් කර්මාන්තයේ වර්තමාන තත්ත්වය හා විභවතා පිළිබඳ අධ්‍යයනය

(සිංහල පර්යේෂණ වාර්තාව : 59)

"අපි වවමු - රට නගමු" දේශීය ආහාර නිෂ්පාදනය දිරි ගැන්වීමේ ජාතික මෙහෙයුම ඇගයීමේ අධ්‍යයනය

(පර්යේෂණ වාර්තා අංක: 60)

එළවළු අපනයනය ආශ්‍රිත සැපයුම් දාම විශ්ලේෂණය

(සිංහල පර්යේෂණ වාර්තා: 62)

ග්‍රාමීය කාන්තා ව්‍යවසායකත්වය ප්‍රවර්ධනය සඳහා කාන්තා කෘෂිකර්ම ව්‍යාප්ති වැඩසටහන් හි දායකත්වය හා වැඩි දියුණු කිරීමේ අවස්ථා

(සිංහල පර්යේෂණ වාර්තා: 63)

පහතරට තෙත් කලාපයේ කුඹුරු බිම් වී වගාව සඳහා ශක්‍යතාවය අනුව වර්ගීකරණය කිරීම

(සිංහල පර්යේෂණ වාර්තාව : 64)

කෘෂිකර්ම දෙපාර්තමේන්තුවේ කෘෂි ව්‍යවසායකත්ව සංවර්ධන ව්‍යාපෘති ඇගයීමේ අධ්‍යයනය

(සිංහල පර්යේෂණ වාර්තාව: 66)

මොණරාගල දිස්ත්‍රික්කයේ රතුලූනු නිෂ්පාදන පද්ධතිය : තිරසරභාවය පිළිබඳ ගැටලු සහ වැඩි දියුණු කිරීමේ අවස්ථා

(සිංහල පර්යේෂණ වාර්තාව: 67)

Copyright © 2014 Hector Kobbekaduwa Agrarian Research and Training Institute. All Rights Reserved. Developed In Association With Information and Communication Technology Agency

Sri Potha: A Voice-Based Sinhala Document Maker

Ieee account.

  • Change Username/Password
  • Update Address

Purchase Details

  • Payment Options
  • Order History
  • View Purchased Documents

Profile Information

  • Communications Preferences
  • Profession and Education
  • Technical Interests
  • US & Canada: +1 800 678 4333
  • Worldwide: +1 732 981 0060
  • Contact & Support
  • About IEEE Xplore
  • Accessibility
  • Terms of Use
  • Nondiscrimination Policy
  • Privacy & Opting Out of Cookies

A not-for-profit organization, IEEE is the world's largest technical professional organization dedicated to advancing technology for the benefit of humanity. © Copyright 2024 IEEE - All rights reserved. Use of this web site signifies your agreement to the terms and conditions.

Research Report on Phonetics and Phonology of Sinhala

Asanka Wasala and Kumudu Gamage Language Technology Research Laboratory, University of Colombo School of Computing, Sri Lanka . [email protected] , [email protected]

Abstract phonetics and phonology for improving the naturalness and intelligibility for our Sinhala TTS system. This report examines the major characteristics of Many researches have been carried out in the linguistic Sinhala language related to Phonetics and Phonology. domain regarding Sinhala phonetics and phonology. The main topics under study are Segmental and These researches cover both aspects of segmental and Supra-segmental sounds in Spoken Sinhala. The first suprasegmental features of spoken Sinhala. Some of part presents Sinhala Phonemic Inventory, which the themes elaborated in these researches are; Sinhala describes phonemes with their associated features and sound change-rules, Sinhala Prosody , Duration and phonotactics of Sinhala. Supra-segmental features like Stress , and Syllabification. Syllabification, Stress, Pitch and Intonation, followed In the domain of Sinhala Speech Processing, a by the procedure for letter to sound conversion are very little number of researches were reported and described in the latter part. most of them were carried out by undergraduates for The research on Syllabification leads to the their final year projects. Some restricted domain identification of set of rules for syllabifying a given Sinhala TTS systems developed by undergraduates are word. The syllabication algorithm achieved an already working in a number of domains. The study of accuracy of 99.95%. Due to the phonetic nature of the such projects laid the foundation for our project. Sinhala alphabet , the letter-to- phoneme mapping was However, an extensive research was done in all- easily done, however to produce the correct aspects of Sinhala Phonetics and Phonology; in order phonetized version of a word, some modifications identify the areas to be deeply concerned in developing were needed to be done. The Letter-to-sound a natural sounding Sinhala text-to-speech synthesizer. conversion algorithm written for this purpose yields The rest of the paper is organized as follows, an accuracy of 98.21%. The study carried out on Section 2 describes the adopted research methodology, stress assignment revealed that word level stress is Section 3 presents the Segmental feature of Sinhala, fixed in the first syllable . Generally, the long vowels Section 4 presents the Suprasegmental features of are also stressed. Sinhala, Section 5 discusses the Sinhala Letter-to- Sound Conversion, and paper concludes with the 1. Introduction results in Section 6.

The stream of speech is composed of two kinds of 2. Methods phonological units: Segmental sounds and Suprasegmental sounds. Segmental sounds are those Methodology adapted in this research included a which can be segmented into distinct, discrete units, critical review of literature, and further clarification of such as vowels and consonant [5]. The features of issues and difficulties encountered with distinguish speech like variations of pitch, stress, and accents are scholars in the fields of linguistics and Sinhala. called suprasegmental sounds. The naturalness of the The next step involved was the identification of synthesized speech is largely characterized by the fact topics which are more relevant to our TTS. Further that how successfully the above mentioned Studying of some phonological aspects were irrelevant phonological units i.e. both segmental and to our TTS system since it is a prose type text suprasegmental features exists in the language are synthesizer. Some of the sections eliminated from our modeled in the speech synthesizer. studies are: the different regional variations of speech, The research is focused on identifying unique colloquial/classical Sinhala, and Sound-Change-Rules. characteristics of Sinhala language in terms of An extensive research on topics like Letter-To-Sound

Sinhala conversion, Syllabification of words, and Prosody form and structure but also in their typical uses and (intonation, stress, phoneme durations, pitch, and functions. Literary Sinhala is generally considered the accent) were carried out since they are vital to our ‘higher’ variety in that its structure is closer to the TTS. classical literary idiom. It is used in all forms of non- fictional writing, including news bulletins, and in 3. Segmental Features of Sinhala electronic media. News is read rather than spoken. Different genres of fiction use a mixture of both: literary Sinhala for narration and spoken Sinhala for 3.1. Sinhala phonemic inventory dialog. Spoken Sinhala is used in all face-to-face communication. 3.1.1. Background. The Sinhala language is a member of the Indo-Aryan subfamily, which is a member of a 3.2.2. Phonemes in Sinhala. Spoken Sinhala contains still larger family of languages known as Indo- 40 segmental phonemes; 14 vowels and 26 consonants, European. Sinhala is the official language of Sri Lanka including a set of 4 pre-nasalized voiced stops peculiar and the mother tongue of the majority of the people to Sinhala, as classified below in Table 1 and Table 2. constituting about 74% of its population. Sinhala [4] language is presented in two major varieties: the Spoken and the Literary. They differ not only in their

Table 1: Spoken Sinhala consonant classification

Labial Dental Alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar glottal

Stops Voiceless p t ˇ k Voiced b d Î ˝ Voiceless c Affricates Voiced j Pre-nasalized b~ d~ Î~ ˝~ voiced stops Nasals m n µ ˜ Trill r Lateral l Spirants f s s` h Semivowels v y

Table 2: Spoken Sinhala vowel classification

Front Central Back Short long Short long short long High i i: u u: Mid e e: \ \: o o: Low æ æ: a a:

3.3.3. Phonotactics of Sinhala. /kæÎei/ - may break

Diphthongs: Spoken Sinhala has following Diphthongs. In such diphthongs, the second vowel is Nasals: There are two nasalized vowels which occur always a high vowel. As the first vowel, all vowels, in two or three words as single entity in Sinhala. except the central vowel /\/, occur, They are either short or long: /a~/, /a~:/, /æ~/, and /æ~~:/ /iu/, /eu/, /æu/ , /ou/ , /au/ , /ui/ , /ei/ , /æi/ , /oi/ , [4]. But when a vowel is preceded by pre-nasalized and /ai/ [5]. voiced stops in the same syllable, the other vowels Example: also tend to be nasalized. /siur\/ - robe Example:

474 Working Papers 2004-2007

/ku~:b~i/ - ants It is important to note that Thathsama , and /vi~d~in\va:/ - to suffer Thadbhava , categories of words are available in Pre-nasalized voiced stops, which is peculiar to Sinhala language as same as Nishpanna Category. Sinhala, share features of both voiced stops and Besides, for Thathsama , and Thadbhava , categories nasals. Phonetically, pre-nasalized voiced stops are of words, the legal syllable structures or examples shorter than the nasals in duration. were not found in literature. This reveals that, a Example: researcher who deals with Sinhala syllabification /kan\/ - ear should essentially, study Thathsama , and Thadbhava , /kad~\/ - trunk categories of words as well. This fact leads the research to study Nishpanna category separately as The duration of the pre-nasalized voiced stop /d~/, is well as Thathsama and Thadbhava . much shorter than that of the corresponding nasal /n/ [6]. 4.1.2. Syllabification of words belonging to the category of Nishpanna. It has been identified that Special features: Sinhala writing system does not there are four legal syllable structures as V, VC, CV provide a separate symbol for /\/.In terms of and CVC for words which belongs to the category of distribution, the vowel /\/does not occur at the Nishpanna [5]. This can also be represented as beginning of a syllable except in the conjugational (C)V(C). Though a large number of examples for variants of verbs formed from the verbal stem- syllabified words belonging to each of the above /k\r\/ (to do) . With contrasting this fact, though structures are presented in literature [5], the there exists a letter in Sinhala writing system as ( ඦ), methodology or grammatical rules describing how to which symbolizes the consonant sound /j~/, this is not syllabify a given word is not presented. A word can consider as a phoneme in Sinhala. be syllabified in many ways retaining the permitted structures, but only a single correct combination of 4. Suprasegmental Features of Sinhala structures is accepted as the properly syllabified word.

In this section, Study of Sinhala Syllabification, and phonological aspects of Sinhala Prosody (sp. Example: stress assignment, Intonation) are described. A word having VCVCVC in its underlying consonant-vowel structure can be syllabified in 4.1. Sinhala syllable structure and following different ways, retaining the valid syllable structures described in the literature. (V)(CVC)(VC), syllabification (VC)(VC)(VC), (VC)(V)(CVC), however only one form represents the properly syllabified word. 4.1.1. Background. Words in the Sinhala language Therefore, the determination of a proper can be divided in to three groups namely Nishpanna , mechanism leading to identification of the correct Thadbhava and Thathsama as described below: combination and the sequence of syllable structures in syllabifying a given word was the major challenge Nishpanna : Words that have the local origin. in this research. Thathsama : Words borrowed from other languages When the literature is critically reviewed, the as they are. following model with regard to syllabification is Thadbhava : Words derived from other languages, identified: mainly from Sanskrit and Pali .

1.It is identified that correct syllabified form of a The high impact of Sanskrit to Sinhala word can be obtained by formulating a set of vocabulary is due to the fact that, Sinhala and rules. Sanskrit both languages belong to the same Indo- 2.The following set of rules was identified . Aryan language family . As the vehicle of Buddhism,

Pali also has influenced the vocabulary of Sinhala. Due to various cultural, historical and sociolinguistic factors such as Tamil, as well as modern European languages such as Portuguese, Dutch and English has had a significant impact on the structure and vocabulary of Sinhala.

475 Sinhala

Syllabification Procedure for Nishpanna focused preliminarily due to this reason. For this Category: purpose, a carefully chosen list of related words 1 was a. Reach the first vowel of the given word and then, presented to the distinguished scholars of Sinhala and 1. If the phoneme next to this vowel is a Sanskrit for syllabification and recommendations. By consonant followed by another vowel, mark carefully analyzing the gathered information and the syllable boundary just after the first views, a set of rules have been identified on how to vowel, i.e., word having a consonant-vowel syllabify the borrowed Sanskrit. Critical analysis of structure of xVCV.. should be syllabified as gathered information and views, lead to a valid (xV)(CV..), where x denotes either a single syllable structures followed by a set of rules to consonant or zero consonant. syllabify the borrowed Sanskrit words. Syllabic structures for those words can be represented as 2. If the phoneme next to this vowel is (C)(C)(C)V(C)(C)(C). It is also noteworthy to consonant followed by another consonant mention that, syllabic structures for words belong to and a vowel, mark the syllable boundary the category of Nishpanna i.e. (C)V(C) is actually a just after the first consonant, i.e., word subset of these structures. having a consonant-vowel structure of Languages are unique in syllable structures. xVCCV.., should be syllabified as Syllabification of words belongs to the categories of (xVC)(CV..), where x denotes either a Thathsama and Thadbhava does not completely single consonant or zero consonant. adhere to syllabification rules imposed in the language from which the word is originated. 3. If the phoneme next to this vowel is another Syllabification of such words will naturally be altered vowel, mark the syllable boundary just after according to the ease of pronunciation and the the first vowel, i.e., word having a existing syllable structures in Sinhala. This view was consonant-vowel structure of xVV.., should expressed by 100 % of the distinguished scholars to be syllabified as (xV)(V..), where x denotes whom the chosen list of word was presented. As a either a single consonant or zero consonant. proof of this fact, it was evident that the Only few words were found in Sinhala syllabification of all most all the words borrowed having two consecutive vowels in a single from languages other than Sanskrit (Pali, Tamil and word. eg. “ giriullt\” (Name of city.) , English) are also consistent with the above “aa:v\ ” (Alphabet) . Thus, the syllable determined set of syllabification rules and the structure (V) mostly occurs at the beginning syllabic structures. of the word, except for above listed words. Syllabification procedure for Thathsama and b. Having marked the first syllable boundary, Thadbhava category: continue the same procedure for the a. Reach the first vowel of the given word and then, rest phonemes as a new word, i.e., repeat the step (a) to the rest of the word, until the whole word is 1.If the vowel is preceded by a consonant cluster syllabified. of 3, followed by a vowel, The accuracy was tested by working out with the examples given in the literature. Since results were • If the consonant preceded by the last vowel consistent, it was concluded that above set of rules is /r/ or /y/ th en mark the sy llable boundary describes the accurate syllabification procedure for after the first consonant of the consonant the words belonging to the category of Nishpanna . cluster, i.e., word having a consonant-vowel structure of xVCC[/r/ or /y/ ]V.., should be 4.1.3. Syllabification of Words Belonging to the syllabified as (xVC)(C[ /r/ or /y/ ]V..), where Category of Thathsama and Thadbhava. In x denotes zero or any number of consonants. Syllabification, words borrowed from Sanskrit play a major role than the words borrowed from other • In the above rule, if the consonant preceded languages. Reason behind is, distribution of large by the last vowel is phoneme other than /r/ number of Sanskrit originated words and the or /y/ then, complexity of codas and onsets of those words. Defining proper syllabic structures for words borrowed or either derived from Sanskrit had been 1 See Appendix A: Word-List.

476 Working Papers 2004-2007

− If the first two consonants in the In a word such as /sampre:kß\n\/ (transmit) the /p/ consonant cluster are both stop can be interpreted as a coda with respect to the consonants, mark the syllable boundary preceding vowel -/samp/re:k/ß\/n\/ or as an onset after the first consonant of the consonant with respect to the following vowel - cluster. /sam/pre:k/ß\/n\/. i.e., word having a consonant-vowel More examples for this kind of words includes, structure of xV[C-Stop][C-Stop]CV.., then it /mats/y\/, /mat/sy\/(fish); should be syllabified as (xVC)(CCV..), /sank/ya:/, /san/kya:/ (number) and where x denotes zero or any number of /lakß/y\/,/lak/ßy\/ (point). consonants. Among the Sanskrit loan words in Sinhala − At other situations mark the syllable including word internal clusters ending in /r/ and boundary after the second consonant of preceding a vowel, can either be syllabified by the consonant cluster. reduplicating the first consonant sound of the cluster i.e., word having a consonant-vowel or by retaining the original word as follows. structure of xVCCCV.., should be  gra syllabified as (xVCC)(CV..), where x /kr\/mak/r\/m\/y\/ /kr\/mak/kr\/m\/y\/ ( denotes zero or any number of consonants. dually) /ap/r\/ma:/n\/  /ap/pr\/ma:/n\/ (unlimited) 2.If this vowel is preceded by a consonant /ja/yag/ra:/hi:/  / ja/yag/gra:/hi:/ (victory) cluster of more than 3 consonants, This explanation shows that, the determined • If the consonant just before the last vowel rules and procedures comply even with the is /r/ or /y/ then, mark the syllable boundary ambisyllabic words as well. It is important to note before 2 consonants from the last vowel. that one of the syllabified forms of such word will be i.e., word having a consonant-vowel provided in accordance with the determined rules. structure of xVCCC…[/r/ or /y/ ]V.., then it 4.1.5. The syllabification algorithm. In this section, should be syllabified as (xVCCC…)(C[ /r/ or the identified Sinhala syllabification linguistic rules ]V..), where x denotes zero or any /y/ are presented as an algorithm. The function number of consonants. “syllabify ” accepts an array of phonemes generated • At other situations, mark the syllable by our Letter-To-Sound module for a particular boundary just after the minimum sonorant word, along with a variable called current_position consonant phoneme of the consonant cluster, which is used to determine the position of the given i.e., word having a consonant-vowel array which is currently being processed by the structure of xVCCC…CV.., then it should be algorithm. syllabified just next to the minimum Initially the current_position variable will hold sonorant consonant in the consonant cluster. the value 0. This function is called recursively until b. Having marked the first syllable boundary, all phonemes in the array are processed. The function continue the same procedure for the mark_syllable_boundary (postion) will mark the rest phonemes as a new word, i.e., repeat the step (a) syllable boundaries of accepted array of phonemes. to the rest of the word, until the whole word is The other functions used within the “ syllabify ” syllabified. function are described below. The words with consonant clusters of more than no_of_vowels(phonemes): accepts an array of 3 consonants are rarely found in Sinhala, and to phonemes and returns the number of avoid the confusions of syllabification of words in vowels contained in that array. those situations, the algorithm makes use of the is_a_vowel(phoneme): accepts a phoneme and universal sonority hierarchy [2] in deciding the return true if the given phoneme is a vowel. proper position to mark the syllable boundary. count_no_of_consonants_upto_next_vowel(phoneme s, position): accepts an array of phonemes and a 4.1.4. Ambisyllabic words in Sinhala. Some starting position; and returns the count of consonants ambisyllabic words are also found in Sinhala. This from the starting position of the given array until next situation arises due to the fact that some words with vowel is found. complex coda or onset can be syllabified in several is_a_stop(phoneme): returns true if the accepted ways. phoneme is a stop consonant. Example:

477 Sinhala find_min_sonority_position(phonemes, position): Pitch in Spoken Sinhala helps not only to declare returns the minimum sonorant position of given array differences of meaning but also to identify certain of phonemes, by start finding from the given subclasses of words; mainly related to the verbs. position. Those are Finite & Nonfinite participle and Complete listening of the algorithm is provided in the Imperative & Infinitive verbs [5]. Appendix B: Syllabification Algorithm. Finite & nonfinite participle: The difference of 4.2. Sinhala prosodic features those subclasses is indicated by the differences of pitch with which they are associated. 4.2.1. Stress. Stress is a supra-segmental feature of Example: utterances. It applies not to individual vowels and /amma ged\r\ ævilla/ (Mother has come home) consonants but to whole syllables -whatever they The finite participle which is a finite verb , is might be. A stressed syllable is pronounced with a pronounced with a falling intonation. greater amount of energy than an unstressed syllable /amma ged\r\ ævilla nida: gatta/ (Mother [1]. having come home and slept) In Spoken Sinhala, usually the initial syllable The nonfinite participle, which is a non-finite verb, receives the stress [7]. uses a level intonation. Example: /k\'r\n\va/ - to do Imperative & Infinitive Verbs: These two /am'ma/ - mother subclasses of the verbs are also distinguished by their /po'tak/ - a book distinctive pitch patterns. Even the words can have more than one stress per The imperative verb, which is a finite verb, uses a word. In words of long vowels, then the stress falls falling intonation: even on the long vowel. /amma ged\r\ enÎ\/ (Mother please come home) Example: The infinitive verb, which is a nonfinite verb, uses a /ha':muduruvo':/ - monk level intonation: /ma':liga':v\/ - castle /amma ged\r\ enÎ\ had\n\va/ (Mother tries to Spoken Sinhala also has phrasal stress, with one come home) stress per syllable of an entire phrase , to emphasize words. For this purpose, any word except a verb can 4.2.3 Intonation. If pitch varies over an entire phrase be chosen for emphasis. In general, the verb does not or sentence, the different pitch curves by the term receive the stress [5]. intonation. Intonation conveys the speaker's attitude For example, if the sentence: or feelings. In other words, intonation has a deictic /ape: ta:tta sikura:da hav\s\ pansal yan\va/ is function in discourse: questions; or a connotative function: anger, sarcasm, or various emotions. pronounced without stressing any of the words, Intonation can also convey purely syntactic simply means that our father goes to the temple on information, as when it marks where a sentence ends. Friday evening. It is also possible to pronounce this Three basic forms of intonation can be illustrated in sentence by placing stress on one of the words, Spoken Sinhala [5]. except on the verb /yan\va/ . If the word /ape':/

stressed, it brings “our” into contrast with other Falling intonation: This simply shows a fall from a fathers. The word can be stressed to bring /ta:tta/ higher pitch to a lower pitch. Expressions with falling “father” into contrast with others. By placing stress Intonation convey the meaning of finality. on each word in the same sentence, it can be /amma pansal gihilla/ (Mother has gone to the conveyed different kinds of information. temple)

4.2.2 Pitch. Another prosodic feature is Pitch, Rising intonation: This indicates the rise from a defined as the frequency of vibration of vocal cords. lower pitch to a higher pitch which conveys the Variations of the frequency of vibration are heard by meaning of unexpectedness and surprise. the listener as variations of Pitch: the more frequently /amma pansal gihilla/ (Mother has gone to the the vocal folds open and close, the higher the pitch temple? / are you sure or has she gone?) [2].

478 Working Papers 2004-2007

Level intonation: The maintenance of the same pitch levels illustrate by Level intonation and convey 5.2. Letter-to-sound rules the meaning of non-finality. A table was prepared mapping each letter with /amma pansal gihilla...... ba:v\na: k\r\n\va/ associated phoneme. (See Appendix C). Among the (Mother has gone to the temple ….and meditates) whole set of consonants, 10 consonants have their

aspirated form as a separate character for each. But 5. Letter-to-sound conversion in spoken Sinhala, the non-aspirated sounds are generally preferred. Thus, it was decided to use the A letter-to-sound module is typically used in same phoneme to represent both aspirated and non- TTS system to generate pronunciations for those aspirated sounds of those consonants. words not found in the lexicon . For many languages, After tokenizing a word, its phonetic there is a systematic relationship between the written representation is obtained with the aid of above table. form of a word and its pronunciation [3]. The Unicode characters in a word are obtained character- precise definition of this relationship would lead to a by-character and converted to its phonetic successful letter-to-sound conversion module. representation. Sinhala is an orthographically phonemic language. The next step involves with applying a Therefore, a set of rules can be easily formulated for predetermined set of rules in a specific order to the letter-to-sound conversion. phonetized letters. These rules are used to predict more accurate pronunciation of a word. The 5.1 The Sinhala character set identified rules are as follows: In the absent of a diacritic (except hal lakuna ) The Sinhala character set has 20 vowels and 40 for a particular consonant, the consonant should be consonants. There are 18 diacritics , 17 which denote associated with either schwa or vowel “a”. the vowels and are known as vowel modifiers, and Generally, in Sinhala words, the tendency of one( hal lakuna ◌ ් ) for representing the pure associating a schwa is high; therefore, such consonant form.(i.e. without hal lakuna, the consonants are associated with schwa. consonant is pronounced either associating it with If the nucleus of the first syllable is a schwa, the schwa or the vowel “a” eg. = k and ක= kəor schwa should be replaced by vowel “a”, except in the ka ). situations where syllable starts with “s” followed by The composition of a Consonant and Vowel is “v” phoneme, and phoneme “k” is preceded by represented by either inserting or attaching schwa and “r” is followed by schwa. appropriate diacritics (vowel modifier) to the If a consonant follows the phoneme sequence Consonant. Even this composition does not occur for “r”, schwa, and “h”, then schwa should be replaced all C-V combinations. by vowel “a”. If schwa is preceded by any consonant other that “h” then it retained [4]. Vowels: If schwa is followed by phoneme “h”, and any අ , ආ, ඇ, ඈ, ඉ, ඊ, උ, ඌ, ඍ, ඎ, එ, phonemes in the set { }, is preceded by phoneme “h”, then schwa should replaced by “a” [4]. ඒ, ඓ, ඔ, ඕ, ඖ If schwa is preceded by a consonant cluster, it Consonants: should be replaced by “a” phoneme [4]. If schwa is preceded by the last consonant of the ක, ඛ, ග, ඝ, ඞ, ඟ, ච, ඡ, ඣ, ඤ, ඥ, ඦ, word, it should be replaced by phoneme “a”, except ට, ඨ, ඩ, ඪ, ණ , ඬ, ත, ථ, ද, ධ, න, ඳ, in the situations where the word final consonant is ප,ඵ , බ , භ , ම , ඹ, ය, ර, ල, ව, ශ, ෂ, ස, “r”, “b”, “d” and “t”. At the end of a word, if schwa precedes the හ , ළ, ෆ phoneme sequence “i” and “y” then, it should be replaced by “a”. Vowel modifiers: ◌ ,් ◌ා , ◌ැ , ◌ෑ , ◌ ,ි ◌ ,ී ◌, , ු ◌, ූ If the phoneme “k” is preceded by schwa, and ,◌ෘ , ෙ◌ , ෛ◌ ,ෙ◌ , ෙ◌ , ෙ◌ , ◌ෟ , ◌ෲ , ◌ෳ the phoneme sequence “r” and “u” are followed by schwa then schwa should be replace by phoneme “a”. If a word starting with the phoneme sequence “k”, eg. Some composition of C-V for consonant “ක”: , “a”, “l”, “e”, the vowel “a” in this sequence is කා , , , changed to schwa.

479 Sinhala

Some words are inaccurately phonetized even may pronounced as /kar ə/ or /kərə/ depending after applying the above set of rules. Therefore, it onthecontext . Considering all these issues, it was was decided to maintain a lexicon to obtain the decided to maintain a lexicon consist of such words accurate phonetized form of a word. that are most frequently occurred in text with their proper pronunciation form. 6. Results and conclusion Unlike in English, Sinhala does not make a very clear distinction between stressed and unstressed

syllables. In Sinhala, the position of the stress is The fundamental approach of our Sinhala TTS fixed in relation to the word. Sinhala words nearly system is diphone concatenation. The research on always have the stress on the first syllable, Sinhala Phonemic Inventory leads to the irrespective of the number of syllables in the word. identification and preparation of a list of diphones. Also, the long vowels in the words are stressed. The All together 1,401 diphones were identified, and phrase stress in Sinhala cannot be easily predicted some of the diphones were listed for the purpose of since it depends on the context. Hence, it was reading the foreign words appear in the text. decided to place the stress on the first syllable and The extensive study carried out on long vowels of each word by the stress assignment Syllabification of Sinhala words leads to the algorithm. A research is underway to determine the definition of set of rules which is capable of prediction of phase stress of an utterance. predicting the syllable boundaries of a given word The available literature on Sinhala Intonation is accurately. The algorithm was tested on 30,000 inadequate, and an extensive research on Sinhala distinct words extracted from “UCSC Sinhala Corpus prosody is underway. The research criterion includes BETA” corpus, and compared the results with the observation and analysis of selected previous correctly syllabified words. Text obtained from the news, broadcasted on radio with their scripts. Since, category “News Paper > Feature Auricles > Other ” our TTS engine is also prose type reader, it is was chosen for testing the algorithm, due to the expected that this kind of study will reveal the heterogeneous nature of the text and better necessary information to model Sinhala Prosodic representation of corpus (i.e. approx. 2/3 of the entire features. Also, the study will be useful in determining corpus). A list of distinct words was obtained, and the phrase breaks in an utterance too. first 30,000 words with the highest frequency of occurrence were chosen for testing the algorithm. The algorithm achieved an accuracy of 99.95%. 7. References Most of the errors were due to, [1] P. Ladeforged, A Course In Phonetics , 3rd edn., 1. Words developed by composing two or Harcourt Brace Jovanovich College Publishers, 301, more words. (ie. Single word is formed by Commerce Street, Suite 3700, Fort Worth TX 76102, combining 2 or more distinct words; like the 1993. word “thereafter”). In this case, syllabification should be carried out [2] C. Gussenhoven, and H. Jacobs, Understanding separately for each word that the word is Phonology , Oxford University Press Inc, 198, comprised of and then it should be Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10016, 1998. concatenated to form a single word. [3] A.W. Black and K.A. Lenzo, Building Synthetic 2. Directly termed other language words. Voices , Carnegie Melon University, Edinburgh, Letter-to-Sound rules were also tested with the 2000. same set of words, and compared with the correct phonetized representation of each word. The [4] W.S. Karunatillake, An introduction to spoken algorithm achieved an accuracy of 98.21%. Sinhala , 3rd ed., M.D. Gunasena & Co. ltd., 217, It was noticed that, here also the words Olcott Mawatha, Colombo 11, 2004. developed by composing two or more words caused most of the errors. Beside, the contribution for errors [5] J.B. Disanayaka, The structure of spoken Sinhala , of the directly termed foreign words is also a National Institute of Education, Maharagama, 1991. significant factor. Few errors were occurred due to the words which have the same written form but with [6] R.M.W. Rajapaksa, Verb: A Prosodic analysis , different pronunciation, i.e. the written form “ කර ”, Department of Phonetics and Linguistics, School of

480 Working Papers 2004-2007

Oriental and African studies, University of London, 1988.

[7] M. Inman, Duration and Stress in Sinhala , Stanford University, 1986.

Appendix A: Word-List

ෙටපම k u: t o: p a k k r \ m \ පෘතජන p r u t a g j a n \ මමෙය k r \ m a k k r \ m \ y e n ස් s t r i: n දාඥයා v i d y a: j µ \ y a: කෘයා k r u m i y a: තෲ p i: t t r u: n ෙසභාග s a u b a: g y \ කාෙවපෙශය k a: v y o: p \ d e: ß \ y \ අදාව a v i d y a: v \ ඥාව p r a j µ a: v \ ෙකස්තෙනපලය k o ˜ s t a n t i n o: p \ l \ y \ ස්වන s v a p n \ ශලකම ß a l y \ k a r m \ පාෙව p a: r l i m e: n t u w \ වව d v a n d v \ හෘදස්පදනය h \ r d \ s p a n d \ n \ y \ සෙණ s a m p r e: k ß \ n \ ෙ ß e: ß t r \ වෘ p r \ v u r t i ජා p r \ v u r j ya: ය p r \ ß r a b d i y \ සංස්කෘත s a n s k r u t\ springs s p r i ˜ g s scratched s k r æ c Î straights s t r e: i t s strength s t r e n t s postscript p o: s t s k r i p t area e: r i a:

Appendix B: Syllabification Algorithm function syllabify( phonemes , current position ) if no_of_vowels( phonemes) is 1 then mark_syllable_boundary(at the end of phonemes) else if is_a_vowel( phonemes [current position ]) is true then

no_of_consonants= count_no_of_consonants_upto_next_vowel (phonemes , current position )

481 Sinhala

if no_of_consonants is 0 then if is_a_vowel( phonemes [current_position+1 ]) is true then mark_syllable_boundary ( current_position+1 ) syllabify( phonemes , current_position+1) end if

else if no_of_consonants is 1 then mark_syllable_boundary( current_position+1 ) syllabify( phonemes , current_position+2) end if

if no_of_consonants are 2 then mark_syllable_boundary( current_position+1 ) syllabify( phonemes , current_position+3) end if

if no_of_consonants are 3 then if phonemes[current_position+3] is( “r” or “y”) then mark_syllable_boundary( current_position+1 ) syllabify( phonemes , current_position+4) else if is_a_stop( phonemes [current_posi+1 ]) is true and is_a_stop( phonemes [posi+2])) is true then mark_syllable_boundary (current_position+1 ) syllabify( phonemes , current_position+4) else mark_syllable_boundary (current_position+2 ) syllabify( phonemes , current_position+4) end if end if end if Appendix B: Syllabification algorithm continued..

if no_of_consonants are greater than 3 then if phonemes[current_position+no_of_consonants] is( “r” or “y”) then mark_syllable_boundary (current_position+no_of_consonants-2) Syllabify (phonemes , current_position+no_of_consonants-1) else syllable_boundary =find_min_sonority_position (phonemes ,current_postion ) mark_syllable_boundary( syllable_boundary+1 ) Syllabify (phonemes , current_position+ no_of_consonants-1)

482 Working Papers 2004-2007

else temp =current_postion repeat temp = temp + 1; until ( is_a_vowel( phonemes [temp ]) is true syllabify( phonemes ,temp ) end if end if

ඒ Appendix C: Mapping between Sinhala e: eez Letters and Phonemes ඓ ai aiz Table 1: Mapping between Sinhala letters and ඔ o o phonemes ඕ Sinhala Letter Corresponding Phoneme(s) o: ooz ඖ IPA Festival au auz 2 Equivalent ක,ඛ k k අ a a ග,ඝ g g ආ a: aaz ඞ(◌ං) ˜ q ඇ æ aez ඟ g~ ngz ඈ æ: awz ච,ඡ c c ඉ i i ජ,ඣ j j ඊ i: iiz ඤ µ cnz උ u u ඥ /jµ/ j cnz ඌ u: uuz ඦ /nj/ njz ඍ /iru/ r i ට,ඨ ˇ t ඎ /iru:/ r iiz ඩ,ඪ Î d ඏ /ilu/ i l u ඬ Î~ ndz ඐ /ilu:/ i l uuz ත,ථ t thz එ e e ද,ධ d dhz න,ණ n n 2 Festival : The framework used in Sinhala Text-to- ඳ Speech synthesizer is incompatible with IPA scheme, d~ ndz therefore an ASCII based scheme was proposed for representing the phonemes.

483 Sinhala

ප,ඵ p p බ,භ b b ම m m ඹ b~ mbz ය y y ර r r ල,ළ l I ව v v ශ,ෂ s` shz ස s s හ,(◌ඃ) h h ෆ f f

Web Analytics

ChE Seminar: William Schneider, University of Notre Dame, “The Catalytic Science of Making Up and Breaking Up Dinitrogen”

Bill Schneider - University of Notre Dame

Host:  Peng Bai  

The catalytic chemistry of nitrogen is inextricably linked with mankind’s use of energy. Large- scale nitrogen fixation (N2 −−→ NH3) revolutionized the production of fertilizer, enabled the population explosion of the 20th century, and now accounts for several percent of the world’s annual energy consumption. NOx reduction (NOx −−→ N2) is integral to reducing the adverse impacts of transportation on urban air quality and health. These and other technologies all depend at their heart on heterogeneous catalysis. In this presentation I will discuss the insights gained by applying molecular-level models and concepts to nitrogen catalytic chemistry. Exam- ples will be drawn from our work on the the selective catalytic reduction of NOx in Cu-exchanged zeolites, a problem that has led us to rethink the factors that govern reactivity in zeolites, from NO and NH3 oxidation, problems that have caused us to revisit how we model reactions at metal surfaces, and from N2 oxidation, where we are exploring the potential to bypass the the constraints presented by common catalysts by combining with a non-thermal plasma

Bill Schneider’s expertise is in chemical applications of density functional theory (DFT) simulations. After receiving his Ph.D. in Inorganic Chemistry from the Ohio State University, he began his professional career in the Ford Motor Company Research Laboratory working on a variety of problems related to the environmental impacts of automobile emissions. At Ford he developed an interest in the catalytic chemistry of NOx for diesel emissions control, and he has published extensively on the chemistry and mechanisms of NOx decomposition, selective catalytic reduction, trapping, and oxidation catalysis. In 2004 he joined the Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering faculty at the University of Notre Dame as an Associate Professor. At Notre Dame he has continued his research into the theory and molecular simulation of heterogeneous catalysis, with particular emphasis on reaction environment effects on catalytic materials and their implications for mechanism and reactivity. He was named the H. Clifford and Evelyn A. Brosey Chair in 2016 and Dorini Family Chair and Chair of the Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering in 2020. He has co-authored more than 195 papers and book chapters, is a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, is an Executive Editor of The Journal of Physical Chemistry , the Past Chair of the Catalysis Science and Technology Division of the American Chemical Society, and was the 2018 recipient of the Giuseppe Parravano Award of the Michigan Catalysis Society. 

Lederle Graduate Research Center

740 N. Pleasant Street Amherst , MA 01003 United States

Global footer

  • ©2024 University of Massachusetts Amherst
  • Site policies
  • Non-discrimination notice
  • Accessibility
  • Terms of use

Featured Clinical Reviews

  • Screening for Atrial Fibrillation: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement JAMA Recommendation Statement January 25, 2022
  • Evaluating the Patient With a Pulmonary Nodule: A Review JAMA Review January 18, 2022
  • Download PDF
  • Share X Facebook Email LinkedIn
  • Permissions

Industry Payments to US Physicians by Specialty and Product Type

  • 1 Ain Shams University, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo, Egypt
  • 2 Department of Internal Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut
  • 3 Baptist Health, Louisville, Kentucky
  • 4 Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts
  • 5 Department of Medicine, Penn State Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, Pennsylvania
  • Research Letter Trends in Industry Payments to Physicians in the United States From 2014 to 2018 Deborah C. Marshall, MD, MAS; Elizabeth S. Tarras, MD; Kenneth Rosenzweig, MD; Deborah Korenstein, MD; Susan Chimonas, PhD JAMA
  • Research Letter Comparison of Industry Payments to Physicians and Advanced Practice Clinicians Audrey D. Zhang, MD; Timothy S. Anderson, MD, MAS JAMA
  • Brief Report Trends in Industry Payments to US Oncologists Since the Open Payments Program, 2014 to 2019 Elizabeth S. Tarras, MD; Deborah C. Marshall, MD; Kenneth Rosenzweig, MD; Deborah Korenstein, MD; Susan Chimonas, PhD JAMA Oncology

Despite evidence that financial conflicts of interest may influence physician prescribing and may damage patients’ trust in medical professionals, 1 - 3 such relationships remain pervasive. 4 The Physician Payments Sunshine Act led to the creation of the Open Payments database in August 2013, a repository of industry payments to health care professionals. 5 We examined the distribution of payments within and across specialties and the medical products associated with the largest total payments.

Read More About

Sayed A , Ross JS , Mandrola J , Lehmann LS , Foy AJ. Industry Payments to US Physicians by Specialty and Product Type. JAMA. Published online March 28, 2024. doi:10.1001/jama.2024.1989

Manage citations:

© 2024

Artificial Intelligence Resource Center

Cardiology in JAMA : Read the Latest

Browse and subscribe to JAMA Network podcasts!

Others Also Liked

Select your interests.

Customize your JAMA Network experience by selecting one or more topics from the list below.

  • Academic Medicine
  • Acid Base, Electrolytes, Fluids
  • Allergy and Clinical Immunology
  • American Indian or Alaska Natives
  • Anesthesiology
  • Anticoagulation
  • Art and Images in Psychiatry
  • Artificial Intelligence
  • Assisted Reproduction
  • Bleeding and Transfusion
  • Caring for the Critically Ill Patient
  • Challenges in Clinical Electrocardiography
  • Climate and Health
  • Climate Change
  • Clinical Challenge
  • Clinical Decision Support
  • Clinical Implications of Basic Neuroscience
  • Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacology
  • Complementary and Alternative Medicine
  • Consensus Statements
  • Coronavirus (COVID-19)
  • Critical Care Medicine
  • Cultural Competency
  • Dental Medicine
  • Dermatology
  • Diabetes and Endocrinology
  • Diagnostic Test Interpretation
  • Drug Development
  • Electronic Health Records
  • Emergency Medicine
  • End of Life, Hospice, Palliative Care
  • Environmental Health
  • Equity, Diversity, and Inclusion
  • Facial Plastic Surgery
  • Gastroenterology and Hepatology
  • Genetics and Genomics
  • Genomics and Precision Health
  • Global Health
  • Guide to Statistics and Methods
  • Hair Disorders
  • Health Care Delivery Models
  • Health Care Economics, Insurance, Payment
  • Health Care Quality
  • Health Care Reform
  • Health Care Safety
  • Health Care Workforce
  • Health Disparities
  • Health Inequities
  • Health Policy
  • Health Systems Science
  • History of Medicine
  • Hypertension
  • Images in Neurology
  • Implementation Science
  • Infectious Diseases
  • Innovations in Health Care Delivery
  • JAMA Infographic
  • Law and Medicine
  • Leading Change
  • Less is More
  • LGBTQIA Medicine
  • Lifestyle Behaviors
  • Medical Coding
  • Medical Devices and Equipment
  • Medical Education
  • Medical Education and Training
  • Medical Journals and Publishing
  • Mobile Health and Telemedicine
  • Narrative Medicine
  • Neuroscience and Psychiatry
  • Notable Notes
  • Nutrition, Obesity, Exercise
  • Obstetrics and Gynecology
  • Occupational Health
  • Ophthalmology
  • Orthopedics
  • Otolaryngology
  • Pain Medicine
  • Palliative Care
  • Pathology and Laboratory Medicine
  • Patient Care
  • Patient Information
  • Performance Improvement
  • Performance Measures
  • Perioperative Care and Consultation
  • Pharmacoeconomics
  • Pharmacoepidemiology
  • Pharmacogenetics
  • Pharmacy and Clinical Pharmacology
  • Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
  • Physical Therapy
  • Physician Leadership
  • Population Health
  • Primary Care
  • Professional Well-being
  • Professionalism
  • Psychiatry and Behavioral Health
  • Public Health
  • Pulmonary Medicine
  • Regulatory Agencies
  • Reproductive Health
  • Research, Methods, Statistics
  • Resuscitation
  • Rheumatology
  • Risk Management
  • Scientific Discovery and the Future of Medicine
  • Shared Decision Making and Communication
  • Sleep Medicine
  • Sports Medicine
  • Stem Cell Transplantation
  • Substance Use and Addiction Medicine
  • Surgical Innovation
  • Surgical Pearls
  • Teachable Moment
  • Technology and Finance
  • The Art of JAMA
  • The Arts and Medicine
  • The Rational Clinical Examination
  • Tobacco and e-Cigarettes
  • Translational Medicine
  • Trauma and Injury
  • Treatment Adherence
  • Ultrasonography
  • Users' Guide to the Medical Literature
  • Vaccination
  • Venous Thromboembolism
  • Veterans Health
  • Women's Health
  • Workflow and Process
  • Wound Care, Infection, Healing
  • Register for email alerts with links to free full-text articles
  • Access PDFs of free articles
  • Manage your interests
  • Save searches and receive search alerts


  1. Abstract

  2. Congrats

  3. Operationalization table in Research proposal explain sinhala

  4. Research Methodology Sinhala / Research philosophy/ ontology and epistemology /Episode 6/ chapter 3

  5. Salient Features Of Abstract In A Research Paper(ENGLISH FOR RESEARCH PAPER WRITING)

  6. What to Write in An Abstract? #academicwriting #scientificwriting #phd #research


  1. How to write an Abstract (Sinhala) 2022

    Hello guys, 🤗This video is about How to write an Abstract (Sinhala) 2022An abstract is a summary of a dissertation, research paper or in-depth analysis of a...

  2. How to write the Abstract and Title

    I decided to invite my Dad - Professor Cassim Iqbal from the National Institute of Fundamental Studies in Sri Lanka to talk about the Abstract and Title when...

  3. Research Thesis Writing in sinhala

    Research Thesis එක හරියට ලියමු . මේ video එකෙන් Thesis එකේ Declaration , Abstract සහ Acknowledgement යන කොටස් ගැන ...

  4. PDF FOH

    Writing an abstract for the Undergraduate Research Symposium (or starting your research study) Dinah Fernando (Department of English) & Buddhika Jayasundara (Department of Sinhala) What is an abstract? An abstract is a short summary of a research article, a book, a speech, or a summary of a research idea that you hope to undertake.

  5. Abstract Submission

    We invite abstracts of two pages. Paper: A4 Margins: Right 3 cm, Left 2.5 cm Medium: Sinhala or English (For abstract writing guidelines in Sinhala please refer the Sinhala Abstract Template attached below). Title of the abstract: maximum 18 words, font type Calibri, font size 14, bold, centered, line space 1). The author details must be included below the title, as per the following guidelines.

  6. (PDF) සාරසංක්ෂේප (Abstract)

    Download Free PDF. View PDF. Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine. The family as a resource for improved patient and family functioning after traumatic brain injury: A descriptive non-randomized feasibility study of a family-centred intervention. 2018 •. Mari Rasmussen. Download Free PDF.

  7. PDF Extended Abstract Submission (Format)

    Extended Abstract Submission (Format) Researchers who wish to present their action research at the National Action Research Conference on Higher Education 2020 of the Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences of the ... 11, 1.15 line spaced or Sinhala using FM Abaya font. Abstract should contain approximately 350 words, a few key words (maximum ...

  8. Sinhala journal

    About the journal. The Sinhala Journal publishes the results of Sinhala related researches. It is open for the publication of Research Articles, Reviews and Research Communications in sinhala disciplines. The journal provides a forum for local and international scholars to publish high quality research from broader disciplines.

  9. Workshop on 'Writing Research Abstracts'

    A workshop on 'Writing Research Abstracts' was held on 28th February 2019 at the M. B. Ariyapala Auditorium, Department of Sinhala.The workshop was a preliminary step to the first Undergraduate Research Symposium, to be held on 12th March 2019. The purpose of the workshop was to give an understanding of how to write a coherent and well-structured abstract suitable for presentation at a ...

  10. PDF Reading and Writing Sinhala

    Reading and Writing Sinhala Marasinghe A. D. K. Wijaythilake and Rauno Parrila Abstract Sinhala is one of the two ofcial languages in Sri Lanka spoken by about 74% of the population. It belongs to the Indo-Aryan family of languages and is writ - ten with a distinct, highly cursive akshara script. The extensive Sinhala akshara set

  11. (PDF) Research Designs in Geographic Studies (in Sinhala)

    Abstract. This monograph describes the appropriate research designs in Geography in Sinhala Language. Discover the world's research. 25+ million members; 160+ million publication pages;

  12. Reading and Writing Sinhala

    Abstract. Sinhala is one of the two official languages in Sri Lanka spoken by about 74% of the population. It belongs to the Indo-Aryan family of languages and is written with a distinct, highly cursive akshara script. ... As research on literacy acquisition in Sinhala is sparse, we will complement the existing studies with Government ...

  13. පර්යේෂණ පත්‍රිකාවක කොටස් මොනවාද? How to write a Research Paper Sinhalen

    What is a research paper and what are the main parts of it?00:00 Intro00:44 How research works04:20 Parts of a paper06:38 Title, Authors, Abstract07:19 Intro...

  14. PDF 1 Survey on Publicly Available Sinhala Natural Language Processing

    Language Processing Tools and Research Nisansa de Silva Abstract— Sinhala is the native language of the Sinhalese people who make up the largest ethnic group of Sri Lanka. The language belongs to the globe-spanning language tree, Indo-European. However, due to poverty in both linguistic and economic capital, Sinhala, in the

  15. (PDF) Survey on Publicly Available Sinhala Natural ...

    Abstract and Figures. Sinhala is the native language of the Sinhalese people who make up the largest ethnic group of Sri Lanka. The language belongs to the globe-spanning language tree, Indo ...

  16. (PDF) Extended Abstract: Romanized Sinhala to Sinhala ...

    [Show full abstract] for the Sinhala language and Romanized Sinhala for research purposes is comparatively less and it is a low-resource language. To address the resource limitation issue, the ...

  17. Research Report [Sinhala]

    Research Report [Sinhala] ශ්‍රී ලංකාවේ කුළුබඩු කර්මාන්තයේ සමාජ - ආර්ථික. තත්ත්වය සහ වර්තමානයේ එම කර්මාන්තය මුහුණ දී ඇති. ගැටලු සහ විභවතා (ගම්මිරිස් ...

  18. Sri Potha: A Voice-Based Sinhala Document Maker

    Abstract: This study discusses the development of a web application aimed at facilitating Sinhala document creation, with a specific emphasis on Sinhala voice-to-text conversion and the handling of Sinhala commands through vocal input. Leveraging machine learning techniques, including convolutional neural networks and Natural Language Processing, the application's core features were established.

  19. Research Report on Phonetics and Phonology of Sinhala

    Research Report on Phonetics and Phonology of Sinhala. Asanka Wasala and Kumudu Gamage Language Technology Research Laboratory, University of Colombo School of Computing, Sri Lanka. [email protected], [email protected]. Abstract phonetics and phonology for improving the naturalness and intelligibility for our Sinhala TTS system.

  20. How to do a research explained in Sinhala

    4 වන වසරේ අපිට කරන්න ලැබෙන Research එකේ documentation part එක කරන විදිහ පියවරෙන් පියවර මේ video ...

  21. "Talking Books" : A Sinhala Abstractive Text ...

    Request PDF | On Apr 7, 2023, B.R.M.S.R.B. Rathnayake and others published "Talking Books" : A Sinhala Abstractive Text Summarization Approach for Sinhala Textbooks | Find, read and cite all the ...

  22. ChE Seminar: William Schneider, University of Notre Dame, "The

    Host: Peng Bai Abstract. The catalytic chemistry of nitrogen is inextricably linked with mankind's use of energy. Large- scale nitrogen fixation (N2 −−→ NH3) revolutionized the production of fertilizer, enabled the population explosion of the 20th century, and now accounts for several percent of the world's annual energy consumption.

  23. Open Framework for Integrated Data Operations (OpenFIDO)

    Abstract The authors would like to thank Pedram Jahangiri at National Grid for his contribution to the development of OpenFIDO. Thanks also go to our collaborators at Gridworks and the Hitachi America Laboratories staff including Rehana Aziz, Deborah Shields, Yanzhu Ye, and Panitarn (Joseph) Chongfyanprinya, for their efforts supporting the ...

  24. Research Thesis Writing in sinhala

    මෙම video එකෙන් Thesis එකේ Introduction එක ලියන විදිහ ගැන සමාලෝචනය කෙරේ Donations:😍https ...

  25. Industry Payments to US Physicians by Specialty and Product Type

    Antiretroviral Drugs for HIV Treatment and Prevention in Adults - 2022 IAS-USA Recommendations CONSERVE 2021 Guidelines for Reporting Trials Modified for the COVID-19 Pandemic Creation and Adoption of Large Language Models in Medicine Global Burden of Cancer, 2010-2019 Global Burden of Long COVID Global Burden of Melanoma Global Burden of Skin ...


    Abstract. This research presents the development of a Sinhala-English language translation system, integrating Automatic Speech Recognition, Machine Translation, and Text-to-Speech technologies ...

  27. Final Year Research Project (Sinhala/English)

    #PhDAdvice #SriLanka #Research #Sinhala #Science #Engineering #ResearchAdvice #InnovationClubThis video was recorded in Sinhala and English to support as man...