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Research Methodology Example

Detailed Walkthrough + Free Methodology Chapter Template

If you’re working on a dissertation or thesis and are looking for an example of a research methodology chapter , you’ve come to the right place.

In this video, we walk you through a research methodology from a dissertation that earned full distinction , step by step. We start off by discussing the core components of a research methodology by unpacking our free methodology chapter template . We then progress to the sample research methodology to show how these concepts are applied in an actual dissertation, thesis or research project.

If you’re currently working on your research methodology chapter, you may also find the following resources useful:

  • Research methodology 101 : an introductory video discussing what a methodology is and the role it plays within a dissertation
  • Research design 101 : an overview of the most common research designs for both qualitative and quantitative studies
  • Variables 101 : an introductory video covering the different types of variables that exist within research.
  • Sampling 101 : an overview of the main sampling methods
  • Methodology tips : a video discussion covering various tips to help you write a high-quality methodology chapter
  • Private coaching : Get hands-on help with your research methodology

Free Webinar: Research Methodology 101

FAQ: Research Methodology Example

Research methodology example: frequently asked questions, is the sample research methodology real.

Yes. The chapter example is an extract from a Master’s-level dissertation for an MBA program. A few minor edits have been made to protect the privacy of the sponsoring organisation, but these have no material impact on the research methodology.

Can I replicate this methodology for my dissertation?

As we discuss in the video, every research methodology will be different, depending on the research aims, objectives and research questions. Therefore, you’ll need to tailor your literature review to suit your specific context.

You can learn more about the basics of writing a research methodology chapter here .

Where can I find more examples of research methodologies?

The best place to find more examples of methodology chapters would be within dissertation/thesis databases. These databases include dissertations, theses and research projects that have successfully passed the assessment criteria for the respective university, meaning that you have at least some sort of quality assurance.

The Open Access Thesis Database (OATD) is a good starting point.

How do I get the research methodology chapter template?

You can access our free methodology chapter template here .

Is the methodology template really free?

Yes. There is no cost for the template and you are free to use it as you wish.

You Might Also Like:

Example of two research proposals (Masters and PhD-level)

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  • What Is a Research Methodology? | Steps & Tips

What Is a Research Methodology? | Steps & Tips

Published on August 25, 2022 by Shona McCombes and Tegan George. Revised on November 20, 2023.

Your research methodology discusses and explains the data collection and analysis methods you used in your research. A key part of your thesis, dissertation , or research paper , the methodology chapter explains what you did and how you did it, allowing readers to evaluate the reliability and validity of your research and your dissertation topic .

It should include:

  • The type of research you conducted
  • How you collected and analyzed your data
  • Any tools or materials you used in the research
  • How you mitigated or avoided research biases
  • Why you chose these methods
  • Your methodology section should generally be written in the past tense .
  • Academic style guides in your field may provide detailed guidelines on what to include for different types of studies.
  • Your citation style might provide guidelines for your methodology section (e.g., an APA Style methods section ).

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Table of contents

How to write a research methodology, why is a methods section important, step 1: explain your methodological approach, step 2: describe your data collection methods, step 3: describe your analysis method, step 4: evaluate and justify the methodological choices you made, tips for writing a strong methodology chapter, other interesting articles, frequently asked questions about methodology.

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Your methods section is your opportunity to share how you conducted your research and why you chose the methods you chose. It’s also the place to show that your research was rigorously conducted and can be replicated .

It gives your research legitimacy and situates it within your field, and also gives your readers a place to refer to if they have any questions or critiques in other sections.

You can start by introducing your overall approach to your research. You have two options here.

Option 1: Start with your “what”

What research problem or question did you investigate?

  • Aim to describe the characteristics of something?
  • Explore an under-researched topic?
  • Establish a causal relationship?

And what type of data did you need to achieve this aim?

  • Quantitative data , qualitative data , or a mix of both?
  • Primary data collected yourself, or secondary data collected by someone else?
  • Experimental data gathered by controlling and manipulating variables, or descriptive data gathered via observations?

Option 2: Start with your “why”

Depending on your discipline, you can also start with a discussion of the rationale and assumptions underpinning your methodology. In other words, why did you choose these methods for your study?

  • Why is this the best way to answer your research question?
  • Is this a standard methodology in your field, or does it require justification?
  • Were there any ethical considerations involved in your choices?
  • What are the criteria for validity and reliability in this type of research ? How did you prevent bias from affecting your data?

Once you have introduced your reader to your methodological approach, you should share full details about your data collection methods .

Quantitative methods

In order to be considered generalizable, you should describe quantitative research methods in enough detail for another researcher to replicate your study.

Here, explain how you operationalized your concepts and measured your variables. Discuss your sampling method or inclusion and exclusion criteria , as well as any tools, procedures, and materials you used to gather your data.

Surveys Describe where, when, and how the survey was conducted.

  • How did you design the questionnaire?
  • What form did your questions take (e.g., multiple choice, Likert scale )?
  • Were your surveys conducted in-person or virtually?
  • What sampling method did you use to select participants?
  • What was your sample size and response rate?

Experiments Share full details of the tools, techniques, and procedures you used to conduct your experiment.

  • How did you design the experiment ?
  • How did you recruit participants?
  • How did you manipulate and measure the variables ?
  • What tools did you use?

Existing data Explain how you gathered and selected the material (such as datasets or archival data) that you used in your analysis.

  • Where did you source the material?
  • How was the data originally produced?
  • What criteria did you use to select material (e.g., date range)?

The survey consisted of 5 multiple-choice questions and 10 questions measured on a 7-point Likert scale.

The goal was to collect survey responses from 350 customers visiting the fitness apparel company’s brick-and-mortar location in Boston on July 4–8, 2022, between 11:00 and 15:00.

Here, a customer was defined as a person who had purchased a product from the company on the day they took the survey. Participants were given 5 minutes to fill in the survey anonymously. In total, 408 customers responded, but not all surveys were fully completed. Due to this, 371 survey results were included in the analysis.

  • Information bias
  • Omitted variable bias
  • Regression to the mean
  • Survivorship bias
  • Undercoverage bias
  • Sampling bias

Qualitative methods

In qualitative research , methods are often more flexible and subjective. For this reason, it’s crucial to robustly explain the methodology choices you made.

Be sure to discuss the criteria you used to select your data, the context in which your research was conducted, and the role you played in collecting your data (e.g., were you an active participant, or a passive observer?)

Interviews or focus groups Describe where, when, and how the interviews were conducted.

  • How did you find and select participants?
  • How many participants took part?
  • What form did the interviews take ( structured , semi-structured , or unstructured )?
  • How long were the interviews?
  • How were they recorded?

Participant observation Describe where, when, and how you conducted the observation or ethnography .

  • What group or community did you observe? How long did you spend there?
  • How did you gain access to this group? What role did you play in the community?
  • How long did you spend conducting the research? Where was it located?
  • How did you record your data (e.g., audiovisual recordings, note-taking)?

Existing data Explain how you selected case study materials for your analysis.

  • What type of materials did you analyze?
  • How did you select them?

In order to gain better insight into possibilities for future improvement of the fitness store’s product range, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 8 returning customers.

Here, a returning customer was defined as someone who usually bought products at least twice a week from the store.

Surveys were used to select participants. Interviews were conducted in a small office next to the cash register and lasted approximately 20 minutes each. Answers were recorded by note-taking, and seven interviews were also filmed with consent. One interviewee preferred not to be filmed.

  • The Hawthorne effect
  • Observer bias
  • The placebo effect
  • Response bias and Nonresponse bias
  • The Pygmalion effect
  • Recall bias
  • Social desirability bias
  • Self-selection bias

Mixed methods

Mixed methods research combines quantitative and qualitative approaches. If a standalone quantitative or qualitative study is insufficient to answer your research question, mixed methods may be a good fit for you.

Mixed methods are less common than standalone analyses, largely because they require a great deal of effort to pull off successfully. If you choose to pursue mixed methods, it’s especially important to robustly justify your methods.

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Next, you should indicate how you processed and analyzed your data. Avoid going into too much detail: you should not start introducing or discussing any of your results at this stage.

In quantitative research , your analysis will be based on numbers. In your methods section, you can include:

  • How you prepared the data before analyzing it (e.g., checking for missing data , removing outliers , transforming variables)
  • Which software you used (e.g., SPSS, Stata or R)
  • Which statistical tests you used (e.g., two-tailed t test , simple linear regression )

In qualitative research, your analysis will be based on language, images, and observations (often involving some form of textual analysis ).

Specific methods might include:

  • Content analysis : Categorizing and discussing the meaning of words, phrases and sentences
  • Thematic analysis : Coding and closely examining the data to identify broad themes and patterns
  • Discourse analysis : Studying communication and meaning in relation to their social context

Mixed methods combine the above two research methods, integrating both qualitative and quantitative approaches into one coherent analytical process.

Above all, your methodology section should clearly make the case for why you chose the methods you did. This is especially true if you did not take the most standard approach to your topic. In this case, discuss why other methods were not suitable for your objectives, and show how this approach contributes new knowledge or understanding.

In any case, it should be overwhelmingly clear to your reader that you set yourself up for success in terms of your methodology’s design. Show how your methods should lead to results that are valid and reliable, while leaving the analysis of the meaning, importance, and relevance of your results for your discussion section .

  • Quantitative: Lab-based experiments cannot always accurately simulate real-life situations and behaviors, but they are effective for testing causal relationships between variables .
  • Qualitative: Unstructured interviews usually produce results that cannot be generalized beyond the sample group , but they provide a more in-depth understanding of participants’ perceptions, motivations, and emotions.
  • Mixed methods: Despite issues systematically comparing differing types of data, a solely quantitative study would not sufficiently incorporate the lived experience of each participant, while a solely qualitative study would be insufficiently generalizable.

Remember that your aim is not just to describe your methods, but to show how and why you applied them. Again, it’s critical to demonstrate that your research was rigorously conducted and can be replicated.

1. Focus on your objectives and research questions

The methodology section should clearly show why your methods suit your objectives and convince the reader that you chose the best possible approach to answering your problem statement and research questions .

2. Cite relevant sources

Your methodology can be strengthened by referencing existing research in your field. This can help you to:

  • Show that you followed established practice for your type of research
  • Discuss how you decided on your approach by evaluating existing research
  • Present a novel methodological approach to address a gap in the literature

3. Write for your audience

Consider how much information you need to give, and avoid getting too lengthy. If you are using methods that are standard for your discipline, you probably don’t need to give a lot of background or justification.

Regardless, your methodology should be a clear, well-structured text that makes an argument for your approach, not just a list of technical details and procedures.

If you want to know more about statistics , methodology , or research bias , make sure to check out some of our other articles with explanations and examples.

  • Normal distribution
  • Measures of central tendency
  • Chi square tests
  • Confidence interval
  • Quartiles & Quantiles

Methodology

  • Cluster sampling
  • Stratified sampling
  • Thematic analysis
  • Cohort study
  • Peer review
  • Ethnography

Research bias

  • Implicit bias
  • Cognitive bias
  • Conformity bias
  • Hawthorne effect
  • Availability heuristic
  • Attrition bias

Methodology refers to the overarching strategy and rationale of your research project . It involves studying the methods used in your field and the theories or principles behind them, in order to develop an approach that matches your objectives.

Methods are the specific tools and procedures you use to collect and analyze data (for example, experiments, surveys , and statistical tests ).

In shorter scientific papers, where the aim is to report the findings of a specific study, you might simply describe what you did in a methods section .

In a longer or more complex research project, such as a thesis or dissertation , you will probably include a methodology section , where you explain your approach to answering the research questions and cite relevant sources to support your choice of methods.

In a scientific paper, the methodology always comes after the introduction and before the results , discussion and conclusion . The same basic structure also applies to a thesis, dissertation , or research proposal .

Depending on the length and type of document, you might also include a literature review or theoretical framework before the methodology.

Quantitative research deals with numbers and statistics, while qualitative research deals with words and meanings.

Quantitative methods allow you to systematically measure variables and test hypotheses . Qualitative methods allow you to explore concepts and experiences in more detail.

Reliability and validity are both about how well a method measures something:

  • Reliability refers to the  consistency of a measure (whether the results can be reproduced under the same conditions).
  • Validity   refers to the  accuracy of a measure (whether the results really do represent what they are supposed to measure).

If you are doing experimental research, you also have to consider the internal and external validity of your experiment.

A sample is a subset of individuals from a larger population . Sampling means selecting the group that you will actually collect data from in your research. For example, if you are researching the opinions of students in your university, you could survey a sample of 100 students.

In statistics, sampling allows you to test a hypothesis about the characteristics of a population.

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  • Teaching evidence-based medicine by using a systematic review framework: implementation in a Swedish university setting
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  • http://orcid.org/0000-0001-8027-1297 Maria Björklund 1 ,
  • Martin Ringsten 2 ,
  • Matteo Bruschettini 2 , 3 ,
  • Martin Garwicz 4 , 5
  • 1 Library & ICT, Faculty of Medicine , Lunds University , Lund , Sweden
  • 2 Department of Research and Education, Lund University, Skåne University Hospital , Cochrane Sweden , Lund , Sweden
  • 3 Paediatrics, Department of Clinical Sciences Lund , Lund University, Skåne University Hospital , Lund , Sweden
  • 4 Department of Experimental Medical Science, Neuronano Research Center , Lunds University Faculty of Medicine , Lund , Sweden
  • 5 Birgit Rausing Centre for Medical Humanities, Department of Experimental Medical Science, Faculty of Medicine , Lund University , Lund , Sweden
  • Correspondence to Ms Maria Björklund, Library & ICT, Lunds University Faculty of Medicine, Sölvegatan 19, 22240, Lund, Sweden; maria.bjorklund{at}med.lu.se

https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjebm-2023-112607

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  • Systematic Reviews as Topic
  • Evidence-Based Practice

Introduction

Evidence-based practice improves healthcare and patient outcomes, by providing a framework for integrating research into clinical practice. Evidence-based practice is considered a core competency in medical education. 1–6 Here, the term evidence-based medicine (EBM) describes evidence-based practice in medicine and healthcare. The core competencies in EBM are often described as the ability to:

Formulate a research question

Find best available research

Critically appraise research findings

Evaluate strength/certainty of evidence

Systematic review methodology aims to summarise and translate primary research results into useful knowledge syntheses, which are often the basis for clinical guidelines or health technology assessment reports. This makes systematic review methodology a good framework for understanding and reflecting upon the principles and practice of EBM—which then can be used and implemented in clinical practice. Here, we present and discuss how systematic review framework is used to understand, practise and apply key principles underlying EBM in a university setting.

Implementing a systematic review framework for EBM—a collaborative journey

At Lund University, the Faculty of Medicine encompasses a wide range of healthcare profession programmes and is co-located with a large university hospital. The faculty has 2900 enrolled students (approximately 1000 in medical degree (MD) programme), 800 PhDs and 1000 employees. A collaborative framework was implemented that encompasses the MD programme, the faculty library and Cochrane Sweden, to support students, PhD students, teachers and researchers in learning systematic review methodology and EBM. ( Figure 1 )

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Instructors’ role and expertise. EBM, evidence-based medicine.

Cochrane is an organisation known worldwide for its rigorous and well-tested methods for producing high-quality systematic reviews for evidence in healthcare. In 2017, Cochrane Sweden—a national hub, based in Lund—was launched. At the time, the MD programme was developing a curriculum for integrating the theme Scientific Scholarship throughout the programme in collaboration with the faculty library, and needed suitable tools and methods supporting EBM. It was natural to turn to Cochrane Sweden, and a three-part collaboration was formed. Over the following years, we acquired campus access to the tools Cochrane Interactive Learning (CIL), Covidence and RevMan Web to support systematic review methodology learning and production for the faculty ( Figure 2 ) .

Overview of tools for systematic reviews at Lund University.

Based on our respective professional competencies, we identified educational contexts where Cochrane tools could be used, whether they would work best as standalone tools or integrated with other learning activities, and what methods for support and methodological guidance were useful.

Scientific scholarship theme in the MD programme: putting EBM in context

At the MD programme, a 25% teaching position as ‘theme director’ was appointed with responsibility to develop, implement and integrate scientific scholarship where EBM is included across the whole programme. Teachers and examiners with relevant competences across the programme and extensive support from specialised staff at the faculty library were engaged. A scaffold for the curriculum was created in three steps. First, requirements related to scientific scholarship for the MD according to the Swedish Higher Education Ordinance 15 were used to define endpoint learning outcomes. With these as reference, learning outcomes were formulated, by a design process that could be called ‘inverse progression’. The endpoint learning outcomes were ‘projected’ backwards from the last semester to the first, systematically decreasing the level.

Finally, the learning outcomes were used as starting points to define assessment criteria, assessment methods and learning activities for each specific semester. For flexibility, resource efficiency and ease of documentation, learning activities related to scientific scholarship and EBM rely partly on e-learning. By using e-learning, students, teachers and clinicians can access the same resources at any time regardless of place at a self-directed pace. Developing e-learning resources in-house can be costly; therefore, the collaboration with Cochrane was welcomed, as described above.

Integration of systematic review methodology, EBM assignments and Cochrane tools in bachelor, master and PhD programmes

Importantly, the learning objectives of the MD programme relating to EBM—formulated prior to the onset of the collaboration—matched the learning outcomes of CIL with regard to content and progression very well. The learning modules could therefore easily be integrated with EBM-related assignments. The connection between formal learning objectives and opportunities to use Cochrane tools to support teaching and learning systematic review methodology and EBM was not only picked up by other programmes in Lund, but also on a national level. Examples of applications of the framework in Lund are described in table 1 .

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Overview of application of systematic review methodology, EBM and integration of Cochrane tools in programmes and courses at Lund University

A core set of internationally acknowledged tools and methodologies, available to students, PhD students, teachers and researchers, helps make explicit the articulation of concepts, methods and methodological choices. This has helped clarify concepts in our EBM teaching and prevent a ‘hidden curriculum’, 16 where concepts are implicitly expected to be understood by students without prior explanation. It also helps reduce misunderstandings and confusion and promotes open discussion, educational approaches supported by Thomas et al . 6 An example of how the tools and methods helped increase clarity is a risk of bias assessment in the MD programme. The assignment was modified from general ‘quality assessment’, where students were free to use any tool to assess research papers, to a more explanatory instruction of why and how to use a specific risk of bias assessment tool in alignment with systematic review methodology. This helped clarify the concept of risk of bias among teachers and students and which domains should be assessed in research papers.

Our bachelor, master and PhD programmes have applied the elements of the framework in different contexts and on different levels with variations of in-class, group or individual lectures, support, learning material and assignments. The types of delivery take educational contexts into account, which seems to be a key to successful integration of EBM in the curriculum. Engaged teachers have been important in reaching out and successfully implementing the framework. Being able to access the CIL modules after completion is an advantage, as students may need to revisit the content. In our teaching, we have observed that students often understand and adopt the theoretical basis of EBM and systematic review methodology, but they sometimes struggle with the application, for example, in risk of bias assessment or grading the certainty of the evidence, where relevant support is needed. We believe that by letting students apply and reapply the EBM and systematic review concepts, they progressively develop a deeper understanding of EBM and reflect on its challenges. Our PhD students have the opportunity for in-depth learning of systematic review methodology and can use this in their future research. For our MD students and other master students, we emphasise that we do not expect expert knowledge of systematic review methodology as a learning outcome. Rather, we wish to provide opportunities for progressive training with the EBM concepts and methods, as applied in different medical contexts. However, we see an increasing number of students working with researchers on systematic reviews or Cochrane reviews, which can be an effect of the EBM teaching together with campus access to systematic review tools.

Supporting researchers and clinicians in systematic reviews

Making Cochrane tools available has helped to form an infrastructure to give systematic review support for our researchers. Tools such as Covidence and RevMan Web, supporting systematic review production, documentation and collaboration, have received very positive feedback from researchers, PhD students and students. The collaboratively offered support, methodological advice and guidance are also highly appreciated. The framework supports and helps integrate teaching and learning with research and review production. We see an increase in numbers of students and researchers working together on systematic reviews. PhD students and researchers can also get methodological support from Cochrane Sweden and support to create a systematic review as a Cochrane Review.

Future directions

Our pedagogical framework has been discussed nationally with other medical faculties in Sweden and has contributed to the discussion on how EBM is taught in Sweden (see online supplemental figure 1 ).

Supplemental material

We will keep introducing new users to the tools and methods and let students practically apply these, supported by the library, the faculty and Cochrane Sweden. These introductions provide coherence, as the EBM steps are interdependent and help students with practical applications. We will also continue monitoring the usage and feedback from our users to make sure the learning progression continues as intended.

Digital learning resources are here to stay. As an effect of the pandemic, students not only appreciate, but seem to be expecting access to digital learning material. Previous studies report that digital EBM tools may have positive effects. 17–20 Students have also signalled that they want more practice of application and discussions, for example, in workshop or seminar format. Workshop format together with lectures and tutorials is also suggested by Chandran et al as the most popular format among students. 13 The challenge for us is to find teacher capacity and time in a full schedule.

A future challenge and upcoming project is evaluating the long-term effects on student learning to see what works well and where improvements are needed. Such an evaluation can require many tools to get the overall picture, as suggested by Kumaravel et al . 21 Using results from authentic assignments for evaluation can give direct insights for improvement of curriculum, teaching or assignments, as demonstrated by Menard et al . 5 Together with additional evaluation methods such as surveys, interviews or focus groups, we can get insights in quantitative as well as qualitative aspects of students’ learning.

Another future aspect is to continue to support students’ abilities to apply systematic reviews, guidelines and clinical decision support systems in clinical practice after graduation. Involving teacher clinicians more to discuss and demonstrate decision support systems in relation to systematic reviews and knowledge syntheses could be a way of helping students to transfer their EBM skills into clinical practice. In clinical practice, time for critical appraisal may be limited, as pointed out by Tikkinen and Guyatt, 22 and we believe there is potential in our framework to facilitate students’ application of pre-appraised evidence sources as they get training in systematic review methodology. One of the strengths of the framework is that the methodology allows translation to many knowledge synthesis output formats, depending on clinical situation and needs. With the training provided in the framework, we believe our students will feel more confident in implementing EBM as future health practitioners ( online supplemental figure 2 ).

Ethics statements

Patient consent for publication.

Not applicable.

Ethics approval

  • Albarqouni L ,
  • Hoffmann T ,
  • Straus S , et al
  • Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada
  • Straus SE ,
  • Glasziou P ,
  • Richardson S , et al
  • Blevins AE ,
  • Trujillo DJ , et al
  • Chin-Yee B ,
  • Ahmadi SF ,
  • Baradaran HR ,
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  • Larsen CM ,
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  • Chandran VP ,
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Supplementary materials

Supplementary data.

This web only file has been produced by the BMJ Publishing Group from an electronic file supplied by the author(s) and has not been edited for content.

  • Data supplement 1
  • Data supplement 2

Twitter @MBruschettini

Presented at Parts of this paper were included in a short oral presentation by Maria Björklund at the Cochrane Colloquium in London, 4–6 September 2023. Björklund M, Garwicz M, Bruschettini M, Ringsten, M. Creating a systematic review infrastructure: Implementing Cochrane tools for students, teachers, researchers and clinicians in a university setting. Conference abstract available: https://events.cochrane.org/colloquium-2023/session/1473651/creating-a-systematic-review-infrastructure-implementing-cochrane-tools-for-students-teachers-researchers-and-clinicians-in-a-university-setting .

Contributors MBjörklund wrote the first draft. All authors contributed to revising the manuscript, figures and table. All authors gave final approval of the version to be published.

Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

Competing interests All authors are members of Cochrane.

Provenance and peer review Commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

Supplemental material This content has been supplied by the author(s). It has not been vetted by BMJ Publishing Group Limited (BMJ) and may not have been peer-reviewed. Any opinions or recommendations discussed are solely those of the author(s) and are not endorsed by BMJ. BMJ disclaims all liability and responsibility arising from any reliance placed on the content. Where the content includes any translated material, BMJ does not warrant the accuracy and reliability of the translations (including but not limited to local regulations, clinical guidelines, terminology, drug names and drug dosages), and is not responsible for any error and/or omissions arising from translation and adaptation or otherwise.

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    components of methodology one could add. For example, the historical roots of science and science and social policy are legitimate topics that could be covered as well. Yet, in developing an appreciation for methodology and the skills involved in many of the key facets of actually conducting research, the five will suffice.

  6. PDF 3 Methodology

    your chosen research method, and describe the process and participants in your study). The Methodology chapter is perhaps the part of a qualitative thesis that is most unlike its equivalent in a quantitative study. Students doing quantitative research have an established conventional 'model' to work to, which comprises these possible elements:

  7. PDF How to Write the Methods Section of a Research Paper

    The methods section should describe what was done to answer the research question, describe how it was done, justify the experimental design, and explain how the results were analyzed. Scientific writing is direct and orderly. Therefore, the methods section structure should: describe the materials used in the study, explain how the materials ...

  8. PDF A Guide to Using Qualitative Research Methodology

    This guide to using qualitative research methodology is designed to help you think about all the steps you need to take to ensure that you produce a good quality ... issue, then qualitative methods are often appropriate. Examples of topics that qualitative methodologies can address include: People's experiences of health needs, health care ...

  9. PDF Research Methodology and Methods

    4.2 Research methodology, theory and research method selection A research methodology is 'a general approach to studying research topics' (Hussey and Hussey, 1997: 56), which is distinct from a research method. A research method is a tool or a technique that is used to gather data (Bailey, 1994). In contrast, a research methodology ...

  10. PDF Introduction to Qualitative Research Methodology

    qualitative approach in research (Chapters 1 and 2) • Second, to equip you with knowledge to be able to plan and conduct selected qualitative research methods (Chapters 3 to 6) • Third, to enable you to process the textual data obtained through these methods, and to undertake preliminary steps

  11. (PDF) How to Write a Methodology and Results Section for Empirical Research

    discussion section is specifically designed to interpret the results, and put them into a broader. theoretical or applied context. Thus, the results section should contain only data, tables ...

  12. (Pdf) Handbook of Research Methodology

    This well-organized book deals with the variety of research methods used in management and social sciences, with particular emphasis on the pharmacy course curriculum. A Handbook of Research ...

  13. PDF HEALTH RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

    Health research methodology: A guide for training in research methods INTRODUCTION This is a revised version of an earlier manual on Health Research Methodology and deals with the basic concepts and principles of scientific research methods with particular attention to research in the health field. The research process is the cornerstone for ...

  14. PDF CHAPTER 1 The Selection of a Research Approach

    research approaches, research designs, and research methods are four key terms representing a perspective about research flow from broad constructions of research to the narrow procedures of methods. Table 1.1 explains these key terms in more detail. Table 1.1 Key Terms and Their Definitions as Used in This Chapter Key Terms

  15. PDF Research Design and Research Methods

    tive methods and illustrates how these strengths can be used in mixed methods research. The final section considers the situation of mixed methods research as a newer and thus less fully developed approach to doing social science research. Overview I n social science research, one of the most basic choices you are likely to face

  16. PDF The Method Chapter

    The Method Chapter Describing Your Research Plan T he Method chapter of a dissertation, article, or proposal describes the exact steps that will be undertaken to address your hypotheses or research questions. For this reason, the Method section follows logically from the statement of the problem in much the same way as research

  17. PDF Research Methodology: Tools and Techniques

    (i) Longitudinal Research: Examples of this category are historical, Case study and Genetic research. (ii) Cross-Sectional Research: Examples of this category are Experimental and Survey Research. (D) On the basis of method of research: On the basis of research method we may classify a research into five different categories.

  18. PDF CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY

    to the research because, for example, they needed to go back home early, or wanted to get on with the activities they had planned, such as jogging or walking. Research frameworks and methods are also summarised in Figure 1.2 in Chapter 1. 3.2 Ethical and Practical Approach

  19. PDF Research Methodology Demystified

    The primary objective of research methodology is to ensure that the research is conducted rigorously, logically, and reliably, allowing for the generation of valid and credible results. Research methodology has components that can be associated with those of a tree. Study figure 1 to understand the research methodology from a paradigm perspective.

  20. PDF CHAPTER 3 Research methodology

    3.1 INTRODUCTION. In this chapter the research methodology used in the study is described. The geographical area where the study was conducted, the study design and the population and sample are described. The instrument used to collect the data, including methods implemented to maintain validity and reliability of the instrument, are described.

  21. PDF 3. CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

    3.2 Research methodology . According to Denzin and Lincoln (2005) a research methodology or strategy is determined by the nature of the research question and the subject being ... The sample was then expanded by asking the identified participants to refer other professional women known to them who might be willing to provide relevant input on

  22. What Is a Research Methodology?

    Step 1: Explain your methodological approach. Step 2: Describe your data collection methods. Step 3: Describe your analysis method. Step 4: Evaluate and justify the methodological choices you made. Tips for writing a strong methodology chapter. Other interesting articles.

  23. PDF Writing Chapter 3 Chapter 3: Methodology

    Instruments. This section should include the instruments you plan on using to measure the variables in the research questions. (a) the source or developers of the instrument. (b) validity and reliability information. •. (c) information on how it was normed. •. (d) other salient information (e.g., number of. items in each scale, subscales ...

  24. The Sage Handbook of Mixed Methods Research Design

    The Sage Handbook of Mixed Methods Research Design is a ground-breaking edited work that weaves together diverse perspectives and global examples of mixed-methods research to present a timely picture of this rapidly evolving field. With contributions from over 80 of the biggest names and rising stars of the field, this Handbook is an essential ...

  25. Teaching evidence-based medicine by using a systematic review framework

    Evidence-based practice improves healthcare and patient outcomes, by providing a framework for integrating research into clinical practice. Evidence-based practice is considered a core competency in medical education.1-6 Here, the term evidence-based medicine (EBM) describes evidence-based practice in medicine and healthcare. The core competencies in EBM are often described as the ability to ...