Cover Letter Examples to Pair with Your Resumes & CVs in 2022

Cover Letter Examples to Pair with Your Resumes & CVs in 2022

Madison Norton

Looking for cover letter examples that you can use?

You are at the right place!

We understand that writing a cover letter can be hard, that’s why we have added these highly customizable cover letter samples that you can copy and use.

In this article you are going to find the following examples:

  • Generic cover letter examples for anyone
  • Professional cover letter examples for experienced professionals
  • Creative cover letter examples to help you stand out
  • Entry level cover letter examples for professionals starting out their journey
  • Inspirational and great cover letter samples from various industries to inspire you
  • What a Cover Letter Should Include?

Overall a good cover letter should say that “I am applying for this position because…” and “this is what makes me the best candidate for this position…”. But in order to say it right, you need to add these 5 sections in your cover letter:

  • Salutation - This should be addressed to the hiring manager. If you don’t know the hiring manager and are applying at a very large company, use a salutation like “Dear [xyz] team” instead.
  • An introductory paragraph - Make sure to leave a good first impression here. Introduce yourself and briefly explain that you would like to apply for the position. Make it easier for the hiring manager to scan, this paragraph should be of maximum 2-3 lines.
  • Body paragraph(s) - This is where you help them understand why you are the perfect fit for the role. This is where your relevant experience, skills and achievements would shine.
  • Vision paragraph - Add how you feel you can add value to the organisation and if possible share how your vision aligns with the company’s vision.
  • Formal closing - Use this to prompt next steps for your job application. And add a sign-off.

Optionally, you can also include these two to your cover letter:

  • Postscript - If you have something of value that adds value to your cover letter, consider adding it by adding a “PS: …” at the end of your cover letter.
  • A portfolio paragraph - If you have a portfolio to share, consider adding a short paragraph of 1-2 lines with links to your portfolio added in it.

The Perfect Cover Letter Example Template

Salutation Dear [First name of hiring manager]/Dear [XYZ] Team

Introductory Paragraph Add your cover letter’s introduction here. Give a brief description of who you are, what you specialise in, and what makes you apply for the position. Keep it to a maximum of 2-3 lines.

Body Paragraph(s) The body paragraph(s) should highlight three things: relevant work experience, relevant skills and professional achievements. While writing these paragraphs, ensure that you only add relevant skills and experience as information overload would overwhelm the hiring manager.

Best practice is to use the combination of paragraph and bulleted list to make it easier for the hiring manager to scan for the right information as shown below in this cover letter example:

“As the lead auditor for KPMG West Coast, I managed a team of 15+ auditors independently and achieved the following results: Reached 100% compliance levels with zero errors in FY 2022 audit reports. Won award for …”

Vision Paragraph It often helps a hiring manager to see what the job applicant envisions they would do if they were hired. Adding your vision can help you stand out from the crowd.

Formal Closing Add a formal closing statement. Adding “Sincerely” followed by your name should be more than sufficient for most job applications.

cover letter example template

  • Our Cover Letter Guides

A cover letter is often the very first thing a recruiter sees when you apply for a job. Even if you don’t have any job experience, making sure your cover letter is in the best shape possible gets you off to a great start on the hunt for your dream job! Take a look at our cover letter examples and guides when you're a little light on work experience:

  • Dental Assistant No Experience Cover Letter Examples
  • Legal Assistant No Experience Cover Letter Examples
  • Entry Level Bank Teller No Experience Cover Letter Examples
  • Budtender No Experience Cover Letter Examples
  • Paralegal No Experience Cover Letter Examples
  • Medical Assistant No Experience Cover Letter Examples
  • Flight Attendant No Experience Cover Letter Examples
  • CNA No Experience Cover Letter Examples
  • USPS No Experience Cover Letter Examples
  • A Sample Generic Cover Letter for Employment

We have written a lot about how to customise your cover letter to perfection, but if that’s not your strong suit - consider the cover letter example below.

  • Generic Cover Letter Example - Copy and Use

I was excited to see Berg Lansing’s Technical Writer position on berglansing.com and really wanted to apply for this role. The idea of playing a pivotal role in delivery of effective support to Berg Lansing’s customers through high quality user documentation is very exciting to me.

I currently manage multiple cross functional technical writing programs at ACME. And as a part of my current role I ensure that stakeholders, internal team members and customers are well supported. Some of my technical writing accomplishments at ACME include: Reduction of customer support requests by 25% as a result of simplified documentation.

Helping customer support teams reach 45% higher CSAT scores on closed support requests. Introduction of the idea of maintainable technical documentation to my peers and leading the program at ACME. Reduction of length of technical content by as much as 50%.

In my previous role, I was also responsible for maximizing the visibility of an organization's corporate activities by crafting creative content and working with creative teams for PR.

I am eager to apply my current skill set and knowledge to the Technical Writer position at Berg Lansing. Thank you for considering my application.

Sincerely, Heather T. Wynn

Generic cover letter example

What Makes this a Great Cover Letter Example?

While this cover letter example is a generic one, it doesn’t appear to be generic at all. Heather has very smartly picked up key elements that are common across each technical writer job and have written a cover letter around it.

In addition to that, Heather also made the following decisions that make the cover letter look customized for this job:

  • Using the hiring manager’s name instead of a generic salutation
  • Mentioning the organization’s name that she’s applying to.

To summarize why it makes a great cover letter example:

  • It has been intelligently designed to work with multiple job ads with very minor modifications
  • No part of the cover letter example feels generic.
  • Two Professional Cover Letter Samples

If you are not applying for an entry level job, consider these professional cover letter examples.

Professional Cover Letter Sample

Jeannine C. Frederick Big 4 Consulting Corp 1901 Norman Street Los Angeles, CA 90042

Dear Jeannine,

My name is Lida and I wish to apply for the auditor position at the Big 4 Consulting Corp office in Los Angeles. I have spoken with several members of Big 4 Consulting Corp’s audit teams and was each time impressed by their acuity and passion for both accounting and their firm. I am confident that my accounting skills and passion for efficiency will make me an excellent fit for Big 4 Consulting Corp, just as they are.

My accounting and time management skills will be vital to succeeding at Big 4 Consulting Corp. I was able to apply what I had learned that year to my work at the Corp2, where I was given the opportunity to assist the non-profit accounting department and CFO in their fiscal year-end closing and annual internal and external third party audit.

It was in Corp2 that I found my passion for understanding business operations. I enjoyed understanding how each employee’s work helped achieve the organization’s goals because I would be able to find ways to perform my own tasks to more efficiently and effectively achieve those goals.

While working full time here, I also took two accounting courses and taught myself Visual Basic programming in order to further optimize my efficiency at work. I was actually able to use the programming I learned this summer to automate several tasks such as bulk emails and manage large spreadsheets.

My passion for accounting and desire to understand clients and their complex businesses and circumstances align with Big 4 Consulting Corp’s audit approach to understand a client’s business, risks, and internal controls in order to provide the most effective audit procedures. After conversing with several team members about their passions and goals, I believe I am an excellent fit for Big 4 Consulting Corp’s culture and philosophy.

I was inspired by audit manager Shanon’s dedication and ambition but also humbled by her modesty and kindness. I also clicked well with Derick and look forward to possibly working with him and all the other team members I’ve spoken with.

Thank you for your time and consideration. I look forward to discussing this position further.

Sincerely, Lida R. Boyles

professional cover letter example 1

What Makes this Example a Great Cover Letter to Use?

This is a very professional, yet very deeply thought-out cover letter. To take a role at such a large organization, Lida displayed how well she knows the culture and that she had put enough effort to understand the current team as well.

This cover letter example highlights how to impress a hiring manager in large organizations.

Customizable Cover Letter Sample

Here is another professional cover letter sample that you can drive inspiration from.

Dear Lorrie, TeamGIS 1787 Pearlman Avenue South Boston, MA 02127

I am excited to apply for the position of GIS Technician at TeamGIS’s New York office. My technical skills in geospatial analysis at large scale, background in data management and visualization makes me an ideal candidate for this position.

Over the last few years, I have worked on extremely challenging remote sensing use cases and LiDAR datasets to derive various indices and statistical measures. My work has been instrumental in helping decision makers with reports and custom visualizations. My key projects involve: Allocation of various types of social housing across the continental United States. Assessing impact of global warming on social housing portfolio. Informing equity research analysts about possible asset value fluctuations based on GIS data.

My professional focus, work experience and research interests significantly overlap with the future vision of TeamGIS and that’s why I feel I will be a valuable addition to your team.

I look forward to discussing this opportunity with you in detail.

Sincerely, Evan

customizable professional cover letter example

What Makes this Example a Great Cover Letter?

Unlike the previous cover letter example, this cover letter by Evan went in a completely different direction by showcasing the following: It shows that Evan has the right skills to do the job In addition, it also showcases how well Evan’s personal goals are aligned with the company goals as well.

  • A Creative Cover Letter Sample

This creative cover letter example will show you how you can adopt creativity and stand out from the crowd.

Cover Letter Example for Employment Application

Dear Vernon Team,

When I was in the 6th grade I was limited to 3 questions a day in my class because I asked “why” way too much. Thankfully, as an adult, I can ask “why” as many times as I want. My passion to understand the “why” for the user and the company makes me a perfect candidate for the Product Management position.

As an associate product manager, asking “why” and then collecting data to extract insights to improve products is what I truly enjoy. I have been instrumental in lifting XYZ app’s adoption from 10% to 43% and implemented a mobile attribution system from the ground up to support acquisition efforts.

I am a very organized, and strategic person who enjoys putting “hypothesis before solutions” and “differentiating with execution”. Shopping and payment products excite me a lot as there are numerous opportunities to serve better user experiences and build flow states.

As a Product Manager for Vernon, I will bring my user research skills towards mobile shopping and payment verticals and build the next generation applications.

Thank you for your time and consideration, I look forward to hearing from you about this opportunity.

Sincerely, Devon

creative cover letter example

What Makes this a Great Creative Cover Letter Example

The way Devon starts this letter by bridging his habit of asking “why” to what he becomes illustrates his deep passion for being curious and finding solutions instead of assuming everything.

Any hiring manager who is looking for a customer obsessed product manager would love Devon’s creative cover letter example.

  • Cover Letter Example for Career Transition

This cover letter example will help you craft one to support your career transition.

Cover Letter Sample

Dear Susan,

Ever since I started in sales, I enjoyed understanding customer’s needs and providing them with the right solutions. It became an obsession as I worked more and what started with me learning email marketing turned me into a self taught marketer. And, that’s why I’m interested in applying for the role of Junior Marketer.

From running personal projects to learning marketing to freelance for various clients to gain real world experience I have gained the following skills: PPC - Google Adwords, Facebook Ads (Google and Facebook certified) SEO and Content Marketing Email marketing and Sales enablement

At your organization (especially under Ralf’s leadership) I feel I can learn even more and fulfill my dream of working in the marketing team of a cutting edge company.

I am looking forward to hearing from you. Thank you for considering my application.

Sincerely, Jim

career transition cover letter example

How to Use this Cover Letter Example for Career Change?

Career transitions are very hard to justify. Often hiring managers see applications from an unrelated or adjacent role and can’t understand why the candidate has applied for the position. That’s why this cover letter example is extremely good. It very clearly justifies:

  • The motivation to apply for the role despite working in sales.
  • What Jim has done on his own to support his transition.
  • Jim’s own thoughts on how he expects to thrive under existing leadership

This cover letter example also shows that Jim has spent time and energy considering this job as well.

  • Cover Letter for Entry Level Roles

This cover letter example will show you how to apply to an entry level position.

Cover Letter Example

I am excited to apply for the Mechanical Engineer Intern position at ACME. I found this position through the referral of Lorraine A. Dubreuil, Design Head for FST division at ACME. I am a graduate student pursuing Aerospace Engineering at Texas A&M. With my Bachelor of Science degree in Mechanical Engineering, my extensive R&D experience in mechanical design and structural engineering, I believe I am a strong candidate for this position.

During my time as an undergraduate, I utilized SolidWorks and MATLAB to design and analyze the structure tube frame of chassis. I also assisted with the hand lay-up of our vehicle’s carbon fibre monocoque which taught me a lot about working with composite structures.

Additionally, my work with the SAE collegiate design series has provided me with experience in design and manufacturing, while emphasizing teamwork, adaptability and communication.

Now, I am eager to apply my mechanical engineering knowledge and skills at ACME. Thank you for your valuable time and consideration. I am sincerely looking forward to learning more details about the Mechanical Engineer Intern position.

Sincerely, Tom

entry level cover letter example

How to Use this Cover Letter Example to Apply for Jobs?

Tom, while being an undergraduate, knows the value of communication. And this cover letter example by Tom highlights how he:

  • Highlights relevant past R&D project work.
  • Leaves an impact by providing the reference who referred him for the role.
  • Wrote a very concise cover letter as shown in the example; this is uncommon where most graduates would overdo their cover letters and fail to leave the same impact.
  • The Shift Toward Email Cover Letters for Job Applications

The formal cover letter - A PDF attached to the job application with a classic 4 paragraph layout - is quickly becoming obsolete. However, it is being replaced by the “introductory email.” A short note explaining to the hiring manager or recruiter why you are the perfect fit. I use the term cover letter interchangeably with introductory email in this article.

A good cover letter is a marketing pitch - it draws the reader in, and encourages them to read more. We’ve compiled all of the best cover letters on the internet and from our own personal network.

Copying these cover letters will not be effective for you. A cover letter/intro email is a personal document that depends on the employer, the target contact, and your own skillset. If you’re a very qualified candidate - a short sentence can suffice. If you’re a young, ambitious recent graduate - you might need more real estate to sell yourself.

We have compiled various industry cover letter examples below that you can use as inspiration.

Cover Letter Example Job Categories:

  • Designer Cover Letter
  • Customer Support Cover Letter
  • Community Management Cover Letter
  • Software Engineer Cover Letter
  • Marketing Cover Letter
  • Business Development & Sales Cover Letter
  • Designer Cover Letter Examples

Design cover letters should focus on the things that matter most when it comes to design. Namely, the designs. However, a good designer needs to communicate well as they will be working with different members of company teams, or external clients. Design cover letters should also of course link to an online portfolio or project that shows their skill. Here are some great examples of design cover letters.

Cover letter for a product designer at Crew

Product designer cover letter

This is a perfect introductory email. It takes the tone of the job post in question, and matches the company vibe. It then outlines Luke's passion for the position, and that he studies his craft extensively. He also includes links to his online portfolio/resume. You can view the full cover letter, and more examples at the blog post by Michael Cho of Crew at the following blog post: Why I didn't look at your resume .

Cover letter for a design director at 37 Signals

37-signals-design-cover-letter

This cover letter matches 37 Signals Philosophy nicely. It explains Jamie's beliefs about design, and why he is unique compared to other designers. He also made a sample work project to share with the team. You can view the full cover letter at the following link .

Cover letter for a graphic designer at 37 Signals

37-signals-design-cover-letter-2

This online cover letter has a nice balance of explaining who Jason is, what he know about the company (and why he is passionate about working for them), and his skills. The full letter can be found here .

  • Customer Support Cover Letter Examples

The key to a customer support role is a great personality and communication skills. The cover letter is an opportunity to first express those communication skills to your next employer. Note that these letters vary in tone, from professional to more casual. The applicant must make the judgement call based on what they know about the company.

Cover letter for a customer happiness concierge

customer-support-cover-letter

Marlee's cover letter gets the tone right - you can tell she is a happy, personable, and effective person. She outlines why her past experience makes her a great fit for the job, and her personal habits that will ensure her success in the role. The full cover letter can be found here .

Cover letter for a Director of Customer Care

director-of-customer-care-cover-letter

This is an expert from a blog post from the CEO at LiveStream, who said it was the best cover letter he has ever received. It is funny, honest, and confident. Note the applicant takes a few risks with the language and tone - but clearly understands his audience. You can read the full cover letter (along with the job description), at this link .

Cover letter for customer support

customer-support-coverletter-example

This cover letter gets to the point, and shows deep understanding of what a customer support role is. As it clearly states, "customers want to communicate with a human" - it is clear there is a human behind this letter. View the full letter here.

customer-success-coverletter-sample

Jason clearly shows his writing skills and passion for the job in this cover letter.

  • Community Management Cover Letter Examples

Cover letters for community management positions must understand what a community manager role is. To be a successful community manager, one must be a great communicator, an enthusiastic personality, and a dialed-in social media guru. Here are the best examples of community manager cover letters we found.

Cover letter for a community manager

community-manager-cover-letter

The tone perfectly matches the company that Joanne is applying for. It outlines her enthusiasm, passion, and how her past experience applies to the job.

  • Software Engineer Cover Letter Examples

Cover letter for a web developer

web-developer-cover-letter

This cover letter shows that an effective introductory email doesn't have to be long. It efficiently lays out the skills that Thomas has, and piques the company's interest about what he can bring to the table. In a hot market for engineers, this is enough to get the interview. It is also from Mikael's article.

Cover letter for a front-end developer

front-end-developer

This cover letter is also for Mikael Cho's company, Crew . It emphasizes links to Dan's portfolio and best work - very important for a web developer.

  • Marketing Cover Letter Examples

Cover letter for a marketing position at google

marketing-cover-letter

For creative positions, a creative cover letter is necessary. This cover letter mirrored the marketing materials at Google, and got the interview. View the full article here.

Sales & Business Development Cover Letter Examples

Cover letter for a business development/product specialist.

Rodolphe shows how persistence and hard work can convince an employer to hire you in this cover letter to work at Buffer - a fast growing social media management platform. The full exchange is worth reading on the Buffer Blog .

Cover letter for a sales coordinator

sales-coordinator-cover-letter

This cover letter for a sales coordinator position is closer to a traditional cover letter than the other examples. It does a fine job of outlining experience and passion for the job. View a full before-and-after analysis of this cover letter on the Ask a Manager Blog.

  • Cover Letter Examples and Frequently Asked Questions
  • What is a good opening sentence for a cover letter?

A good opening sentence for a cover letter is “I was excited to see Company’s position on Indeed.com and really wanted to apply for this role”.

  • What are some examples of selling points in a cover letter?

Some examples of good selling points in a cover letter are:

  • “In 2021 I was able to help my company achieve [something]...”
  • “I was awarded [X] in 2021 due to my exceptional work in [Y]...”
  • “I built [X] team out from scratch to help [company]...”
  • “I am currently in the top 1% in [Y]...”
  • “I have managed large scale projects when it comes to [X]...”
  • What are the 3 parts of a cover letter?

Three main parts of a cover letter are:

  • Cover letter body
  • A formal closing
  • How do you write a perfect cover letter?

To write a perfect cover letter make sure you address the cover letter to the right name, customize the cover letter based on the job ad and show how you are the best candidate for the role.

  • How to write a cover letter in email?

To write a cover letter in email, simply copy the cover letter you created using the examples above and paste it into your email client.

  • Use These Examples To Inform Your Own Cover Letter

Remember, the key to a good cover letter is personalization. You must market to your audience. Do the research, write well - and go get hired!

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Recommended links:

  • Our collection of 500+ professional resume examples .
  • Our gallery of 20+ downloadable resume templates .
  • Sales & Business Development Cover Letter Examples

Madison Norton

Madison Norton

VP Marketing & Resume Expert

Madison is the VP Marketing and General Manager at VisualCV . He's a seasoned marketing leader, resume writing and career marketing expert and now helping people grow their own career marketing strategies to build a career they love.

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The Ultimate Cover Letter Writing Guide

The complete guide to writing an effective cover letter.

Greg Faherty

Certified Professional Resume Writer

CV template Classic

Any of these sound familiar? The simple answer is yes, having an effective cover letter is completely necessary and highly recommended and we’ll tell you  why you need a cover letter as well as a resume!

When you’re applying for a job, whether it be for an  entry-level  position after graduating or for a high-level executive vacancy with a  professional resume , a  cover letter is essential to make your application stand out .

Without this extra introductory letter, a resume alone could easily be discarded by a hiring manager. CareerBuilder  estimates you’re  10% more likely to miss out on an opening  if you don’t include a cover letter.

Writing a good cover letter  it’s not a skill many many people master, but that doesn’t mean it’s an impossible feat!

With our complete  cover letter guide , you’ll learn  how to write a cover letter  that will attract the hiring manager and convince them to read your winning resume.

What is a cover letter?

A cover letter is an extension to your job application.  It is not obligatory but including a well-written cover letter is  strongly advised by all human resource experts . By definition, a cover letter is an accompanying, explanatory letter.

All  jobseekers need a sales pitch  of sorts, they need to hook the reader and demonstrate to the hiring manager why they are the right person for the vacancy on offer. This style of  self-marketing for a job application  must come in the form of a  winning resume and cover letter combination  that complement one another.

A simple cover letter is an introduction to the candidate  behind the qualifications and experience. The aim is to show a prospective employer how you can take on the role and  what you can offer the company  in question.

Cover letters generally  follow a basic structure  and can be in either hard or digital format, that is to say, either printed and sent via regular mail or as a document scanned and attached to send digitally, or written directly in an  email cover letter .

Why include a cover letter on a job application?

If you want to stand any chance at all of  catching the eye of a potential employer , it is  imperative to include a cover letter  with your job application.

Simple – even if you  create an effective, outstanding resume , using all the right keywords and qualifications etc. it’s possible there are candidates more qualified than you or with more experience so it’s necessary to  add a cover letter to back up your resume  and allow the hiring manager to see more of your personal side that is relevant to the vacancy.

  • The cover letter demonstrates your communication skills.
  • The cover letter serves as an introduction to the resume.
  • The cover letter can be used to emphasize certain skills, or mention skills that you couldn’t fit on the resume (it serves as an addendum).
  • The cover letter is what you customize for each position, to show why you are the right person for “That” role, as opposed to the resume which stays pretty much the same for all applications.

A cover letter is the added value  that you need in a job application to ensure the call-back you’ve been waiting for.

To  create a unique, tailor-made job application , each candidate should use a cover letter to highlight their strengths and  elaborate on relevant achievements  that demonstrate their ability to take on the new responsibilities.

Is it practically always sensible and  appropriate to write a cover letter to accompany a resume for a job application  that should be customized for the role you’re applying to including any explanations of information that might be missing from the resume, such as employment gaps, traveling, periods of study etc.

The only time it is acceptable to not include a cover letter in your job application is if the job listing specifically requests that you do not.

Advantages of Writing a Cover Letter

A cover letter directly adds to the likelihood that you are called in for an interview and  gives you a better chance of being hired .

If you’re successful in  writing an effective cover letter , it will offer you the following advantages:

  • Hiring managers will see your added effort
  • Demonstrates you put in the time to learn about the company
  • It will add a personal touch to your application
  • It shows your enthusiasm for the opening
  • Hiring managers will become acquainted with your best qualities

Knowing exactly what is in a cover letter will ensure that it gives you a  major advantage  over the other applicants.

What are the 3 Types of Cover Letters?

Adding a cover letter is almost always essential, but  choosing the appropriate letter  will also be key. Depending on the job post you are applying for, you will need to select the best type of letter to send along with your resume.

There are  3 types of cover letters  that you can send to a hiring manager. The 3 types are:

  • Application cover letters
  • Letters of Interest
  • Email Cover letters

The letter you write is influenced by  whether you are going to apply for a job directly , citing a referral, or asking about vacancies that are not advertised.

Whatever the case may be, ensure that the cover letter is  specific to the job vacancy . It’s always important to avoid making a generic cover letter for every single job you apply for.

So, what are the 3 types of cover letters you should consider sending to a job recruiter?

Application Cover Letter

This is your  classic cover letter  that you send to a hiring manager when you spot a company advertising a job opening. When you want to directly apply for a position, it is mandatory to send this, unless you are specifically asked not to.

Using this letter, you can mention why you want to work for a specific company and why you are the perfect candidate for the position.

Letter of Interest

Say you notice a company that you would really like to work for. It fits your sector, and you know it offers great benefits and good pay. However, you  can’t find any openings  that match your skill set.

If that’s the case, you don’t need to sit around and wait for the company to have a job vacancy. You can take action with a letter of interest. This type of cover letter  states your interest in being employed  by a company that isn’t currently advertising any vacancies.

This type of letter goes by a couple of other names, such as:

  • Letter of intent
  • Statement of interest

Of course, since there is no vacancy there is no role you can specifically mention, which is the major difference between a letter of intent and a traditional cover letter. Your objective will be to  advertise yourself well enough  that an employer will just have to interview you.

Email Cover Letters

Over the years, the job application process has shifted to a nearly  100% online hiring process . Due to this, it may be necessary to send your cover letter  in an email  as part of your job application.

While applying, there may not be an option to upload your cover letter. Or maybe you would just like to send it in the  body of your email along with your resume . You can send it in one of two ways, in the body of your email or as an attachment (in PDF).

How to write a cover letter

A cover letter, although  short in length  generally, can take time to elaborate as it is important to get it right. Sometimes, due to the scarce space for writing, candidates find it difficult to know  what to include in a cover letter  and  what to leave out .

However, knowing  how to do a cover letter  can make all the difference to your job application and be the just the thing to capture the attention of a hiring manager.

A  professional cover letter  should be well-formatted, following a structure with a header, an opening paragraph, a second main paragraph, a final closing paragraph and a closing with signature/electronic signature.

To  begin writing a cover letter for a job application , candidates should analyze their skills, qualifications, accomplishments and experience to  decide which are the most fundamental aspects to include  in their personalized cover letter.

Next, each jobseeker will have to  select the most job-relevant  of these elements to include by  comparing them with the required or desired qualifications and experience  in the job description.

Finally, the applicant should choose some  memorable examples which demonstrate evidence  of each element included in their cover letter, aiming to  tell a story  which shows their aptitude concerning each skill or qualification.

Jobseekers should also ensure to explore  how to make a cover letter  for their specific role or industry because, similarly to resumes, each cover letter should be  tailored for the vacancy  and company to which it will be sent.

It is vital for candidates to  consider several factors when it comes to writing their professional cover letter . A jobseeker must review their  resume work history section  as well as any skills and honors included to find the  most pertinent experiences  that can be explored further. Detailing examples of when a candidate demonstrated certain abilities or expertise is how a candidate can convince a hiring.

One way to create a winning cover letter is to use an  online cover letter creator  or take advantage of cover letter templates as a stepping stone as well as checking out cover letter examples that can serve as a great source of inspiration for you to make your own  unique cover letter .

Our  cover letter builder  forms part of our resume builder and allows jobseekers to create a more complete job application. Users can write their cover letter with pro tips and design help thanks to our pre-designed templates. Read our  cover letter writing guide  to get to grips with  cover letter writing techniques  and tips before using our online cover letter builder!

How to Structure a Cover Letter

The  structure and layout of a cover letter  is essential to make sure the letter displays each point that you wish to get across  clearly and concisely . This means it’s necessary, in general, to follow a commonly-accepted format for an effective cover letter.

Similarly to a  resume format , designing and  writing a cover letter has certain rules  which should be adhered to in order to convey the necessary information in a brief and to the point introductory letter.

Check out some of the  cover letter best practices  as advised by human resources experts below:

  • It’s imperative to  begin a cover letter with a header , including the candidate’s name and contact information as well as the date. This  primary cover letter section  can also include the job title, website and other relevant personal information.

Following this, the  letter should include the details of the company  and person to whom you are writing, with the full name, job title or team, company name and address.

  • The main body of a cover letter should be divided into  three sections : an introduction, a bullet list of accomplishments followed by a paragraph highlighting skills, and a closing paragraph inviting the hiring manager to contact you. By using bullet points when detailing your achievements and capabilities, you can make sure that recruiters will be able to quickly pick out key information. This is especially important as studies have found that recruiters spend very little time reading each individual application.
  • Finally, the letter should be electronically or physically signed with your full name in a formal manner.

The universally-accepted  cover letter length  is no longer than one letter page, which in total has about  250-300 words  for the main body of text.

Don’t  repeat information  or be too detailed because hiring managers simply do not have the time to read it all and will simply skip to the next one.  Resumes that run over 600 words  get rejected 43% faster and cover letters can easily fall into this trap too.

Keep your cover letter short and sweet and to the point!

Get more  cover letter formatting advice  in our guide on  how to format a cover letter  with tips and information about all aspects of a good cover letter structure.

Cover letter advice

The  importance of including a cover letter  with your job application is often overlooked by jobseekers of all categories, however this can seriously reduce your possibilities of getting an interview with a prospective employer.

Therefore you need not ask yourself  when to write a cover letter  because the answer is just that simple – it is  always appropriate to include a cover letter in your job application , unless the listing explicitly requests that you do not.

Check out the following  expert cover letter tips  to create a winning cover letter that will convince the hiring manager to give you a call:

  • We may be quite repetitive with this one but the sheer quantity of resumes and cover letters that are disregarded simply for forgetting this  vital and basic rule  is incredible:  USE A PROFESSIONAL EMAIL ADDRESS  for your contact details and that does not include your current work email but a personal, suitable email address.
  • It is essential to remember to  maintain your focus on the needs of the company  you’re applying to and the requirements and desired abilities of the ideal candidate for the role.  Do not focus on how you can benefit  by becoming a member of their team, but on how the team can make the most of your experience and knowledge.
  • Remember to  highlight your transferable skills , especially in cases where you may not meet all the required qualities in the job description such as in student resumes and cover letters.
  • Each  cover letter for a job application, cover letters for internships , for further study or even volunteer experience should be  tailored to their specific organization  and position with the pertinent keywords.
  • Use specific examples to demonstrate the candidate’s individual capacity to take on the role and  tell a story with your cover letter  to convey more of your personality and passion towards the sector or profession.
  • Towards the  end of a cover letter , each candidate should write a convincing finish to entice the hiring manager and in sales terminology “ seal the deal ”.
  • Finally when you have completed your polished cover letter, potentially  one of the most important steps  in the process is to  PROOFREAD . Candidates should request that a friend, mentor, teacher or peer takes a look at their cover letter for not only  grammatical and spelling errors  but also any  unwanted repetition or unrelated information .

Some jobseekers doubt  whether a cover letter is necessary or not , but as most human resource professionals agree without a well-written cover letter, candidates lose the  possibility to demonstrate different aspects of their profile  from those included in their resumes which could easily be the deciding factor in your application!

An easy and fast way to write an effective cover letter for a job application is to employ an  online cover letter creator  that will offer advice on  how to complete a cover letter with examples  and HR-approved templates.

Cover Letter FAQs

What do employers look for in a cover letter, can a cover letter be two pages, what is the difference between a cover letter and a resume, should you put a photo on a cover letter.

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How and Why to Write a Great Cover Letter

Student working in career planning guide

A cover letter is a one-page business letter that you submit when applying to a job, along with your resume. As a piece of persuasive writing, your cover letter will aim to convey to the employer why you’re a great candidate for the role.

What is the purpose of a cover letter?

Your cover letter complements your resume by making it easy for the employer to see how your experience and interest connect to the position. Your goal is to convince the employer to interview you.

With your cover letter, you’ll aim to:

  • Highlight your qualifications:  You’ll show how your skills and experience relate to the employer’s needs for a specific position.
  • Showcase your motivation: You’ll demonstrate your enthusiasm for the specific position and the organization.
  • Reflect your voice and written communication skills: You’ll give the employer a sense of your personality and writing style.

When should I write a cover letter?

Not all jobs require cover letters. So, how do you decide whether to submit one?

Submit a Cover Letter when…

  • The posting explicitly requests that you do so
  • You’re applying to an opportunity at a mission-driven organization
  • You think that doing so could provide important information to the employer that they wouldn’t get from your resume

Consider Submitting a Cover Letter when…

  • It’s marked “optional” in an application, and you have the bandwidth to do so
  • You have content that you can easily recycle or repurpose into a tailored cover letter

No Need to Submit a Cover Letter when…

  • A posting specifically tells you not to submit one
  • There’s no way to submit one in an application portal, and doing so would require a serious workaround

If you’re applying to several similar opportunities, creating a draft cover letter in advance, geared toward that type of opportunity, can be a helpful way to save time in your actual application process.

How do I write a cover letter?

Your cover letter should articulate your qualifications and motivation for the position. Read the job description closely and research the organization. As you craft your cover letter, use examples that demonstrate your relevant skills, knowledge, and interests. The cover letter should be concise, clear, and well-organized.

Before Writing

Research the employer.

Learn enough about the organization to articulate why you are a strong fit for that firm. 

  • Review the firm’s website and LinkedIn page.
  • Speak with current or previous employees.
  • Read articles and social media for current news.

Analyze the job description

Look for skills, duties, and qualifications of the job so you can design your letter to match these as much as possible.

Reflect on your experience and motivation

Identify skills and personal qualities you have developed which will be useful in this role. Ask yourself:

  • What attracts you about this role/company/industry?
  • What have you have done in your work experiences, classes, internships, activities, projects, volunteer work, travel, etc., that is similar to the duties required of the job? 

Cover Letter Structure

As a business letter, the cover letter should include:

  • Heading: Include your name and contact information in the same format as your resume
  • Salutation: Address your letter to the specific individual who can hire you, if this is known. If the name is not included in the job description, address the letter to the Hiring Manager or title mentioned in the job description.
  • Body Paragraphs:  Discuss your experiences, interests, and skills to show the employer how you can add value to their team. See the section below for more guidance.
  • Signature Line: Include a closing and your name.

The cover letter should be one page, about three or four paragraphs, and single spaced. Use 10-12 point font and one inch margins. 

When applying online, upload your cover letter as a PDF file, unless another format is specified. When sending your resume and cover letter by email, you may write a short note or paste your cover letter in the body of your email (without the address header) and also attach the PDF file.

Cover Letter Content

Your cover letter should answer who, what, when, where and why you are applying for the opportunity. 

Introduction

State the position for which you are applying. If you have a referral or spoke with someone from the company, you can mention it in the introduction. Provide some basic information about yourself; this can include your class year and what you’re studying at Columbia. Briefly outline why you’re interested in the organization and what you bring in terms of relevant experience and skills. 

Body Paragraphs

These paragraphs will highlight your qualifications and strengths that are most relevant to the organization and position. Use the job posting and your research as clues to determine what the employer is seeking in a candidate. Have your resume beside you and reflect on what you want the employer to know about you. Are there experiences you want to expand upon that demonstrate your understanding of the role and ability to do the job requirements?

Structure the paragraphs based on relevance, not chronology. Lead with your most relevant skill or strongest experience.

Start each body paragraph with a clear topic sentence.  This can highlight a key skill set, a transferable experience, or a core area of knowledge you’ve built through your studies. Walk the reader through a project or experience, integrating the relevant skills you used and qualities you demonstrated. Provide details about your accomplishments and impact. Connect how these experiences have prepared you for this role and why you are motivated to do this job. There is no need to apologize if you feel you lack experience; focus on the accomplishments that you have.

Recap what you would bring to the organization and your interest in the position. Thank the employer for their consideration. Keep your tone positive and enthusiastic. 

Check out our example of how to structure your cover letter content . 

Editing Tips

Use our  Cover Letter Checklist to make sure your format and content is in line with best practices. 

  • Ensure that the content reflects the requirements in the job description
  • Keep the cover letter concise, at one page or less
  • Correct any errors in grammar, sentence structure, and spelling
  • Use the active voice
  • Avoid beginning too many sentences with “I”

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Cover Letter Examples in 2023 [To Get Inspired]

  • November 28, 2022
  • In Resumes & Cover Letters

Cover Letter Examples

When job hunting, it is imperative to include a cover letter alongside your resume. The cover letter is a one-page document that introduces you to the hiring manager and highlights what makes you an ideal candidate. It also expands on your career history, qualifications, and why you are interested in the role. A powerful cover letter along with a polished resume can set you miles ahead in the job hunt. If well written, it will leave a lasting impression and set you apart from other applicants.

Key elements of a perfect cover letter

  • Contact information At the very top of your cover letter, always include your contact information. Your email address and phone number, optionally a physical address, should be easy to find. Also, ensure your email address is professional to avoid a negative impression.
  • Salutation / greeting Your salutation should address a specific person, starting with “ Dear… ”. If you don’t know the hiring manager’s name, call, or email the organization. Keeping your greeting short and professional will make you stand out.
  • Opening part Your first paragraph can make or break your chances. Aim for short and concise, but unique enough to capture the reader’s attention. Remember, this is your chance to leave a stellar first impression by summarizing what you can offer the company.
  • Middle part Once you’ve got the hiring manager’s attention, it’s time for your strengths and qualifications. The body of your cover letter should highlight what makes you the ideal candidate, why you chose this company, and what you’re bringing to the table. Here, you want to convince the hiring manager that you would be an invaluable addition to the company.
  • Closing part Your final paragraph should reiterate your main points and conclude the letter. For best results, structure your closing paragraph as an offer. Summarize your strengths, thank the hiring manager for their time, and ask about the next steps.
  • Complimentary close and signature. Unless you have addressed a specific person, use “ Yours faithfully ” to sign off your cover letter. If you addressed the hiring manager by name, you can end your cover letter with “ Yours sincerely .” Always include a copy of your signature and your full name at the end of your cover letter.

Here’s  How to Write a Great Cover Letter in 6 Steps.

Cover letter examples

Entry-level cover letter, career change cover letter, manager cover letter, teacher cover letter.

If you have limited work experience, you may be applying to entry-level jobs. Coincidentally, an entry-level cover letter is the best way for recent graduates to find their place in the job market. Including a well-written cover letter in your application can set you apart from other candidates and help you get your first job.

The cover letter sample below illustrates the relevant skills and qualifications. Participation in school clubs, volunteering, and internships can all be included in an entry-level cover letter. To impress the hiring manager and boost your chances of landing an interview, describe your knowledge and skills in detail.

The entry-level cover letter example

Entry Level Cover Letter

When changing careers, your cover letter should highlight relevant experience and transferable skills. Even if you don’t have any experience in the field, you should illustrate what makes your unique skills valuable. You can do this by focusing on your soft skills, like in the cover letter example below.

Altogether, a career change cover letter should express your excitement and readiness to learn. Also, it should highlight relevant professional successes and achievements. When describing these, include the skills you used to attain them and how they could apply to your new position.

The career change cover letter example

Change Career Cover Letter

When writing a management cover letter, you should focus on your leadership skills. Primarily, your cover letter should outline your biggest strengths in managerial positions. In the cover letter example below, you can see these listed in bullet point form.

Instead of repeating your resume, focus on quantifiable and specific accomplishments. These may include reducing employee turnover or successfully onboarding new employees. Finally, a management cover letter should demonstrate the value you can bring to the company.

Manager cover letter example

Manager Cover Letter

As a teacher, your cover letter should emphasize your biggest achievements and how they helped your students. You should focus on quantifiable achievements. For example, you may include the state test scores your students earned or awards you have received. You can also mention student feedback like in the cover letter example below. Finally, if the job requires specific certifications, include these in your cover letter.

For a teacher cover letter, you should research the school you are applying to. Then, tailor your cover letter to the location and school district. If relevant, also mention why you are suited to work in this location. If you have limited experience, including volunteer experience or casual jobs where you worked with children.

Teacher cover letter example

Teacher Cover Letter

Cover letter templates

A cover letter is all about making a great first impression and giving your job application the best chance of making progress.

We have developed templates to make it easier to craft the perfect cover letter in no time . Use them as a starting point to write your cover letter to stand out from a sea of applicants and get your application noticed.

Cover Letter Template 120350

If you’re wondering where to find inspiration for cover letter examples and cover letter templates, look no further. Pinterest, with millions of pins, is the best source for your inspiration.  In the Pinterest search  bar, use the hashtags #Cove rLetter , #CoverLetterExamples , #CoverLetterTemplates ,or #CoverLetterDesigns .

Cover Leter Templates

Popular related posts:

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  • 7 Ways to Improve Your Cover Letter Today

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How To Match Your Cover Letter With Your Resume [With Examples]

A well-crafted cover letter and resume are essential for a successful job application, and understanding how these two documents should complement each other can significantly improve your chances of landing an interview. Creating a cohesive application package not only demonstrates your professionalism but also helps you stand out in a competitive job market. In this article, we'll explore:

  • The importance of a cohesive application package
  • The role of the cover letter in the application process
  • The role of the resume in the application process
  • Common concerns and questions job seekers have about the relationship between cover letters and resumes
  • An overview of the topics covered in the article

Design and Format Consistency

Ensuring your cover letter and resume have a consistent design and format is crucial for presenting a professional, visually appealing application package. A consistent design helps create a sense of control, familiarity, and reliability, as noted in this CareerFoundry article .

To achieve a cohesive design:

  • Choose a clean, easy-to-read layout: A well-organized layout makes it easier for hiring managers to quickly scan your documents and find relevant information.
  • Use the same font and font size across both documents: Consistency in typography creates a visually harmonious package and demonstrates attention to detail.
  • Align color schemes and design elements: Using a coordinated color palette and incorporating similar design elements, such as lines or icons, can make your application appear more polished.
  • Consider the impact of consistent design on the reader's perception: A well-designed application package conveys professionalism and can leave a lasting positive impression on the hiring manager.

Showcasing Your Personality

Your cover letter should highlight your unique personality and qualities that are not evident in your resume, setting you apart from other applicants. A resume focuses on your skills and professional experience, which may not convey your character and personal attributes. On the other hand, your cover letter provides an opportunity to showcase your communication style, voice, and relevant personal experiences.

For example:

After completing my degree in environmental science, I spent a year volunteering with a local conservation group to protect our community's natural habitats. This experience deepened my passion for protecting the environment and inspired me to pursue a career in sustainability.

By sharing your passion and enthusiasm for the role, you can demonstrate your genuine interest in the position and create a memorable impression on the hiring manager.

Addressing Red Flags

Your cover letter can serve as a valuable tool for addressing potential concerns or red flags in your resume, providing additional context and explanation. Common resume red flags may include employment gaps, frequent job changes, or unconventional career paths. When addressing these concerns in your cover letter:

  • Be honest and transparent about your situation.
  • Explain any personal or professional growth that resulted from these experiences.
  • Provide context for your career choices and demonstrate how they have contributed to your skill set.

For instance:

While my resume may show a gap in employment, I took that time to care for an ill family member. This experience taught me invaluable skills in time management, empathy, and resilience, which I believe will make me a stronger candidate for this position.

Customizing for the Specific Job Position

Customizing your cover letter for the specific job position and company you are applying for is essential for demonstrating your fit for the role and your genuine interest in the company. To tailor your cover letter:

  • Research the company and job position: Familiarize yourself with the company's values, mission, and goals, as well as the skills and qualifications required for the role.
  • Identify key skills and qualifications required for the role: As mentioned in this Indeed article , analyze your skill set and match it with the job requirements.
  • Address these requirements in your cover letter: Explain how your experience and skills make you an ideal candidate for the position.
  • Use company-specific language and terminology: This demonstrates your familiarity with the company and its industry.

Avoid using generic templates and create a customized cover letter for each application to show that you have taken the time to research and understand the specific job opportunity.

Connecting with the Company

Your cover letter should demonstrate your understanding of the company's values, mission, and goals, and how your skills and experience align with these factors. To establish a genuine connection with the company:

  • Research the company's values, mission, and goals: Use resources like the company's website, press releases, and social media accounts to gather information.
  • Identify your own values and goals that align with the company: Reflect on your personal and professional aspirations and how they relate to the company's mission.
  • Demonstrate how your experience and skills will contribute to the company's success: Explain how your background will add value to the organization.
  • Express enthusiasm for the company's products or services: Show your genuine interest in what the company does and how it aligns with your passions.

Examples Of How To Match Your Resume With Your Cover Letter

When crafting your job application materials, it's crucial to ensure your cover letter and resume complement each other. They should serve as two parts of a whole, providing a complete and compelling portrait of your skills, experiences, and professional history. Here are a few ways to match your resume with your cover letter effectively:

1. Tailored Skills Highlighting:

In your resume, you've listed down your technical and soft skills, such as team management, Python programming, or business analytics. When you write your cover letter, refer back to these skills and give concrete examples. If your resume states, "Proficient in Python," your cover letter might include a story of how you used Python to streamline a business process, boosting efficiency by 30%.

2. Reinforcing Achievements:

Your cover letter is a chance to flesh out the notable achievements listed in your resume. For instance, if your resume states, "Increased sales by 20% over a fiscal year," your cover letter could detail how you motivated the team, developed a sales strategy, and persevered through market challenges to achieve this.

3. Echoing the Professional Summary:

Your resume's professional summary is a snapshot of your career. In your cover letter, you can echo this summary in a narrative form. For example, if your summary describes you as a "Dedicated financial analyst with a passion for data-driven strategies," you might begin your cover letter with a story that shows this passion in action.

4. Expanding on Key Experiences:

A resume often contains bullet points about job duties and responsibilities. In your cover letter, select a few of these key experiences and describe them in more depth. If your resume says, "Managed a team of 10 sales associates," your cover letter might tell a story about a challenging time when your leadership skills really made a difference.

5. Mirroring Language and Tone:

Your resume and cover letter should not only share content but also style. If your resume is written in a formal, professional tone, maintain this in your cover letter. If your resume uses specific industry jargon or phrases from the job listing, mirror this language in your cover letter.

Remember, while your cover letter and resume should complement each other, they shouldn't be carbon copies. The cover letter allows you to show a bit more of your personality and to highlight your suitability for the role in a story-like format. In contrast, your resume offers a structured, concise overview of your skills, experiences, and achievements. By thoughtfully aligning these two documents, you can present a powerful and consistent professional brand.

Final Tips and Best Practices

By following some final tips and best practices, you can ensure your cover letter and resume are cohesive, professional, and compelling:

  • Proofread and edit both documents for grammar, spelling, and formatting errors.
  • Seek feedback from trusted friends, mentors, or professional resume services.
  • Utilize online resources and templates to guide your cover letter and resume creation, such as Harvard College's guide or HigherEdJobs' resources .
  • Continuously update and improve your application materials as you gain experience and skills.
  • Stay informed about industry trends and expectations for job applications.

By understanding how your cover letter and resume should complement each other and following the strategies outlined in this article, you can create a polished, professional application package that stands out to potential employers. Investing time and effort in crafting cohesive application materials can significantly improve your chances of landing an interview and advancing your career. We encourage you to continue refining your cover letter and resume skills and wish you success in your job search. If you have any additional tips or experiences with matching cover letters and resumes, please share them with us!

60+ Cover Letter Examples in 2024 [For All Professions]

Background Image

No matter where you are in your career, or what job you’re applying for, submitting a cover letter with your resume is a must . 

Done right, a cover letter will effectively complement your resume and explain to the hiring manager in more detail why you’re the right person for the job.

Writing a cover letter, however, is easier said than done. 

You have to effectively demonstrate that you’ll be able to perform the responsibilities listed in the job description and that you’d be a better fit for the company compared to other candidates. 

And unless you’re a professional writer, this can be a very hard task.

Fortunately, we created these cover letter examples to inspire you and help you get started with your own cover letter!

Let’s dive in!

21 Cover Letter Examples 

#1. career change cover letter example .

cover letter example for career change

Here’s what this cover letter does right:

  • Has an ideal length. This cover letter includes all the relevant information for the hiring manager without getting into too much detail.
  • Relevant introduction. The candidate explains that they’re changing careers and why they want to work in this new field from the get-go.
  • Explains their related experience. The candidate explains how their previous experience in retail sales can help them succeed in PR.

Check out our guide video guide to learn how to write a Cover Letter that gets you HIRED!

#2. Recent Graduate Cover Letter Example 

cover letter example for a recent graduate

  • Personally greets the hiring manager. The candidate has taken the time to find the hiring manager’s name and address them by it, which makes the opening of the cover letter much more personal.
  • Wraps up with a call to action. The candidate wraps up the cover letter by suggesting a meeting with the hiring manager, which makes them more memorable.
  • Explains why the candidate is the right person for the internship. In this cover letter for an internship , the candidate explains how they’ve previously interned in a different firm, which gives them the experience to succeed in this role.

Have you just graduated from college? Make sure to check out our guide on writing an entry-level cover letter from start to finish! 

#3. Middle Management Cover Letter Example

Cover Letter Example for Middle Management

  • Use of bullet points. The candidate presents the information in a concise and reader-friendly way, making it easy for the hiring manager to find their key achievements. 
  • Formal closing. The candidate has used a formal and polite tone to conclude their cover letter, which combined with a call to action makes them look professional and passionate about getting the job. 
  • Explains how the company would benefit from hiring them. The candidate outlines exactly what they could do for the company, which not only highlights their skills but also shows they’ve done their research on the company’s needs. 

#4. Business Manager Cover Letter Example

cover letter example for business manager

  • Detailed header. In addition to the must-have contact details, this candidate has also included their professional Twitter and LinkedIn profiles, making it easy for the hiring manager to look more closely into their career. 
  • Concise and to the point. This candidate has used short paragraphs and bullet points to make the cover letter easy to skim through. 
  • Wraps up with a call to action. By letting the hiring manager know they’ll be contacting them soon, they’re more likely to make an impression.

Check out this article for a complete writing guide and an inspiring business manager resume sample. 

#5. Ph.D. Cover Letter Example

cover letter example for phd

Here’s what this cover letter does right: 

  • Attention-grabbing introduction. In the opening paragraph, this candidate explains why they’re passionate about pursuing a Ph.D. in great detail. 
  • Explains the candidate’s qualifications in detail. The candidate builds on their passion by explaining how they’re also qualified for the degree because of their education history and academic achievements. 

#6. Senior Executive Cover Letter Example

cover letter example for senior executive

  • Professional and minimalistic template. This senior executive has used a professional but minimalistic template that lets their work experience do the talking. 
  • Achievement-oriented opening paragraph. Right from the get-go, this candidate explains what makes them so good at their job, effectively grabbing the hiring manager’s attention.  
  • Wraps up with a call to action. By suggesting to have a meeting and discussing how they can help the company meet its goals, the candidate stands more chance to make a positive lasting impression. 

#7. Architect Cover Letter Example 

Cover Letter Example

  • Modern resume template. This architect has picked a template that perfectly matches his industry, as it is professional and modern at the same time. 
  • A personal greeting to the HR. They address the hiring manager by their first name, which helps make a better first impression. 
  • Measurable achievements. By quantifying their achievements, the candidate proves their achievements instead of just claiming them.

Struggling with your architect resume ? Check out our full guide!

#8. Business Analyst Cover Letter Example 

cover letter examples

  • Detailed contact information. The candidate has listed both their LinkedIn and Twitter profiles, providing the HR manager an opportunity to learn more about the candidate.  
  • Mentions what the candidate can do for the company. This cover letter doesn’t just explain why the job would be great for the candidate, but also how the candidate would benefit the company. Win-win, right? 
  • Error-free and reader-friendly. It’s super important for the cover letter to have no spelling or grammatical errors and be reader-friendly. This candidate made sure they did both.

Need a resume alongside your cover letter? Check out our guide on how to write a business analyst resume . 

#9. Consultant Cover Letter Example 

best cover letter example

  • Professional cover letter template. Being an experienced consultant, this candidate has picked a professional template that doesn’t steal the spotlight from their achievements. 
  • Experience and achievement-oriented. The candidate has effectively elaborated on their top achievements relevant to the job. 
  • Highlights the candidate’s passion. To show they want the job, this candidate has also explained how passionate they are about their profession.

For more advice on landing a job as a consultant, check out our guide to writing a consultant resume .

#10. Digital Marketing Cover Letter Example

Cover Letter Example for Digital Marketing

  • Creative cover letter template. This digital marketer highlights their originality by picking a creative cover letter template. 
  • Lists the candidate’s awards. The candidate has taken advantage of the cover letter to list their most noteworthy awards in the industry. 
  • Concludes with a call to action. As they used a call to action to conclude their cover letter, the HR manager will be more likely to remember them.

Want to take your digital marketing resume to the next level? Check out our guide!

#11. Graphic Designer Cover Letter Example 

Cover Letter Example for Graphic Designer

  • Detailed contact information. The candidate has included additional contact information such as their website link, as well as their LinkedIn and Twitter profiles.  
  • Ideal length. This cover letter is concise, which means that the HR manager is more likely to read it from start to finish.  
  • Draws attention to the candidate’s strong points. Although this candidate is a recent college graduate, they’ve managed to effectively show that they have enough knowledge and experience to do the job right.

Read this guide to write a graphic designer resume that’s just as good as your cover letter!

#12. Administrative Assistant Cover Letter Example

Cover Letter Example for Administrative Assistant

  • Minimalistic cover letter template. The candidate picked a well-designed but minimalistic template for their cover letter. 
  • Focused on skills and achievements. This cover letter is packed with the candidate’s skills and achievements, proving he can be an excellent employee. 
  • Formal closing. Politeness can go a long way and the candidate has used this to their advantage to make an impression. 

Our article on how to write an administrative assistant resume can help you take your job application to the next level.

#13. Front Desk Cover Letter Example

Cover Letter Example for Front Desk

  • Modern cover letter template. This template incorporates memorable colors and clear lines, which make the cover letter very visually appealing. 
  • Attention-grabbing introduction. Using an attention-grabbing intro, the candidate is more likely to make an impression. 
  • Calls the HR to action. By including a call to action, the candidate is reminding the HR of their immediate availability. 

#14. Human Resources Cover Letter Example

Cover Letter Example for Human Resources

  • It is concise and to the point. The candidate doesn’t dwell on unimportant details the HR won’t be interested in. 
  • Uses a traditional cover letter template. The cover letter design is more on the conventional side, which fits the industry better. 
  • Highlights the candidate’s strong points. The candidate has rich work experience and they use the cover letter to elaborate on it. 

This HR resume guide can help you get your resume just right.

#15. Sales Agent Cover Letter Example 

Cover Letter Example  for Sales Agent

  • Attention-grabbing cover letter template. As a salesperson, this candidate knows how important first impressions are, so they’ve picked a catchy cover letter template. 
  • Has an ideal length. At the same time, they’ve also made sure to keep their cover letter at just the right length. 
  • Lists the candidate’s career highlights. The candidate has made perfect use of the space by mentioning their most impressive professional achievements. 

Check out this sales agent resume guide to create an attention-grabbing sales resume .

#16. Receptionist Cover Letter Example

Cover Letter Example for Receptionist

  • Modern but minimalistic cover letter template. The template’s design hints the candidate is creative but professional at the same time. 
  • Uses a catchy introduction. The candidate has used an attention-grabbing opening paragraph to catch HR’s attention. 
  • Concludes the cover letter formally. The candidate proves that they’re polite and well-spoken, a quality very much important for the role they’re applying for. 

Take your receptionist resume to the next level with this receptionist resume guide .

#17. Information Technology Cover Letter Example

Cover Letter Example for Information Technology

  • Mentions measurable achievements. Numbers make an impact, which is why this candidate has included measurable achievements. 
  • Lists both soft and hard skills. The candidate has mentioned a great mix of soft and hard skills, showing how well-rounded they are. 
  • Contains relevant contact information. The candidate’s GitHub, website name, LinkedIn, and Twitter profiles are all great additions to the resume. 

Looking for tips to help you write a great IT resume ? Check out our guide!

#18. Real Estate Cover Letter Example

Cover Letter Example for Real Estate Agent

  • Ideal length. Short and to the point, this cover letter is bound to get noticed by the HR manager. 
  • Wraps up with a call to action. This candidate reinforces the HR to call them back through a final call to action. 
  • Mentions the right skills. On top of their sales accomplishments, the candidate touch upon important soft skills such as customer service and communication . 

This real estate resume guide will help you take your resume from good to great.

#19. Teacher Cover Letter Example

Cover Letter Example for Teacher

  • Mentions relevant contact information details. This candidate has included optional (but relevant) contact information details, such as their LinkedIn, Quora, and Medium profiles. 
  • Achievement-oriented. The candidate has elaborated on their achievements in more detail throughout their cover letter. 
  • Highlights the candidate’s passion. For some jobs, being passionate is much more important than for others. Teaching is one of these jobs, which is why this candidate explains their passion for the job. 

Our guide on how to write a teacher resume has all the tips you need to land the job.

#20. Project Manager Cover Letter Example

Cover Letter Example for Project Manager

  • Leverages a catchy introduction. Through a catchy introductory paragraph, this candidate is sure to grab the HR’s attention and get them to read the rest of their cover letter.
  • Lists measurable accomplishments. This candidate explains exactly what they’ve achieved using numbers and hard data. 
  • Personally greets the HR. A personal greeting sounds much better than “Dear Sir/Madam,” and the candidate knows this. 

This guide on how to write a project manager resume can help you perfect your appication.

#21. Paralegal Cover Letter Example

Cover Letter Example for Paralegal

  • Minimalistic cover letter template. This cover letter design looks good but doesn’t steal the show from the candidate’s abilities.
  • Mentions the candidate’s academic achievements and extracurricular activities. Although the candidate is a recent graduate, they’ve used the cover letter to explain they have enough skills and achievements to do the job.
  • Lists measurable achievements. The candidate proves they did well in their internship by mentioning quantifiable achievements.

Check out this paralegal resume guide to perfect yours.

40+ More Cover Letter Examples and Guides 

Couldn’t find a cover letter example for your field? Do not worry.

Below you can find a number of other cover letter examples for different fields and industries:

  • Acting Cover Letter Examples
  • Accounting Cover Letter Examples
  • Administrative Assistant Cover Letter Examples
  • Architecture Cover Letter Examples
  • Attorney Cover Letter Examples
  • Barista Cover Letter Examples
  • Bartender Cover Letter Examples
  • Business Cover Letter Examples
  • Business Analyst Cover Letter Examples
  • College Student Cover Letter Examples
  • Computer Science Cover Letter Examples
  • Construction Cover Letter Examples
  • Consultant Cover Letter Examples
  • Customer Service Cover Letter Examples
  • Data Analyst Cover Letter Examples
  • Data Entry Cover Letter Examples
  • Dental Assistant Cover Letter Examples
  • Digital Marketing Cover Letter Examples
  • Elementary Teacher Cover Letter Examples
  • Engineering Cover Letter Examples
  • Executive Assistant Cover Letter Examples
  • Finance Cover Letter Examples
  • Graphic Design Cover Letter Examples
  • Healthcare Cover Letter Examples
  • Human Resources Cover Letter Examples
  • IT Cover Letter Examples
  • Law Cover Letter Examples
  • Management Cover Letter Examples
  • Marketing Cover Letter Examples
  • Mechanical Engineering Cover Letter Examples
  • Medical Assistant Cover Letter Examples
  • Nurse Practitioner Cover Letter Examples
  • Physician Cover Letter Examples
  • Project Manager Cover Letter Examples
  • Receptionist Cover Letter Examples
  • Retail Cover Letter Examples
  • Sales Cover Letter Examples
  • Social Work Cover Letter Examples
  • Software Engineer Cover Letter Examples
  • Substitute Teacher Cover Letter Examples
  • Teacher Assistant Cover Letter Examples
  • Team Leader Cover Letter Example

What is a Cover Letter? 

A cover letter is a one-page document that you submit as part of your job application, alongside your resume . 

Its purpose is to introduce you and briefly summarize your professional background. On average, your cover letter should be from 250 to 400 words long .

A good cover letter can give the hiring manager more insight into what makes you a good candidate and help them make up their mind about whether they should invite you for an interview. A bad cover letter, though, will get ignored (at best) and lose you the job (at worst).

So, to make sure this doesn’t happen, it’s essential to know how to write a convincing cover letter.

The first thing to remember is that a cover letter is a supplement to your resume, not a replacement. Meaning, you shouldn’t just repeat whatever is mentioned in your resume and call it a day. 

Optimally, you should use your cover letter to shed more light on your skills and qualifications, as well as explain anything you didn’t have space for in your resume (e.g. a career gap or why you’re changing careers).

If you’re writing a cover letter for the first time, though, putting all this together might seem pretty tough. 

Fortunately, you can follow our tried-and-tested format to make the experience much easier:

  • Header - Input your contact information.
  • Greeting the hiring manager - Open the cover letter with a “Dear Sir or Madam,” or use the hiring manager’s name if you know what that is.
  • Opening paragraph - Grab the hiring manager’s attention by getting straight to the point. Mention what your professional experiences are, and what role you’re applying for.
  • The second paragraph - Explain why you’re the perfect candidate for the job. Mention your top 2-3 achievements, your top skills, why you want to work in that specific industry, and whatever else is relevant.
  • The third paragraph - End your cover letter with a call to action. E.g. “I would love to meet personally and discuss how I can help Company X.”
  • Formal closing - Something like this: “Thank you for your consideration. Best, John Doe.”

Here’s what this looks like in practice:

cover letter structure

9 Tips to Write a Cover Letter (the Right Way)

Now that we've covered the basics, let's talk about cover letter tips . Below, we'll give you all the knowledge you need to take your cover letter from "OK" to "great."

#1. Pick the right template

A good cover letter is all about leaving the right first impression.

And what’s a better way to leave a good impression than through a professional, well-formatted, and visual template?

You can simply pick one of our tried-and-tested cover letter templates and you’ll be all set!

cover letter examples templates

#2. Add your contact details on the header

The best way to start your cover letter is through a header. 

Here’s what you want to include there:

  • Phone Number
  • Name of the hiring manager / their professional title
  • Name of the company you’re applying to

Optionally, you can also include the following:

  • Social Media Profiles - Any type of profile that’s relevant to your field. Social Profiles on websites like LinkedIn, GitHub (for developers), Medium (for writers), etc.
  • Personal Website - If you have a personal website that somehow adds value to your application, you can mention it. Let’s say you’re a professional writer. In that case, you’d want to link to your content portfolio site or blog.

#3. Greet the hiring manager the right way

Once you’ve listed all your relevant contact information, it’s time to address the hiring manager reading your cover letter. 

A good practice here is to find the hiring manager’s name and address them directly instead of using the traditional “dear sir or madam.” This shows that you’re really invested in the company and that you took your time to do some research about the job.

So, how can you find out the hiring manager’s name?

One way to do this is by looking up the head of the company’s relevant department on LinkedIn. Let’s say you’re applying for the position of Communication Specialist at Novoresume. The hiring manager is probably the Head of Communications or the Chief Communications Office.

Or let’s say you’re applying for the position of server at a restaurant. In that case, you’d be looking to find out who the restaurant manager is.

If this doesn’t work, you can also check out the “Team” page on the company website; there’s a good chance you’ll at least find the right person there.

If you still can’t find out the hiring manager’s name, here are several other greetings you can use:

  • Dear [Department] Hiring Manager
  • Dear Hiring Manager
  • To whom it may concern
  • Dear [Department] Team

#4. Create an attention-grabbing introduction

Recruiters get hundreds, sometimes even thousands, of applications. Chances are, they’re not going to be reading every single cover letter end-to-end.

So, it’s essential to catch their attention from the very first paragraph.

The problem with most cover letter opening paragraphs, though, is that they’re usually extremely generic, often looking something like this: 

Hey, my name is Jonathan and I’d like to work as a Sales Manager at XYZ Inc. I’ve worked as a sales manager at MadeUpCompany Inc. for 5+ years, so I believe that I’d be a good fit for the position.

As you can probably tell, this opening paragraph doesn’t tell the hiring manager anything other than that you’ve worked the job before - and that’s not really helpful in setting you apart from other candidates. 

What you want to do, instead, is start off with 2-3 of your top achievements to really grab the reader’s attention. Preferably, the achievements should be as relevant as possible to the position. 

For example:

My name’s Michael and I’d like to help XYZ Inc. hit and exceed its sales goals as a Sales Manager. I’ve worked with Company X, a fin-tech company, for 3+ years. As a Sales Representative, I generated an average of $30,000+ in sales per month (beating the KPIs by around 40%). I believe that my previous industry experience, as well as my excellence in sales, makes me the right candidate for the role of X at Company Y.

The second example shows how the candidate is a top performer. The first just shows that they’ve worked a sales job before.

Which one are YOU more likely to invite for an interview?

#5. Show you’re the perfect person for the job

One great thing about cover letters is that they allow you to expand more on the top achievements from your resume and really show the hiring manager that you’re the right person for the job. 

A good way to do that is to first read the job ad and really understand what skills/experiences are required, and then to ensure that your cover letter touches upon the said skills or experiences.

In my previous role as a Facebook Marketing Expert at XYZ Inc. I handled customer acquisition through ads, managing a monthly Facebook ad budget of $20,000+. As the sole digital marketer at the company, I managed the ad creation and management process end-to-end. This means I created the ad copy and images, as well as picked the targeting, ran optimization trials, and so on.

Other than Facebook advertising, I’ve also delved into other online PPC channels, including:

  • Google Search

#6. Explain why you’re a great company fit

The HR manager doesn’t only look at whether you’ll be good at the job or not. They’re looking for someone that’s also a good fit for the company culture.

After all, employees that don’t fit in are bound to quit, sooner or later. This ends up costing the company a ton of money, up to 50% of the employee’s annual salary . 

To convince the hiring manager that you’re a great company fit, do some research on the company and find out what it is you like about them, or about working there. You want to know things like:

  • What’s the company’s business model?
  • What’s the company's product or service? Have you used it?
  • What’s the culture like? Will someone micro-manage your work, or will you have autonomy on how you get things done?

Then, turn your top reasons for liking to work there into text and add them to your cover letter! 

#7. Wrap up with a call to action

To make the end of your cover letter as memorable as possible, you want to:

  • Wrap up any points you couldn't in the previous paragraphs. Mention anything you’ve left out that you think could help the hiring manager make up your mind.
  • Thank the hiring manager for their time. After all, it never hurts to be polite. 
  • Finish the cover letter with a call to action. A call to action is a great way to make your cover letter ending as memorable as possible. 

#8. Write a formal closing

Once you’re done with the final paragraph, all you have to do is write down a formal “goodbye” and you’re good to go.

Feel free to use one of the most popular conclusions in a cover letter:

  • Best Regards,
  • Kind Regards,

#9. Proofread your cover letter

Last but not least, make sure to always proofread each and every document that you’ll be including in your job application - cover letter included. 

The last thing you want is to be claiming you’re a great candidate for the job with a cover letter full of typos! 

For an even more comprehensive guide on how to write an impactful cover letter , check out our article ! 

Cover Letter Writing Checklist 

Cover Letter Writing Checklist

Frequently Asked Questions

Do you still have some questions about cover letters? Check out the answers below:

1. How do I write a simple cover letter? 

To write a cover letter that’s simple but also professional, make sure to include a header with your personal information, a formal greeting to the hiring manager, an attention-grabbing opening paragraph, a second paragraph explaining why you’re a good candidate for the job, and a formal closing (preferably with a call to action). 

2. What are the 3 parts of a cover letter? 

The three parts of a cover letter are: 

  • The introduction , namely the header, the greeting to the hiring manager, and the opening paragraph. 
  • The sales pitch is usually the body of the cover letter. 
  • The conclusion involves a formal closing and a signature line.

3. What makes a great cover letter?

A great cover letter should be personalized for each job you’re applying for, instead of being overly generic. It’s also preferable to address the hiring manager by their name and not use the overly-used “Dear Sir/Madam.”

To make a great first impression, you should mention 1-2 of your top achievements in your opening paragraph - the more job-specific they are, the better. Also, don’t stop at showing the hiring manager why you’re a great candidate for the job. Make sure to also talk about how you’re a good culture fit for the company.

Last but not least, wrap up your closing paragraph with a call to action to give the hiring manager a little extra something to remember you by. 

4. When is a cover letter necessary?

Unless the job ad specifically states otherwise, you should always include a cover letter with your job application .

Even if the hiring manager doesn’t read it, you will look more professional simply by including one.

And that’s a wrap! We hope our cover letter examples and writing tips will inspire you to write a cover letter that will land you your next job.

If you’re looking for more invaluable career advice and articles, make sure to check out our career blog , or any of these related articles: 

  • How to Write a Resume
  • Cover Letter Mistakes to Avoid at All Costs
  • Cover Letter Format (w/ Examples & Free Templates)

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A resume without a cover letter is like Lennon without McCartney - It just feels incomplete.

Don't know how to write a cover letter? There's no point in spending days and weeks on perfecting the resume if all you'll do with it is just mindlessly send it on any and every job profile that you come across without writing a cover letter to go with it.

Have a thorough look at this sample to understand how to write a cover letter for a job in 2022:

Let me guess, you first heard of cover letters in a conversation but felt too embarassed to ask further questions about it, lest you'd be labeled as someone who doesn't know what a cover letter is?

You only have a vague idea but don't know what it is, and what it's not, and how to make a cover letter?

Fret not. There are thousands like you who are in a similar conundrum who don't know how to write a cover letter.

This is why the cover letter examples that we have outlined in our 2022 guide to writing a cover letter will take care of all your problems.

The guide will broadly tackle the following areas:

  • What is a cover letter?
  • Why do you need a cover letter?
  • How is a cover letter different form a resume?
  • How to write a cover letter?
  • Cover letter tips and hacks.

cover-letter-infographic

What is a Cover Letter?

The most underrated component of the job-hunting process, it's apalling how little attention is paid to the humble cover letter.

Simply put, a cover letter is a document that you send along with your resume to provide additional information around your skills and experience.

When a recruiter is flooded with thousands of applications for a single vacancy, how do you expect him/her to peruse through them all and select the winner?

That's where the cover letter comes in handy. Right out of the way, more than half of the applicants won't bother to send a cover letter along with their resume. They belong to the category of those exasperated souls who select multiple job listings and hit 'send resume'.

You can imagine what happens to them. They spend their days and nights dazed and confused, wondering what they're doing wrong.

'I applied to like a 100 different vacancies man. I don't know what's going on.' If this sounds like you or someone you know, read on.

Also read : How Long Should a Cover Letter Be?

Why do you Need a Cover Letter?

As you now know, since you are competing with thousands of other equally accomplished (if not more) professionals for a single job, one thing is absolutely clear -

You get only a single chance to make it.

So ask yourself: 'Do you want to waste that chance by endlessly sending your resume to 100+ recruiters and then wonder what went wrong, or do you want to play it smart by applying to just 10 but simultaneously increase the probability of getting that coveted shortlist?

That's right. The second option.

I bet some of you are still wondering that the math doesn't quite makes sense: How is applying to 10 places better than applying to a 100?

To which, we ask: Would you rather eat 5 average burgers that make you go 'meh', or would you rather eat a single kickass burger that will make you want to kiss the hand that delivered it from heaven?

We thought so too. Cover letters are that missing piece of the equation which makes applying to a few targeted vacancies better than applying for dozens of random ones.

Contrary to popular belief, HRs are smart people. Well, let's rephrase that. If you encounter hundreds of resumes on a daily basis for years, you do get to know a little something about them.

You figure out how to spot a mildly bad resume from a terribly bad one.

Similarly, you can figure out if the candidate actually went through the job vacancy and gave it a thought before sending in their application, or whether your job listing was just one of a few dozen which they checked at once before hitting 'send'.

And if you belong to the second category, all the HRs in the world will band together and hit you with bulky binders till you rush back and fix your job-hunting process.

Additionally, you can also opt for Hiration's Resume Review Service to get your resume professionally reviewed before you apply to your target job.

How is a Cover Letter Different from a Resume?

Isn't your resume enough, you ask? If you spent hours and days working on it, what's so special about that additional piece of document which will increase your chances of getting a shortlist?

A resume is a statement of all your work profiles till date. You can rephrase or tailor your professional experience along the lines of a few profiles or industries which you are targeting, but other than that, there's very little that you can do when it comes to customizing your application.

That's where the humble cover letter comes in.

The format or structure of a resume is pretty standard (for more, you can check out our detailed guide on resume layout and resume format ). Most applicants who are up-to-date with resume trends will send in their resumes along those lines itself.

A cover letter is where you can break free from the rest and showcase how you and you alone can kill it, how you are meant for that particular job role, how you were born to be an Associate at XYZ, for instance.

Trust us, we aren't being dramatic when we say it. Unless you are able to prove to the recruiter that everything you've ever done till date was only leading to that particular vacancy, everything else is hogwash.

And that's where a cover letter breaks away from a resume.

Cover letters are written for a particular vacancy and addressed to a specific Hiring Manager/Recruiter. You can scan your entire professional career and cherry pick only those instances and achievements which will present you as a perfect response to the job listing.

And there's more. You can do the same for every job that you are applying for. This is how you reduce the number of places where you apply while streamlining your job-hunting process and making your applications more targeted and concise.

A cover letter also gives you a chance to explain your case or justify your shortcomings in a way which is not always possible in a resume.

For instance, in cases where you were off the job market for a particular time period (owing to any reason whatsoever), you can justify the same in your cover letter.

In case you are changing industries or starting in another industry from scratch after a significant experience in another wildly divergent segment, you can dispel the ambiguity surrounding your application so as to leave little room for doubt.

You can be outrightly honest in your application and explain your motivation so that the recruiter at least has adequate information and has a chance to factor in your perspective before coming to a decision.

Also read : What All Goes in a Cover Letter Heading?

How to Write a Cover Letter - A Crisp 5-step Guide

Since you now know what a cover letter is and why you need one, let's get down to the nuts and bolt of making one.

Within 10 minutes, the secret to writing a killer cover letter will be revealed to you in a simple step-by-step guide.

How to Begin - Addressing the Cover Letter

A) Your name and job title comes on top. The job title is not a sacrosanct rank assigned to you from the heavens above. You have a certain level of flexibility wherein you can tailor the same as per the requirements of the job.

For instance, if you are a Sales Executive in your present profile and come across a Sales Associate vacancy, you can go ahead and modify the same to make your application a better fit for the job.

B) Unless you are living in Dickensian England, avoid 'Dear Sir/Madam'. Depending on the culture which is prevalent in your targeted company (casual vs. corporate), you can go take a call on whether to use the first name or last, followed by the profile held by that person aligned to the left.

Mr. John Buchanan Hiring Manager, XYZ Ltd.

(In case you can't find the name of the Hiring Manager, you can simply proceed with Human Resources, XYZ Ltd.)

This goes a long way in making a huge impact than using a generic 'Sir/madam'. This tells the recruiter that what they are about to read is written specifically for them. This will help your cover letter feel like a breath of fresh air for someone who is so used to seeing general cover letters thrown around by the dozen.

C) Start off with your contact details aligned to the right, which would typically include your phone number, email and location (no need for the complete address, just the location will do).

While we are at it, you wouldn't want to break your chances of getting a shortlist if, for instance, your email ID is [email protected] or [email protected] . . . you catch the drift, right? So let's avoid that as well. Ideally your email ID should only consist of your first and last name.

Additionally, avoid using email ID of your current organization. That's just disrespecting not only your present employer but also the recruiter who's seeing your cover letter for the first time.

D) You can add your digital profiles here as well (only LinkedIn and blog, not your Facebook or Twitter), but only if you think they'll add value to your application. If your blog is flooded with posts on Kim Kardashian and UFO sightings since 1970, keep that miles away from your cover letter.

Finally, make sure that the contact information is consistent across your resume, cover letter and digital space in general.

Also read : Whom to Address the Cover Letter when Name's Not Available?

The First Paragraph: Hook, Line & Sinker

The first paragraph of the cover letter is the hook which is supposed to catch the recruiter and draw them in. The first paragraph will contain within its lines a reason for the recruiter to continue reading.

So how do you do that? What's the secret?

Want the Hiring Manager to read your cover letter in its entirety? Give him/her a reason to. The first paragraph is your chance to showcase how the skills and experience that you possess stand to benefit the organization.

Try to identify a need which you can fulfill. That's the basic premise for any transaction since the dawn of mankind. If you can't fulfill a pressing need of the organization, your cover letter will end up in a big ol' steaming pile of Nope.

Identify something which the organization is looking for, scan your previous achievements and demonstrate how you can leverage that to solve critical organizational issues. Unless you can generate that need, you'll always be at the periphery of getting shortlisted but won't ever make the cut.

The first line itself can be your gateway to accomplish just that. There won't ever be a single sure-shot way to guarantee a shortlist. You can either highlight your achievements or demonstrate your interest in the organization by researching their requirements and showing how you can fulfill the same.

Try to talk less about yourself and more about how your track record will help the organization. Let us make the point even clearer with a few examples:

"An 11-year track record of leading teams in Sales and generating multi-million dollar revenues on an annual basis. Played a key role in partnering with MNCs and other conglomerates. Highly interested in the profile of Sales Manager at XYZ Ltd."

Now let's take a look at another one:

"As a keen follower of XYZ Ltd. and its initiatives, I was thrilled to find a vacancy of Sales Manager. With my track record of generating USD 8.2m in sales and forging strategic alliances with Fortune 500 companies, I think I'd be a significant value add to your organization so I can play an instrumental role in achieving your target of 20% YOY growth."

Notice the difference between the two? In the second one, not only is the candidate talking about his achievements, he's also mentioning how his previous work experience can help the organization achieve their goals.

This is a significant departure from those candidates who select multiple job listings and send their resumes everywhere.

This shows that the candidate shortlisted this particular vacancy from several others and conducted research to find the targets which the company is trying to achieve, and how he can play a role in fulfilling those targets.

The Second Paragraph - You & The Company

Continue in the same vein while making sure that the second paragraph is not you just bragging endlessly with your achievements.

All your achievements are detailed in your resume - don't worry about that. Here, your goal is to showcase only those achievements which the recruiter or organization can deem to be useful.

Another component which we only implied till now but are explicitly mentioning only here is RESEARCH. That can be a huge deal-breaker or a life-saver, depending on which camp you fall under.

You can't fulfill the needs of the recruiter if you don't know what it is.

For instance, if you are a Software Developer who has overseen several dozen projects across your tenure, you'll only highlight those projects - more specifically achievements of those projects - which the organization can find useful.

For example, if one of your project was around developing a portal, and as part of your research, you find that the organization you're targeting is somehow targeting just that, you can go ahead and mention the same in glowing letters.

Staying relevant is the key. Otherwise you'll just look like a braggart who's full of himself.

The Third Paragraph - The Company & You

Your goal is to convince the recruiter why you want that particular job and how it's not just any generic job you are applying for - what is it about that company which makes it a perfect fit for you?

The research component that we talked about in the earlier point will reap more dividends here as well. Scan the company's website and make a list of everything which you think might be relevant.

The points here will range from the organization's interest in non-core activities (sports, environment, etc.) to strategies around its core initiatives.

The idea is to make the recruiter believe that you know everything there is to know about the company and can't wait to be a part of it.

You can research and identify any particular project which the company is targeting, or any component of its long-term plan which you think might be relevant for you. Mention that project or component and explain how with a track record like yours, you will be a killer addition to the same.

If you genuinely think that you'd be a perfect fit for the organization, it's only a matter of phrasing it correctly. Believe it or not, even the recruiter is desperately looking for people like you.

If the company is actually going to benefit from having you on-board, why won't they? An example will clear that right up:

"It is difficult to come away un-awed by the passion for excellence that XYZ has displayed in its meteoric rise to become a dominant player in this field. It's remarkable that despite a presence in x states/countries, it values its employees & ensures a continuous learning environment. I am inspired by its collaborative working style that emphasizes upon teamwork, trust & tolerance. Hence, I consider XYZ to be my most preferred employer."
Also read : Top Four Tips to Ace Your Cover Letter

Ending the Cover Letter - Seal the Deal

Instead of having a generic last paragraph, you can utilize the space to include additional details which you think will further seal the deal.

The idea is to close the cover letter on such a note that the recruiter is left with no option but to contact you and schedule an interview.

You can take our advice and avoid using cliche phrases like 'thank you for your time' or 'looking forward to hearing from you'. Even if you are desperate for that job, try to not reflect the same in your cover letter.

Don't focus on your requirements. Instead, focus on how you can fulfill theirs .

"Please find enclosed my resume. Looking forward to hearing from you."
"Enclosed for your consideration is my resume. I'd appreciate the opportunity to further discuss my suitability and qualifications with you on call or in person so I can share my roadmap for reducing your costs by 20%."

Opt for Hiration's Resume Review Service to get your resume reviewed by select industry experts.

Cover Letter Tips & Hacks

Every time you intend to write a cover letter, you probably browse cover letter examples online, get overwhelmed, and think to yourself: Does recruiters really read these? Wouldn’t it be easier if I could just let my resume speak for itself?

Hold up! Before you tire yourself and give up on the idea of cover letters, follow these steps:

We cannot over-stress the importance of research in drafting the perfect cover letter.

There's little sense in spending time writing a cover letter and trying to customize it without making sure that you are indeed hitting the mark. Research is how you truly tailor the cover letter in line with a particular profile and organization.

Your cover letter should ideally be a response to the Job Description. You should present yourself as someone who can single-handedly resolve all the issues which are outlined in the JD.

Look up the Hiring Manager if possible instead of addressing the cover letter to Human Resources. Researching on the specific issues and challenges which the company is facing will help if you want to scan your own achievements and assess how you can truly resolve them.

Cover Letter Format

A precise cover letter format will undoubtedly be a game-changer for getting those shortlists. The cover letter format includes the structure and design in which you present the document, in addition to the basic information which goes in the same, including your contact details and job title.

In most cases, you need not experiment too much with design and structure. In top-end MNCs and official vacancies, the recruiter specifies the exact format in which to deliver the resume and cover letter. Here, be cautious.

If the recruiter has asked for a particular format, submitting your application in any other format most often means immediate rejection.

Customization

Customization is the key to the perfect cover letter. There are no two ways to that.

Right from the greeting on the top to the closing paragraph, the cover letter should feel like a response to that particular job vacancy. The research part may seem grueling to most, but believe us, it's worth it. Always.

Finding out intricate details of the company and incorporating the same in your cover letter speaks volumes. Even before you appear for the interview, the recruiter will think of you as someone who knows what s/he's doing, someone who has spent time on their application and meticulously tailored it to the job vacancy.

Going easy with customization and sending generic cover letters is a sure short recipe for disaster. You'd rather not send a cover letter at all than send a general one.

Know What to Include, and What Not to Include

The cover letter is not a register of all your achievements till date. That's your resume. Make sure you are not coming across as someone who can't perceive anything outside their own achievements.

It doesn't matter to the company if you've been a hero in your last organization. That only says that you did well at your last job. It's your task to convince the recruiter that you have the capability to replicate your successes in their organization as well.

Don't include elaborate project details and administrative responsibilities. While there's no universal consensus on the word limit, general wisdom suggests you keep it limited to 350-400 words.

Filling Resume Gaps

In most cases, you'll follow a standard format for your resume. There's little room in there for justifying any shortcomings. That's where the cover letter comes in.

Ranging from employment gaps to too many work profiles in a short span of time, you can use the cover letter to remove ambiguities and ensure that the recruiter does not jump to any conclusion.

A resume is your personal statement. It's filled with your details and your achievements. But the same is not the case with a cover letter. It's more about the organization which you are targeting than anything else.

Don't Lie or Go Overboard

We felt it was important to state this despite it being something too obvious. Any decent organization knows the value of a good recruit and the cost of a bad one. They'll go at great lengths to validate each and every little thing you've mentioned in your resume and cover letter.

Which is why, don't lie.

Not only will it ruin your chances of bagging that particular role, if a company finds out you blatantly lied on your resume/cover letter, they'll spread the same in their network which might include other significant companies and recruitment agencies.

In other words, you are a goner.

All recruiters know that anyone they go on to recruit will spend 8-10 hours in their environment, interact with their teams, coordinate with their clients and what not. In other words, they aren't looking for a machine. They are looking for a living and breathing individual who'll be a team player.

Gone are the days when you had to be uptight in your tone and language. Don't confuse it with being not professional though. You can be professional without sounding like a robot.

Give a snapshot of the individual that breathes beneath the surface. It helps if the recruiter knows that you have a healthy sense of humour or are a perfect fit for the team.

And again, remember you can always make your resume and cover letter at Hiration's AI Powered Personalized Career Assistant as it comes with 200+ ready to use content templates.

You can look into Hiration’s all-encompassing career service platform with 24/7 chat support for all your professional needs - from building a shortlist-worthy resume and cover letter to optimizing your LinkedIn profile, preparing for interviews, and more!

For any concerns or queries, reach out to us at [email protected] .

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The Ultimate Guide to Writing a Cover Letter

Learn how to write an impactful cover letter that will improve the chances of landing your dream job.

Cover Letter Templates

FREE DOWNLOAD: 5 PROFESSIONAL COVER LETTER TEMPLATES

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job seeker looks up job description to see what to include in cover letter

Updated: 02/25/22

Published: 02/25/22

Nowadays, companies have a computerized system that puts resumes through an online scanner which will automatically reject some applicants and push other applicants through depending on their qualifications.

So, What does this mean for you as a job seeker? Well, the cover letter attached to your application is more important than ever.

→ Click here to access 5 free cover letter templates [Free Download]

We've crafted this ultimate guide to cover letters. You'll find out how to write one that gets read, what to include, and browse tons of templates to gain inspiration.

You can dive straight in, or jump to the section you'd like to read.

How Long Should a Cover Letter Be?

How to Format a Cover Letter

Are Cover Letters Necessary?

Tips for Writing Great Cover Letters

Cover Letter Examples

What is a cover letter.

A cover letter is a one-page document designed to persuade a hiring manager to interview you. It serves as a supplement to your resume and helps further explain why you’re a great fit for the job.

How long should a cover letter be?

OK, so you're all fired up and ready to craft the cover letter of the hiring manager's dream. But how do you manage the fine balance between in-depth and overwhelming?

A good cover letter is long enough to communicate why the recruiter should pick you but not long enough to bore them.

One page is usually enough to cover everything you'll need to include, without losing the recruiter's attention. Let's go into those items in more detail:

Your Name and Address

Kick-off your cover letter by adding your name and address to the document.

This step is pretty self-explanatory, but it allows the recruiter to easily connect your cover letter to your resume (especially if they're being printed).

Your name and address also make it easier for the recruiter to get in touch with a job offer. And that's the aim of our letter, right?

Their Name and Address

Similarly, you should add the name and address of the company or person you're writing to.

This shows you've done your research and allows the hiring manager to receive your letter if it's sent to a generic company email address.

The Date of Writing

Make it easier for the hiring manager to file your application by including the date on your cover letter.

Even if you're not successful this time around, the company might store your letter and refer back to it when they're hiring for another position.

Why You're Writing the Letter

We know that the aim of a cover letter is to persuade the hiring manager you're the best fit for their job.

Before you get to the good stuff, be sure to highlight the role you're applying for, as that can get lost.

Something like this will usually do the trick:

"I'm writing to discuss the content strategist role at HubSpot."

Why You're a Perfect Fit for the Job

The next section of a cover letter structure is the fun part. It's where you'll convince the hiring manager they should hire you.

In this section, answer these questions:

  • Why should this company hire you?
  • What skills do you have that will help complete the job better than anyone else?
  • What makes you a good employee?
  • What qualifications do you have that are relevant to the role?

Once you've answered these, the recruiter will have a solid understanding of who you are, and (hopefully) be convinced to bring you on for an interview.

What You Can Offer the Company

Have you ever heard the advice to "always sell yourself in a job application"? That concept can be applied to cover letters as well.

Businesses measure success in terms of results. The company looking for a new employee will want to know what they bring to the table and how you fit into their business goals. New candidates are rarely brought on board solely for the soft skills listed in their resume .

That's why this part of your cover letter structure is arguably the most important.

In two paragraphs or less, show the business what you can do — and provide examples of how you've done it before.

Not only does this give you the opportunity to show off your skills, but the company can picture the success you'll bring to their business by hiring you.

Your Availability

In the marketing world, we're always told the importance a call-to-action can make.

Great cover letters end with a brief section on the candidate's earliest start date.

How to Address a Cover Letter

Earlier, we mentioned the importance of addressing the hiring manager by their name and address. This proves you've done your research and ensures the cover letter lands in the right place.

Personalized letters will always outperform generic ones, so including the first name of the recruiter can go a long way.

But in a world where privacy is held close to our chest, you might need to do a bit of digging before finding the hiring manager's name.

Luckily, you can use the power of the internet to do this.

How to Find a Hiring Manager's Name

Head over to LinkedIn and find the company's profile page.

You can do this by entering their name into the search bar or searching for a link to their LinkedIn page on their company website.

Then, click the number of employees to see all employees who are on LinkedIn:

how to look up employer details to format cover letter

How to Open a Cover Letter

After you've addressed the cover letter to the most relevant person, you'll want to:

  • Introduce yourself.
  • List the role you're interested in.
  • Explain your interest.

Here's an example:

" Dear Hiring Manager,

As an avid reader of the HubSpot Blog for the past five years, I am thrilled to submit my application for the content strategist role. I believe that my five years of experience working for B2B SaaS companies have equipped me with the skills needed to thrive in this role."

In the next two paragraphs, highlight your relevant experience and include key details from each role.

How to Close a Cover Letter

Once you've covered

Here are some great options:

  • Looking forward to hearing from you
  • Best Regards

Then, sign the cover letter with your full name.

Should you include salary requirements?

The cover letter should focus on why you are a good fit for the role. Discussing salary requirements doesn’t fit at this stage of your application.

Instead, it’s best to wait until you speak to a recruiter or someone from HR to discuss your expectations.

Are cover letters necessary?

Today, in many industries, cover letters are listed as optional. The question is, should you include one if it's optional?

The answer isn’t exactly clear-cut.

Some research would suggest that cover letters may not hold the same weight as they once did. However, a cover letter can help you stand out among the competition.

Are cover letters necessary job seekers believe getting a job will be harder than in previous years

4. Include data-backed examples.

When referencing experience from your resume, use your cover letter as an opportunity to explain in detail — with examples.

Examples allow the company to picture the success you could bring if they hired you, rather than the person next in their resume pile. But, data-backed examples give an extra edge.

Let's use an example. Which of these options is more impressive?

  • I increased leads for the company.
  • I increased leads by 35% in one month through a single blog post, which became the company's highest lead driver.

It's option B, right? That's because it's descriptive and shows results.

5. Tell a story.

Following on from the previous step, you could elaborate on your data-backed examples by telling a story.

Storytelling helps with relatability and gives a hint of your personality in a cover letter. It also makes the recruiter remember your cover letter amongst a sea of other one-page documents in their review pile.

However, this cover letter tip comes with a warning: Don't overdo it and make sure it's relevant.

6. Get a second pair of eyes on it.

Even the best writers make mistakes, but they can leave a negative first impression.

That's why our sixth cover letter tip is to get a second pair of eyes on it.

Email it to a friend or ask a family member to glance over it before you hit "send." Ask them to highlight any spelling mistakes or suggestions to improve how you're communicating with the person reading it.

You never get a second chance to make a first impression. Seeing as though a cover letter is one of the first documents a recruiter sees, try to make it perfect.

7. Be unique.

Finally, make your cover letter unique.

If you're applying for a creative role, experiment with colors, subheadings, and layouts.

If you're applying for more of a traditional role, be wary. Not everyone is a fan of bright, bold cover letters, but you can scope your limits by getting a feel of their company culture.

Are they strict and professional, or does the company like to have fun? (You can usually get a feel of this from their website or social media profiles.)

Testing the level of uniqueness can be a case of trial and error. If you're not getting great reactions from your cover letter, revise and try again.

We understand that inspiration can go a long way. That's why we've created a one-stop-shop for cover letter examples , which are available to view here.

You're also free to browse our collection of cover letter samples for extra inspiration on formatting your cover letter and learning from those who've helped to land dream jobs.

Now you're fully equipped to write a cover letter that will help you get your foot in the door.

Editor's note: This post was originally published in September 2018 and has been updated for comprehensiveness.

Professional Cover Letter Templates

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Cover Letters

Your cover letter is just as important as your resume. You have written your resume as a document that represents you, and the recruiting manager has written a position description that reflects the organization’s needs. A cover letter ties them together. It’s more specific than a resume and highlights projects or efforts that align with the requirements of the position or program.

You should plan to submit a cover letter along with your resume (or CV) for every position or program you apply for. The only exception is if the internship/job posting specifically notes not to include one.

  • Alignment: Left aligned, after the header
  • Length: 1 page and 3-4 paragraphs at maximum

Date, Recipient, Salutation

  • Date: This is first after your header. Spell out the month and include the year.
  • Recipient: This comes after the date and is usually 3-5 lines. Include the organization’s name, the name and title of the person you are addressing (if you have this information), and the organization’s address or other contact information (if you’re able to find this).
  • Salutation or Greeting: If you are addressing a specific person, use their name in the salutation (“Dear Firstname Lastname” or “Dear Mr./Ms. Lastname”). If not, use something generic such as “hiring manager,” “hiring committee,” or “selection committee.”

Letter Body

The body of your cover letter should be a maximum of 3-4 paragraphs and address 3 main points: what you know about the organization, what you are applying for, and what you can do for them.

  • Introduction and Interest (paragraph 1): Include what you are applying for, what you know about the organization, and why you are interested
  • The Evidence (paragraph 2): Outline what you can do for them, make a case for why you are the candidate to hire
  • The Connection (paragraph 2-3): Make the connections between the desired qualifications listed in the posting to your experience and skills.
  • The Closing (paragraph 3-4): Reiterate your interest, express gratitude, and note that you look forward to hearing from them. Also, provide contact information if it is not in the header.

Use “Sincerely” followed by your full name on the next line. This is your electronic signature. You can use a script font if you prefer or keep it the same as the rest of the letter.

  • Cover letter sample 1 (pdf) , showing paragraph style
  • Cover letter sample 2 (pdf) , showing bullet style
  • Cover letter sample 3 (pdf) , showing preferred name and bullet style
  • Attend a cover letter presentation to get started. Check the calendar for upcoming sessions
  • Read more tips and advice on the blog
  • Bring a draft in for a cover letter review
  • Cover Letters

Cover Letter is very useful when you are doing a job search. Cover letter describes you individually and it also tells about your vision for the job. This helps recruiter to take right decisions while hiring you. Generally, a cover letter has three sections or paras. In the first section you should introduce yourself, in second section you should mention the information about previous work experience in your career, special achievement, and in the last section you should acknowledge and mention when are you available for the interview. In this article, we will learn how to write a cover letter, the format of a cover letter for jobs, templates, letter samples, and cover letter examples.

Suggested Videos

What is a cover letter.

Cover letter is a letter that goes along with a resume or a CV (traditionally as a cover). In fact, it facilitates us to introduce ourselves in a brief manner and again highlight the skills that might interest the employer.

Learn about Resume Writing here in detail .

Generally, it doesn’t contain information which might not be mentioned in the document that it comes along with. It is important to realize that a cover letter has no individual identity of its own.

In other words, a cover letter is supposed to accompany a CV or a resume. Moreover, one should write a custom cover letter for each job. Remember that the length should never exceed a page, the ideal is being half a page.

Browse more Topics Under Resume Writing

  • Essential Elements of a Resume
  • Different Formats of a Resume
  • Cover letters
  • Sample Resumes and Exercises

Cover Letter

As a matter of fact, writing a cover letter make a candidate to stand out from the crowd. Furthermore, it gives him the opportunity to reiterate any vital information such as compatible skills that might interest the employer and strengthen his candidature.

Note that, although it acts as a nice tool to include information, no employer wants to dwell into a life story. Hence, a letter should be sweet, precise and to-the-point.

Cover Letter Format

A correct format of a cover letter is very important for your first impression in a job search. Format of a cover letter is very simple, but it is not easy to write a cover letter. You have to make sure you are using right words and phrases. Here are some tips and guide to writing a cover letter in the right way.

Date and Contact Details : Cover letter starts with a date and your contact details. You should mention this on the left side of the letter.

Recipients information: Mention the name and job title of the person to whom you are writing the letter. For example, the name can be Hemant Kumar and job title can be a Hiring Manager or Nikunj Verma, Assistant Director. This will also make the hiring manager feel like something is written especially for him or her.

Salutation: Before you start the letter, address the hiring manager with  a salutation  like “Dear (Hiring Manager name).” For e.g. “Dear Hemant Kumar”. This is the very first thing the hiring manager will see.

Opening Paragraph: In the first paragraph you introduce yourself, and include for which position you are applying.

Middle Paragraph: In the second paragraph you should give information about your past work experience and career. Also don’t forget to highlight achievements, that will be a plus point.

Last Paragraph: In the last paragraph, you acknowledge the information and tell when are you available for the interview.

End: End the letter with regards and your good name.

Let’s take a cover letter example for a job.

Sample Cover Letter for a Job of Teacher

Here are cover letter samples when you are applying for a job of teacher or coach in any school or colleges.

December 10, 2017

Smith College, 250W. 55th Street

[email protected]

Cat Goddard

Assistant Director

REAL kids/Harlem RBI

333 East, 100th Street

New York, NY 10029

Dear Mr. Goddard,

I am a first-year student at Smith College, pleased to apply for the position of teacher with the 2018 REAL kids/Harlem summer program which I saw in your careers database. Armed with my inclination towards youth incubation and team sports, I am drawn towards this position as an opportunity to make a positive impact in the lives of the city youth.

I have good experience working with children in arts and athletic settings. As a Coach of Hardball League, I planned practices for beginners which motivated all players to do their best. Again, I worked as an Arts Leader for Fine Arts for Kids in Miami, inculcating in them the lessons or arts and sports, free of cost. The motivation behind this venture was to allow underprivileged children to explore their creative sides without bothering the school’s depleting funds.

As a coach with Harlem League, I would like to share some important lessons and best practices about leadership, group decisions, teamwork and motivation which I have learned so far from my experience. I am really excited about this opportunity to inspire your students to play and grow. I am available for a telephone or face to face interview at your convenience. Looking forward to hearing from you soon.

A Solved Example For You

Q :  What should be the length of a cover letter?

Ans:  Though the common length is half an A4 page, it should not exceed a single full page.

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    The Perfect Cover Letter Example Template. Salutation Dear [First name of hiring manager]/Dear [XYZ] Team. Introductory Paragraph Add your cover letter's introduction here. Give a brief description of who you are, what you specialise in, and what makes you apply for the position. Keep it to a maximum of 2-3 lines.

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    Respectfully, Kind regards, Best regards, Yours truly, Then, make two spaces below the salutation, and type your full name. For some professional (but optional) flair, sign your cover letter either with a scan of your signature or by using software like DocuSign. 8. Check your cover letter's content and formatting.

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    There are 3 types of cover letters that you can send to a hiring manager. The 3 types are: Application cover letters. Letters of Interest. Email Cover letters. The letter you write is influenced by whether you are going to apply for a job directly, citing a referral, or asking about vacancies that are not advertised.

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    start your cover letter. with your contact details at the top. These should be in your cover letter's header, separated neatly from the bulk of your text. Here, you want to include all the essential contact information, including: Full Name. Your first and last name should stand out at the top. Job Title.

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    In your cover letter, select a few of these key experiences and describe them in more depth. If your resume says, "Managed a team of 10 sales associates," your cover letter might tell a story about a challenging time when your leadership skills really made a difference. 5. Mirroring Language and Tone:

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    Seeing as though a cover letter is one of the first documents a recruiter sees, try to make it perfect. 7. Be unique. Finally, make your cover letter unique. If you're applying for a creative role, experiment with colors, subheadings, and layouts. If you're applying for more of a traditional role, be wary.

  17. Cover Letters

    A cover letter ties them together. It's more specific than a resume and highlights projects or efforts that align with the requirements of the position or program. You should plan to submit a cover letter along with your resume (or CV) for every position or program you apply for. The only exception is if the internship/job posting ...

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