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Chicago Style Format for Papers | Requirements & Examples

Published on September 25, 2019 by Jack Caulfield . Revised on December 5, 2022.

The information in this article is largely drawn from Turabian style —a version of Chicago style aimed at students and researchers. When writing a paper in Chicago style, these are the guidelines to follow; for the sake of simplicity, the term “Chicago” is used here.

Chicago Reference Generator

To apply Chicago format:

  • Use a standard font like 12 pt. Times New Roman.
  • Double-space the text.
  • Use 1 inch margins or larger.
  • Indent new paragraphs by ½ inch.
  • Place page numbers in the top right or bottom center.

Note that any specific formatting advice from your instructor or faculty overrules these guidelines. Template documents set up in Chicago style are available to download below. Just select the one with the citation style you’re following.

Author-date Notes and bibliography

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Table of contents

General formatting, block quotes, numbers and acronyms, in-text citations and notes, bibliography or reference list, frequently asked questions about chicago format.

Chicago doesn’t require a specific font or font size, but recommends using something simple and readable (e.g., 12 pt. Times New Roman). Use margins of at least 1 inch on all sides of the page.

The main text should be double-spaced, and each new paragraph should begin with a ½ inch indent. Text should be left-aligned and not “justified” (meaning that the right margin should look ragged).

Page numbers can be placed either in the top right or the bottom center of the page—one or the other, not both.

Chicago formatting

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A Chicago title page isn’t required—often it’s sufficient to just include your title at the top of the first page—but if you’re asked to include one, Turabian provides guidelines for how to present it.

All text on the title page should be center-aligned and double-spaced, and written in the same font as the rest of your text. The title should appear about ⅓ of the way down the page, in headline capitalization and in bold.

If you have a subtitle, the main title ends with a colon and the subtitle appears on the following line, also in bold and the same size as the main title.

About ⅔ of the way down the page, add any information your instructor requests you to include—your name, student code, the course name and code, the date, etc. Each new piece of information appears on a new line.

The title page should not have a page number, but should be included in the page count—in other words, the page numbering starts on page 2.

Chicago title page

Headings should use headline capitalization:

  • Summary of results
  • Summary of Results

If you use different levels of heading (e.g., chapters, sections, subheadings), make sure your presentation makes clear which type of heading each one is.

All headings of one level should be presented the same way, and higher-level headings should stand out more from the text. For example, you might use a larger font for chapter headings, bold for section headings, and italics for subheadings:

Chicago headings

Prose quotations of five or more lines (or more than 100 words), as well as poetry quotations of two or more lines, are presented as block quotes .

Block quotes do not use quotation marks . Instead, a blank line separates them from the surrounding text on both sides and they are indented by an additional ½ inch. Unlike the rest of the text, they are not double-spaced.

Chicago block quotes

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Chicago recommends using words, not numerals, for numbers lower than 100. For example, you would write “ninety-five,” not “95.” But numerals should still be used when you’re referring to a specific measurement (e.g., “15 cm”) and when using decimals (e.g., “1.5”).

Acronyms should be introduced the first time you refer to the thing they stand for:

After this point, you can use the acronym alone.

Neither numerals nor acronyms should be used at the beginning of a sentence. Either rewrite the sentence so that the numeral or acronym appears elsewhere, or write out the full phrase or number:

  • 100 people responded to the survey.
  • One hundred people responded to the survey.
  • The survey received 100 responses.

Chicago provides guidelines for not one but two citation styles : author-date and notes and bibliography.

In author-date style , citations are placed directly in the text in parentheses . In this style, you have some flexibility about how exactly to integrate the citation:

In notes and bibliography style, citations appear in Chicago footnotes or endnotes (the format is identical either way), and the reader is referred to them by superscript numbers in the text.

Footnote and endnote numbers appear at the end of the relevant clause or sentence, after any punctuation except a dash .

Endnotes appear on their own page just before the bibliography ; footnotes appear at the bottom of each page. Footnotes should be separated from the text by a short rule and be presented in the same font size as the main text, or smaller. Word’s footnote function automatically creates footnotes like this:

Chicago citations and notes

At the end of your paper, you’ll likely include a bibliography (for notes and bibliography style) or a reference list (for author-date).

Bibliographies and reference lists are not double-spaced, but leave a blank line between entries.

If an entry extends onto a second line, a ½ inch indent should be applied to all but the first line of the entry.

Chicago Bibliography

If you have to create a Chicago style annotated bibliography , follow the same format as a normal bibliography, but indent and double-space the annotations under each source reference.

Turabian style is a version of Chicago style designed specifically for students and researchers. It follows most Chicago conventions, but also adds extra guidelines for formatting research papers , theses and dissertations .

More information can be found in A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations by Kate L. Turabian, now in its ninth edition.

  • A reference list is used with Chicago author-date citations .
  • A bibliography is used with Chicago footnote citations .

Both present the exact same information; the only difference is the placement of the year in source citations:

  • In a reference list entry, the publication year appears directly after the author’s name.
  • In a bibliography entry, the year appears near the end of the entry (the exact placement depends on the source type).

There are also other types of bibliography that work as stand-alone texts, such as a Chicago annotated bibliography .

In Chicago author-date style , your text must include a reference list . It appears at the end of your paper and gives full details of every source you cited.

In notes and bibliography style, you use Chicago style footnotes to cite sources; a bibliography is optional but recommended. If you don’t include one, be sure to use a full note for the first citation of each source.

Footnotes appear at the bottom of the relevant page.  Endnotes appear in a list at the end of the text, just before the reference list or bibliography. Don’t mix footnotes and endnotes in the same document: choose one or the other and use them consistently.

In Chicago notes and bibliography style , you can use either footnotes or endnotes, and citations follow the same format in either case.

In APA and MLA style , footnotes or endnotes are not used for citations, but they can be used to provide additional information.

Chicago format doesn’t require you to use any specific font, as long as you choose something readable. A good standard choice is 12 pt Times New Roman.

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Chicago Style Citation Guide: Sample Papers

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Chicago Style Options

Chicago Manual of Style offers the option to use footnotes, endnotes or parenthetical in-text citations featuring an author / date format. Footnotes or endnotes allow for citation information to be easily accessible at the bottom of each page (footnotes) or at the end of the paper (endnotes). Notes also allow for supplemental explanatory text to be included in the paper at the place it is most relevant. The notes format is used primarily in the disciplines of the humanities (history, religion, philosophy, art, etc.). The author / date format is used primarily in the disciplines of the physical, natural and social sciences (biology, chemistry, sociology, etc.).

The author / date format is similar to MLA and APA citation styles. The following sample papers present all three formats.

Footnotes / Endnotes sample papers

Footnotes, which are located at the bottom of each page, acknowledge which parts of the paper reference particular sources. Footnotes should match with a superscript number at the end of the sentence referencing the source. Footnotes should begin with 1 and continue numerically throughout the paper. Do not start the order over on each page.

  • Footnotes sample paper
  • Endnotes sample paper

Author / Date sample paper

Author / date in-text citations are briefly cited in the text, usually in parentheses, by author’s last name and date of publication. The short citations are amplified in a list of references, where full bibliographic information is provided.

  • CMOS Author-Date Sample Paper

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How to Write and Format a Chicago Style Paper [With Examples]

How to Write and Format a Chicago Style Paper [With Examples]

3-minute read

  • 18th August 2023

Are you working on a Chicago style project but struggling with the question, “just what is it?!”

Fear not, this post will walk you through Chicago style basics.

What Is Chicago Style?

The Chicago Manual of Style (CMoS) is a comprehensive style guide primarily used by professional writers, publishers, and researchers. It covers various forms of writing, including books, journals, magazines, and other publications. It’s often the go-to style for publishers and editors. CMoS is also known for its emphasis on scholarly writing and is suitable for a wide range of disciplines, including history, literature, the arts, and social sciences.

However, there’s an important distinction between Chicago style and Turabian style , which is essentially a simplified version of CMoS used in scholarly writing. Turabian omits some of the complexities and focuses on the needs of academic writers, especially those in the humanities and social sciences.

With either style, it’s essential to consult the relevant edition of the style guide specified by your institution or publication: either The Chicago Manual of Style or A Manual for Writers by Kate L. Turabian (currently in its ninth edition).

How Are Chicago Style Citations Formatted?

CMoS emphasizes two primary documentation systems : the notes and bibliography system (often used in the humanities) and the author–date system (preferred in the sciences and social sciences). When formatting a CMoS/Turabian paper, you’ll need to adhere to the guidelines associated with your chosen documentation system.

Notes and Bibliography System:

●  In this system, you’ll use footnotes or endnotes to cite sources within the text.

●  A corresponding bibliography is included at the end of the paper, listing all sources in alphabetical order.

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●  Citations typically include author names, titles, publication details, and page numbers.

Author–Date System:

●  In the author–date system, you’ll incorporate in-text citations within parentheses.

●  A reference list is included at the end of the document, providing full details for each cited source.

●  Citations include author’s last names, publication year, and page numbers (if applicable).

What Does Turabian Style Formatting Look Like?

A well-structured Turabian Style paper should adhere to the following formatting guidelines :

  •   Title page : Include the title of your paper, your name, the course name/number, instructor’s name, and the date on a separate page, starting a third of the page down. Alternatively, write the title on the first page.
  •   Margins : Apply one-inch margins on all sides.
  • Indentation and spacing : Indent paragraphs and double-space the main text.
  • Font : Use a legible 12-point font (e.g., Times New Roman).
  • Page numbers : Number all pages consecutively in the top right corner, starting with the first page. Alternatively, page numbers may be placed at the bottom center of the page.
  • Headings and subheadings : Use headline-style capitalization for headings and subheadings, with different levels distinguished.
  • Footnotes or in-text citations: Implement your chosen citation system consistently throughout the paper.
  • Bibliography or reference list : Include a comprehensive list of all sources used, following Chicago style citation guidelines for your chosen system.

How Should I Choose Which Chicago Style Documentation to Use?

It’s crucial to find out which specific CMoS system is preferred by your institution, publisher, or field of study. Always consult your assignment guidelines or style manual to determine whether you should use the notes and bibliography system or the author–date system. This choice will significantly impact how you format your citations and references.

Remember that mastering CMoS takes practice. By following these guidelines, you’ll be well on your way to crafting polished, professionally formatted papers that meet the expectations of your academic or professional audience.

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Chicago Research Paper Formatting

What is chicago, terminology when searching the databases.

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The Chicago Manual of Style (CMOS) presents two basic documentation systems: (1) notes and bibliography and (2) author-date. Choosing between the two often depends on what your professor requests. Here is an explanation of the differences: 

Notes and Bibliography: Commonly used in the humanities ,  sources are cited in numbered footnotes or endnotes. Each note corresponds to a raised (superscript) number in the text. Sources are also usually listed in a separate bibliography.

Author-date: Commonly used in the sciences and social sciences ,  sources are briefly cited in the text, usually in parentheses, by author’s last name and year of publication. Each in-text citation matches up with an entry in a reference list, where full bibliographic information is provided.

Turabian style  follows the CMOS patterns of documentation with slight modifications suited toward student texts.

 Please check out the Chicago 17th Template & Paper Sample tab for a template of each style! 

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Assignment Guidelines and/or Rubric : What is required in the assignment or how the assignment will be graded. Read these before searching. The assignment guidelines/rubric will tell you what limits to apply and what type of research material you need to use in the assignment. Refer back to the assignment guidelines/rubric frequently. 

Full Text : Allows you to read the complete article 

Peer Reviewed : Finds articles that have gone through a peer review process prior to publication, which indicates quality research. May also be called scholarly articles or refereed articles. 

Publication Date : Allows you to limit a search by date range. Read your assignment guidelines to determine if you need to use this limit. May need to go to the Advanced Search in a database to find this limit. 

Advanced Search : Allows you to add additional limits not found on the Basic Search page

Permalink : A stable link that lets you return to that page. When searching in the databases, look for a permalink to save the page. Saving the link at the top of the page or bookmarking the page will not  work, and you could lose your resource(s). 

chicago style sample research paper

Cite/Citation : This symbol varies depending on what database you are using. Make sure to choose the correct citation style (e.g. MLA Style, APA Style, Chicago Style) for your assignment. Also, these automatically-generated citations are not necessarily correct. Check it using Polk State Libraries' Citing Sources guide. 

chicago style sample research paper

Email : This symbol lets you email the article (does not need to be your school email). Also, depending on the database, sometimes you can specify if you want the automatically-generated citation included with the article. It is a good idea to check your email to make sure you received the article before closing out of the browser. 

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Chicago Manual of Style (CMS) /Turabian Citation Style: Chicago Manual of Style 17th Edition Sample Papers

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CMS Sample Papers

Cms 17th edition changes, part iii: source citations and indexes.

Note:  In previous editions of the  Manual , source citations were referred to as  documentation .

Chapter 14: Notes and Bibliography

  • The use of  ibid.  is now discouraged in favor of shortened citations. ( 14.34 )

Source: https://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/help-tools/what-s-new.html

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College-wide Chicago Manual of Style, 17th Edition

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CHICAGO MANUAL OF STYLE 17TH Ed, Research Paper

The Chicago Style offers two types of citations: bibliography style and reference list style. This guide assists with the bibliography style. Please consider your instructor's assignment requirements.

Your Chicago-style research paper should have the following components:

1. Chicago-style title page

2. The body of the paper with correct margins, in-text citations, etc.

3. Endnotes or footnotes

4. Bibliography 

Paper-Formatting Tip Sheets   (Margins, Title page, Citations, Crafting a paper & more)

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Chicago Style Guide - 17th Edition

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Chicago Style Sample Research Paper

Formatting and Sample Paper

The formatting guidelines listed on this page, provide general best practices for formatting your work using the Chicago style. Detailed information about formatting your title page , using quotes and signal phrases , and creating a bibliography , can be found by navigating to various sub-pages of this "Formatting Your Paper" page.

Learning how to correctly format your research paper into Chicago style can seem overwhelming, especially if the style is new to you. One of the best ways to help visualize what your paper needs to look like is by checking out an example of a paper that has already been formatted correctly.

View this  sample Chicago style research paper   ( notes and bibliography/humanities system ) from Purdue OWL for examples on how to format:

  • A title page
  • Headers and page numbers
  • A bibliography

For a sample paper in the Chicago author/date style , visit the "Author/Date (Scientific) System" page in this guide.

Paragraphs and Spacing

The first line of all new paragraphs should begin with an indent . You can use either the tab key or your word processor's indentation tool to make your indentations–just be sure to be consistent and use the same process throughout your paper.

Your paper should be double spaced throughout its main body , with the following exceptions: 

  • Block quotations , table titles , and figure captions should be single-spaced . 
  • ​An extra line of space should be inserted both before and after a block quotation. 

Entries in the bibliography and footnotes/ endnotes are single spaced within entries , but double-spaced between entries (unless your instructor prefers double-spacing throughout).​

Footnotes and Endnotes

  • Notes can be either  footnotes   (placed at the  foot   (bottom) of the same page  as the referenced text) or  endnotes   (listed on a  separate sheet at the end  of the essay, before the bibliography).
  • Other than placement in your document, footnotes and endnotes are  structured in exactly the same way .
  • Notes are  numbered consecutively  throughout the paper. Most word processing programs (such as MS Word) handle footnotes automatically.
  • Follow your instructors’ directions when deciding whether to use footnotes or endnotes.

To insert a footnote in a Microsoft Word document:

  • Place the cursor after the text you want to cite.
  • Click on the " References "   tab.
  • In the " Footnotes " section , click on the " In sert Footnote " button.
  • A superscript number 1 will appear after the text you want to cite.
  • A superscript number 1 will also appear at the bottom of page.
  • At the bottom of the page next to the superscript number, enter the citation information for your resource (see the citation examples in this guide for how to create footnotes).
  • Repeat these steps to insert and consecutively number your footnotes.

Some instructors may ask you to use endnotes, instead of footnotes. For information on inserting endnotes, see the  Microsoft Office Tutorial .

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General Format

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This page is brought to you by the OWL at Purdue University. When printing this page, you must include the entire legal notice.

Copyright ©1995-2018 by The Writing Lab & The OWL at Purdue and Purdue University. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, reproduced, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed without permission. Use of this site constitutes acceptance of our terms and conditions of fair use.

This section contains information on The Chicago Manual of Style (CMOS) method of document formatting and citation. These resources follow The Chicago Manual of Style (17th edition), which was issued in 2017.

Since The Chicago Manual of Style (CMOS) is primarily intended as a style guide for published works rather than class papers, these guidelines will be supplemented with information from, Kate L. Turabian’s Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations (8th ed.), which is largely based on CMOS with some slight alterations.

To see a side-by-side comparison of the three most widely used citation styles, including a chart of all CMOS citation guidelines, see the Citation Style Chart.

Please use the example at the bottom of this page to cite the Purdue OWL in CMOS.

A Note on Citations

Unlike many citation styles, CMOS gives writers two different methods for documenting sources: the Author-Date System and the Notes-Bibliography (NB) System.  As its name suggests, Author-Date uses parenthetical citations in the text to reference the source's author's last name and the year of publication. Each parenthetical citation corresponds to an entry on a References page that concludes the document. In these regards, Author-Date is very similar to, for instance, APA style.

By contrast, NB uses numbered footnotes in the text to direct the reader to a shortened citation at the bottom of the page. This corresponds to a fuller citation on a Bibliography page that concludes the document. Though the general principles of citation are the same here, the citations themselves are formatted differently from the way they appear in Author-Date.

If you are using CMOS for school or work, don't forget to ensure that you're using your organization's preferred citation method. For examples of these two different styles in action, see our CMOS sample papers:

Author-Date Sample Paper

NB Sample Paper

General CMOS Guidelines

  • Text should be consistently double-spaced, except for block quotations, notes, bibliography entries, table titles, and figure captions.
  • A prose quotation of five or more lines, or more than 100 words, should be blocked.
  • CMOS recommends blocking two or more lines of poetry.
  • A blocked quotation does not get enclosed in quotation marks.
  • A blocked quotation must always begin a new line.
  • Blocked quotations should be indented with the word processor’s indention tool.
  • Page numbers begin in the header of the first page of text with Arabic number 1.
  • For CMOS and Turabian’s recommendations, see “Headings,” below.

Supplemental Turabian Style Guidelines

  • Margins should be set at no less than 1”.
  • Typeface should be something readable, such as Times New Roman or Courier.
  • Font size should be no less than 10 pt. (preferably, 12 pt.).

Major Paper Sections

  • The title should be centered a third of the way down the page.
  • Your name, class information, and the date should follow several lines later.
  • For subtitles, end the title line with a colon and place the subtitle on the line below the title.
  • Double-space each line of the title page.

This image shows the title page of a CMS paper.

CMOS Title Page

  • Different practices apply for theses and dissertations (see Kate L. Turabian’s A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, ad Dissertations [8 th ed.].
  • Titles mentioned in the text, notes, or bibliography are capitalized “headline-style,” meaning first words of titles and subtitles and any important words thereafter should be capitalized.
  • Book and periodical titles (titles of larger works) should be italicized.
  • Article and chapter titles (titles of shorter works) should be enclosed in double quotation marks.
  • The titles of most poems should be enclosed in double quotation marks, but the titles of very long poems should be italicized.
  • Titles of plays should be italicized.
  • For example, use lowercase terms to describe periods, except in the case of proper nouns (e.g., “the colonial period,” vs. “the Victorian era”).
  • A prose quotation of five or more lines should be “blocked.” The block quotation should match the surrounding text, and it takes no quotation marks. To offset the block quote from surrounding text, indent the entire quotation using the word processor’s indentation tool. It is also possible to offset the block quotation by using a different or smaller font than the surrounding text.
  • Label the first page of your back matter, your comprehensive list of sources, “Bibliography” (for Notes and Bibliography style) or “References” (for Author-Date style).
  • Leave two blank lines between “Bibliography” or “References” and your first entry.
  • Leave one blank line between remaining entries.
  • List entries in letter-by-letter alphabetical order according to the first word in each entry, be that the author's name or the title of the piece..
  • For two to three authors, write out all names.
  • For four to ten authors, write out all names in the bibliography but only the first author’s name plus “et al.” in notes and parenthetical citations.
  • When a source has no identifiable author, cite it by its title, both on the references page and in shortened form (up to four keywords from that title) in parenthetical citations throughout the text.
  • Write out publishers’ names in full.
  • Do not use access dates unless publication dates are unavailable.
  • If you cannot ascertain the publication date of a printed work, use the abbreviation “n.d.”
  • Provide DOIs instead of URLs whenever possible.
  • If no DOI is available, provide a URL.
  • If you cannot name a specific page number when called for, you have other options: section (sec.), equation (eq.), volume (vol.), or note (n.).

This image shows the bibliography page of a CMS paper.

CMOS Bibliography Page

  • Note numbers should begin with “1” and follow consecutively throughout a given paper.
  • Note numbers are superscripted.
  • Note numbers should be placed at the end of the clause or sentence to which they refer and should be placed after all punctuation, except for the dash.
  • Note numbers are full-sized, not raised, and followed by a period (superscripting note numbers in the notes themselves is also acceptable).
  • In parenthetical citation, separate documentation from brief commentary with a semicolon.
  • Do not repeat the hundreds digit in a page range if it does not change from the beginning to the end of the range.

For more information on footnotes, please see CMOS NB Sample Paper .

While  The Chicago Manual of Style does not include a prescribed system for formatting headings and subheads, it makes several recommendations.

  • Maintain consistency and parallel structure in headings and subheads.
  • Use headline-style for purposes of capitalization.
  • Subheadings should begin on a new line.
  • Subheadings can be distinguished by font-size.
  • Ensure that each level of hierarchy is clear and consistent.
  • Levels of subheads can be differentiated by type style, use of boldface or italics, and placement on the page, usually either centered or flush left.
  • Use no more than three levels of hierarchy.
  • Avoid ending subheadings with periods.

Turabian has an optional system of five heading levels.

Turabian Subheading Plan

Here is an example of the five-level heading system:

This image shows the levels of heading in a CMS paper.

CMOS Headings

Tables and Figures

  • Position tables and figures as soon as possible after they are first referenced. If necessary, present them after the paragraph in which they are described.
  • For figures, include a caption, or short explanation of the figure or illustration, directly after the figure number.
  • Cite a source as you would for parenthetical citation, and include full information in an entry on your Bibliography or References page.
  • Acknowledge reproduced or adapted sources appropriately (i.e., photo by; data adapted from; map by...).
  • If a table includes data not acquired by the author of the text, include an unnumbered footnote. Introduce the note by the word Source(s) followed by a colon, then include the full source information, and end the note with a period.

How to Cite the Purdue OWL in CMOS

On the new OWL site, contributors’ names and the last edited date are no longer listed at the top of every page. This means that most citations will now begin with the title of the resource, rather than the contributors' names.

Footnote or Endnote (N):

Corresponding Bibliographical Entry (B):

“Title of Resource.” List the OWL as Publishing Organization/Web Site Name . http://Web address for OWL resource.

“General Format.” The Purdue OWL. https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/717/02/.

Author Date In-text Citation:

("General Format" 2017).

Author Date References Page Citation:

Year of Publication. “Title of Resource.” List the OWL as Publishing Organization/Web Site Name . http://Web address for OWL resource.

2017. “General Format.” The Purdue OWL . https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/717/02.

chicago style sample research paper

Chicago Style (17th Edition): Introduction

  • Introduction
  • Journal Articles
  • Magazine/Newspaper Articles
  • Books & Ebooks
  • Government & Legal Documents
  • Secondary Sources
  • Videos & DVDs
  • How to Cite: Biblical & Catholic Sources
  • How to Cite: Other
  • Short Form & Ibid.
  • Additional Help

Chicago Style at Duquesne University

chicago style sample research paper

At Duquesne University, Chicago style is the preferred citation format for the History and Theology Departments, as well as the Center for Global Health Ethics.

Note: The above departments typically uses the "Notes and Bibliography" format of Chicago style, not the "Author Date" format.

What is Chicago Style?

Chicago Style was created by the University of Chicago. It is a set of rules for formatting publications, including research papers.

In Chicago style, you must cite sources that you have quoted, paraphrased, or otherwise used to write your research paper. Cite your sources in two places

  • In the body of your paper where you add a footnote  (which appears in the footer at the bottom of the page)
  • In the bibliography  at the end of your paper.
  • Chicago Style 17th ed. Notes and Bibliography Sample Paper (Purdue OWL)

Commonly Used Terms

Access Date:  The date you first look at a source. The access date is added to the end of citations for all websites except library databases.

Bibliography: Contains details on ALL the sources cited in a text or essay, and supports your research and/or premise.

Citation: Details about one cited source.

Citing: The process of acknowledging the sources of your information and ideas.

Footnote: Details about one source that you cited in the text of your paper, which appears in the footer at the bottom of the page.

Paraphrasing: Taking information that you have read and putting it into your own words.

Plagiarism: Taking, using, and passing off as your own, the ideas or words of another.

Quoting: The copying of words of text originally published elsewhere. Direct quotations generally appear in quotation marks and end with a citation.

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More Chicago Style Help

chicago style sample research paper

  • Chicago Manual of Style (17th Edition) Database The Chicago Manual of Style presented as a database. Enter your Multipass username and password when prompted.
  • Chicago Style (Purdue OWL)

This guide was created by Hannah Goss, English Department Intern, and Ted Bergfelt, Humanities Librarian, in September 2022. It is based on a guide originally created by Stephine Michel, University of Portland, and was made with her kind permission.

  • Next: How to Cite: Common Sources >>
  • Last Updated: Jan 4, 2024 9:39 AM
  • URL: https://guides.library.duq.edu/chicago

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Chicago Citation Guide (17th Edition): Sample Paper, Bibliography, & Annotated Bibliography

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  • No Author, No Date etc.
  • Sample Paper, Bibliography, & Annotated Bibliography
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On this Page

General paper formatting guidelines, quick rules for a chicago bibliography.

What is an Annotated Bibliography?

Writing an Evaluative Annotation

Tips on Writing & Formatting an Annotated Bibliography

Sample Paper with Bibliography

  • Chicago Sample Paper

This sample paper can be used as a template to set up your assignment. It includes a title page, main body paragraph with footnotes, and a bibliography.

Sample Paper with Appendix

  • Chicago Sample Paper Template - with Appendix

If you are adding an appendix to your paper there are a few rules to follow that comply with Chicago guidelines:

  • The Appendix appears before the Bibliography
  • If you have more than one appendix you would name the first appendix Appendix A, the second Appendix B, etc.
  • The appendices should appear in the order that the information is mentioned in your essay
  • Each appendix begins on a new page

Sample Annotated Bibliography

This sample annotated bibliography shows you the structure you should use to write a Chicago style annotated bibliography and gives examples of evaluative and summary annotations.

It can be used as a template to set up your assignment.

  • End-of-Paper Checklist

Finished your assignment? Use this checklist to be sure you haven't missed any information needed for Chicago style.

Useful Links for Annotated Bibliographies

Overview of purpose and form of annotated bibliographies from the Purdue OWL.

Includes a sample annotation from a Chicago Manual of Style annotated bibliography. From the Purdue OWL.

An example of an MLA annotated bibliography. From the Purdue OWL.

Assemble your paper in the following order:

  • Body of paper
  • Appendix (if needed)
  • Bibliography

Use Times New Roman, Size 12 (unless otherwise instructed).

Margins and Indents

Your margins should be 1 inch on all sides.

Indent new paragraphs by one-half inch.

Double-space the main text of your paper.

Single-space the footnotes and bibliography, but add a blank line between entries.

Start numbering your pages on the  second  page of your paper (don't include the title page).

Put your page numbers in the header of the first page of text (skip the title page), beginning with page number 1. Continue numbering your pages to the end of the bibliography.

Place the footnote number at the end of the sentence in which you have quoted or paraphrased information from another source. The footnote number should be in superscript, and be placed  after  any punctuation.

Put your footnotes in the footer section of the page.

Your research paper ends with a list of all the sources cited in the text of the paper. This is called a bibliography.

See an example in the "Sample Paper with Bibliography" box on this page.

Here are nine quick rules for this list:

  • Start a new page for your bibliography (e.g. If your paper is 4 pages long, start your bibliography on page 5).
  • Centre the title, Bibliography, at the top of the page and do not bold or underline it. Look for the alignment option in Word. 
  • Leave two blank lines between the title and the first entry on your list.
  • Single-space the list, but leave one blank line between entries.
  • Start the first line of each citation at the left margin; each subsequent line should be indented (also known as a "hanging indent").
  • Put your list in alphabetical order. Alphabetize the list by the first word in the citation. In most cases, the first word will be the author’s last name. Where the author is unknown, alphabetize by the first word in the title, ignoring the words a, an, the.
  • For each author, give the last name followed by a comma and the first name followed by a period.
  • Italicize the titles of full works , such as: books, videos (films and television shows), artwork, images, maps, journals, newspapers, magazines.
  • Do not italicize titles of parts of works , such as: articles from newspapers, magazines, or journals / essays, poems, short stories or chapter titles from a book / chapters or sections of an Internet document. Instead, use quotation marks.

What Is An Annotated Bibliography?

An  annotated bibliography  is a list of citations for various books, articles, and other sources on a topic. The annotated bibliography looks like a Works Cited page but includes an annotation after each source cited. An annotation is a short summary and/or critical evaluation of a source. Annotated bibliographies can be part of a larger research project, or can be a stand-alone report in itself.

Types of Annotations

 A  summary annotation  describes the source by answering the following questions: who wrote the document, what the document discusses, when and where was the document written, why was the document produced, and how was it provided to the public. The focus is on description. 

 An  evaluative annotation  includes a summary as listed above but also critically assesses the work for accuracy, relevance, and quality. Evaluative annotations can help you learn about your topic, develop a thesis statement, decide if a specific source will be useful for your assignment, and determine if there is enough valid information available to complete your project. The focus is on description and evaluation.

  • Cite the source using Chicago style.
  • Describe the main ideas, arguments, themes, theses, or methodology, and identify the intended audience.
  • Explain the author’s expertise, point of view, and any bias he/she may have.
  • Compare to other sources on the same topic that you have also cited to show similarities and differences.
  • Explain why each source is useful for your research topic and how it relates to your topic.
  • Evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of each source.
  • Identify the observations or conclusions of the author. 

Remember: Annotations are original descriptions that you create after reading the document. When researching, you may find journal articles that provide a short summary at the beginning of the text. This article abstract is similar to a summary annotation. You may consult the abstract when creating your evaluative annotation, but never simply copy it as that would be considered plagiarism. 

Tips on Writing & Formatting an Annotated Bibliography

  • Each annotation should be one paragraph, between three to six sentences long (about 150- 200 words).
  • Start with the same format as a regular Bibliography list.
  • All lines should be double-spaced. Do not add an extra line between the citations.
  • If your list of citations is especially long, you can organize it by topic.
  • Try to be objective, and give explanations if you state any opinions.
  • Use the third person (e.g., he, she, the author) instead of the first person (e.g., I, my, me)
  • << Previous: No Author, No Date etc.
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  • Last Updated: Oct 19, 2023 9:58 AM
  • URL: https://columbiacollege-ca.libguides.com/chicago

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  1. Chicago Style Paper: Standard Format and Rules

    chicago style sample research paper

  2. Chicago Annotated Bibliography Format and Example

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  3. Literature Review Chicago Style Sample

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  4. Chicago Style Sample Paper

    chicago style sample research paper

  5. Chicago Style Sample Paper

    chicago style sample research paper

  6. Chicago Style Sample Paper

    chicago style sample research paper

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  6. Sample Research Paper Topics and Titles

COMMENTS

  1. Chicago Style Format for Papers

    General formatting. Chicago doesn't require a specific font or font size, but recommends using something simple and readable (e.g., 12 pt. Times New Roman). Use margins of at least 1 inch on all sides of the page. The main text should be double-spaced, and each new paragraph should begin with a ½ inch indent.

  2. CMOS NB Sample Paper

    CMOS NB Sample Paper. This resource contains the Notes and Bibliography (NB) sample paper for the Chicago Manual of Style 17 th edition. To download the sample paper, click this link.

  3. PDF SAMPLE CHICAGO STYLE PAPER

    SAMPLE CHICAGO STYLE PAPER John Doe History 2010 Dr. Johnson July 11, 2013 . ... a Chicago Style paper is written in Times New Roman, twelve-point font. Two basic documentation methods are used in a Chicago-Style paper. The first of these ... or the Research Assistance Desk in the Woodward library on campus. Good luck . Doe 5 with your writing!

  4. Chicago Manual of Style 17th Edition

    Author-Date Sample Paper. NB Sample Paper. In addition to consulting The Chicago Manual of Style (17th edition) for more information, students may also find it useful to consult Kate L. Turabian's Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations (8th edition). This manual, which presents what is commonly known as the "Turabian ...

  5. Chicago 17th Template & Paper Sample

    Official Chicago style, in easy-to-use, printable PDF paper-writing tip sheets for students, teachers, and librarians. Guidelines are per Kate L. Turabian, A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations (9th ed.) and are fully compatible with The Chicago Manual of Style (17th ed.).

  6. Chicago Style Sample Paper

    In general, the following formatting guidelines apply for all Chicago/Turabian-style papers (based on Kate L. Turabian's A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations, which adapts The Chicago Manual of Style 's guidelines for articles and papers): Paper size: The paper should be written on a standard 8.5" x 11" page.

  7. PDF Microsoft Word

    Chicago Manual of Style guidelines. Margins should be set at no less than 1" and no greater than 1.5". Margins in this sample paper have been set at 1.25" to accommodate explanatory comment boxes. Class papers often include a title page, but consult with your (it's toinclude the title on the first page of text). The title should be ...

  8. Chicago Style Citation Guide: Sample Papers

    Chicago Manual of Style offers the option to use footnotes, endnotes or parenthetical in-text citations featuring an author / date format. Footnotes or endnotes allow for citation information to be easily accessible at the bottom of each page (footnotes) or at the end of the paper (endnotes). Notes also allow for supplemental explanatory text ...

  9. How to Write and Format a Chicago Style Paper [With Examples]

    Title page: Include the title of your paper, your name, the course name/number, instructor's name, and the date on a separate page, starting a third of the page down. Alternatively, write the title on the first page. Margins: Apply one-inch margins on all sides. Indentation and spacing: Indent paragraphs and double-space the main text.

  10. Home

    The Chicago Manual of Style (CMOS) presents two basic documentation systems: (1) notes and bibliography and (2) author-date. Choosing between the two often depends on what your professor requests. Here is an explanation of the differences: Notes and Bibliography: Commonly used in the humanities, sources are cited in numbered footnotes or endnotes.

  11. Chicago Manual of Style 17th Edition Sample Papers

    LibGuides: Chicago Manual of Style (CMS) /Turabian Citation Style: Chicago Manual of Style 17th Edition Sample Papers

  12. CHICAGO RESEARCH PAPER

    The Chicago Style offers two types of citations: bibliography style and reference list style. ... Please consider your instructor's assignment requirements. Your Chicago-style research paper should have the following components: 1. Chicago-style title page. 2. The body of the paper with correct margins, in-text citations, etc. 3. Endnotes or ...

  13. Formatting Your Paper

    Formatting and Sample Paper. The formatting guidelines listed on this page, provide general best practices for formatting your work using the Chicago style. Detailed information about formatting your title page, using quotes and signal phrases, and creating a bibliography, can be found by navigating to various sub-pages of this "Formatting Your Paper" page.

  14. General Format

    General Format. Since The Chicago Manual of Style (CMOS) is primarily intended as a style guide for published works rather than class papers, these guidelines will be supplemented with information from, Kate L. Turabian's Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations (8th ed.), which is largely based on CMOS with some ...

  15. PDF Hayden Matlock WCC 101: Writing Center Sample Papers July 13, 2015

    Look closely at this sample paper and you should become more accustomed to the bizarre quirks of Chicago Style. If you are still baffled, you can ask your consultant for more information or check out the Purdue Owl for a detailed guide to different Chicago style citation tips.8 8. "Chicago Manual of Style 17th Edition," Purdue Online ...

  16. Chicago Style (17th Edition): Introduction

    Chicago Style was created by the University of Chicago. It is a set of rules for formatting publications, including research papers. In Chicago style, you must cite sources that you have quoted, paraphrased, or otherwise used to write your research paper. Cite your sources in two places. In the body of your paper where you add a footnote (which ...

  17. Chicago Citation Guide (17th Edition): Sample Paper, Bibliography

    Your research paper ends with a list of all the sources cited in the text of the paper. This is called a bibliography. See an example in the "Sample Paper with Bibliography" box on this page. Here are nine quick rules for this list: Start a new page for your bibliography (e.g. If your paper is 4 pages long, start your bibliography on page 5).

  18. PDF History Research Paper, Chicago (CMS) Style (Benjamin)

    History Research Paper, Chicago (CMS) Style (Benjamin) Marginal annotations indicate CMS-style formatting and effective writing. ... Bedford/St. Martin's, 2010). This paper follows the style guidelines in The Chicago Manual of Style, 16th ed. (2010). Wage Slavery or True Independence? Women Workers in the Lowell, Massachusetts, Textile Mills ...

  19. PDF A Sample Paper for the Purpose of Correct Formatting In Notes

    1 "Turabian" style is an abbreviated version of the more-comprehensive "Chicago" style. Turabian is named for Kate L. Turabian, the author of A Manual for Writers of Research Papers ...

  20. Chicago Style: Writing an Outline

    Chicago style-outline basics; sample outline; For help writing your essay, research paper, or other project, check out these writing tips. ... It will give an idea of how your paper will look in its final form, but you do not need to strictly follow the outline once you've made it. You might decide to reorder elements in your paper or add ...