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11 Two Types of Citation
In MLA Style, there are two parts to every citation: an in-text citation and a Works Cited list citation.
In-text citations use only a few details of the source, enough to locate its matching reference citation in the Works Cited list.
Works Cited list citations provide more information about the source, so that the reader can find it if they wish.
We will discuss both of these separately first and then together later. First, we will discuss Works Cited list citations.
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WRIT 101: College Writing I: MLA Citations
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- APA Citations: 7th Edition
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In order to use and build on outside ideas and information in your research paper, you must cite where information comes from.
- Prevent plagiarism
- Provide enough information for your readers to find the source you used
- Give credit to the author
- Provide credible support to your writing
MLA Citation Guide
Click the image for MLA formatting and citation help from Purdue Online Writing Lab:
MLA examples not covered in the Hacker Guide
- US Constitution Find the guidelines about 2/3 of the way down the page
Available at Helena College Library
Following a specific style for your citations makes it very clear when you are citing outside information AND helps the reader find your sources easily.
For each resource that is used in a paper, there are two parts to the citation: the in-text citation and the list of Works Cited
This is a very brief notation in the body of your paper that indicates you are using information or ideas that are not your own. It points your reader to the source's full citation in your list of Works Cited at the end of your paper.
Every time you quote, paraphrase, or summarize information from an outside source, you must provide an in-text citation directly after it.
A basic in-text citation includes the author's last name and the page number on which the cited information is found in the source.
A basic in-text citation is placed at the end of the cited material:
Romantic poetry was marked by a "spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings" (Wordsworth 263).
You can also use a signal phrase to introduce your material. In this case only the page number is in parentheses:
Wordsworth stated that Romantic poetry was marked by a "spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings" (263).
The list of works cited is an alphabetized list of all of the resources you used in your research paper or assignment. The list is double-spaced with a hanging indent, meaning that, for a citation on more than one line, each line after the first is indented 1" from the left margin. Highlight your list, then press Ctrl+T.
The first part of your in-text citation (usually author or title) should match the first part of the same resource in your list of works cited.
Works Cited: BOOK
To cite a book in MLA format, y ou can find most of the required information on the book's title page and verso (back of the title page).
Article from a Research Database (Journal Article)
When citing an article from a library database, pay attention to the article title versus the journal title. All of the information for your citation is usually available on the first and last page of the article.
Visit the Purdue OWL MLA Style website to learn how to cite articles from an online magazine or newspaper found on the open web.
When you are citing a Web site, you have the option of including the URL, or web address, for the page, as well as the date you accessed it. This can help give the reader context for the citation, but neither are necessary.
Visit the Purdue OWL MLA Style website to learn how to cite documents that have the same organizational author and website name, or other types of sites.
- MLA Practice Template From the MLA Style Center, use this template to help you construct your citations. Enter what you know, then piece the info together following the punctuation examples.
- MLA Citation Quick Guide Just the basics for creating citations in MLA style.
- Avoiding Plagiarism (Purdue OWL) There are few intellectual offenses more serious than plagiarism in academic and professional contexts. This resource offers advice on how to avoid plagiarism in your work.
- Plagiarism.org Short overview of plagiarism, including how and when you must cite sources,"Ask the Expert" space for Q&A, and other plagiarism resources including webcasts, tools, facts and stats, student materials, and news.
Organize Your Research
- Zotero A free, easy-to-use tool to help you collect, organize, cite, and share your research sources.
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MLA Citation Guide
- MLA 8th edition
- Quoting & Paraphrasing
- MLA Paper Template
- Academic Center for Excellence (ACE)
In-Text (Parenthetical) Citations
- In-Text Citation
In-Text Citations - MLA 8th
In-text citations are generally made up of two items: the author’s last name and the page number.
If there isn’t an author, use the first item in the full citation entry.
Place the name of the author (or the first item found in the full citation entry) and the page number in parentheses. Do not include any commas in between the two pieces of information.
Example on an in-text citation found in the body of a project:
“Professor McGonagall’s voice trembled as she went on. “That’s not all. They’re saying he tried to kill the Potter’s son, Harry. But – he couldn’t. He couldn’t kill that little boy. No one knows why, or how, but they’re saying that when he couldn’t kill Harry Potter, Voldemort’s power somehow broke – and that’s why he’s gone.” (Rowling 22)
Q. What is a Citation?
A. A citation is a reference to a work.
Q. Why do I need to cite works in my assignment?
A. You need to cite a work to attribute a quote, idea or any information retrieved from the original author or creator.
Q. What does a book/print citation include?
A. A book/print citation includes:
- Publishing Year
- City of Publisher
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Answered By: Jessica Maris Last Updated: Nov 14, 2023 Views: 445911
Yes. For instance, if you were citing this passage which appears on pages 26-27 of a book by an author with the last name Russell, you would include both 'Russell' and '26-27' in your citation, as in this example:
Progressive education has always involved conflict between upholding disciplinary standards and promoting social equity (Russell 26-27).
OR if citing multiple pages but from different portions of the book:
Progressive education has always involved conflict between upholding disciplinary standards and promoting social equity, though Russell later states that conflict can be avoided by using specific techniques (Russell 26-27, 32).
See our MLA Style guide linked below.
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MLA In-Text Citations: The Basics
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MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities. This resource, updated to reflect the MLA Handbook (9 th ed.), offers examples for the general format of MLA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the Works Cited page.
Guidelines for referring to the works of others in your text using MLA style are covered throughout the MLA Handbook and in chapter 7 of the MLA Style Manual . Both books provide extensive examples, so it's a good idea to consult them if you want to become even more familiar with MLA guidelines or if you have a particular reference question.
Basic in-text citation rules
In MLA Style, referring to the works of others in your text is done using parenthetical citations . This method involves providing relevant source information in parentheses whenever a sentence uses a quotation or paraphrase. Usually, the simplest way to do this is to put all of the source information in parentheses at the end of the sentence (i.e., just before the period). However, as the examples below will illustrate, there are situations where it makes sense to put the parenthetical elsewhere in the sentence, or even to leave information out.
- The source information required in a parenthetical citation depends (1) upon the source medium (e.g. print, web, DVD) and (2) upon the source’s entry on the Works Cited page.
- Any source information that you provide in-text must correspond to the source information on the Works Cited page. More specifically, whatever signal word or phrase you provide to your readers in the text must be the first thing that appears on the left-hand margin of the corresponding entry on the Works Cited page.
In-text citations: Author-page style
MLA format follows the author-page method of in-text citation. This means that the author's last name and the page number(s) from which the quotation or paraphrase is taken must appear in the text, and a complete reference should appear on your Works Cited page. The author's name may appear either in the sentence itself or in parentheses following the quotation or paraphrase, but the page number(s) should always appear in the parentheses, not in the text of your sentence. For example:
Both citations in the examples above, (263) and (Wordsworth 263), tell readers that the information in the sentence can be located on page 263 of a work by an author named Wordsworth. If readers want more information about this source, they can turn to the Works Cited page, where, under the name of Wordsworth, they would find the following information:
Wordsworth, William. Lyrical Ballads . Oxford UP, 1967.
In-text citations for print sources with known author
For print sources like books, magazines, scholarly journal articles, and newspapers, provide a signal word or phrase (usually the author’s last name) and a page number. If you provide the signal word/phrase in the sentence, you do not need to include it in the parenthetical citation.
These examples must correspond to an entry that begins with Burke, which will be the first thing that appears on the left-hand margin of an entry on the Works Cited page:
Burke, Kenneth. Language as Symbolic Action: Essays on Life, Literature, and Method . University of California Press, 1966.
In-text citations for print sources by a corporate author
When a source has a corporate author, it is acceptable to use the name of the corporation followed by the page number for the in-text citation. You should also use abbreviations (e.g., nat'l for national) where appropriate, so as to avoid interrupting the flow of reading with overly long parenthetical citations.
In-text citations for sources with non-standard labeling systems
If a source uses a labeling or numbering system other than page numbers, such as a script or poetry, precede the citation with said label. When citing a poem, for instance, the parenthetical would begin with the word “line”, and then the line number or range. For example, the examination of William Blake’s poem “The Tyger” would be cited as such:
The speaker makes an ardent call for the exploration of the connection between the violence of nature and the divinity of creation. “In what distant deeps or skies. / Burnt the fire of thine eyes," they ask in reference to the tiger as they attempt to reconcile their intimidation with their relationship to creationism (lines 5-6).
Longer labels, such as chapters (ch.) and scenes (sc.), should be abbreviated.
In-text citations for print sources with no known author
When a source has no known author, use a shortened title of the work instead of an author name, following these guidelines.
Place the title in quotation marks if it's a short work (such as an article) or italicize it if it's a longer work (e.g. plays, books, television shows, entire Web sites) and provide a page number if it is available.
Titles longer than a standard noun phrase should be shortened into a noun phrase by excluding articles. For example, To the Lighthouse would be shortened to Lighthouse .
If the title cannot be easily shortened into a noun phrase, the title should be cut after the first clause, phrase, or punctuation:
In this example, since the reader does not know the author of the article, an abbreviated title appears in the parenthetical citation, and the full title of the article appears first at the left-hand margin of its respective entry on the Works Cited page. Thus, the writer includes the title in quotation marks as the signal phrase in the parenthetical citation in order to lead the reader directly to the source on the Works Cited page. The Works Cited entry appears as follows:
"The Impact of Global Warming in North America." Global Warming: Early Signs . 1999. www.climatehotmap.org/. Accessed 23 Mar. 2009.
If the title of the work begins with a quotation mark, such as a title that refers to another work, that quote or quoted title can be used as the shortened title. The single quotation marks must be included in the parenthetical, rather than the double quotation.
Parenthetical citations and Works Cited pages, used in conjunction, allow readers to know which sources you consulted in writing your essay, so that they can either verify your interpretation of the sources or use them in their own scholarly work.
Author-page citation for classic and literary works with multiple editions
Page numbers are always required, but additional citation information can help literary scholars, who may have a different edition of a classic work, like Marx and Engels's The Communist Manifesto . In such cases, give the page number of your edition (making sure the edition is listed in your Works Cited page, of course) followed by a semicolon, and then the appropriate abbreviations for volume (vol.), book (bk.), part (pt.), chapter (ch.), section (sec.), or paragraph (par.). For example:
Author-page citation for works in an anthology, periodical, or collection
When you cite a work that appears inside a larger source (for instance, an article in a periodical or an essay in a collection), cite the author of the internal source (i.e., the article or essay). For example, to cite Albert Einstein's article "A Brief Outline of the Theory of Relativity," which was published in Nature in 1921, you might write something like this:
See also our page on documenting periodicals in the Works Cited .
Citing authors with same last names
Sometimes more information is necessary to identify the source from which a quotation is taken. For instance, if two or more authors have the same last name, provide both authors' first initials (or even the authors' full name if different authors share initials) in your citation. For example:
Citing a work by multiple authors
For a source with two authors, list the authors’ last names in the text or in the parenthetical citation:
Corresponding Works Cited entry:
Best, David, and Sharon Marcus. “Surface Reading: An Introduction.” Representations , vol. 108, no. 1, Fall 2009, pp. 1-21. JSTOR, doi:10.1525/rep.2009.108.1.1
For a source with three or more authors, list only the first author’s last name, and replace the additional names with et al.
Franck, Caroline, et al. “Agricultural Subsidies and the American Obesity Epidemic.” American Journal of Preventative Medicine , vol. 45, no. 3, Sept. 2013, pp. 327-333.
Citing multiple works by the same author
If you cite more than one work by an author, include a shortened title for the particular work from which you are quoting to distinguish it from the others. Put short titles of books in italics and short titles of articles in quotation marks.
Citing two articles by the same author :
Citing two books by the same author :
Additionally, if the author's name is not mentioned in the sentence, format your citation with the author's name followed by a comma, followed by a shortened title of the work, and, when appropriate, the page number(s):
Citing multivolume works
If you cite from different volumes of a multivolume work, always include the volume number followed by a colon. Put a space after the colon, then provide the page number(s). (If you only cite from one volume, provide only the page number in parentheses.)
Citing the Bible
In your first parenthetical citation, you want to make clear which Bible you're using (and underline or italicize the title), as each version varies in its translation, followed by book (do not italicize or underline), chapter, and verse. For example:
If future references employ the same edition of the Bible you’re using, list only the book, chapter, and verse in the parenthetical citation:
John of Patmos echoes this passage when describing his vision (Rev. 4.6-8).
Citing indirect sources
Sometimes you may have to use an indirect source. An indirect source is a source cited within another source. For such indirect quotations, use "qtd. in" to indicate the source you actually consulted. For example:
Note that, in most cases, a responsible researcher will attempt to find the original source, rather than citing an indirect source.
Citing transcripts, plays, or screenplays
Sources that take the form of a dialogue involving two or more participants have special guidelines for their quotation and citation. Each line of dialogue should begin with the speaker's name written in all capitals and indented half an inch. A period follows the name (e.g., JAMES.) . After the period, write the dialogue. Each successive line after the first should receive an additional indentation. When another person begins speaking, start a new line with that person's name indented only half an inch. Repeat this pattern each time the speaker changes. You can include stage directions in the quote if they appear in the original source.
Conclude with a parenthetical that explains where to find the excerpt in the source. Usually, the author and title of the source can be given in a signal phrase before quoting the excerpt, so the concluding parenthetical will often just contain location information like page numbers or act/scene indicators.
Here is an example from O'Neill's The Iceman Cometh.
WILLIE. (Pleadingly) Give me a drink, Rocky. Harry said it was all right. God, I need a drink.
ROCKY. Den grab it. It's right under your nose.
WILLIE. (Avidly) Thanks. (He takes the bottle with both twitching hands and tilts it to his lips and gulps down the whiskey in big swallows.) (1.1)
Citing non-print or sources from the Internet
With more and more scholarly work published on the Internet, you may have to cite sources you found in digital environments. While many sources on the Internet should not be used for scholarly work (reference the OWL's Evaluating Sources of Information resource), some Web sources are perfectly acceptable for research. When creating in-text citations for electronic, film, or Internet sources, remember that your citation must reference the source on your Works Cited page.
Sometimes writers are confused with how to craft parenthetical citations for electronic sources because of the absence of page numbers. However, these sorts of entries often do not require a page number in the parenthetical citation. For electronic and Internet sources, follow the following guidelines:
- Include in the text the first item that appears in the Work Cited entry that corresponds to the citation (e.g. author name, article name, website name, film name).
- Do not provide paragraph numbers or page numbers based on your Web browser’s print preview function.
- Unless you must list the Web site name in the signal phrase in order to get the reader to the appropriate entry, do not include URLs in-text. Only provide partial URLs such as when the name of the site includes, for example, a domain name, like CNN.com or Forbes.com, as opposed to writing out http://www.cnn.com or http://www.forbes.com.
Miscellaneous non-print sources
Two types of non-print sources you may encounter are films and lectures/presentations:
In the two examples above “Herzog” (a film’s director) and “Yates” (a presentor) lead the reader to the first item in each citation’s respective entry on the Works Cited page:
Herzog, Werner, dir. Fitzcarraldo . Perf. Klaus Kinski. Filmverlag der Autoren, 1982.
Yates, Jane. "Invention in Rhetoric and Composition." Gaps Addressed: Future Work in Rhetoric and Composition, CCCC, Palmer House Hilton, 2002. Address.
Electronic sources may include web pages and online news or magazine articles:
In the first example (an online magazine article), the writer has chosen not to include the author name in-text; however, two entries from the same author appear in the Works Cited. Thus, the writer includes both the author’s last name and the article title in the parenthetical citation in order to lead the reader to the appropriate entry on the Works Cited page (see below).
In the second example (a web page), a parenthetical citation is not necessary because the page does not list an author, and the title of the article, “MLA Formatting and Style Guide,” is used as a signal phrase within the sentence. If the title of the article was not named in the sentence, an abbreviated version would appear in a parenthetical citation at the end of the sentence. Both corresponding Works Cited entries are as follows:
Taylor, Rumsey. "Fitzcarraldo." Slant , 13 Jun. 2003, www.slantmagazine.com/film/review/fitzcarraldo/. Accessed 29 Sep. 2009.
"MLA Formatting and Style Guide." The Purdue OWL , 2 Aug. 2016, owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/747/01/. Accessed 2 April 2018.
To cite multiple sources in the same parenthetical reference, separate the citations by a semi-colon:
Time-based media sources
When creating in-text citations for media that has a runtime, such as a movie or podcast, include the range of hours, minutes and seconds you plan to reference. For example: (00:02:15-00:02:35).
When a citation is not needed
Common sense and ethics should determine your need for documenting sources. You do not need to give sources for familiar proverbs, well-known quotations, or common knowledge (For example, it is expected that U.S. citizens know that George Washington was the first President.). Remember that citing sources is a rhetorical task, and, as such, can vary based on your audience. If you’re writing for an expert audience of a scholarly journal, for example, you may need to deal with expectations of what constitutes “common knowledge” that differ from common norms.
The MLA Handbook describes how to cite many different kinds of authors and content creators. However, you may occasionally encounter a source or author category that the handbook does not describe, making the best way to proceed can be unclear.
In these cases, it's typically acceptable to apply the general principles of MLA citation to the new kind of source in a way that's consistent and sensible. A good way to do this is to simply use the standard MLA directions for a type of source that resembles the source you want to cite.
You may also want to investigate whether a third-party organization has provided directions for how to cite this kind of source. For example, Norquest College provides guidelines for citing Indigenous Elders and Knowledge Keepers —an author category that does not appear in the MLA Handbook . In cases like this, however, it's a good idea to ask your instructor or supervisor whether using third-party citation guidelines might present problems.
MLA Citation Guide (9th Edition): Welcome
What kind of source is this.
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- In-Text Citation
- Works Quoted in Another Source
- No Author, No Date etc.
- Works Cited List & Sample Paper
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What is MLA?
MLA style was created by the Modern Language Association of America. It is a set of rules for publications, including research papers.
There are two parts to MLA: In-text citations and the Works Cited list.
In MLA, you must "cite" sources that you have paraphrased, quoted or otherwise used to write your research paper. Cite your sources in two places:
- In the body of your paper where you add a brief in-text citation.
- In the Works Cited list at the end of your paper where you give more complete information for the source.
Core Elements of an MLA Citation
MLA 9th edition provides 9 core elements to complete any works cited entry. It is your job to try to fill in these core elements with the information you have about a source. If any element is missing or not applicable, you can skip that element.
The 9 Core Elements
(1) Author. (2) “Title of Source.” (3) Title of Container , (4) Other contributors, (5) Version, (6) Number, (7) Publisher, (8) Publication date, (9) Location.
For sources that are part of a larger work, you include core element (2) “Title of Source.” ( e.g. journal articles from a journal, essays or chapters from a book, webpages from a website)
For sources that are self-contained, you skip core element (2). (e.g. books, websites, or journals)
Other contributors includes people such as editors, translators, or directors.
Example 1. A source found within a larger work (a journal article)
Guillen, Jorge. "Does Financial Openness Matter in the Relationship Between Financial Development and Income Distribution in Latin America?" Emerging Markets Finance & Trade , vol. 52, no. 5, 2016, pp. 1145-1155. Business Source Complete, https://do.org/10.1080/1540496X.2015.1046337.
(1) Guillen, Jorge. (2) "Does Financial Openness Matter in the Relationship Between Financial Development and Income Distribution in Latin America?" (3) Emerging Markets Finance & Trade , (4) (5) (6) vol. 52, no.5, (7) (8) 2016, (9) pp. 1145-1155.
Example 2. A self-contained source (a book)
Kirsh, Steven J. Children, Adolescents, and Media Violence: A Critical Look at the Research. 2nd ed., Sage, 2006.
(1) Kirsh, Steven J. (2) (3) Children, Adolescents, and Media Violence: A Critical Look at the Research. (4) (5) 2nd ed., (6) (7) Sage, (8) 2006. (9)
Note on Publisher Information:
According to p. 165 of the MLA Handbook , you don’t need to include publisher information for:
- periodicals (journals, magazines, newspapers)
- works published by an author or editor
- web sites whose title is the same as the name of the publisher
- a web site not involved in producing the work it makes (e.g. user-generated content sites like YouTube )
Commonly Used Terms
Access Date: The date you last looked at a source. Do not provide an access date for sources from library databases. Access dates should be added to the end of citations for online sources that lack a publication date, or if a publication has been removed or appears to have been altered.
Citation : The details about one source you are citing.
Citing : The process of acknowledging the sources of your information and ideas.
In-Text Citation : A brief note in your paper or essay at the point where you use information from a source to indicate where the information came from. An in-text citation should always match more detailed information that is available in the Works Cited List.
Paraphrasing : Taking information that you have read and putting it into your own words.
Plagiarism : Taking the ideas or words of another person and using them as your own.
Quoting : Copying words of text originally published elsewhere. Direct quotations generally appear in quotation marks and end with a citation.
Works Cited List : Contains details on ALL the sources cited in a text or essay, and supports your research and/or premise.
Sample Paper & Works Cited List
- MLA Sample Paper Template
This sample paper includes a sample assignment page with an example of how to include your student information and a Works Cited list in MLA format.
It can be used as a template to set up your assignment.
MLA Interactive Practice Template
- MLA Practice Template Use this interactive webpage to see how the elements of a source are formatted and arranged in an MLA-Style citation.
Do You Need Citation Help?
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This citation guide is based on the MLA Handbook (9th ed.). The contents are accurate to the best of our knowledge.
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Note: When copying this guide, please retain this box.
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MLA Style (9th Edition) Citation Guide: How to Cite: Other
- Introduction to MLA Style
- Journal Articles
- Magazine/Newspaper Articles
- Books & Ebooks
- Government & Legal Documents
- Biblical Sources
- Secondary Sources
- Videos/DVDs/TV Shows
- How to Cite: Other
- 9th Edition Updates
- Additional Help
Table of Contents
Class handouts, cochrane review.
Conference Proceedings or Presentation
Eric document, images / artwork.
Lecture Notes (taken by a student or otherwise not public)
Mintel or Other Corporate Report
Mobile Software Application (App)
Natural medicines (online monograph), personal/unpublished works/blogs, powerpoint slides, review of book, play, movie, poem, etc., simplyanalytics, song or album.
Sound recording / Booklet from Naxos Music Library
Note: For your Works Cited list, all citations should be double spaced and have a hanging indent.
A "hanging indent" means that each subsequent line after the first line of your citation should be indented by 0.5 inches.
"Prompt." ChatGPT, Version, OpenAI, Date, URL.
Works Cited List Example:
“Describe the symbolism of the green light in the book The Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald” prompt. ChatGPT , 13 Feb. version, OpenAI, 8 Mar. 2023, chat.openai.com/chat.
In-Text Citation Example:
(Shortened version of prompt)
Example: ("Describe the symbolism")
Instructor's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Handouts/Notes." Name of Course, Date handout was received, University/College, URL. Access date. Class handout.
Easton, Todd. “Model Paper.” Economics 121, 10 Apr. 2019, University of Portland, learning.up.edu/moodle/mod/resource/view.php?id=544855. Accessed 15 May 2019. Class handout.
(Instructor's Last Name)
Example: ( Easton )
Instructor's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Handouts/Notes." Name of Course, Date handout was received, University/College. Class handout.
Doe, Mark. "Critical Analysis." English 100, 4 Sept. 2016, University of Portland. Class handout.
Author's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Review." Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, vol. Volume Number, no. Issue Number, Date of Publication, pp. First Page Number-Last Page Number. https://doi.org/doi number.
Work Cited List Example:
Lane, Deirdre A., and Gregory Y. H. Lip. "Treatment of Hypertension in Peripheral Arterial Disease." Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 4 Dec. 2013, https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD003075.pub3.
(Author's Last Name)
Example: (Lane & Lip)
Cochrane reviews follow the journal article format.
Provide the name of the database (Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews) in italic title case in the works cited list. Do not italicize it elsewhere in your paper.
Different versions of Cochrane reviews include different information, which means the works cited list might vary too. Follow the principle of citing what you see.
- Full-text versions of Cochrane reviews do not include volume numbers, issue numbers, or article numbers. The full-text version displays when you visit the DOI of the article.
- However, the article PDFs show the year as the volume number, an issue number, and an article number.
- It is fine to omit the volume, issue, and article number from the Cochrane review works cited list if the information is missing from your version of the article, but if you do see this information, include it just as you would for any journal article .
Conference Proceedings or Paper
Published Conference Proceedings
Author's Last Name, First Name. Conference Title, Conference Date and Location, Publisher, Date of Publication.
Chang, Steve S., et al., editors. Proceedings of the Twenty-Fifth Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society, February 12-15, 1999: General Session and Parasession on Loan Word Phenomena. Berkeley Linguistics Society, 2000.
Oral Presentation at Conference
Speaker's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Speech." Title of Conference or Meeting , Day Month, Year, Location of Conference. Descriptor (i.e. Keynote Address, Guest Lecture, Conference Presentation, Address, Lecture, Reading).
Stein, Bob. “Reading and Writing in the Digital Era.” Discovering Digital Dimensions, Computers and Writing Conference , 23 May 2003, Union Club Hotel, West Lafayette, IN. Keynote Address.
Dissertation from Database
Author's Last Name, First Name Middle Name (if given). Title of Dissertation: Subtitle if Given. Year. PhD dissertation. Database Name.
Smith, Junette A. A Bridge to Neuroeducation: A Qualitative Study of Perceptions of Educators of Adult Learners . 2017. PhD dissertation. ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global .
(Author's Last Name Page Number)
Example: (Smith 33)
Author's Last Name, First Name Middle Name (if given). Title of dissertation: Subtitle if given. Dissertation Abstracts International, vol. Volume Number, no. Issue Number, Date of Publication, pp. First Page Number-Last Page Number. Name of Database, URL.
Brooks, Mary Patrice. (2008). The History of St. Joseph School and Challenges of Catholic Education in Oregon. Dissertation Abstracts International , vol. 69, no. 6, 2008, pp. 2184–2185. America: History & Life, login.uportland.idm.oclc.org/login?url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=ahl&AN=46957249&login.asp%3fcustid%3ds8474154&site=ehost-live&scope=site.
(Author Page Number)
Example: (Brooks 2185)
Author's Last Name, First Name Middle Name (if given). "Title of document: Subtitle if given." Date of Publication. Database Name. (ERIC document number).
Kubota, Kenichi. “‘Soaking’ Model for Learning: Analyzing Japanese Learning/Teaching Process from a Socio-Historical Perspective.” 2007. ERIC (ED498566).
Example: (Kubota 4)
Note: this document is a PDF so page numbers are available.
Image from a Website
Artist's Last Name, First Name. Title of Work: Subtitle if Any. Year, Location of Work, URL.
Goya, Francisco. The Family of Charles IV . 1800. Museo del Prado, museodelprado.es/en/the-collection/art-work/the-family-of-carlos-iv/f47898fc-aa1c-48f6-a779-71759e417e74.
(Artist's Last Name)
Note: For images found online, do not list a page number.
If the artist is not named, use a shortened version of the title (usually just 1-2 significant words): (“Title").
Image from a Book
When you refer to a photographic reproduction of an artwork, the citation is made up of two parts:
- Part 1: Lists the original artist's name, the name of the work, and the date the work was created.
- Part 2: Cites where you found the reproduction of the work such as a book.
Artist's Last Name, First Name. Title of Work: Subtitle if Any. Year, Location of Work. Book Title , by Author's First Name Last Name, Publisher Name often shortened, Year of publication, p. number.
Cassatt, Mary. Mother and Child . 1889, Wichita Art Museum, Wichita, KS. American Painting,1560-1913 , by John Pearce, McGraw, 1964, Slide 22.
(Artist's Last Name, Page Number)
If the artist is not named, use a shortened version of the title (usually just 1-2 significant words): (“Title," Page Number).
Example: (Cassatt, slide 22)
Image from a Library Database
Artist's Last Name, First Name. Title of Work: Subtitle if Any. Year, Location of Work. Database Title , URL.
Monet, Claude. The Parc Monceau . 1878. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City. Artstor , library.artstor.org/library/secure/ViewImages?id=%2FDFMaiMuOztdLS0wdD5%2BR3su&userId=gDhMeDUs&zoomparams=.
If the artist is not named, use a shortened version of the title (usually just 1-2 significant words): (“Title"). Example: ("Sunday Afternoon")
Beck, Aaron T., et al. “Beck Depression Inventory–II.” PsycTESTS, 1996. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1037/t00742-000.
Example: (Beck et al. 1996)
Jazz Discography (by Tom Lord)
The Jazz Discography uses session numbers (example: E1254) to refer to recording sessions. Include the session number in your citation.
Lord, Tom. "F2031: The Duke Ellington Song Book." The Jazz Discography, www.lordisco.com/tjd/WordDetail?id=7&mode=detail&rid=49863.
Since this is an online source page numbers are not needed.
Instructor's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Lecture." Name of Course, Date lecture occurred, University/College. Class lecture.
Aihiokhai, Simon. “Christian Spirituality.” THE 105, 18 Jan. 2017, University of Portland. Class lecture.
Lippincott Advisor (7th ed)
"Title of Article." Date Month Year of Latest Update, Lippincott Advisor . Retrieved Date, URL.
Note: include "Retrieved" followed by the date for web pages that may be updated over time and that are not archived
"Anemia (Aplastic)". 12 Jul. 2019, Lippincott Advisor. Retrieved 17 Oct. 2019, advisor.lww.com/lna/document.do?bid=4&did=791392.
("First Word Or Two of Article Title," Year)
Example: ("Anemia (Aplastic)," 2019)
Note: Because online resources typically do not have page numbers, paragraph numbers or section headings, this information is left out of the in-text citation.
Lippincott Advisor mobile app:
"Title of Article." Date Month Year of Latest Update, Lippincott Advisor . Retrieved Date, advisor.lww.com. Mobile App.
"Anemia (Aplastic)". 12 Jul. 2019, Lippincott Advisor. Retrieved 17 Oct. 2019, advisor.lww.com. Mobile App.
Note: Because mobile apps typically do not have page numbers, paragraph numbers or section headings, this information is left out of the in-text citation.
Mintel or Other Corporate Report
Mintel Group Ltd. “Car Rentals – US.” Mintel Reports , July 2018, clients.mintel.com.
Mobile Application Software (App)
Name of Company that created the application or Creator's Last Name, First Name. Middle Initial if given. Name of Application, Publisher Name or App Store, Version number if given, Release Date of Current Version of the Application, Mobile App, URL application was downloaded from.
National Geographic Society. National Parks by National Geographic, App Store, vers.1.2, 2012, Mobile App. www.apple.com/itunes/.
(Name of Company or Author's Last Name)
Example: (National Geographic Society)
Note: Because apps typically do not have page numbers, paragraph numbers or section headings, this information is left out of the in-text citation.
Composer Last Name, First Name. Title of Work. Version, Publisher, Publication Date.
Beethoven, Ludwig van. Corolian Ouverture: op. 62 . Heugel, 1951.
(Composer's Last Name Page Number)
"Guided Imagery." Natural Medicines , 2015, Monograph , naturalmedicines.therapeuticresearch.com/ health-wellness/professional.aspx?productid=1238.
(Author, if none then name of monograph)
Example: ("Guided Imagery")
Note: Because online monographs from Natural Medicines typically do not have page numbers, paragraph numbers or section headings, this information is left out of the in-text citation.
Author's Last Name, First Name or Username if real name not provided. "Title of Blog Post." Name of Blog, Blog Network/Publisher if given, Day Month Year of blog post, URL of blog post. Accessed Day Month Year blog was visited.
Brussat, Frederic. “Beyond Ideas of Wrongdoing and Rightdoing.” Civility & Spirituality , 11 Dec. 2014, www.spiritualityandpractice.com/blogs/posts/civilityspirituality/301/beyond-ideas-of-wrongdoing-and-rightdoing. Accessed 12 Jan. 2017.
Host's Last Name, First Name, host. "Title of Podcast Episode." Title of Overall Podcast , season number if given, episode number if given, Web Site Hosting If Different From Podcast Title, Day Month Year of Episode, URL of episode. Accessed Day Month Year podcast was downloaded/played.
Orton, Tyler, and Patrick Blennerhassett, hosts. "Lessons From the Brexit." BIV Podcast , episode 18, Business Vancouver, 28 June 2016, www.biv.com/article/2016/6/biv-podcast-episode-18-lessons-brexit/. Accessed 2 July 2016.
(Host's Last Name Start Time of Revelant Section-End Time of Section)
(Orton and Blennerhassett 00:01:15-00:02:22)
PowerPoint Slides from Moodle
Instructor's Last Name, First Name. "Title of PowerPoint Presentation." Title of Course, Date of PowerPoint presentation, Name of University. Microsoft PowerPoint presentation.
Works Cited List Example
Smith, John. "BIO 110: Week 2: Cells." Biology 110, 15 Jan. 2016, University of Portland. Microsoft PowerPoint presentation.
In-Text Citation Example
Example: (Smith, slide 5)
Note: include the slide number in your in-text citation if you know it. If not, leave it out
PowerPoint Slides from a Website
Author's Last Name, First Name. "Title of PowerPoint Presentation." Website publisher, Creation Date, URL. Microsoft PowerPoint presentation.
Kunka, Jennifer Liethen.. "Conquering the Comma." Purdue University Writing Lab, owl.purdue.edu/owl/general_writing/punctuation/conquering_the_comma_presentation.html. Microsoft PowerPoint presentation.
(Author's Last Name)
Example: (Kunka, slide 2)
You can find reviews in multiple source types (newspapers, magazines, journals, etc.); please see elsewhere on this guide for guidance on creating a citation for a specific source. The below citation example is for a play review that appeared on a newspaper website.
This template is for a review in general:
Author's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Review: Subtitle if Any." Review of Play (Book, Movie, etc.) Title , by Playwright (Author, Director, etc.). Name of Periodical , Date of Publication, p. Page number.
Note: Titles of plays, books, and movies are italicized as shown here; do not italicize titles of articles, poems, and short stories. Instead, put them in quotation marks, e.g., Review of "The Revenant," by Billy Collins.
Note: If the author's name is not listed, begin the citation with the title of the article.
Brantley, Ben. "Dear Audiences of 'Tiny Beautiful Things,' Prepare to Cry." Review of Tiny Beautiful Things , by Nia Vardalos. New York Times , www.nytimes.com/2016/12/07/theater/tiny-beautiful-things-review.html. Accessed 8 Apr. 2020.
Following guidance for a newspaper article from a website : (Review Author's Last Name)
Note : If there is no author listed, the in-text citation would include the first word or words of the title of the article in quotation marks, e.g. ("Dear Audiences").
"Name of Data File." SimplyAnalytics Database. Producer, date of data file.
Works Cited List Examples:
"Census 2010 Current Estimates Data." SimplyAnalytics Database. Geographic Research, Inc., 2013.
"2016 Current Estimates Data." SimplyAnalytics Database. U.S. Census, 2017.
"Map with 2016 consumer expenditure data." SimplyAnalytics Database . SimplyAnalytics, 2017.
- Obtain the data file name from the Metadata
- If you produced a map, SimplyAnalytics is the producer.
Music can be cited multiple ways. Mainly, this depends on the container that you accessed the music from. Generally, citations begin with the artist name. They might also be listed by composers or performers. Otherwise, list composer and performer information after the album title. Put individual song titles in quotation marks. Album names are italicized. Provide the name of the recording manufacturer followed by the publication date.
If information such as record label or name of album is unavailable from your source, do not list that information.
Rae Morris. “Skin.” Cold , Atlantic Records, 2014. Spotify, open.spotify.com/track/0OPES3Tw5r86O6fudK8gxi.
Online Album Example:
Beyoncé. “Pray You Catch Me.” Lemonade , Parkwood Entertainment, 2016, www.beyonce.com/album/lemonade-visual-album/.
Nirvana. "Smells Like Teen Spirit." Nevermind , Geffen, 1991.
Sound recording / Booklet from Naxos Music Library
Orff, Carl. “Fortuna Imperatrix Mundi: O Fortuna.” Carmina Burana. Performed by the London Philharmonic Orchestra, conducted by Hans Graf, LPO, 2012, Naxos Music Library , portland.naxosmusiclibrary.com/catalogue/item.asp?cid=5099960230652.
(Creator's Last Name)
If there is no creator, use a shortened form of the title (just one or two significant words): (“Title")
Cite the author of the booklet / liner notes (the author's name often appears at the end of the text).
Works Cited List Example:
Prince, David. Booklet. Sophisticated Lady , by Ella Fitzgerald and Joe Pass. Pablo Records, 2001, Naxos Jazz Music Library , cdn.naxosmusiclibrary.com/sharedfiles/booklets/FAC/booklet-PACD-5310-2.pdf.
Example: (Prince 2)
Source of data. Title of document: Subtitle if given . Date of publication, Statista , URL.
Note: since Statista is the name of the publisher and the name of the database, cite Statista only as the database name at the end of the citation.
National Park Service. Most visited national parks in the United States in 2018. 13 May 2019, Statista , www.statista.com/statistics/378920/most-visited-national-parks-us.
(Source of data)
Example: (National Park Service)
Twitter Handle (First Name Last Name if Known). "The Entire Tweet Word-for-Word." Twitter, Day Month Year of Tweet, Time of Tweet, URL.
@ReallyVirtual (Sohaib Athar). "Helicopter Hovering Above Abbottad at 1AM is a Rare Event." Twitter, 4 Jan. 2013, 3:58 p.m., twitter.com/reallyvirtual/status/64780730286358528?lang=en.
Note: Write out the actual Tweet in the citation and keep spelling and grammar the same as in the original, even if there are errors. When quoting the Tweet, beside grammatical and spelling errors in the original Tweet, write [sic] in square brackets to indicate the errors are not your own. E.g., if the Tweet was "It isn't you're fault the media is violent", write: "It isn't you're [sic] fault the media is violent."
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