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66 Books of the Bible List (In Order With Summaries)

There are 66 books of the Bible that are divided into two sections: the Old Testament and the New Testament.

This guide includes a list of the 66 Bible books in order as they appear in the Holy Scriptures we read today in modern Bible translations followed by short summaries of each book of the Bible for historical context.

66 Books of the Bible List

Old testament books.

  • Deuteronomy
  • 1 Chronicles
  • 2 Chronicles
  • Ecclesiastes
  • Song of Solomon
  • Lamentations

New Testament Books

  • 1 Corinthians
  • 2 Corinthians
  • Philippians
  • 1 Thessalonians
  • 2 Thessalonians

Note: In the next section, the years written for each book of the Bible in the list order are approximations based on historical analysis and Bible dating methods.

66 Bible Books In Order With Summaries

Attributed Author: Moses Year Written: 1445-1405 B.C. Genre: The Law Chapters: 50

The Book of Genesis is the first book of the Bible, recording God’s Creation, the fall of man, the choosing of a family to bless all nations, and the early years of the nation of Israel.

Attributed Author: Moses Year Written: 1445-1405 B.C. Genre: The Law Chapters: 40

In the Book of Exodus , God appoints Moses as the leader of the Israelites to rescue his chosen people from slavery in Egypt so they could travel to the Promised Land and makes a covenant with them at Mount Sinai.

3. Leviticus

Attributed Author: Moses Year Written: 1445-1405 B.C. Genre: The Law Chapters: 27

In the Book of Leviticus , God gives Israel laws for worship and holy living. The book documents both God’s holiness and the holiness He expects of His people.

Attributed Author: Moses Year Written: 1445-1405 B.C. Genre: The Law Chapters: 36

The Book of Numbers is the culmination of the story of Israel’s exodus from oppression in Egypt and their journey wandering in the wilderness for 40 years because of their disobedience and lack of faith until they take possession of the land God promised their fathers.

5. Deuteronomy

Attributed Author: Moses Year Written: 1445-1405 B.C. Genre: The Law Chapters: 34

The Book of Deuteronomy records Moses’ farewell speech that recounts the law and exhorts Israel to love and obey God in the Promised Land.

Attributed Author: Joshua Year Written: 1405-1385 B.C. Genre: Historical Narrative Chapters: 24

The Book of Joshua explains Joshua leads Israel to conquer and settle in the Promised Land. The book displays God’s faithfulness to his covenant with the Israelites to bring them into the land he promised to Abraham. 

Attributed Author: Samuel Year Written: 1045-1000 B.C. Genre: Historical Narrative Chapters: 21

In the Book of Judges , Israel falls into a cycle of sin, oppression, repentance, and ultimately, deliverance. God sent twelve “judges” who were leaders in the tribes of Israel who were chosen to deliver the Israelites from their enemies. 

Attributed Author: Samuel Year Written: 1030-930 B.C. Genre: Historical Narrative Chapters: 4

The Book of Ruth shares the story of a Moabite widow who shows loyalty to her mother-in-law Naomi and marries Boaz, becoming an ancestor of David and Jesus.

9. 1 Samuel

Attributed Authors: Prophets Samuel, Gad, and Nathan Year Written: 930-722 B.C. Genre: Historical Narrative Chapters: 31

In the Book of 1 Samuel , the Prophet Samuel anoints Saul as Israel’s first king but later rejects him and anoints David instead.

10. 2 Samuel

Attributed Authors: Prophets Samuel, Gad, and Nathan Year Written: 930-722 B.C. Genre: Historical Narrative Chapters: 24

The Book of 2 Samuel continues the story about David becoming king of Israel and expanding his kingdom while facing troubles from his enemies and his own sins.

11. 1 Kings

Attributed Author: Jeremiah Year Written: 560-538 B.C. Genre: Historical Narrative Chapters: 22

In the Book of 1 Kings , King Solomon builds the temple and rules wisely, but after his death, the kingdom is divided into Israel and Judah.

12. 2 Kings

Attributed Author: Jeremiah Year Written: 560-538 B.C. Genre: Historical Narrative Chapters: 25

The Book of 2 Kings recounts how the kings of Israel and Judah mostly do evil in God’s sight, leading to the destruction of both kingdoms by foreign powers.

13. 1 Chronicles

Attributed Author: Ezra Year Written: 450-425 B.C. Genre: Historical Narrative Chapters: 29

The Book of 1 Chronicles is a genealogy from Adam to David, followed by a history of David’s reign over Israel.

14. 2 Chronicles

Attributed Author: Ezra Year Written: 450-425 B.C. Genre: Historical Narrative Chapters: 36

The Book of 2 Chronicles is a continuation of the previous book of the Bible. This book recounts the history of the kings of Judah from Solomon to the Babylonian exile, emphasizing their faithfulness or unfaithfulness to God.

Attributed Author: Ezra Year Written: 440-300 B.C. Genre: Historical Narrative Chapters: 10

In the Book of Ezra , a scribe and priest named Ezra leads a group of exiles to return to Jerusalem to restore the temple and the law.

16. Nehemiah

Attributed Author: Nehemiah Year Written: 445-400 B.C. Genre: Historical Narrative Chapters: 13

The Book of Nehemiah shares how King Artaxerxes’ cupbearer, Nehemiah, leads another group of exiles to rebuild the walls of Jerusalem and reform the people’s spiritual life.

Attributed Authors: Mordecai, Ezra, and Nehemiah Year Written: 450-330 B.C. Genre: Historical Narrative Chapters: 10

In the Book of Esther , a Jewish woman named Esther becomes the queen of Persia and saves her people from a plot to exterminate them.

Attributed Authors: Job, Elihu, Moses, and Solomon Year Written: Unknown (possibly 1440-950 B.C.) Genre: Wisdom Literature Chapters: 42

The Book of Job shares the story about a righteous man named Job who suffers greatly at the hands of Satan, and questions God’s justice, but ultimately trusts God’s wisdom and sovereignty under all circumstances.

Attributed Authors: David, Asaph, Solomon, Heman, Ethan, Moses, and the Sons of Korah Year Written: 1500-450 B.C. Genre: Poetry Chapters: 150

The Book of Psalms is a collection of 150 songs, prayers, and poems that express the emotions, experiences, and faith of God’s people.

20. Proverbs

Attributed Authors: Solomon, Agur, and Lemuel Year Written: 970-680 B.C. Genre: Wisdom Literature Chapters: 31

The Book of Proverbs is a collection of wise sayings that teach how to live according to God’s wisdom and fear. King Solomon is credited for 29 of the Proverbs, while Agur and Lemuel for 1 each.

21. Ecclesiastes

Attributed Author: Solomon Year Written: 940-930B.C. Genre: Wisdom Literature Chapters: 12

In the Book of Ecclesiastes , a teacher reflects on the meaninglessness of life under the sun and concludes that fearing God and keeping his commandments is the whole duty of man.

22. Song of Solomon (Song of Songs)

Attributed Author: Solomon Year Written: 970-930 B.C. Genre: Poetry Chapters: 8

The Song of Solomon Book in the Bible is a poetic dialogue between a bride and groom that celebrates the beauty and joy of marital love. The book gets its title from King Solomon whose name is repeatedly mentioned throughout the songs. The Song of Solomon is also called the Canticle of Canticles or Song of Songs.

Attributed Author: Isaiah Year Written: 700-680 B.C. Genre: Prophecy Chapters: 66

The Book of Isaiah is the first book of the Major Prophets. Isaiah prophesies God’s judgment and salvation for Judah, Israel, and the nations, pointing to the coming Messiah and his glorious kingdom.

24. Jeremiah

Attributed Author: Jeremiah Year Written: 627-586 B.C. Genre: Prophecy Chapters: 52

In the Book of Jeremiah , the Prophet Jeremiah warns Judah of God’s impending wrath for their sins but also promises restoration and a new covenant in the future.

25. Lamentations

Attributed Author: Jeremiah Year Written: 586-575 B.C. Genre: Prophecy Chapters: 5

In the Book of Lamentations , the Prophet Jeremiah laments over the destruction of Jerusalem by Babylon, expressing grief, anger, sorrow, and hope in God’s mercy.

26. Ezekiel

Attributed Author: Ezekiel Year Written: 593-565 B.C. Genre: Prophecy Chapters: 48

In the Book of Ezekiel , the Prophet Ezekiel prophesies God’s judgment on Judah and the nations, but also His restoration of Israel in a new temple and a new land.

Attributed Author: Daniel Year Written: 536-530 B.C. Genre: Prophecy Chapters: 12

The Book of Daniel records the story of Daniel, a Jewish youth who is taken to Babylon and trained for service in Nebuchadnezzar’s Court. Daniel interprets dreams and visions that reveal God’s sovereignty over history and His plan for the end times.

Attributed Author: Hosea Year Written: 750-710 B.C. Genre: Prophecy Chapters: 14

The Book of Hosea is the first book of the Minor Prophets in the Bible. Hosea portrays God’s faithful love for His unfaithful people metaphorically through Hosea’s own marriage to an adulterous wife.

Attributed Author: Joel Year Written: 835-800 B.C. Genre: Prophecy Chapters: 3

In the Book of Joel , the Prophet Joel calls Judah to repentance in view of a locust plague that foreshadows the day of the Lord.

Attributed Author: Amos Year Written: 760-750 B.C. Genre: Prophecy Chapters: 9

In the Book of Amos , the Prophet Amos denounces the social injustice and religious hypocrisy of Israel and Judah and warns them of God’s impending judgment.

31. Obadiah

Attributed Author: Obadiah Year Written: 850-840 B.C. Genre: Prophecy Chapters: 1

In the Book of Obadiah , the Prophet Obadiah pronounces God’s wrath on Edom for their pride and hostility against Israel.

Attributed Author: Unknown (attributed to Jonah) Year Written: 785-750 B.C. Genre: Prophecy Chapters: 4

The Book of Jonah recounts the story of the Prophet Jonah who flees from God’s call to preach to Nineveh, the capital of Assyria. After being swallowed and vomited by a fish, he reluctantly obeys the Lord and sees the city repent.

Attributed Author: Micah Year Written: 735-700 B.C. Genre: Prophecy Chapters: 7

In the Book of Micah , the Prophet Micah exposes the corruption and idolatry of Israel and Judah, and predicts their downfall as well as their future restoration by a ruler from Bethlehem. This book of the Bible also includes some of the clearest predictions of the Messiah.

Attributed Author: Nahum Year Written: 663-612 B.C. Genre: Prophecy Chapters: 3

In the Book of Nahum , the Prophet Nahum declares God’s vengeance on Nineveh (around 100-150 years after Jonah) for their cruelty and wickedness.

35. Habakkuk

Attributed Author: Habakkuk Year Written: 615-605 B.C. Genre: Prophecy Chapters: 3

In the Book of Habakkuk , the Prophet Habakkuk questions God’s justice in allowing Babylon to oppress Judah but learns to trust God’s sovereignty and rejoice in His salvation.

36. Zephaniah

Attributed Author: Zephaniah Year Written: 640-620 B.C. Genre: Prophecy Chapters: 3

In the Book of Zephaniah , the Prophet Zephaniah proclaims God’s judgment on Judah and the nations, but also His promise to preserve a faithful remnant and bless them with joy and peace.

Attributed Author: Haggai Year Written: 520 B.C. Genre: Prophecy Chapters: 2

In the Book of Haggai , the Prophet Haggai urges the returned exiles to rebuild the temple and assures them of God’s presence and blessing.

38. Zechariah

Attributed Author: Zechariah Year Written: 520-470 B.C. Genre: Prophecy Chapters: 14

In the Book of Zechariah , the Prophet Zechariah encourages the returned exiles to complete the temple and prepare for the coming of the Lord and His messianic king. This book includes eight visions the Lord gave Zechariah about the House of Israel.

39. Malachi

Attributed Author: Malachi Year Written: 440-400 B.C. Genre: Prophecy Chapters: 4

The Book of Malachi is the last book of the Old Testament in the Bible. The Prophet Malachi rebukes the priests and the people for their covenant unfaithfulness and calls them to repentance and reformation. The book expresses God’s love for a nation that continues to disobey Him.

40. Matthew

Attributed Author: Matthew Year Written: 50-65 A.D. Genre: Gospel Chapters: 28

The Book of Matthew is the first book of the New Testament. Also known as the Gospel of Matthew. The book presents Jesus as the Messiah, the fulfillment of the Old Testament prophecies, and the King of God’s kingdom.

Attributed Author: John Mark Year Written: 55-65 A.D. Genre: Gospel Chapters: 16

In the Book of Mark , Jesus is portrayed as the suffering servant; the Son of God who died as a ransom for sinners. Also known as the Gospel of Mark.

Attributed Author: Luke Year Written: 58-65 A.D. Genre: Gospel Chapters: 24

In the Book of Luke , Jesus is depicted as the Savior of all people, especially the poor, the outcasts, and the Gentiles. Also known as the Gospel of Luke.

Attributed Author: John Year Written: 80-95 A.D. Genre: Gospel Chapters: 21

The Book of John is the last of the four Gospels in the Bible. The Gospel of John is an eyewitness account that reveals Jesus as the Word of God, the source of eternal life, and the object of faith.

Attributed Author: Luke Year Written: 61-64 A.D. Genre: Historical Narrative Chapters: 28

The Book of Acts narrates the birth and growth of the Church through the power of the Holy Spirit and the witness of the apostles. Also known as the Acts of the Apostles.

Attributed Author: Paul Year Written: 56-58 A.D. Genre: Epistle Chapters: 16

The Book of Romans is the first Epistle (letter) in the Bible written by the Apostle Paul to the Christian Church in Rome. Romans explains the gospel of God’s righteousness that is revealed in Jesus Christ and received by faith. This book stands as the clearest and most systematic presentation of Christian doctrine in all the Scriptures. 

46. 1 Corinthians

Attributed Author: Paul Year Written: 55 A.D. Genre: Epistle Chapters: 16

The Book of 1 Corinthians is the first of two letters written by the Apostle Paul to the Church members in the city of Corinth. Paul addresses various problems and questions in the Corinthian Church, such as divisions, immorality, lawsuits, marriage, spiritual gifts, worship, resurrection, and love.

47. 2 Corinthians

Attributed Author: Paul Year Written: 55-56 A.D. Genre: Epistle Chapters: 13

The Book of 2 Corinthians is the second letter from the Apostle Paul to the Corinthian Church. Paul defends the apostolic ministry and authority against false teachers who boast in outward appearances and undermine the message of grace.

48. Galatians

Attributed Author: Paul Year Written: 49-50 A.D. Genre: Epistle Chapters: 6

The Book of Galatians is a letter from the Apostle Paul to the Christian Churches in Galatia. Paul confronts the Galatians for deserting the gospel of grace and turning to a different gospel of works. The book specifically addresses the problem of Jewish legalism and the fullness of salvation found in Jesus.

49. Ephesians

Attributed Author: Paul Year Written: 60-62 A.D. Genre: Epistle Chapters: 6

The Book of Ephesians is a letter from the Apostle Paul to the Church in Ephesus. The Epistle was written during Paul’s first imprisonment. Paul celebrates God’s glorious grace in Jesus Christ that unites Jews and Gentiles into one body, and instructs them how to live as God’s new creation by being fruitful followers of Christ.

50. Philippians

Attributed Author: Paul Year Written: 60-62 A.D. Genre: Epistle Chapters: 4

The Book of Philippians is a letter from the Apostle Paul to the Church in Philippi. Paul expresses joy, gratitude, and encouragement for the Philippians’ faith and partnership in the gospel. Themes include hardship, humility, love, service, hope beyond suffering, and God’s glory. 

51. Colossians

The Book of Colossians is a letter from the Apostle Paul to the Church in Colossae. Paul warns Christians against false teachings and emphasizes the supremacy and sufficiency of Christ in all things.

52. 1 Thessalonians

Attributed Authors: Paul, Silvanus, and Timothy Year Written: 49-51 A.D. Genre: Epistle Chapters: 5

The Book of 1 Thessalonians is the first of two letters written by the Apostle Paul, his companion Silvanus, and his disciple Timothy to the Church in Thessalonica, which consisted of a community of believers who had been Christians for only a short period of time. These men write to commend the Thessalonians for their steadfastness in persecution, instructing them on various matters of Christian living such as faith, hope, and love; and assuring them of Christ’s return.

53. 2 Thessalonians

Attributed Author: Paul Year Written: 49-51 A.D. Genre: Epistle Chapters: 3

The Book of 2 Thessalonians is the second letter from the Apostle Paul to the Church in Thessalonica, correcting some misunderstandings about the end times, urging them to remain faithful and diligent, and praying for their growth and protection.

54. 1 Timothy

Attributed Author: Paul Year Written: 62-66 A.D. Genre: Epistle Chapters: 6

The Book of 1 Timothy is the first of two letters from the Apostle Paul to his young protégé Timothy, giving him practical advice and instructions on how to lead and care for the Church in Ephesus.

55. 2 Timothy

Attributed Author: Paul Year Written: 66-67 A.D. Genre: Epistle Chapters: 4

The Book of 2 Timothy is the second letter from the Apostle Paul to Timothy, urging him to remain faithful to the gospel, endure hardship, and fulfill his ministry as Paul faces imminent death. The book is traditionally considered to be the last Epistle that Paul wrote before he died.

Attributed Author: Paul Year Written: 64-65 A.D. Genre: Epistle Chapters: 3

The Book of Titus is a letter from the Apostle Paul to his close companion Titus, instructing him on how to organize and oversee the Churches in Crete, and how to teach sound doctrine and godly living to various groups of people so that the good news of Jesus can transform Cretan culture from within. 

57. Philemon

Attributed Author: Paul Year Written: 57-62 A.D. Genre: Epistle Chapters: 1

The Book of Philemon is a personal letter from the Apostle Paul his friend Philemon, appealing to him to forgive and welcome back his runaway slave Onesimus, who had become a Christian under Paul’s ministry.

58. Hebrews

Attributed Author: Anonymous Year Written: 61-69 A.D. Genre: Epistle Chapters: 13

The Book of Hebrews is an anonymous letter to Jewish Christians, exhorting them not to abandon their faith in Jesus Christ, but to persevere and trust in His superior priesthood, sacrifice, and covenant.

Attributed Author: James Year Written: 44-49 A.D. Genre: Epistle Chapters: 5

The Book of James is a letter from the Apostle James to Jewish Christians scattered abroad, challenging them to show their faith by their works, and giving them practical wisdom for living godly lives. James was a half-brother of Jesus, but not the same James who was one of the original twelve apostles.

60. 1 Peter

Attributed Author: Peter Year Written: 60-65 A.D. Genre: Epistle Chapters: 5

The Book of 1 Peter is the first of two letters from the Apostle Peter to Christians suffering persecution in various regions of Asia Minor, encouraging them to stand firm in their hope, holiness, and humility as they follow the example of Christ. Peter was one of the twelve disciples of Jesus Christ.

61. 2 Peter

Attributed Author: Peter Year Written: 65-68 A.D. Genre: Epistle Chapters: 3

The Book of 2 Peter is the second letter from the Apostle Peter to Christians in Asia Minor who were facing false teachers and scoffers, reminding them of the truth and power of God’s word, and urging them to grow in grace and knowledge of Christ.

Attributed Author: John Year Written: 85-95 A.D. Genre: Epistle Chapters: 5

The Book of 1 John is a letter to Christians who were confused by false teachers about the nature of Christ and the test of true fellowship with God, assuring them of the Lord’s love, light, and life in them. Although the author never identifies himself, the traditional view of this letter and the following two letters (the books of 2 John and 3 John) is that the Apostle John, son of Zebedee and one of the twelve apostles of Jesus, wrote them.

Attributed Author: John Year Written: 85-95 A.D. Genre: Epistle Chapters: 1

The Book of 2 John is a letter from the Apostle John to a lady and her children, whom he loved in the truth, warning them not to welcome or support those who deny that Jesus Christ came in the flesh.

The Book of 3 John is a letter from the Apostle John to his friend Gaius, whom he commended for his hospitality and faithfulness, contrasting him with Diotrephes, who was arrogant and divisive.

Attributed Author: Jude Year Written: 60-80 A.D. Genre: Epistle Chapters: 1

The Book of Jude is a letter from Jude to Christians who were threatened by false teachers who perverted God’s grace and denied Christ’s lordship, calling them to contend for the faith. Traditionally, Jude has been understood to be a half-brother of Jesus and the leader of the first Jerusalem Church.

66. Revelation

Attributed Author: John Year Written: 94-96 A.D. Genre: Apocalyptic Literature Chapters: 22

The Book of Revelation is a prophetic vision from the Apostle John written during his imprisonment on the island of Patmos, revealing the things that will take place concerning Christ’s victory over evil and his coming kingdom. Revelation is the final book of the Bible.

Learn More About the Authors of the Bible Books

If you want to find out more about Bible authorship, then check out our other guide with the books of the Bible and their authors . That page explains more about each author who is ascribed to every book in the Holy Bible, including scripture references to back up those claims.

Read the 66 Books of the Bible In Order

You can visit our Bible Index to begin reading the 66 books of the Bible in order from Genesis to Revelation. The Index includes a list of the 66 Bible books separated into the two main divisions of the Bible: the Old Testament and the New Testament. After choosing a book of the Bible, you can select a specific chapter to read God’s Word in the Holy Scriptures.

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  • BART’S BIOGRAPHY
  • CURRICULUM VITAE

The 66 BOOKS OF THE BIBLE: EVERY BOOK IN ORDER (WITH SUMMARIES!)

Marko Marina Author Bart Ehrman

Written by Marko Marina, Ph.D.

Author |  Historian |  BE Contributor

Verified!  See our editorial guidelines

Date written:  15 Feb 2024

Disclaimer: The views and opinions expressed on this page belong to the author and do not necessarily match my own. - Dr. Bart D. Ehrman

Navigating the 66 books of the Bible can be a complex endeavor, but doing so offers an illuminating insight into its timeless narratives. From the early tales of creation in Genesis to the prophetic apocalypse in Revelation, each book serves as a unique piece in the grand mosaic of biblical literature.

In this comprehensive guide, we'll journey through each of these books in chronological order. To aid in your exploration, we've prepared a table that showcases the traditional authorship, dates of composition, and key verses for every book. And for those desiring a deeper dive, a concise summary of each book will further enrich your understanding. Join us on this enlightening trek through one of the world's most revered collections of sacred writings.

The Old Testament Books

Before we get into the summaries and authorship of each book, if you're looking for a simple list of the 39 Old Testament books in order, they are below.  Scroll down further for details on authorship, date written, key verses in each book, and more!

#1 - Genesis

#2 - Exodus

#3 - Leviticus

#4 - Numbers

#5 - Deuteronomy

#6 - Joshua

#7 - Judges .

#9 - 1 Samuel

#10 - 2 Samuel

#11 - 1 Kings

#12 - 2 Kings

#13 - 1 Chronicles

#14 - 2 Chronicles

#16 - Nehemiah

#17 - Esther

#19 - Psalms

#20 - Proverbs

#21 - Ecclesiastes

#22 - Song of Solomon

#23 - Isaiah

#24 - Jeremiah

#25 - Lamentations

#26 - Ezekiel

#27 - Daniel

#28 - Hosea

#31 - Obadiah

#32 - Jonah

#33 - Micah

#34 - Nahum

#35 - Habakkuk

#36 - Zephaniah

#37 - Haggai

#38 - Zechariah

#39 - Malachi

This is the end of the Old Testament, sometimes referred to as the Hebrew Bible.  While there are 66 books in the Bible, there are 39 in the Old Testament.  Now let's cover the 27 books in the New Testament.

THE NEW TESTAMENT

Same as for the Old Testament, we've got the 27 books of the New Testament listed in order below.  Please scroll down for authorship, dating, summaries of the books, and more!

#40 - Matthew

#45 - Romans

#46 - 1 Corinthians

#47 - 2 Corinthians

#48 - Galatians

#49 - Ephesians

#50 - Philippians

#51 - Colossians

#52 - 1 Thessalonians

#53 - 2 Thessalonians

#54 - 1 Timothy

#55 - 2 Timothy

#56 - Titus

#57 - Philemon

#58 - Hebrews

#59 - James

#60 - 1 Peter

#61 - 2 Peter

#62 - 1 John

#63 - 2 John

#64 - 3 John

#66 - Revelation

The Pentateuch: Authorship, Date Written, and Summaries

Summaries for the pentateuch (torah) - the first five books of the bible, often referred to as "the law".

Critical scholarship often questions the historicity of the Pentateuch, viewing figures like Moses as more mythical than historical . Our summaries focus on the narratives of these texts, presented objectively, without endorsing specific religious interpretations. 

#1 - Genesis:   Genesis , the first book of the Bible, narrates the creation of the world, the fall of human kind, and the early history of humanity, including the stories of Adam and Eve, Noah, and the Tower of Babel. It also details the patriarchal history of the Israelites, focusing on Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, and Joseph, ending with the Israelites in Egypt.

#2 - Exodus:   The book of Exodus chronicles the story of Moses' leadership in freeing the Israelites from Egyptian bondage, including the Ten Plagues and the parting of the Red Sea . The book also details the journey of the Israelites to Mount Sinai, where Moses received the Ten Commandments and other laws from God. 

#3 - Leviticus:  In this third book of the Bible, the focus shifts to the laws and religious rituals given to the Israelites. It details a wide array of laws, including those related to rituals, moral conduct, and holiness, primarily communicated through Moses. The book emphasizes the importance of holiness and the procedures for offerings and festivals. 

#4 - Numbers:  Numbers recounts the Israelites' journey in the wilderness, led by Moses, from Mount Sinai to the border of Canaan. It includes a census of the people, various laws, and accounts of rebellion and faithlessness, highlighting the challenges and trials faced during their wanderings. The narrative also details God's guidance and provision for the Israelites throughout their journey.

#5 - Deuteronomy:   Deuteronomy presents itself as a collection of Moses’ discourses delivered to the Israelites on the brink of their entry into Canaan. Modern scholarship views these speeches as a retrospective compilation that emphasizes loyalty to God, centralization of worship, and social justice. This book acts as a theological bridge by underscoring the significance of obedience and communal responsibility.

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The Historical Books: AUTHORSHIP, DATE WRITTEN, AND SUMMARIES

Summaries for the historical books - narratives of israel's history post-egypt to the babylonian exile.

The historical books make up twelve of the 66 books of the Bible.  They begin with Joshua and end with Esther. These books, while traditionally ascribed to specific authors and considered historical accounts, are viewed critically by contemporary scholars. The historicity of various events described in these books is often debated, with many scholars questioning the accuracy and authenticity of certain narratives. Additionally, their authorship remains largely unknown. Despite these uncertainties, our summaries aim to objectively present the narrative content of these texts, without endorsing or disputing their historical or authorial claims. 

#6 - Joshua:  In this narrative, the Israelites, under the leadership of Joshua, enter and conquer the land of Canaan following Moses' death. The book details a series of military campaigns and the subsequent division of the land among the twelve tribes of Israel. It also emphasizes Joshua's role in reaffirming the covenant between the Israelites and God.

#7 - Judges:  The Book of Judges depicts a cycle of Israelite leaders, known as judges, rising and falling in a period of instability after the conquest of Canaan. The narrative portrays a pattern of Israelite disobedience to God, leading to oppression by foreign powers, followed by a judge delivering them from these oppressors. Notable figures include Deborah, Gideon, and Samson, each illustrating the challenges and moral complexities of this era. 

#8 - Ruth:  A touching narrative of loyalty and love, Ruth, a Moabite, remains devoted to her Israelite mother-in-law, Naomi, after tragedy strikes. Her eventual marriage to Boaz not only highlights the theme of redemption but also positions her in the direct lineage of King David.

#9 - 1 Samuel:  From the birth of the prophet Samuel to the tumultuous reign of Israel's first king, Saul, this book provides a look at the transition of Israel from a tribal confederation to a monarchy. It sets the stage for the rise of David, Israel's greatest king.

#10 - 2 Samuel:   This sequel continues the story of David's reign, following his anointing as king of Israel. The book details his political and military achievements, personal struggles, and moral failings, including the story of David and Bathsheba. It concludes with David's consolidation of power and preparations for the building of the Temple thus setting the stage for the transition to his son Solomon's reign. 

#11 - 1 Kings:  1 Kings chronicles the zenith and decline of Israel's united monarchy. From the glory days of Solomon's temple construction to the division of the kingdom into Israel and Judah, the narrative reveals how leaders can shape a nation's fate.

#12 - 2 Kings: With a succession of rulers, 2 Kings details the final chapters of both the northern and southern kingdoms. Despite intermittent revivals, rampant idolatry ultimately leads to Israel's exile by Assyria and Judah's devastation by Babylon.

#13 - 1 Chronicles: 1 Chronicles offers a genealogical retelling of Israel's history, with an emphasis on David's reign. It begins with a series of genealogies tracing the lineage from Adam to the Davidic line, emphasizing the continuity of God's promises. The latter part of the book details David's reign, his preparations for the construction of the Temple, and the organization of the priesthood and Levites, showcasing his role in establishing religious worship in Israel.

#14 - 2 Chronicles: Focusing on the reign of Solomon and subsequent kings of Judah, this narrative extends to the Babylonian exile. It highlights Solomon's construction of the Temple in Jerusalem and his wisdom, as well as the varying degrees of faithfulness of Judah's kings to their covenant with God. The book culminates with the Temple's destruction and the exile, presented as repercussions of the nation's unfaithfulness.

#15 - Ezra: This post-exilic book chronicles the return of the Jewish exiles from Babylon and their efforts to rebuild the Temple in Jerusalem under the leadership of Zerubbabel and the priestly guidance of Ezra. It focuses on the restoration of religious and communal life in Jerusalem, emphasizing the importance of adherence to the Law of Moses. 

#16 - Nehemiah: As the walls of Jerusalem lay in ruins, Nehemiah, the cupbearer to the Persian king, takes on the daunting task of rebuilding. His leadership and the people's collaborative spirit exemplify restoration in the face of adversity.

#17 - Esther: Set in the Persian Empire, Esther, a Jewish queen, bravely intervenes to prevent the genocide of her people. With divine providence at play, the narrative celebrates the origins of the Jewish festival of Purim.

The Wisdom and Poetry Books: AUTHORSHIP, DATE WRITTEN, AND SUMMARIES

Summaries for the wisdom and poetry books - literary and poetic books, largely centered on wisdom and reflections on life.

#18 - Job: The Book of Job delves into the themes of suffering and divine justice, narrating the story of Job, a righteous man whose faith is tested through extreme hardships. In this narrative, God allows Satan to test Job’s faith, resulting in a series of catastrophic events that include the heartbreaking loss of his children. The book also presents a series of dialogues between Job and his friends about the nature of suffering. The book concludes with a poetic discourse on the power and wisdom of God, underscoring the limitations of human understanding.

#19 - Psalms:  Comprising 150 songs and poems, this collection expresses a wide range of emotions and themes, from praise, worship, and thanksgiving to lament and supplication. The Psalms address the human experience of God, exploring themes like faith, suffering, and God's sovereignty. They are used extensively in Jewish, Christian, and Islamic liturgies, reflecting their enduring spiritual and cultural significance.

#20 - Proverbs:   Traditionally attributed to King Solomon, Proverbs is a compilation of wise sayings and instructions on leading a righteous life. These bite-sized pearls of wisdom touch on topics like character, relationships, and personal integrity.

#21 - Ecclesiastes:  Ecclesiastes presents a philosophical reflection on the meaning of life and the best way to live, voiced by a narrator called 'the Teacher.' It explores themes of vanity, the fleeting nature of earthly pursuits, and the limits of human wisdom, ultimately advocating for finding enjoyment in life's simple pleasures and fearing God.

#22 - Song of Solomon:  Also known as the Song of Songs, this book is a collection of lyrical poems celebrating love and romantic desire. Within Judaism, it is often interpreted allegorically as symbolizing the relationship between God and Israel, while in Christian tradition, it is seen as a metaphor for the bond between Christ and the Church. The text vividly portrays the beauty and power of love through passionate dialogues between lovers. 

The Major Prophets: AUTHORSHIP, DATE WRITTEN, AND SUMMARIES

Summaries for the major prophets - larger prophetic works in the old testament.

Critical scholars approach the major prophetic books of the Old Testament by situating them within their historical contexts, rather than interpreting them through the lens of Christian messianic prophecies. In our objective summaries, we focus on the narrative content of these texts, steering clear of anachronistic perspectives and emphasizing their original historical and cultural settings

#23 - Isaiah:  Isaiah is a composite text, traditionally attributed to the prophet Isaiah, that addresses the political and social conditions of ancient Judah. The book spans pre-exilic warnings of judgment, reflections on exile, and post-exilic themes of restoration and hope, blending oracles, narratives, and prophetic discourses. Its messages focus on themes of justice, righteousness, and the consequences of both faithfulness and rebellion against God. 

#24 - Jeremiah:  Often referred to as the "weeping prophet", the book of Jeremiah persistently warns Judah of impending doom due to their idolatry and unfaithfulness. However, amid his dire predictions, he offers hope through the promise of a "new covenant."

#25 - Lamentations:  Traditionally attributed to Jeremiah, this collection of poetic laments mourns the tragic fall of Jerusalem and the subsequent exile. The verses capture the deep sorrow, yet also contain glimmers of hope in God's enduring mercy.

#26 - Ezekiel:  Traditionally attributed to the prophet of the same name, Ezekiel combines visions, prophecies, and parables to address the exile of the Judeans in Babylon. It emphasizes themes of judgment and restoration, with vivid imagery depicting the fall of Jerusalem and the eventual promise of the nation's spiritual renewal.

#27 - Daniel:   The book of Daniel combines tales of Jewish heroism in a foreign court with apocalyptic visions, set during the Babylonian exile and early Persian period. The first half narrates stories of Daniel and his companions, who maintain their faith and integrity in the face of challenges. The latter half presents symbolic dreams and visions that offer hope for divine deliverance and the establishment of God's kingdom.

The Minor Prophets: AUTHORSHIP, DATE WRITTEN, AND SUMMARIES

Summaries for the minor prophets - shorter prophetic works in the old testament.

Scholarly analysis of the Minor Prophets in the Old Testament emphasizes understanding these texts within their original historical and cultural contexts, rather than through later interpretive lenses, such as Christian messianic expectations. In our summaries, we aim to present these books' themes and messages while maintaining an objective stance, focusing on their narrative and prophetic content as it relates to the period in which they were written.

#28 - Hosea:  Set in the turbulent final days of the Northern Kingdom of Israel, the book of Hosea combines prophecies of doom due to the people's unfaithfulness to God with promises of restoration. The book is distinguished by its symbolic use of Hosea's troubled marriage as a metaphor for the relationship between God and Israel, emphasizing themes of love, betrayal, and redemption.

#29 - Joel:  Joel, set against the backdrop of a devastating locust plague, uses this natural disaster as a metaphor for an impending day of divine judgment. The book calls for repentance and portrays a future of divine restoration and blessings, including the outpouring of God's spirit on all people. 

#30 - Amos:   In this book, prophet Amos delivers a stern message of judgment to the Northern Kingdom for its societal injustices and idolatry. Amidst the warning, there's a glimmer of hope for restoration.

#31 - Obadiah:   Traditionally attributed to Obadiah, this is the shortest book in the collection. However, many scholars disagree with that attribution. Regardless of its authorship, the text portrays Edom’s impending downfall and Israel’s eventual triumph in the “Day of the Lord”.

#32 - Jonah:  Unique among the prophetic books Jonah is a narrative about a reluctant prophet sent to warn the city of Nineveh of impending divine judgment. It explores themes of obedience, mercy, and God's compassion for all people, highlighted by Jonah's resistance to God's command and the eventual repentance of the Ninevites.

#33 - Micah:   The book of Micah delivers a message of judgment and hope, addressing the social injustices and corrupt leadership of his time. The book combines dire warnings to both Israel and Judah with promises of restoration and future leadership from Bethlehem, emphasizing the themes of justice, mercy, and humility before God.

#34 - Nahum:  Focusing on the impending downfall of Nineveh, the book of Nahum proclaims God's judgment on this oppressive Assyrian city, contrasting God's wrath and His goodness.

#35 - Habakkuk:  In a dialogue with God, Habakkuk grapples with the problem of evil and why the wicked prosper. The answer, according to Habakkuk, lies in living by faith and trusting in God's sovereign plan.

#36 - Zephaniah:  Warning of the impending "Day of the Lord," the book of Zephaniah calls for repentance. Amid the judgment pronouncements, there's the promise of joy and restoration for the faithful remnant.

#37 - Haggai:  As post-exile Israel delays rebuilding the temple, the book of Haggai reminds them of their priorities and assures them of God's presence in their midst.

#38 - Zechariah: Composed post-exile, the book of Zechariah combines visions, prophecies, and oracles to encourage the rebuilding of the Jerusalem Temple and to offer hope for the restoration of Israel. The book blends apocalyptic elements with expectations of the coming of the future king who will restore peace and justice. 

#39 - Malachi:  The final book of the Old Testament prophets! It addresses issues of social justice, religious sincerity, and moral conduct in post-exilic Judah. It calls for faithfulness to God's covenant, warning of judgment while promising a future day of purification and renewal, symbolized by the coming of 'Elijah the prophet'.

This is the end of the Old Testament, sometimes referred to as the Hebrew Bible.  While there are 66 books in the Bible, there are 39 in the Old Testament.  Now let's cover the New Testament.

The Gospels: AUTHORSHIP, DATE WRITTEN, AND SUMMARIES

Summaries for the gospels - the first four books of the new testament, four accounts of the life and teachings of jesus christ.

Critical scholarship acknowledges that the Gospels in the New Testament represent a blend of historical events, traditional narratives, and legendary elements, all shaped by their authors' theological perspectives. Despite the presence of discrepancies and varying emphases among these texts, it’s important to note that each Gospel focuses on Jesus’ teachings, ministry, life, death, and resurrection. Our summaries aim to present their core narratives, without asserting historical accuracy or resolving theological interpretations.

#40 - Matthew:  Written primarily for a Jewish audience, Matthew's Gospel emphasizes Jesus as the promised Messiah of the Old Testament prophecies. Throughout the narrative, the author of Matthew showcases Jesus' teachings, miracles, death, and resurrection, emphasizing the Kingdom of Heaven.

#41 - Mark:  Believed to be the earliest Gospel, Mark provides a rapid and dynamic narrative of Jesus' life, focusing on His deeds and His role as the suffering servant. The emphasis is on action and Jesus' ultimate sacrifice for humanity.

#42 - Luke:  Traditionally ascribed to Paul’s companion, Luke’s Gospel emphasizes Jesus' teachings, compassion towards the marginalized, and the role of the Holy Spirit, and is notable for its parables, such as the Good Samaritan and the Prodigal Son.

#43 - John:  Distinct from the Synoptic Gospels , John delves into the deeper theological aspects of Jesus' nature and identity. It focuses on His divinity, presenting Jesus as the Word made flesh, the giver of eternal life, and the source of living water.

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The Book of Acts: AUTHORSHIP, DATE WRITTEN, AND SUMMARIES

Summary of the book of acts - the history of the early christian church post-resurrection.

Critical scholars generally agree that the Acts of the Apostles weren’t authored by Paul’s companion. Moreover, they note its theological agenda and question the historical accuracy of certain parts. Despite these considerations, our summary will focus on presenting the narrative content of Acts, reflecting its themes and progression.

#44 - Acts:  Acts of the Apostles narrates the early Christian community's development and spread, beginning with Jesus' ascension and focusing on the ministries of Peter and Paul. It describes the Pentecost, the growth of the church in Jerusalem, the conversion and missionary journeys of Paul, and his journey to Rome, emphasizing the spread of Christianity from Jerusalem to the Gentile world.

The Pauline Epistles

Summaries for the pauline epistles - letters written by (or attributed to) the apostle paul.

Of the 66 books of the Bible, tradition says that the Apostle Paul wrote 13 of them.  If true, that would mean Paul wrote approximately 20% of the books in the Bible!  There is dispute amongst scholars, however, as to how many of the books attributed to Paul were actually written by him.  We've got an excellent article about that here.

#45 - Romans:  Paul's theological masterpiece, Romans delves deep into topics like sin, justification, sanctification, and the transformative power of the Gospel. It is a comprehensive explanation of Christian doctrine and the life of faith.

#46 - 1 Corinthians:  Addressing issues in the Corinthian church, Paul tackles topics like divisions, morality, and spiritual gifts. The famous chapter on love (Chapter 13) emphasizes love's supreme importance in the Christian life.

#47 - 2 Corinthians:  A personal letter where Paul defends his apostolic authority and offers insights into his hardships for the sake of the Gospel. Themes of reconciliation and the power of Christ in weakness are central.

#48 - Galatians:   The Book of Galatians, a letter written by the Apostle Paul to the Christian communities in Galatia, is a passionate and emphatic message emphasizing the importance of faith in Jesus Christ over the observance of the Jewish Law for salvation. In this letter, Paul addresses the challenge posed by certain individuals who were insisting that Gentile Christians must follow Jewish customs, including circumcision. He asserts his apostolic authority, recounts his personal journey to faith, and argues fervently that justification comes by faith, not by works of the Law. Throughout the letter, Paul encourages the Galatians to live by the Spirit, exhibiting the fruits of love, joy, peace, and other virtues, as opposed to being enslaved by the Law or engaging in behaviors reflective of their former lives. Galatians stands as a pivotal text in Christian theology, highlighting themes of grace, freedom, and the transformative power of faith in Christ.

#49 - Ephesians:  A profound exploration of the church's identity and mission, Ephesians delves into the believer's position in Christ, the importance of unity, and the armor of God.

#50 - Philippians:  Penned from prison, this letter radiates joy in Christ. Paul encourages the Philippian believers to have the mind of Christ and rejoice regardless of circumstances.

#51 - Colossians:  Traditionally attributed to Paul but regarded by many scholars as written by a later author, the Epistle to the Colossians addresses a Christian community in Colossae. It focuses on the supremacy of Christ over all principalities and powers and emphasizes the completeness of believers in Christ, countering local heresies that combined elements of paganism and Jewish traditions with Christianity.

#52 - 1 Thessalonians:  One of Paul's earliest letters, it comforts and encourages the Thessalonian believers, addressing concerns about the Second Coming of Christ.

#53 - 2 Thessalonians:  Further elaborates on Christ's return, correcting misunderstandings and urging steadfastness in the face of persecution.

#54 - 1 Timothy:  Considered by the majority of scholars to be a pseudonymous work, 1 Timothy is a pastoral epistle. It offers guidance on church organization and conduct, addressing doctrinal issues, worship practices, and leadership roles, including qualifications for bishops and deacons. 

#55 - 2 Timothy:  Written by an unknown author at the end of the 1st century, 2 Timothy is framed as a personal letter offering guidance and encouragement to a young leader, Timothy. It emphasizes perseverance in faith and sound teaching in the face of false doctrines and hardships.

#56 - Titus: An unknown author identifying himself as Paul advises Titus on church leadership and Christian living, emphasizing good works as evidence of genuine faith.

#57 - Philemon: Paul’s personal letter to Philemon, a slave owner, urging him to welcome back his runaway slave Onesimus as a brother in Christ.

The General Epistles: AUTHORSHIP, DATE WRITTEN, AND SUMMARIES

Summaries for the general epistles - letters written by various authors to early christian communities.

#58 - Hebrews:  This epistle presents Jesus as the ultimate revelation of God's love and mercy and is superior to all other mediators. Through deep theological exposition, the book demonstrates Christ's supremacy and His role as our high priest, encouraging believers to remain steadfast in their faith.

#59 - James:  Claiming to be written by Jesus' half-brother, The Epistle of James offers practical advice on living a genuine faith. It emphasizes the necessity of works accompanying faith, the power of the tongue, and the importance of patience.

#60 - 1 Peter:  The author of 1 Peter encourages believers undergoing persecutions. He reminds them of their living hope through Christ's resurrection and calls for holy living as God's chosen people.

#61 - 2 Peter:  The author of 2 Peter warns against false teachers and the dangers of apostasy. He reaffirms the promise of Christ's return and the importance of godly living.

#62 - 1 John:  The author of 1 John writes to assure believers of their salvation and encourages them to remain faithful to the truth. The epistle emphasizes love as a hallmark of the Christian life.

#63 - 2 John:  A short letter warning against deceivers and emphasizing the commandment to love one another.

#64 - 3 John:  The author of 3 John writes in appreciation of Gaius for his faithfulness and addresses issues of hospitality in the early church.

#65 - Jude:  The author of Jude delivers an urgent call to contend for the faith against false teachers. The letter highlights God's judgment on the ungodly.

Apocalyptic: AUTHORSHIP, DATE WRITTEN, AND SUMMARIES

Summary for the apocalyptic book - prophecies concerning the end times.

#66 - Revelation:  Written by a certain John of Patmos , Revelation is an apocalyptic text that uses vivid imagery and symbolism to convey a vision of cosmic conflict and the ultimate triumph of good over evil. It addresses the persecution of Christians and the hope of salvation, depicting the end of the world, the final judgment, and the establishment of a new heaven and earth. Revelation primarily reflects the challenges of early Christian communities under Roman rule.  

HOW MANY BOOKS ARE IN the Bible?

When asked, "How many books are in the Bible?" the answer depends on the religious tradition and which Bible we're talking about.   The "Christian" Bible is divided into the Old and New Testaments and contains 66 books , starting with Genesis and ending in Revelation.  The addition of the New Testament to the Hebrew Bible, which only consists of the Christian Old Testament, is the unique identifying feature of the Christian Bible.

The New Testament emerged in the backdrop of a divided 1st-century Judaism. To grasp its origins, we must consider the distinct circumstances that shaped early Christian literature, contrasting it with the ancient Hebrew Bible, or Torah.  The Christian Bible contains 39 Old Testament books and 27 New Testament books giving it the total of 66 books.

How Many Books Are In the Hebrew Bible?

The Old Testament, also known as the Hebrew Bible, serves as the foundation of the Jewish faith. Its writings span centuries, from the ancient prophecies of Isaiah and Amos in the 8th century B.C.E. to the later composition of the Book of Daniel in the 2nd century B.C.E.

The number of books in the Hebrew Bible can vary depending on the specific Jewish tradition or denomination. In the Jewish tradition, there are generally 24 books in the Hebrew Bible, which is also known as the Tanakh . These books are divided into three main sections:  The Torah (Law), The Nevi'im (Prophets), and The Ketuvim (Writings).

It's important to note that the arrangement and categorization of these books can differ slightly among Jewish traditions. For example, the order of the books in the Hebrew Bible may vary between Jewish denominations like Orthodox, Conservative, and Reform Judaism.

The difference in number between the book of the Tanakh (24) and the Christian Old Testament (39) is largely due to the rearrangement and combining of some of the books.  For example, in the Old Testament, Kings, Chronicles, and Samuel are split into two books each.

Conclusion to the 66 Books of the Bible

In this comprehensive guide, we've journeyed through all 66 books of the Bible, unveiling the rich tapestry of stories, teachings, and revelations that have shaped countless lives and continue to inspire millions today.

From the foundational texts of Genesis in the Old Testament to the apocalyptic visions of Revelation in the New Testament, the books of the Bible offer timeless wisdom, spiritual guidance, and profound truths that resonate across the ages. 

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What Is the Chronological Order of the 66 Books of the Bible?

What Is the Chronological Order of the 66 Books of the Bible?

When I first started reading the Bible, I used to get confused at times, wondering why a book I was reading seemed like it came before another, even though in my mind, it should have come after.

I assumed the Bible was organized in chronological order, and it took a while for me to realize my error. For instance, the first five books of the Old Testament— Genesis through Deuteronomy—are in chronological order, but later, I found timelines began to weave together and overlap.

The Bible is indeed a well-organized collection of writings penned by more than two dozen authors spanning thousands of years. Instead of being organized chronologically, it is organized by literary genre. For example, books from the prophets are all together in one section, while books of history are in another.

What is the chronological order of the 66 books of the Bible? And is there a benefit to reading the Bible chronologically instead of its current order?

As with many things, the answer is yes and no.

Are the Books of the Bible in Order?

The books of the Bible are in order, but not chronologically. Rather, they are organized by the type of literature.

Of the 66 books total, the Bible is divided into the 39 books of the Old Testament (before Christ) and the 27 books of the New Testament (after Christ). Beyond that, the order is grouped by literary genre as follows:

Old Testament

- Books of law : Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy

- Books of history : Joshua, Judges, Ruth, 1 Samuel, 2 Samuel, 1 Kings, 2 Kings, 1 Chronicles, 2 Chronicles, Ezra, Nehemiah, Esther

- Books of poetry : Job, Psalms, Proverbs , Ecclesiastes, Song of Solomon

- Major prophets : Isaiah, Jeremiah, Lamentations, Ezekiel, Daniel

- Minor prophets : Hosea, Joel, Amos, Obadiah, Jonah , Micah, Nahum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah, Haggai, Zechariah, Malachi

New Testament

- History of the life of Jesus (Gospel accounts) : Matthew, Mark, Luke, John

- Church history : Acts of the Apostles

- Paul’s letters (epistles) to the churches : Romans, 1 Corinthians, 2 Corinthians, Galatians, Ephesians, Philippians, Colossians, 1 Thessalonians, 2 Thessalonians

- Paul’s letters to individual people : 1 Timothy, 2 Timothy, Titus, Philemon

- Letters by others : Hebrews, James, 1 Peter, 2 Peter, 1 John, 2 John, 3 John, Jude, Revelation

- (Some categorize Revelation not as a letter but as a book of prophecy)

Who Decided What Order the Books Would Go in, and Why?

Ultimately it was God — through His people — who decided what books would be included in His Holy Word, the Bible. Jewish rabbis and scholars selected the first books, and later the early Christians did. These books, called the “canon,” are all considered to have been divinely inspired by God and therefore, as the apostle Paul explained to his mentee, Timothy, “God-breathed” ( 2 Timothy 3:16 ).

The Old Testament had already been compiled before Jesus was born in human form. As for the New Testament, The Muratorian Canon, from around AD 200, is the earliest list of texts resembling the New Testament. Before that, there was no actual “New Testament” but rather a group of books considered to be of greater or lesser value than others. In the 5th century, however, all the different Christian churches came to a basic agreement, assembled by St. Jerome, on the biblical canon.

Most believe the Bible isn’t arranged in chronological order simply because the Bible wasn’t written in one sitting, from start to finish. Many different writers over many, many centuries contributed to the Bible, each one of them inspired by God.

Instead of the chronological grouping, those who compiled and arranged the first Bibles presumably decided a categorical grouping would be more practical or beneficial to God’s people.

What Is the Chronological Order of the 66 Books?

What follows is a rough sketch of the chronological order of the Bible’s 66 books:

There is much overlap, and some of the Gospel accounts about Jesus’s life were actually written years later, even though the events they describe occurred earlier.

Here is the basic chronological order of the New Testament:

- The Gospels : Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John (about the life of Jesus, roughly 4 BC to AD 30 or 33)

- Acts and some epistles : Some letters from Paul and other apostles were written during the same time period that Acts (the history of the church) covers. But roughly, the order is Acts, then James, Galatians, 1 and 2 Thessalonians, 1 and 2 Corinthians, Romans, Colossians, Philemon, Ephesians, and Philippians. The four latter books were written during Paul’s first Roman imprisonment.

- The “freedom” epistles : Next, during Paul’s time of freedom, come his 1 Timothy and Titus letters, as well as the apostle Peter’s 1 and 2 Peter letters.

- Paul’s second Roman imprisonment : The book 2 Timothy was written next, during Paul’s second Roman imprisonment, alongside the books of Hebrews and Jude.

- Last : The last books are the apostle John’s three epistles (1-3 John) and John’s prophetic vision, Revelation.

The Old Testament starts in chronological order, but then veers off chronologically. Here is the basic chronological order of the Old Testament:

- Genesis (concurrent with the Book of Job)

- Exodus and Leviticus

- Number and Deuteronomy

- Judges and Ruth

- 1 Samuel and 2 Samuel

- Concurrent with 1 and 2 Samuel are woven 1 Chronicles and Psalms, as well as the prophets Amos and Hosea

- Concurrent with some of 1 Chronicles and 2 Chronicles are Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, and Song of Solomon

- With 2 Chronicles are 1 and 2 Kings

- Concurrent with 1 Kings are Joel, Micah, Isaiah, Zephaniah, Habakuk, and Jeremiah

- Concurrent with 2 Kings are Lamentations, Jonah, Nahum, and Obadiah

- Then come Israel’s 70 years of exile to Babylon, and the books of Daniel and Ezekiel

- Then comes Ezra (and Esther, at the end of Ezra)

- Then Nehemiah

- Concurrent with Ezra and Nehemiah are the books Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi

Pros and Cons of Reading the Bible Chronologically

There are pros and cons of reading the Bible in chronological order. One good thing is that reading it chronologically can help with our historical understanding and context. We see how timelines and ancestral lineage play in, and the warnings and frustrations of the prophets and God Himself become clearer and more dire when we see how far the people had strayed from God and His Law.

However, the Bible is far more than a history book. The lessons we glean aren’t merely on how to act or to help us derive wisdom as we learn about the past mistakes or successes of God’s people. It’s a love letter, timeless and universal as the Lord Himself, and it gives us a deeper understanding of the nature of God. We aren’t meant to read it “in order,” as God’s order is far bigger than any of us can comprehend. Rather, we are meant to understand the entire canon as working together to help us start to grasp God’s beautiful, perfect, loving nature – a nature that transcends time.

If you find yourself confused while reading the Bible and realizing how much ancient history you don’t know, remember: Reading the Bible isn’t meant to be a cerebral exercise but a balm to the soul. The Bible is more than a history — it is a love letter from God to His people, the greatest love story ever.

Whether you read the Bible cover to cover as-is or prefer to bounce around, or whether you decide to follow a chronological reading plan, remember: the Holy Spirit gives us the sort of true understanding we need.

Just ask God for wisdom and understanding, and He will provide all you need.

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Books of The Bible: Complete List With Authors

M any people like to memorize the list of the books of the Bible in the order they are found in their version of the Scriptures. This helps to find books and verses more quickly, and I encourage everyone who wants to use their Bible more effectively to do so.

But, how about memorizing the authors along with the books? Bible believers believe that God wrote the Bible using human writers. Learning who these writers were would give you a better understanding of the perspective of the book; assuming you know a little bit about the author.

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In some cases the author is not absolutely known. I will first list the name of the commonly accepted author. If there are multiple people who possibly authored the book I will list them in descending order of common acceptance. There is much debate on some of the authors and probably won’t be definitively answered by us here, but you are welcome to comment as to why you think a certain person was the author of a particular book.

Old Testament

In the English Bible the Old Testament is arranged in groups based on the type of book. They are then arranged chronologically within their grouping. That means that some books towards the end of the Old Testament (in the section of the prophets) actually fit chronologically earlier in the Old Testament with the books of history.

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These are the books of the Law. These are also called the Books of Moses. This includes the first five books:

Genesis, written by Moses

Exodus, written by Moses

Leviticus, written by Moses

Numbers, written by Moses

Deuteronomy, written by Moses

The Books of History

The Books of history are so named because they contain historical records and these books include:

Joshua, written by Joshua (except the parts relating to his death)

Judges, written by Samuel, Nathan, Gad

Ruth, written by Samuel, Nathan, Gad

1 Samuel, written by Samuel, Nathan, Gad

2 Samuel, written by Samuel, Nathan, Gad

1 Kings, written by Jeremiah

2 Kings, written by Jeremiah

1 Chronicles, written by Ezra

2 Chronicles, written by Ezra

Ezra, written by Ezra

Nehemiah, written by Nehemiah, Ezra

Esther, written by Mordecai: It is probable that the book was compiled after his death based on his personal records

The Books Poetry

Bible believers believe that God wrote the Bible using human writers.

Bible believers believe that God wrote the Bible using human writers.

Also called the books of Writings include the following books:

Job, written by Job: Moses may have compiled the book based on Job’s records

Psalms, written by David , and several others including Asaph, Ezra, the sons of Korah, Heman, Ethan, Moses and a host of unnamed authors

Proverbs, written by Solomon: Agur and Lemuel are specifically named as the writers of Proverbs 30 and 31

Ecclesiastes, written by Solomon

Song of Solomon (also known as, Song of Songs or Canticles), written by Solomon: though this is debated

Major Prophets

The Major Prophets are so named because their books are longer, not because they are more important.

Isaiah, written by Isaiah

Jeremiah, written by Jeremiah

Lamentations, written by Jeremiah

Ezekiel, written by Ezekiel

Daniel, written by Daniel

Minor Prophets

The Minor Prophets are so named because they are shorter not because they are less important.

Hosea, written by Hosea

Joel, written by Joel

Amos, written by Amos

Obadiah, written by Obadiah

Jonah, written by Jonah

Micah, written by Micah

Nahum, written by Nahum

Habakkuk, written by Habakkuk

Zephaniah, written by Zephaniah

Haggai, written by Haggai

Zechariah, written by  Zechariah

Malachi, written by Malachi

New Testament

The New Testament is also divided into groups. All of these books were written in the first century AD.

Matthew, written by Matthew

Mark, written by John Mark

Luke, written by Luke

John, written by John, the Apostle

Acts, written by Luke

Pauline Epistles

Romans, written by Paul

1 Corinthians, written by Paul

2 Corinthians, written by Paul

Galatians, written by Paul

Ephesians, written by Paul

Philippians, written by Paul

Colossians, written by Paul

1 Thessalonians , written by Paul

2 Thessalonians, written by Paul

1 Timothy, written by Paul

2 Timothy, written by Paul

Titus, written by Paul

Philemon, written by Paul

General Epistles

Hebrews, written by Paul, Luke, Barnabas, Apollos

James, written by James: there are several men named James who could have been the author. Most scholars say this is James the brother of Jesus and Jude (not the Apostle, brother of John).

1 Peter, written by Peter

2 Peter, written by Peter

1 John, written by John, the Apostle

2 John, written by John, the Apostle

3 John, written by John, the Apostle

Jude, written by Jude, the brother of Jesus and James, not the Apostle (Jude 17)

Revelation, written by John, the Apostle

One of the projects I remember from Bible college that came up often was to do research to show why it is believed that certain men wrote each book. I always enjoyed these projects and studying about the various ways scholars make a connection to a certain author. Of course, many of the books are very clear whom the author is because we are told in the book itself.

Then there is the book of Hebrews which gives no clear indication as to who the author might have been. Most people believe it was Paul because of how many other books in the same genre he wrote. However, Hebrews was written to the Jews and Paul focused his ministry on reaching Gentiles. The style of writing is not quite like Paul’s either. Yet, if Paul were to write a book with a purely Jewish audience in mind, it would probably come out to be written just like the book of Hebrews is.

I realize there are people who debate the authorship of various books for the purpose of tearing down the authority of the Bible. That is not my purpose here. It is simply to help you see that God used real people to pen His Word; and sometimes we don’t know who it was that God used. Regardless of who you believe wrote the book of Hebrews, or any other book, the important thing is to trust the content of God’s Word. He wants to have a relationship with man. He does this through His Holy Scriptures.

Want to read more about the history of the Bible? Take a look: Why the Bible is Called the Bible

Tagged as: Bible List , Books of the Bible

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OverviewBible

All 66 Books of the Bible

News flash: the Bible is huge : about 611,000 words long, all divvied up across 66 smaller documents called the “books” of the Bible.

That’s because the Bible is a collection of writings from different authors writing at different times. In some ways, that makes it easier to approach the Bible: we can read it in “chunks” rather than needing to read the whole Bible at once.

But it also makes it a bit confusing. The Bible itself is a book. In fact, the word “bible” comes from the Latin and Greek words for “book” ( biblia and  biblos , respectively). But it’s a book of books. That means if you want to know the Bible better, you’ll need to get acquainted with the 66 documents it comprises.

That can take a while, so . . .

Here’s a snapshot of every book of the Bible

I’ve written a one-sentence overview of every book of the Bible. They’re listed in the order they show up in the Protestant Bible. If you want more, I’ve linked to quick, 3-minute guides to every book of the Bible, too.

This is a lot to take in, so if you want to start with baby steps,  check out this list of the shortest books of the Bible .

Old Testament books of the Bible

The Old Testament includes 39 books which were written long before Jesus was born.

1.  Genesis  

Genesis answers two big questions: “How did God’s relationship with the world begin?” and “Where did the nation of Israel come from?”

Author:  Traditionally Moses , but the stories are much older.

Fun fact:  Most of the famous Bible stories you’ve heard about are probably found in the book of Genesis. This is where the stories of Adam and Eve, Cain and Abel, Noah and the Ark, the Tower of Babel, Abraham and Isaac, Jacob’s ladder, and Joseph’s coat of many colors are recorded.

God saves Israel from slavery in Egypt, and then enters into a special relationship with them.

Author:  Traditionally Moses

3.  Leviticus

God gives Israel instructions for how to worship Him.

Author:  traditionally Moses

4.  Numbers

Israel fails to trust and obey God, and wanders in the wilderness for 40 years.

5.  Deuteronomy

Moses gives Israel instructions (in some ways, a recap of the laws in Exodus–Numbers) for how to love and obey God in the Promised Land.

Joshua (Israel’s new leader) leads Israel to conquer the Promised land, then parcels out territories to the twelve tribes of Israel.

Author:  Nobody knows

Fun fact:  You’ve probably heard of a few fantastic stories from this book (the Battle of Jericho and the day the sun stood still), but most of the action happens in the first half of this book. The last half is pretty much all about divvying up the real estate.

Israel enters a cycle of turning from God, falling captive to oppressive nations, calling out to God, and being rescued by leaders God sends their way (called “judges”).

Two widows lose everything, and find hope in Israel—which leads to the birth of the future King David .

9.  1 Samuel

Israel demands a king, who turns out to be quite a disappointment.

10.  2 Samuel

David, a man after God’s own heart, becomes king of Israel.

11.  1 Kings

The kingdom of Israel has a time of peace and prosperity under King Solomon , but afterward splits, and the two lines of kings turn away from God.

12.  2 Kings

Both kingdoms ignore God and his prophets, until they both fall captive to other world empires.

13.  1 Chronicles

This is a brief history of Israel from Adam to David, culminating with David commissioning the temple of God in Jerusalem.

Author:  Traditionally Ezra

14.  2 Chronicles

David’s son Solomon builds the temple, but after centuries of rejecting God, the Babylonians take the southern Israelites captive and destroy the temple.

The Israelites rebuild the temple in Jerusalem, and a scribe named Ezra teaches the people to once again obey God’s laws.

Author: Ezra

16.  Nehemiah

The city of Jerusalem is in bad shape, so Nehemiah rebuilds the wall around the city.

Author:  Nehemiah

17.  Esther

Someone hatches a genocidal plot to bring about Israel’s extinction, and Esther must face the emperor to ask for help.

Books of Poetry in the Old Testament

Satan attacks a righteous man named Job, and Job and his friends argue about why terrible things are happening to him.

19.  Psalms

A collection of 150 songs that Israel sang to God (and to each other)—kind of like a hymnal for the ancient Israelites.

Author:  So many authors— meet them all here !

20.  Proverbs

A collection of sayings written to help people make wise decisions that bring about justice.

Author: Solomon and other wise men

21.  Ecclesiastes

A philosophical exploration of the meaning of life—with a surprisingly nihilistic tone for the Bible.

Author:  Traditionally Solomon

22.  Song of Solomon (Song of Songs)

A love song (or collection of love songs) celebrating love, desire, and marriage.

Author:  Traditionally Solomon (but it could have been written about Solomon, or in the style of Solomon)

Books of prophecy in the Old Testament

23.  Isaiah

God sends the prophet Isaiah to warn Israel of future judgment—but also to tell them about a coming king and servant who will “bear the sins of many.”

Author:  Isaiah (and maybe some of his followers)

24.  Jeremiah

God sends a prophet to warn Israel about the coming Babylonian captivity, but the people don’t take the news very well.

Author:  Jeremiah

25.  Lamentations  

A collection of dirges lamenting the fall of Jerusalem after the Babylonian attacks.

Author:  Traditionally Jeremiah

26.  Ezekiel

God chooses a man to speak for Him to Israel, to tell them the error of their ways and teach them justice: Ezekiel.

Author:  Ezekiel

27.  Daniel

Daniel becomes a high-ranking wise man in the Babylonian and Persian empires, and has prophetic visions concerning Israel’s future.

Author:  Daniel (with other contributors)

Hosea is told to marry a prostitute who leaves him, and he must bring her back: a picture of God’s relationship with Israel.

Author:  Hosea

God sends a plague of locusts to Judge Israel, but his judgment on the surrounding nations is coming, too.

Author:  Joel

A shepherd named Amos preaches against the injustice of the Northern Kingdom of Israel.

Author:  Amos

31.  Obadiah

Obadiah warns the neighboring nation of Edom that they will be judged for plundering Jerusalem.

Author:  Obadiah

A disobedient prophet runs from God, is swallowed by a great fish, and then preaches God’s message to the city of Nineveh.

Author: Traditionally Jonah

Micah confronts the leaders of Israel and Judah regarding their injustice, and prophecies that one day the Lord himself will rule in perfect justice.

Author:  Micah

Nahum foretells of God’s judgment on Nineveh, the capital of Assyria.

Author:  Nahum

35.  Habakkuk

Habakkuk pleads with God to stop the injustice and violence in Judah, but is surprised to find that God will use the even more violent Babylonians to do so.

Author:  Habakkuk

36.  Zephaniah

God warns that he will judge Israel and the surrounding nations, but also that he will restore them in peace and justice.

Author:  Zephaniah

37.  Haggai

The people have abandoned the work of restoring God’s temple in Jerusalem, and so Haggai takes them to task.

Author:  Haggai

38.  Zechariah

The prophet Zechariah calls Israel to return to God, and records prophetic visions that show what’s happening behind the scenes.

39.  Malachi

God has been faithful to Israel, but they continue to live disconnected from him—so God sends Malachi to call them out.

New Testament books of the Bible

40. The Gospel of  Matthew

This is an account of Jesus’ life, death, and resurrection, focusing on Jesus’ role as the true king of the Jews.

Author:  Matthew

41. The Gospel of  Mark

This brief account of Jesus’ earthly ministry highlights Jesus’ authority and servanthood.

Author:  John Mark

42. The Gospel of  Luke

Luke writes the most thorough account of Jesus’ life, pulling together eyewitness testimonies to tell the full story of Jesus.

Author:  Luke

43. The Gospel of  John

John lists stories of signs and miracles with the hope that readers will believe in Jesus.

Author:  John

Jesus returns to the Father, the Holy Spirit comes to the church, and the gospel of Jesus spreads throughout the world.

Paul’s epistles

45.  Romans

Paul summarizes how the gospel of Jesus works in a letter to the churches at Rome, where he plans to visit.

Author:  Paul

46.  1 Corinthians

Paul writes a disciplinary letter to a fractured church in Corinth, and answers some questions that they’ve had about how Christians should behave.

47.  2 Corinthians

Paul writes a letter of reconciliation to the church at Corinth, and clears up some concerns that they have.

48.  Galatians

Paul hears that the Galatian churches have been lead to think that salvation comes from the law of Moses, and writes a (rather heated) letter telling them where the false teachers have it wrong.

49.  Ephesians

Paul writes to the church at Ephesus about how to walk in grace, peace, and love.

50.  Philippians

An encouraging letter to the church of Philippi from Paul, telling them how to have joy in Christ.

51.  Colossians

Paul writes the church at Colossae a letter about who they are in Christ, and how to walk in Christ.

52.  1 Thessalonians

Paul has heard a good report on the church at Thessalonica, and encourages them to “excel still more” in faith, hope, and love.

53.  2 Thessalonians

Paul instructs the Thessalonians on how to stand firm until the coming of Jesus.

54.  1 Timothy

Paul gives his protegé Timothy instruction on how to lead a church with sound teaching and a godly example.

55.  2 Timothy

Paul is nearing the end of his life, and encourages Timothy to continue preaching the word.

Paul advises Titus on how to lead orderly, counter-cultural churches on the island of Crete.

57.  Philemon

Paul strongly recommends that Philemon accept his runaway slave as a brother, not a slave.

The general, or Catholic, epistles

58.  Hebrews

A letter encouraging Christians to cling to Christ despite persecution, because he is greater.

A letter telling Christians to live in ways that demonstrate their faith in action.

Author: James (likely the brother of Jesus)

60.  1 Peter

Peter writes to Christians who are being persecuted, encouraging them to testify to the truth and live accordingly.

Author:  Peter

61.  2 Peter

Peter writes a letter reminding Christians about the truth of Jesus, and warning them that false teachers will come.

62.  1 John

John writes a letter to Christians about keeping Jesus’ commands, loving one another, and important things they should know.

63.  2 John

A very brief letter about walking in truth, love, and obedience.

Author: John

64.  3 John

An even shorter letter about Christian fellowship.

A letter encouraging Christians to contend for the faith, even though ungodly persons have crept in unnoticed.

Author:  Jude

66.  Revelation

John sees visions of things that have been, things that are, and things that are yet to come.

Want to remember the books of the Bible?

poster displaying the books of the Bible

This helpful visual aid makes an excellent addition to classrooms, church offices, or anywhere else you’d like to reflect on this important collection of books.

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United States Conference of Catholic Bishops

Books of the Bible

Canonical order, alphabetical order, old testament, the pentateuch.

  • Deuteronomy

Historical Introduction

  • 1 Chronicles
  • 2 Chronicles

Biblical Novellas

  • 1 Maccabees
  • 2 Maccabees

Wisdom Books

  • Ecclesiastes
  • Song of Songs

Prophetic Books

  • Lamentations

New Testament

The gospels.

  • Acts of the Apostles

New Testament Letters

  • 1 Corinthians
  • 2 Corinthians
  • Philippians
  • 1 Thessalonians
  • 2 Thessalonians

Catholic Letters

The 66 Books of the Bible in Chronological Order (When & Who Wrote Them)

How about boosting your Bible study by getting to know more about the books of the Holy Bible? Here you will find a suggested chronological order of the different books of the Bible, based on the estimates of scholars. You will learn about theories concerning the authorship of each book and when they were written. It will help you learn more about God’s Word.

Note that this list is based on the Protestant Bible, so it doesn’t include the Deuterocanonical books.

#1 Book: Genesis

Author: Genesis is the first book in the list of the books of the Bible in chronological sequence. It is also the first one in the first major division of the Hebrew Bible, called the “Torah.”

There is no information about the author in the book itself. Jewish and Christian Tradition assigns the authorship of the book of Genesis to Moses. He may have used other sources (including oral tradition) to write or compile this book since the events happened a long time before he was born. For example, the creation of the world, Noah’s ark, the tower of Babel, and God sending Abram (later renamed Abraham) to Canaan — all these well-known Bible stories happened centuries before Moses’s lifetime.

Internal evidence, especially from the New Testament, also affirm Moses’s authorship of Genesis (Acts 15:1) and the Pentateuch (the first five books of the Canon of Scripture), usually referred to as the books of the Law (Luke 16:29, 24:27; John 1:45; 2 Corinthians 3:15). This is considered the strongest evidence in favor of the Mosaic authorship. This tradition is so strong that many writers use the expressions “the Law of Moses” or “the books of Moses” when referring to the Pentateuch.

Some scholars who don’t agree with the authorship of Moses developed a theory they called “The Documentary Hypothesis.” Based on the analysis of the biblical text, they identified four different sources that, according to them, were used by one later editor to compile the five books that we know today. Those sources are:

  • Source J: The texts that refer to God by His covenant name (Yahweh, translated as “The LORD” in all caps in most English Bibles).
  • Source E: The texts that refer to God as Elohim (the more generic word “God”). The proponents of this theory believe these texts were written before the events in Exodus, so people didn’t know God’s revealed name yet (Exodus 3:15).
  • Source D: This is essentially the book of Deuteronomy.
  • Source P: The priestly texts, especially in Leviticus.

Many modern scholars abandoned the Documentary Hypothesis and affirmed Moses’s authorship of the Pentateuch. They argue that there is no evidence of the existence of those four sources. They also say that the differences, repetition, and apparent contradictions within the five books of the Pentateuch can be explained by the literary style of the ancient Near Eastern narratives.

When Written: Scholars who think that Moses wrote the Pentateuch date it to the period when Israel was wandering in the desert, between 1440 and 1400 B.C.

Scholars who defend the Documentary Hypothesis date the compilation of the Pentateuch as a single work to around 550 B.C., during the Babylonian exile.

#2 Book: Exodus

Author: The book is anonymous, but tradition and many scholars consider Moses to be the author of Exodus. Refer to the Genesis discussion above for more information about the authorship of the whole Pentateuch. Exodus 3:15 is the first time that God reveals His covenant name.

Exodus 17:14, 24:4, and 34:27 are considered internal evidence that Moses wrote sections or the entire book. Also, Joshua 8:31 refers to Exodus 20:25 as a command that was “written in the book of the law of Moses” (Joshua 8:31 KJV). The New Testament also refers to texts found in Exodus as texts written by Moses (Mark 7:10, 12:26; Luke 2:22-23).

When Written: Refer to the Genesis discussion in this post for more information.

#3 Book: Leviticus

Author: The book doesn’t identify its author, but tradition and most scholars agree that Moses wrote Leviticus. Refer to the Genesis discussion above for more information about the authorship of the whole Pentateuch.

Even though there is no direct indication that Moses wrote this book, it is clear that God gave him the commands that were registered there (Leviticus 1:1; 4:1; 5:14; 6:1, 8, 19, 24; 7:22, 28; 26:46; 27:34). Paul also affirmed Moses’s authorship of Leviticus in Romans 10:5.

When Written: Refer to the Genesis discussion above for more information.

#4 Book: Numbers

Author: Most scholars agree with the tradition that says that Moses wrote the book of Numbers. Refer to the Genesis discussion above for more information about the authorship of the whole Pentateuch.

Numbers 33:1-2 indicate that Moses wrote at least some part of it. Numbers 1:1, 3:5, 15:1, and other similar verses also indicate that Moses was the one who received most of the contents of this book from God.

#5 Book: Deuteronomy

Author: Traditionally, Moses is considered the author of Deuteronomy. Refer to the Genesis discussion above for more information about the authorship of the whole Pentateuch.

The verses in Deuteronomy 31:9, 22, 24-25 indicate that Moses wrote at least a major part of this book (his speech started in Deuteronomy 1:5). In 2 Kings 14:6, a quote from Deuteronomy 24:16 is referred to as part of “the book of the law of Moses” (2 Kings 14:6 KJV).

Texts from the New Testament also affirmed the Mosaic authorship of Deuteronomy: Matthew 19:7-8; Mark 10:3-5; Acts 3:22-23, 7:37-38; Romans 10:19.

Most scholars agree that Moses wrote this book, and another unknown author added the introduction (Deuteronomy 1:1-5) and the conclusion (chapter 34).

When Written: Scholars and tradition believe that this was the last of the books of Moses, written just before the Israelites entered the Promised Land.

Refer to the Genesis discussion above for more information.

#6 Book: Joshua

Author: The book of Joshua, despite its name, is anonymous. It is the first of the historical books in the Christian Bible and the first book in the second major division of the Hebrew Bible called Prophets. It narrates the events as Joshua leads Israel into the Promised Land.

According to the Jewish people’s tradition, Joshua wrote it himself, except for the ending (Joshua 24:29-33). Most scholars agree that Joshua wrote at least some parts of it (Joshua 24:26).

When Written: Scholars have suggested many possible dates, from the times of Joshua (probably about 1390 B.C.) to the Persian period (fifth and fourth century B.C.).

Some texts indicate that at least portions were written close to when those events took place:

  • Some parts of it were written by eyewitnesses (Joshua 5:1, 6).
  • Rahab was still alive (Joshua 6:25).

Some other texts suggest a later date or additions:

  • There are 12 instances of “to this day,” which puts the author far from those events (for example, Joshua 7:26; 8:29; 15:63).
  • An eyewitness wouldn’t need to cite a source (Joshua 10:13).

#7 Book: Psalms

Author: The book of Psalms includes five collections of compositions by many authors. It is one of the most popular books in the whole Bible. In terms of literary genre, it is one of the books of poetry in the Holy Book.

Most psalms are prefaced by superscripts that give us information about them. According to those superscripts, we have the following authors: David (73 psalms), Asaph (12), the sons of Korah (11), Moses (1), Solomon (2), Heman (1), and Ethan (1).

Some scholars claim that those superscripts might be a later addition, but even the oldest known manuscripts have them.

An important thing that some scholars argue is that the names in the superscripts don’t necessarily mean the author’s name. They may also indicate that the psalm was dedicated to or inspired by someone. For example, the superscript in Psalm 72 refers to Solomon, but some interpreters claim that this psalm was actually written by David (see verse 20) as a short prayer for Solomon.

When Written: Scholars estimate that the composition of all psalms spanned almost a thousand years, from the times of Moses (around 1400 B.C.) to the Babylonian captivity (Jerusalem was destroyed in 586 B.C.).

Considering that David’s psalms make up for almost half of the book of Psalms, the majority of its composition would have happened during his and Solomon’s lifetime, in the late eleventh century and the tenth century B.C.

#8 Book: Judges

Author: The author of the book of Judges is unknown. According to the Jewish people’s tradition, the prophet and judge Samuel wrote it.

When Written: The date of the writing of this book is also unknown. Scholars argue that the phrase “in those days there was no king in Israel” (Judges 17:6, 18:1, 19:1) indicates that it was written after the monarchy was established (tenth century B.C.).

#9 Book: Ruth

Author: The book of Ruth is anonymous. The Jewish tradition credits it to Samuel, but most scholars credit it to an unknown author who lived during the period of the monarchy.

When Written: Scholars claim that David’s genealogy at the end and the literary style in this book indicate that it was written during Solomon’s reign (ca. 950 B.C.). They think that the author was someone who worked on the staff of the royal court, possibly a scribe.

#10 Book: Proverbs

Author: Proverbs is a popular wisdom book from the Canon of Scripture. It is a collection of writings from several authors, according to the biblical text itself:

  • Chapters 1 through 24: the proverbs of Solomon, son of David (Proverbs 1:1).
  • Chapters 25 through 29: the proverbs of Solomon that were compiled by the scribes of the king Hezekiah (Proverbs 25:1).
  • Chapter 30: the proverbs of Agur, the son of Jakeh (Proverbs 30:1).
  • Chapter 31: the proverbs of the king Lemuel (Proverbs 31:1).

Some modern scholars challenge Solomon’s authorship and argue that this book is a product of the postexilic period. However, there is no reasonable evidence to back up that theory.

When Written: Solomon wrote his proverbs between 970 and 930 B.C. Hezekiah’s scribes compiled the additional proverbs between 729 and 686 B.C. There is no other mention of Agur and Lemuel anywhere else in the Holy Scriptures. Scholars think that their proverbs may also have been compiled by Hezekiah’s scribes, or they might have been a later addition.

If Solomon wasn’t the author, scholars think that it was written in the fifth century B.C.

#11 Book: Song of Songs or Song of Solomon

Author: The first verse tells us that Solomon either wrote it, it belonged to him, or it was written about him (Song of Songs 1:1). The Bible tells us that Solomon wrote 1,005 songs (1 Kings 4:32), so it is reasonable to consider him the author of this book.

Some scholars question Solomon’s authorship and attribute it to an unknown author in the postexilic period, but there isn’t strong evidence to support their claims.

When Written: If Solomon is indeed the author, then it was written around 950 B.C. If not, critics claim it was written in the fifth century B.C.

#12 Book: 1 Samuel

Author: The author of 1 and 2 Samuel is unknown. Both books were originally written as a single volume. They were split into two parts by the translators of the Septuagint (a Greek translation of the Old Testament from the second century B.C.).

According to the Jewish tradition, the prophet and judge Samuel is the author of both books. However, he couldn’t have written the events after his death (1 Samuel 25:1). Some scholars claim that he wrote the material up to that point, then the prophets Nathan and Gad completed the book. They base this claim in 1 Chronicles 29:29.

When Written: The books of 1 and 2 Samuel are books of history that tell us about the establishment of the monarchy in Israel, with David as their key character.

Scholars debate about who was the author and when it was written, but most of them agree that the whole book (1 and 2 Samuel) was completed during Solomon’s reign, around 950 B.C.

#13 Book: 2 Samuel

Author: Even though both 1 and 2 Samuel were traditionally attributed to the prophet and judge Samuel, the book of 2 Samuel contains events that took place after his death. That’s why some scholars attribute 2 Samuel to the prophets Nathan and Gad (1 Chronicles 29:29).

When Written: The books of 1 and 2 Samuel were originally composed as a single volume. Most scholars think that they were written during the period of the events they depict and concluded by the time of Solomon’s reign (around 950 B.C.).

#14 Book: Ecclesiastes

Author: The author of this book presented himself as “the Preacher, the son of David, king in Jerusalem,” and he also said, “I the Preacher was king over Israel in Jerusalem” (Ecclesiastes 1:1,12 KJV). Note that “son of David” may also mean a descendant, not necessarily his son.

Some scholars question Solomon’s authorship because of the third person reference to the “Preacher” in Ecclesiastes 12:9-14. However, other scholars claim that those verses might have been a later addition by a second author, who compiled the book. The work of a later compiler/editor may also explain the unique literary style of this book.

When Written: If Solomon wrote this book, he did it late in his life. That would have been around 940 B.C.

Scholars that reject Solomon’s authorship, or at least argue in favor of a later editor, consider it a postexilic text, written as late as 200 B.C.

#15 Book: Job

Author: The author of the book of Job is unknown. Traditionally, Moses is considered the author, but there is no evidence to support that.

Most scholars debate whether this book was produced by one or more authors. The difference of style in the narrative and the speeches made scholars conclude that a late author wrote this book using preexisting material, probably passed along through oral tradition.

When Written: Scholars estimate, based on a careful study of the text, that the events narrated in Job happened during the patriarchal period (second millennium B.C.).

They estimate this book was written sometime between the reign of Solomon (tenth century B.C.) and the postexilic period (fifth century B.C.).

#16 Book: Jonah

Author: The book tells the story of the prophet Jonah, son of Amittai (Jonah 1:1), the most popular among the minor prophets. Most scholars agree that Jonah either wrote the book himself or was the author’s primary source. Since the book was written in the third person, the argument is stronger in favor of an unknown author.

When Written: A prophet called Jonah, son of Amittai, was active in Israel during the reign of Jeroboam II, between 793/92 and 753 B.C., according to 2 Kings 14:25. If Jonah is the author, he probably wrote the book around that time period.

Scholars who think the author of this book is unknown place its composition around the fifth or fourth century B.C. based on linguistic features.

#17 Book: Amos

Author: This book records the prophecies of Amos (Amos 1:1). Whether he wrote it himself or another unknown author did it cannot be determined with certainty.

When Written: The prophet Amos was active during the reigns of the king Uzziah in Judah, and king Jeroboam II in Israel (Amos 1:1), between 760 and 750 B.C. Scholars estimate that Amos or a scribe wrote the book within that time period.

#18 Book: Hosea

Author: Scholars cannot determine if the prophet Hosea wrote the book that records his prophecies himself (Hosea 1:1-2) or if an unknown author did it.

When Written: The prophet Hosea was active during the reigns of Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah, kings of Judah, and Jeroboam II, king of Israel (Hosea 1:1). Scholars estimate the years of this ministry between 755 and 715 B.C. The book was probably written at the end of that time period, after the fall of Samaria (the capital of the northern kingdom) in 722 B.C.

#19 Book: Joel

Author: This book records the prophecies of Joel, the son of Pethuel (Joel 1:1). However, this information isn’t enough to determine with certainty who he was and whether he wrote the book himself.

When Written: The book doesn’t contain any references to kings or any other datable events, so it isn’t possible to date it with certainty. Scholars’ most common suggestion is that it was written between the fall of Samaria (the capital of the northern kingdom) in 722 B.C. and the destruction of Jerusalem in 586 B.C.

#20 Book: Micah

Author: Most scholars agree that the prophet Micah himself wrote parts of the book, specifically the prophecies of judgment. They consider the prophecies of hope (Micah 2:12-13; 4:1-5:9; 7:8-20) a later addition.

When Written: The prophet Micah was active during the reigns of Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah, kings of Judah (Micah 1:1), between 750 and 686 B.C. Scholars estimate that Micah wrote his prophecies around 700 B.C. They also think that any later addition would have been done early in the seventh century B.C. because it was quoted by Jeremiah (Jeremiah 26:18) around 608 B.C.

#21 Book: Isaiah

Author: The book mentions only one author, the prophet Isaiah, son of Amoz (Isaiah 1:1, 2:1, 13:1). The Jewish and Christian traditions agree with that.

However, many scholars have raised objections to the single author theory. They claim that differences in style and content in some parts of the book led them to identify at least three different authors:

  • The prophet Isaiah himself is thought to have written chapters 1 to 39.
  • A second author, an anonymous prophet, would have written chapters 40 to 55.
  • A third author, another anonymous prophet, supposedly wrote chapters 56 to 66.

Scholars who agree that Isaiah wrote the entire book present many reasons to maintain the traditional single authorship position. Here are some of their arguments:

  • An author’s style may change due to several reasons, like age, new experiences, purpose, audience, etc. Also, Isaiah could have used a disciple for the later chapters.
  • There are some expressions used throughout the whole book that point to a single author. For example, Isaiah refers to God as “the Holy One of Israel” 12 times in chapters 1-39 and 14 times in chapters 40-66. Outside Isaiah, it is only used 6 times in the whole Old Testament. There are 25 other Hebrew words or expressions used throughout the whole book of Isaiah that are not used in any other parts of the Old Testament.
  • Several quotes in the New Testament ascribe them to the prophet Isaiah. Matthew 3:3 (quoting Isaiah 40:3), Matthew 4:14-16 (quoting Isaiah 9:1-2), Romans 9:27-29 (quoting Isaiah 10:22-23 and 1:9), and Romans 10:20-21 (quoting Isaiah 65:1,2), all those texts assign to Isaiah quotes from the whole book, including chapters 40-66.
  • The book doesn’t identify any other author. Also, there is no record anywhere else about other authors. Since Isaiah is one of the main prophets of the Old Testament, this silence regarding other authors cannot be ignored.
  • One of the reasons some critical scholars question Isaiah’s authorship of chapters 40-48 is the precision of the future predictions about the exile in Babylon. Even though these predictions are accurate, there is no evidence in the text that the author was familiar with life in Babylon. That suggests that the author didn’t experience the Babylonian captivity but wrote about it through the Holy Spirit’s divine inspiration.

These are some of the reasons why many scholars agree that the prophet Isaiah wrote the whole book.

When Written: Many scholars believe that Isaiah was the single author of the entire book. They think he wrote chapters 1-39 not long after 701 B.C. (when the Assyrian army was destroyed – see Isaiah 37). They also believe he wrote chapters 40-66 near the end of his life, around 681 B.C.

Those who defend the three authors theory claim that the second author would have written chapters 40-55 in the sixth century B.C., and the third author would have been a postexilic prophet, who wrote chapters 56-66 around 400 B.C.

#22 Book: Nahum

Author: This book contains the prophecies of Nahum, the Elkoshite (Nahum 1:1). There is no other evidence to confirm or deny his authorship.

When Written: The book anticipates the fall of Nineveh, which happened in 612 B.C. It mentions the destruction of Thebes in Egypt (Nahum 3:8-10), which happened in 663 B.C. So, scholars estimate it was written around 630 B.C.

#23 Book: Zephaniah

Author: The book contains the prophecies of Zephaniah, son of Cushi (Zephaniah 1:1). Due to his prominent social standing, he probably wrote the book himself.

When Written: The prophet Zephaniah was active during the reign of Josiah (Zephaniah 1:1), which took place from 640 to 609 B.C. Scholars estimate he wrote this book after the Book of the Law was found (2 Kings 22), around 622 B.C., but before the king’s reformation, in 628 B.C.

#24 Book: Habakkuk

Author: Due to the lack of more information, scholars assume that Habakkuk wrote this book himself (Habakkuk 1:1, 3:1).

When Written: Habakkuk predicted the Babylonian invasion (Habakkuk 1:6), so many scholars date this book after the reign of Josiah (640-609 B.C.), at the beginning of Jehoiakim’s (609-598 B.C.), between 612 and 605 B.C. Other scholars date it around 630 B.C., before Josiah’s reformation began.

#25 Book: Jeremiah

Author: The vast majority of the scholars agree that the prophet Jeremiah, son of Hilkiah (Jeremiah 1:1), wrote the book that bears his name. He dictated his prophecies to Baruch, the scribe (Jeremiah 36:4), who wrote them down.

When Written: Scholars estimate that the contents of the book cover Jeremiah’s ministry from 626 to 580 B.C. Also, scholars agree that chapter 52 was added later, possibly by Baruch, after Jehoiakim’s release, around 561-560 B.C.

#26 Book: Daniel

Author: In the Christian Bible, the book of Daniel is located between the major prophets and the minor prophets. The vast majority of scholars classify it as a major prophet. In the Hebrew Bible, it is in the major division called Writings, not in Prophets. Daniel is mostly known for being thrown into the lions’ den for refusing to suspend his daily prayer to God, one of the most popular passages of the Bible among people today.

The author of the book introduces himself as Daniel (Daniel 7:28; 8:1,15; 9:2; 10:2). Jesus quoted from this book and attributed it to the prophet Daniel (Matthew 24:15-16).

Some scholars question the authorship of the visions because they refer to Daniel in the third person (Daniel 7:1, 10:1). Those scholars think that those texts might have been written by someone else close to Daniel.

When Written: The events of the book spanned between 605 B.C. (Daniel 1:1) and 536 B.C. (Daniel 10:1). So, most scholars think that the book was completed by 530 B.C.

#27 Book: Ezekiel

Author: The book records the visions of Ezekiel, the priest (Ezekiel 1:3). The use of first-person pronouns since the very first verse suggests that Ezekiel himself is the author.

A few scholars challenged his authorship, claiming this is a postexilic work, but the vast majority consider these claims unfounded.

When Written: Unlike other prophetic books, the author recorded the dates of Ezekiel’s prophecies. Based on those dates, scholars determined that the book contains historical records from 593 to 571 B.C., covering 22 years of Ezekiel’s ministry.

#28 Book: Lamentations

Author: This book is anonymous. The Septuagint and the Jewish tradition attribute it to Jeremiah due to 2 Chronicles 35:25. However, that verse refers to the death of Josiah, not the fall of Jerusalem, which is the theme of the lamentations in this book. But since no author is identified, Jeremiah is considered a viable option.

When Written: Most scholars think that the book was written by an eyewitness of the destruction of Jerusalem in 586 B.C., and he probably wrote the book shortly after, no later than 575 B.C.

#29 Book: Obadiah

Author: There is no information about the author other than his name (Obadiah 1:1). This is not the same person mentioned in 1 Kings 18:3–16. Obadiah, which means “the Lord’s servant,” was a common name in the Old Testament times, which makes it harder to identify this author.

When Written: The book doesn’t mention the name of any king that would help determine the date of its writing. Scholars think that Obadiah 1:11-17 indicates that a major calamity had just befallen Jerusalem. They say that it was most likely the destruction of Jerusalem in 586 B.C. If so, this book was probably written shortly after that, no later than 553 B.C.

#30 Book: 1 Kings

Author: The author of 1 and 2 Kings is unknown. Both books were originally written as one single volume. They were split into two parts by the translators of the Septuagint.

According to the Jewish tradition, 1 and 2 Kings were written by Jeremiah, but most scholars today rule out this possibility. They believe 1 and 2 Kings were written/compiled by an unknown Judahite exile.

When Written: Together, 1 and 2 Kings comprise a book of history that tells us about the kings of Israel, from the death of King David to the fall of Jerusalem and the Babylonian captivity.

There is evidence in the text that parts of both books were written before their final edition. For example, 1 Kings 8:8 speaks of the Temple as if it were still there when the text was written, but the Temple was destroyed in 2 Kings 25:8-17. Three external sources were cited (1 Kings 11:41; 14:19, 29). Scholars also believe that the author used the books of Jeremiah and Isaiah as sources as well.

The ending of the second book indicates that 1 and 2 Kings were written/compiled after Jehoiakim’s release from prison in 562 B.C (2 Kings 25:27-30), but before the end of the Babylonian exile in 538 B.C.

#31 Book: 2 Kings

Author: Refer to the discussion of the book of 1 Kings, above.

When Written: Refer to the discussion of the book of 1 Kings, above.

#32 Book: Haggai

Author: Most scholars agree that the prophet Haggai wrote this book (Haggai 1:1).

When Written: Haggai dated his prophecies, which he delivered between August and December of 520 B.C. These dates show us a special relationship between the book of Haggai and the book of Zechariah: these prophets were active in the same time period. On one occasion, they prophesized in alternate months of the same year.

#33 Book: Zechariah

Author: The book contains the prophecies of Zechariah, son of Berechiah (Zechariah 1:1). Many scholars agree with the tradition that he is the author of this book.

However, since the seventeenth century, scholars have argued that he only wrote the first eight chapters. They claim chapters 9 to 11 were written later by a second author, and chapters 12 to 14 were written by a third author, both unknown. The opinion among modern scholars is divided.

When Written: The first eight chapters were dated: the messages were delivered from 520 to 518 B.C. Most scholars think that Zechariah wrote the rest of the book later in his life, between 500 and 470 B.C. Those who think that two other authors wrote the last six chapters estimate that the book was completed around 160 B.C.

#34 Book: 1 Chronicles

Author: The books of 1 and 2 Chronicles are anonymous. According to tradition, the priest Ezra wrote Chronicles (the division into two books came much later), Ezra and Nehemiah. Most scholars agree with that view. They claim that there are similarities in the vocabulary, themes, and concerns among those books. They also point out how the book of Ezra seems to pick up where 2 Chronicles left off (compare 2 Chronicles 36:22-23 with Ezra 1:1-4).

Scholars who don’t agree with this view claim that there are many distinctions between Ezra-Nehemiah and Chronicles. However, those distinctions can be easily explained by the fact that the author of 1 and 2 Chronicles may have used a variety of external written sources to compile the books. He may have quoted those original sources verbatim instead of rewriting them to match his style.

When Written: Most scholars date 1 and 2 Chronicles to the second half of the fifth century B.C., which matches Ezra’s lifetime.

#35 Book: 2 Chronicles

Author: Refer to the discussion of the book of 1 Chronicles, above.

When Written: Refer to the discussion of the book of 1 Chronicles, above.

#36 Book: Ezra

Author: The Hebrew Bible treats Ezra and Nehemiah as one book. Origen (A. D. 185-253) was the first writer to separate them, calling them 1 Ezra and 2 Ezra.

The book of Ezra is anonymous. It contains some narratives in the first person (Ezra 7:27-28; 8:15-34; 9:1-15), which suggests autobiographical content. Traditionally, Ezra the priest is considered the author of both books.

When Written: Scholars date the book of Ezra sometime after 440 B.C.

#37 Book: Nehemiah

Author: The book of Nehemiah records the “words of Nehemiah the son of Hachaliah” (Nehemiah 1:1 KJV). It contains narratives in the first person but, traditionally, Ezra the priest is considered the author of this book, not Nehemiah. In the Hebrew Bible, Ezra and Nehemiah are one single volume called Ezra.

When Written: Scholars date the book of Nehemiah sometime after 430 B.C.

#38 Book: Esther

Author: The book doesn’t mention any author. Scholars can only affirm that the author is a Jew familiar with Persian customs, but he is unknown.

When Written: Most scholars agree that the book was written sometime after 460 B.C., when the events in the book occurred, and before 350 B.C., when Greece conquered the Persian Empire.

#39 Book: Malachi

Author: There are two major theories regarding the identification of the author of this book:

  • Some scholars think that the word “Malachi” in Malachi 1:1, which means “my messenger,” is not a proper name. So, it doesn’t designate a specific prophet but an unknown “messenger.”
  • Other scholars argue that the grammatical construction in Malachi 1:1 indicates that Malachi was the prophet’s proper name.

When Written: Based on clues from the text, scholars place Malachi during the time of Ezra and Nehemiah, between 450 and 430 B.C.

#40 Book: Galatians

Author: The author introduces himself as the apostle Paul (Galatians 1:1). This author shares many personal experiences that allow no dispute to Paul’s authorship.

When Written: Scholars present three possibilities:

  • Most scholars affirm Paul wrote this letter to the South Galatians while he was in Syrian Antioch, in A.D. 48-49. In this case, Galatians would be Paul’s earliest letter, the first one in chronological sequence of writing.
  • Other scholars affirm that Paul was in Syrian Antioch or Corinth, and he wrote the letter to the South Galatians between A.D. 51 and 53.
  • Yet another group of scholars thinks Paul wrote this letter to the North Galatians in A.D. 53-57.

#41 Book: 1 Thessalonians

Author: Even though Silas and Timothy are mentioned as co-senders in 1 Thessalonians 1:1, most scholars identify Paul as the primary author due to his writing style and the usage of the pronoun “I” in 1 Thessalonians 2:18, 3:5 and 5:27. Early church writers also support Paul’s authorship, like Marcion in A.D. 140.

When Written: Most scholars date this letter between A.D. 50 and 52, during Paul’s ministry in Corinth.

#42 Book: 2 Thessalonians

Author: The senders of 2 Thessalonians are Paul, Silas, and Timothy. However, Paul’s authorship is more debated.

Some scholars point out differences in the vocabulary, literary style, and theology when compared to the first letter and other letters by Paul.

Those who confirm Paul’s authorship argue that those differences are not substantial enough to disprove the Pauline source.

When Written: Scholars think that this letter was written shortly after the first one. So, they estimate that it was written between A.D. 51 and 52.

#43 Book: 1 Corinthians

Author: The apostle Paul is the author of this letter, and Sosthenes is the co-sender (1 Corinthians 1:1). Paul’s authorship is confirmed by early church fathers, like Clement of Rome (A.D. 96).

When Written: Most scholars date this letter to A.D. 54-55, based on the chronology of Paul’s travels in Acts. He wrote this letter while he was in Ephesus (1 Corinthians 16:8).

#44 Book: 2 Corinthians

Author: The apostle Paul is the author of this letter, and Timothy is the co-sender (2 Corinthians 1:1). Paul’s authorship is not disputed.

However, many contemporary scholars argue that this epistle was not originally written as a single letter, but it was compiled out of several smaller letters.

When Written: Scholars believe that this letter was written around A.D. 55.

#45 Book: Romans

Author: The apostle Paul is the author of this letter (Romans 1:1). There has been no serious dispute about that.

When Written: Even though a few scholars disagree, most of them set the date of this letter to around A.D. 57.

#46 Book: Mark

Author: Even though the book doesn’t identify the author, Christian tradition and scholars agree that it was written by John Mark (Acts 12:12, 25; 15:37, Colossians 4:10), or simply Mark, his Greek name.

The most significant evidence comes from the writing of an early church father, Papias (around A.D. 125). He quoted another church father, John the Elder (from around A.D. 90), who claimed that Mark was Peter’s close associate (1 Peter 5:13), from whom he received the teachings he used as the source for this book.

When Written: Most scholars think that Mark wrote this gospel while Peter was still alive, and date it between the late A.D. 50s and early 60s.

#47 Book: James

Author: The author identifies himself as “James, a servant of God and of the Lord Jesus Christ” (James 1:1 KJV). There are a few known people named James in the New Testament:

  • The son of Zebedee and brother of John, one of the Twelve (Mark 1:19, 3:17).
  • The son of Alphaeus, one of the Twelve (Mark 3:18).
  • The father or brother of Judas (Luke 6:16, Acts 1:13).
  • The brother of Jesus (Galatians 1:19).

According to scholars, it is unlikely that the son of Zebedee is the author of this epistle because he died too early, around 44 A.D. (Acts 12:2).

Scholars claim that, due to the simple introduction and the implied authority of the author, it is likely that he was a well-known leader. The best match among these key characters is the brother of Jesus. He was one of the leaders in the Jerusalem church (Acts 12:17, 15:13, 21:18), and probably the same person mentioned in 1 Corinthians 15:7, Galatians 2:9, and Jude 1:1.

When Written: Most scholars date this letter to the early A.D. 60s. Some scholars, however, claim that clues from the text indicate an earlier date, possibility before A.D. 50. They agree that this was the first of the general letters of the New Testament to be written.

#48 Book: Ephesians

Author: Most scholars agree that the apostle Paul is the author of this letter. He identified himself as the author (Ephesians 1:1 and 3:1), and he mentions personal experiences that match known episodes from Paul’s life (Ephesians 3:1-13, 4:1, 6:19-20).

Those who disagree with the Pauline authorship refer mainly to its writing style, which they argue is different from other known letters of Paul.

When Written: Scholars think that Paul wrote the letter between A.D. 60 and 62, during his imprisonment in Rome (Ephesians 3:1; 4:1; 6:20). Those who don’t agree with Paul’s authorship date the letter between A.D. 70 and 90.

#49 Book: Philippians

Author: There is little dispute to the apostle Paul’s authorship (Philippians 1:1).

A few scholars argue that this letter was a composition of several letters the apostle Paul wrote to the Philippians, but most don’t agree with that theory.

Also, some scholars, like H. Koester, question the origin of the “hymn” in Philippians 2:5-11, claiming that it might be an earlier writing that Paul quoted.

When Written: There isn’t much information that can help establish a precise date when Paul wrote this letter. We know that he was incarcerated (Philippians 1:13), so there are a few options, depending on where he was when he wrote it:

  • Rome: between A.D. 60 and 62.
  • Ephesus: between A.D. 54 and 57.
  • Corinth: around A.D. 50.
  • Caesarea: between A.D. 57 and 60.

Most scholars agree that the reference to “Caesar’s household” (Philippians 4:22 KJV) indicates that Paul was more likely in Rome, even though Caesarea is also a possibility.

#50 Book: Colossians

Author: The apostle Paul is identified as the author of this letter (Colossians 1:1, 1:23, 4:18), and Timothy is the co-sender (Colossians 1:1).

Some contemporary scholars claim that the language and some aspects of the theology don’t match Paul’s other letters.

Other scholars are in favor of Paul’s authorship. They also argue that this letter is too short to demonstrate that Paul didn’t write it based solely upon differences in style.

When Written: Most scholars think that Paul wrote this letter while he was incarcerated, most likely in Rome (Caesarea is another possibility), at around A.D. 60.

#51 Book: Philemon

Author: There is a consensus among contemporary scholars that the apostle Paul wrote this letter (Philemon 1:1). Paul cites Timothy as co-sender (Philemon 1:1).

When Written: Paul wrote this letter during his imprisonment (Philemon 1:1), probably in Rome. So, most scholars estimate it was around A.D. 60.

#52 Book: Matthew

Author: Although there is no information about the author in this book, early church writers are unanimous in ascribing it to Matthew, also called Levi, one of the 12 apostles (Matthew 9:9-13).

Due to similarities between the gospels of Mark, Matthew, and Luke, they are called the synoptic gospels. Scholars have come up with a few theories to try to explain those similarities.

The most common theory among scholars asserts that Matthew and Luke used Mark and an unknown source called “Q” (from the German word Quelle, which means “source”) as primary sources to write their own gospel accounts. However, there is no evidence of the existence of this source “Q.”

That theory has led some modern scholars to doubt Matthew’s authorship. Among other reasons, they question why would Matthew, an eyewitness, use a source from someone who wasn’t an eyewitness?

Those who defend Matthew’s authorship claim that Matthew may have used the gospel of Mark because of Peter’s authority behind it.

When Written: There has been much debate about the dating of Matthew’s gospel. Some scholars suggest it was written in the 50s or 60s, before the fall of Jerusalem in A.D. 70. Others claim it was later, between A.D. 70 and 80.

#53 Book: Luke

Author: This book is anonymous, but evidence from early church writers and early manuscripts identify Luke as the author. The gospel of Luke and the book of Acts are considered a two-volume document that Luke wrote to record Jesus’s life, the early church, and Paul’s life. The openings in Luke 1:1-4 and Acts 1:1-2 make it clear that the same author wrote both books.

Although Luke wasn’t an eyewitness, he makes it clear in the first four verses of this book that he had made a careful investigation of the facts, and he used accounts from eyewitnesses in his research (Luke 1:1-4).

Modern scholars believe that Luke used the gospel of Mark and an unknown source called “Q” in his work (refer to the discussion of the gospel of Matthew above for more information about this theory and the synoptic gospels). This theory is disputed for the lack of external evidence.

When Written: Most scholars agree that Luke wrote his gospel when Mark’s was already in circulation. They believe that Luke started writing his gospel after Paul was imprisoned but before his sentencing in Rome. Based on those assumptions, they date Luke’s gospel to A.D. 61-62.

#54 Book: Acts of the Apostles

Author: Considering the type of literature, this is the only historical book in the New Testament. It is an anonymous book, but all known evidence from the early church, dating back to the second century, points to Luke as the author of the book of Acts. Few scholars question this tradition. Luke was a physician (Colossians 4:14), which indicates he was well-educated, and a companion of the apostle Paul (2 Timothy 4:11, Philemon 1:24). Based on the “we” passages in Acts (16:9-17, 20:5-15, 21:1-18, 27:1-28:16), where the author includes himself in the narrative, scholars conclude that he was an associate of Paul, which is another argument in favor of Luke’s authorship.

When Written: The possible dates for the writing of this book range from A.D. 62, when the last event recorded took place, to the middle of the second century, which is the date of the first known mention of the book.

Most scholars are in favor of an early writing, around A.D. 62, because the book doesn’t mention Paul’s martyrdom (between A.D. 64 and 67) or the severe persecution that begun under the emperor Nero in A.D. 64.

#55 Book: 1 Peter

Author: The author identifies himself as Peter, an apostle of Jesus Christ (1 Peter 1:1). Evidence from early church writers is strong that the apostle Peter did write it. The author mentions that Silas helped him write the letter (1 Peter 5:12).

When Written: Most scholars think that Peter wrote this letter shortly before his martyrdom under the emperor Nero (between A.D. 64 and 68), but not before this arrival in Rome in the early 60s. So, a reasonable date is around A.D. 62 and 63.

#56 Book: Titus

Author: The Church tradition identifies the apostle Paul as the writer of this letter (Titus 1:1). Some modern scholars have questioned Paul’s authorship, but others claim the arguments aren’t strong enough.

When Written: Most scholars believe that Paul wrote this letter after his release from his imprisonment in Rome, about the same time when he wrote 1 Timothy, between A.D. 63 and 65.

#57 Book: 1 Timothy

Author: Christian Tradition and modern scholars claim that the apostle Paul wrote this letter to his disciple Timothy (1 Timothy 1:1-2).

Some contemporary scholars question the authorship of all pastoral letters (1 and 2 Timothy and Titus) based on the writing style. Most scholars claim that the evidence critics raise is not enough to doubt Paul’s authorship.

When Written: There isn’t significant evidence in the letter as to when it was written. Most scholars think that Paul wrote it after his release from prison in Rome, between A.D. 63 and 65.

#58 Book: 2 Timothy

Author: As with 1 Timothy, tradition says that the apostle Paul wrote this letter to his disciple Timothy (2 Timothy 1:1-2) when he was contemplating his death (2 Timothy 4:6–8).

Contemporary scholars question the Pauline authorship based on the style of the letter, but other scholars claim there isn’t enough evidence to doubt Paul’s authorship.

When Written: Eusebius dated the martyrdom of Paul to A.D. 67. So, scholars estimate that Paul wrote this letter about a year before that, in A.D. 66.

Some modern scholars claim that Paul was executed between A.D. 64 and 65, so he would have penned the letter shortly before that.

#59 Book: 2 Peter

Author: The author of this letter introduces himself as “Simon Peter, a servant and an apostle of Jesus Christ” (2 Peter 1:1 KJV). However, there isn’t confirmation from the early church about it. This letter wasn’t associated with Peter until Origen’s time (A.D. 185-253).

Some scholars question Peter’s authorship, especially because of the difference in style when compared to 1 Peter. Those who defend Peter’s authorship argue that the differences can be explained by the fact that Silas isn’t mentioned here as a helper in writing the letter, which may have influenced the style of the first letter.

When Written: Peter was martyred around A.D. 64-68, under the emperor Nero. So, scholars estimate the letter was written shortly before his death, at around A.D. 65.

#60 Book: Hebrews

Author: Hebrews is an anonymous letter. Tradition says it was written by Paul, but the vast majority of modern scholars reject this theory. Among other reasons against the Pauline authorship, Hebrews 2:3 indicates that the author received the gospel from someone else, while Paul stated that he had received it from the Lord Himself (Galatians 1:11-17).

Many names have been suggested across the centuries, like Luke, Barnabas, Clement of Rome, Apollos, Priscilla, Silas, Epaphras, Timothy. However, there is no strong evidence in favor of any of them.

When Written: Scholars think Hebrews was written before the fall of Jerusalem in A.D. 70. So, they suggest A.D. 60 to 70 as the probable date of its writing.

#61 Book: Jude

Author: The author of Jude introduced himself as “Jude, the servant of Jesus Christ, and brother of James” (Jude 1:1 KJV). In the Christian Bible, the only Jude (or Judas) brother of James was the brother of the Lord (Mark 6:3). This conclusion matches the tradition of the early church.

When Written: Some scholars claim that 2 Peter borrowed content from this letter. If so, then it must have been written before 2 Peter. So, scholars date this letter to no later than A.D. 68. Of course, the borrowing could have happened the other way around.

#62 Book: John

Author: The author of this gospel is not named, but we know that he was a disciple of Jesus and a witness of the events he narrated. He also called himself “the disciple whom Jesus loved” (John 21:20 KJV). According to an early tradition of the church, the author is the apostle John, the son of Zebedee.

When Written: Even though this is one of the first books in the New Testament, most scholars believe it was one of the last books to be written. They suggest a late date, around A.D. 85, after the other three gospels and most of the epistles were already written. Other scholars claim that John didn’t use the other gospels, so he could have written it much earlier. These scholars suggest a date before the fall of Jerusalem (A.D. 70), as early as the 50s. Considering all possibilities, scholar’s estimates span from A.D. 55 to 95.

#63 Book: 1 John

Author: The author doesn’t identify himself. There are many similarities between this letter and the gospel of John that led scholars to conclude that both were written by the same author. A few scholars have pointed out some differences between them, but the similarities far outnumber them. Also, in 1 John 1:1-3, the author stated that he was an eyewitness to Jesus’s ministry. He affirmed he had heard, seen with his own eyes, and touched Jesus.

Early church fathers like Irenaeus, Clement of Alexandria, Tertullian, and Origen affirm that the apostle John wrote the letters we know as 1, 2 and 3 John. Based on this and other evidence, most scholars also agree with the apostle John’s authorship of the three letters.

When Written: Since neither one of the three letters of John have any indication of when they were written, scholars date them based on some textual clues. For example, the author refers to his readers as “children”, which indicates that he is an elder. The book of 1 John confronts an early form of Gnosticism, a second-century heresy.

Based on these and other clues, scholars estimate that the three letters of John were written near the end of the first century, between A.D. 85 and 95.

#64 Book: 2 John

Author: The author identifies himself simply as “the elder” (2 John 1:1 KJV). According to tradition, this letter was written by the apostle John. Scholars see no reason to doubt John’s authorship, considering the similarities of this letter to 1 John and the gospel of John. Refer to the discussion of 1 John above for more information.

When Written: This letter was probably written around the same time as 1 John. Refer to the discussion of 1 John above for more information.

#65 Book: 3 John

Author: As in 2 John, the author introduces himself as “the elder” (3 John 1:1 KJV). According to Christian tradition, this third letter was also written by the apostle John. Due to similarities to 1 and 2 John, scholars agree with John’s authorship. Refer to the discussion of 1 John above for more information.

This is the shortest book of the Bible, containing only 219 words in the original Greek language.

When Written: This letter was probably written around the same time as 1 and 2 John. Refer to the discussion of 1 John above for more information.

#66 Book: Revelation

Author: The book of Revelation is usually associated with the second coming of Christ and the end times. In terms of literary genre, it is the only prophecy book in the New Testament.

The book’s author identifies himself simply as “his servant John” (Revelation 1:1 KJV). According to the Church tradition, it was the apostle John who wrote this book.

In the third century, a bishop called Dionysius compared the style and language of the gospel of John and the book of Revelation, and he concluded that they were not written by the same author. So, he attributed Revelation to another John, called “the Elder.”

However, other early church writers like Justin, Irenaeus, and Polycarp affirmed that the apostle John was indeed the author of this book. This is the position widely accepted today.

When Written: The book of Revelation was the last book written of the entire Bible. Most scholars date it to A.D. 95-96 based on a quote by Irenaeus (from “Against Heresies,” 5.30.3), an early church father, who said that John received this vision towards the end of Domitian’s reign.

Take your time to study this Bible timeline. Among other Bible reading plans, a chronological Bible reading is the best way to understand the historical order of well-known passages of the Bible and the whole biblical history. You can use the information in this article during your reading of the Bible to go deeper into the Word of the Lord and grow in the knowledge of God through the Holy Spirit.

  • A Survey of the Old Testament, Second Edition, by Andrew E. Hill & J. H. Walton.
  • An Introduction to the New Testament, Second Edition, by D. A. Carson & Douglas J. Moo.
  • NIV Archaeological Study Bible, by Duane Garrett and Walter C. Kaiser Jr.
  • NIV Study Bible, by Kenneth Barker.
  • NIV Zondervan Study Bible, by D. A. Carson.

Blog / When Was Each Book of the Bible Written?

Jonathan Petersen

When Was Each Book of the Bible Written?

Old Testament

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  • Job : Considered earliest, but date unknown
  • Genesis : 1445-1405 BC
  • Exodus : 1445-1405 BC
  • Leviticus : 1445-1405 BC
  • Numbers : 1445-1405 BC
  • Deuteronomy : 1445-1405 BC
  • Psalms : 1410-450 BC
  • Joshua : 1405-1385 BC
  • Judges : 1043 BC

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  • Song of Songs : 971-965 BC
  • Proverbs : 971-686 BC
  • Ecclesiastes : 940-931 BC
  • 1 Samuel : 931-722 BC
  • 2 Samuel : 931-722 BC
  • Obadiah : 850-840 BC
  • Joel : 835-796 BC
  • Jonah : 775 BC

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  • Hosea : 750-710 BC
  • Micah : 735-710 BC
  • Isaiah : 700-681 BC
  • Nahum : 650 BC
  • Zephaniah : 635-625 BC
  • Habakkuk : 615-605 BC
  • Ezekiel : 590-570 BC
  • Lamentations : 586 BC

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  • 1 Kings : 561-538 BC
  • 2 Kings : 561-538 BC
  • Judith* : Uncertain (538 BC-AD 70)
  • Daniel : 536-530 BC
  • Haggai : 520 BC
  • Baruch* : 500-100 BC
  • Zechariah : 480-470 BC
  • Ezra : 457-444 BC

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  • 2 Chronicles : 450-430 BC
  • Esther : 450-331 BC
  • Malachi : 433-424 BC
  • Nehemiah : 424-400 BC
  • Susanna* : 400 BC-AD 70
  • Psalm 151* : 400 BC-AD 100
  • Letter of Jeremiah* : 307-317 BC

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  • Ben Sira (Sirach)* : 200-175 BC
  • Bel and the Dragon* : 200-100 BC
  • Greek Esther* : 200-1 BC
  • Prayer of Azariah* : 200-1 BC
  • 1 Maccabees* : 150-100 BC
  • 2 Maccabees* : 150-100 BC
  • 1 Esdras* : 100 BC-AD 100

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  • 3 Maccabees** : 100-1 BC
  • 4 Maccabees** : 100-1 BC
  • Wisdom* : 50-20 BC
  • 2 Esdras** : AD 100-200

*A deuterocanonical/apocryphal book **A pseudepigrapha book

New Testament

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  • Galatians : AD 49-50
  • Mark : AD 50-60
  • Matthew : AD 50-60
  • 1 Thessalonians : AD 51
  • 2 Thessalonians : AD 51-52
  • 1 Corinthians : AD 55
  • 2 Corinthians : AD 55-56

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  • Luke : AD 60-61
  • Ephesians : AD 60-62
  • Philippians : AD 60-62
  • Philemon : AD 60-62
  • Colossians : AD 60-62
  • Acts : AD 62
  • 1 Timothy : AD 62-64
  • Titus : AD 62-64
  • 1 Peter : AD 64-65

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  • 2 Peter : AD 67-68
  • Hebrews : AD 67-69
  • Jude : AD 68-70
  • John : AD 80-90
  • 1 John : AD 90-95
  • 2 John : AD 90-95
  • 3 John : AD 90-95
  • Revelation : AD 94-96

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Books of the King James Bible (KJV)

Viewing the Standard (Cambridge) King James Version Bible Books List. Click to switch to the 1611 KJV Books List

Old Testament

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1769 King James Bible Introduction

1611 KJV Books List

New Testament

Matthew 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 19 | 20 | 21 | 22 | 23 | 24 | 25 | 26 | 27 | 28 Mark 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 Luke 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 19 | 20 | 21 | 22 | 23 | 24 John 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 19 | 20 | 21 Acts 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 19 | 20 | 21 | 22 | 23 | 24 | 25 | 26 | 27 | 28 Romans 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 1 Corinthians 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 2 Corinthians 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 Galatians 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 Ephesians 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 Philippians 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 Colossians 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 1 Thessalonians 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 2 Thessalonians 1 | 2 | 3 1 Timothy 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 2 Timothy 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 Titus 1 | 2 | 3 Philemon 1 Hebrews 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 James 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 1 Peter 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 2 Peter 1 | 2 | 3 1 John 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 2 John 1 3 John 1 Jude 1 Revelation 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 19 | 20 | 21 | 22

Recent Bible Comments

Psalms 51 Comment... "Good afternoon, Momsage, I am one who thinks that faults and propensities in our personalities and character can be considered sinful. If one has a quick temper, is easily provoked, unwilling to forgive offenses, is self-seeking, envies, prideful, thinks evil thoughts, or any number of "faults' or "weaknesses" one is sinning with these faults/weaknesses when we give in and let them be expressed. See 1 Corinthians 13 If I have tendencies to complain, gossip, talk behind another's back, be lazy when I should do what task I need to do each day, fail to give my husband attention and affection and care to fill up his need-all these are sinful. It is highly probable that you have faults such as these or others that when you read of them in Scripture the Holy Spirit pricks your heart. We are to live godly lives in this wicked generation, especially in our own home and with our family and close friends. We are to practice keeping a guard on our hearts and minds and actions with diligence. If you read I Corinthians 13 and find that you do not always follow what it says about love, then you can know you are failing to love as God wants us to. Loving others is a really huge aspect of obedience to God's ways. And one area that I don't think ANYONE can do rightly 100% of the time in their lives even as a believer. Glad to see that you are feeling better. Always feels so good to be feeling good after an illness! Thank the Lord! Momsage. I do not ant to get into a long discussion about this topic as we have discussed this recently pretty thoroughly. I just wanted to respond to your statement of not being a sinner. I will be glad to hear your response, but please understand if I do not engage in a lengthy discussion. Have a great evening."     View & Reply

1 John 2 Comment... "Thank YOU LORD for YOUR word that gives us YOUR perfect will in our motives and practices as we await YOUR return to earth. May we be be prayerful for our leadership in DC and all the local authority YOU have ordained and placed in offices. Romans 13:1-3 LORD, bless YOUR saints to be powerful witnesses unto the lost and hard hearted. GOD to shine HIS face on the works of our hands, and our prayers as we worship and praise CHRIST JESUS daily. January 30, 2024"     View & Reply

Galatians 2 Comment... "Tunney Amen. Praised be our GOD and Father"     View & Reply

Galatians 2 Comment... "Galatians 2:20 my life verse! Praise the LORD. GOD blesses and shines HIS face on all who are on this platform. January 28, 2024"     View & Reply

2 Peter 3 Comment... "Joel 2:32 KJV 32 And it shall come to pass, that whosoever shall call on the name of the LORD shall be delivered: for in mount Zion and in Jerusalem shall be deliverance, as the LORD hath said, and in the remnant whom the LORD shall call. I haven't said or done anything or stopped anyone from entering in God's church or believing in Jesus to be saved!"     View & Reply

2 Peter 3 Comment... "Hi Red Apple, I love this verse. It is such a good benediction to use in so many circumstances. So glad God gave Paul this way to bless others. His own words for us to use to call God's favor upon those we love. I don't think we can say things better than God can!"     View & Reply

2 Peter 3 Comment... ""But grow in grace, and in the knowledge of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ. To him be glory both now and for ever. Amen." 2 Peter 3:18 KJV"     View & Reply

2 Peter 3 Comment... ""But the day of the Lord will come as a thief in the night; in the which the heavens shall pass away with a great noise, and the elements shall melt with fervent heat, the earth also and the works that are therein shall be burned up." 2 Peter 3:10 KJV Answer: God said this can be sowed. "For the grace of God that bringeth salvation hath appeared to all men," Titus 2:11 KJV"     View & Reply

last 5 books of the bible

Books of the Bible: Old Testament Books in Order

last 5 books of the bible

As a religious canon or collection of scriptures for the Christian faithful, the books of the Bible are important. The Old Testament and Hebrew Scriptures explore a wide period of human history, from what some individuals believe is the creation of man to the trials of the Jews at the hands of their enemies.

And while the New Testament focuses on Jesus Christ and his ministries to the Romans, Jews, and others, the Old Testament books of the Bible are an essential foundation for the contents of such later Biblical works. The Old Testament books are also split into five main categories: the Pentateuch, the historical books, the wisdom books, the prophets, and the poetic books.

If you've ever wondered about the order of the books of the Old Testament in the Bible, you're not alone. Whether for study or interest, read on to discover a full list of Bible books in order, what it means to have the books of the Bible in chronological order, and a brief overview of their contents and importance.

What Are the 46 Books of the Old Testament in Order?

The Old Testament of the Bible consists of 39 books, but the Catholic and Orthodox churches include additional books, called the Apocrypha, bringing the total to 46. These books were written over a period of more than 1,000 years.

Over millennia, scholars and theologians have studied and debated these texts to unlock their hidden wisdom. Understanding how all 46 books fit together can provide a deeper understanding of Christianity's most sacred text.

An Overview of the Old Testament Books and Their Categories

The Old Testament is a collection of books that are considered sacred by Jews and Christians. These books were written over a period of approximately 1,000 years and are divided into several categories, each one with its unique purpose, message, and style. Together, they tell the story of God's relationship with humanity, offering insights into the nature of God, the meaning of life, and the human condition.

The Five Books of the Law: Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy

The first five books of the Old Testament, also known as the Pentateuch or the Five Books of the Law, were written by Moses and are considered the foundation of the Jewish faith and the Hebrew bible. They provide a historical account of the creation of the world, the early history of humanity, and the establishment of the covenant between God and the Israelites.

Genesis is the first book of the Old Testament and tells the story of creation, Adam and Eve, Cain and Abel, Noah's Ark, and the patriarchs, including Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. It lays the foundation for the rest of the Bible, introducing themes of sin, redemption, and the promise of a savior.

Exodus recounts the story of Moses and the Israelites' escape from slavery in Egypt. It includes the Ten Commandments and the establishment of the covenant between God and the Israelites. It also introduces the concept of sacrifice and the importance of the law in the Israelite religion.

Leviticus contains laws and regulations regarding worship and sacrifice in the Israelite religion. It emphasizes the importance of holiness and purity, and the need for atonement for sin.

Numbers tells the story of the Israelites' journey to the Promised Land and includes the census of the Israelites in the desert. It also highlights the Israelites' disobedience and lack of faith, which resulted in their prolonged wandering in the wilderness.

Deuteronomy contains the final speeches of Moses and a summary of the laws given to the Israelites. It emphasizes the importance of obedience and faithfulness to God, and the consequences of disobedience.

Fun Fact: The Pentateuch is also known as the Torah, which means "instruction" or "law" in Hebrew.

Historical Books: Joshua, Judges, Ruth, 1 and 2 Samuel, 1 and 2 Kings, and 1 and 2 Chronicles

The Historical Books of the Old Testament recount the history of the Israelites from the conquest of Canaan to the Babylonian exile. These books provide insights into the political, social, and cultural developments of ancient Israel, as well as the role of prophets and kings in shaping the destiny of the nation.

Joshua tells the story of the Israelites' conquest of Canaan under the leadership of Joshua. It emphasizes the importance of faith, courage, and obedience to God's commands.

Judges recounts the period of the Judges, a time of political and social instability in Israel. It highlights the consequences of disobedience and the need for a strong leader to guide the nation.

Ruth is a short story about a Moabite woman who becomes an Israelite and the great-grandmother of King David. It emphasizes the importance of loyalty, faithfulness, and redemption.

1 and 2 Samuel tell the story of the prophet Samuel, the reign of King Saul, and the rise of King David. They highlight the role of prophets in guiding the nation, the consequences of sin and disobedience, and the importance of faith and repentance.

1 and 2 Kings recount the reigns of the Israelite kings from Solomon to the Babylonian exile. They emphasize the importance of wisdom, justice, and obedience to God's law, as well as the consequences of idolatry and disobedience.

1 and 2 Chronicles provide a summary of the history of Israel from Adam to the Babylonian exile. They emphasize the importance of worship, the priesthood, and the temple, as well as the role of kings in leading the nation.

Fun Fact: The Historical Books cover a period of more than 800 years, from around 1400 B.C. to 586 B.C.

Wisdom Literature: Job, Psalms, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, and Song of Solomon

The Wisdom Literature of the Old Testament consists of five books that offer insights into the nature of God, the meaning of life, and the human condition. They are characterized by their poetic style, their use of metaphors and imagery, and their emphasis on the importance of wisdom, virtue, and faith.

Job is a poetic dialogue between Job and his friends about the problem of evil and suffering. It emphasizes the importance of faith, perseverance, and trust in God, even in the face of adversity.

Psalms is a collection of 150 hymns and prayers that express the full range of human emotions and experiences. It emphasizes the importance of worship, praise, and thanksgiving, as well as the importance of repentance, confession, and forgiveness.

Proverbs is a book that contains wise sayings and teachings about how to live a good life. It emphasizes the importance of wisdom, virtue, and integrity, as well as the consequences of foolishness, vice, and dishonesty.

Ecclesiastes is a philosophical reflection on the meaning of life and the futility of human efforts. It emphasizes the importance of enjoying life, seeking wisdom, and trusting in God, even in the face of uncertainty and impermanence.

The Song of Solomon is a love poem that celebrates the beauty of romantic love. It emphasizes the importance of fidelity, passion, and intimacy in marriage, as well as the joy and fulfillment that come from a loving relationship.

Fun Fact: The Old Testament was originally written in Hebrew, with a few portions in Aramaic.

Major Prophets: Isaiah, Jeremiah, and Ezekiel

The Major Prophets of the Old Testament are so-called because of the length of their books. They are also called the "classical prophets" because they were active during the period of the Babylonian exile. They offer insights into the nature of God, the consequences of sin, and the hope of redemption.

Isaiah is the longest prophetic book of the Old Testament and contains messages of judgment, comfort, and hope. It emphasizes the importance of faith, repentance, and obedience to God's will, as well as the promise of a coming Messiah.

Jeremiah contains tones of judgment and warning to the people of Judah before the Babylonian exile. It emphasizes the importance of repentance, faith, and obedience to God's law, as well as the hope of restoration and redemption.

Ezekiel contains messages of atonement and hope for the exiles in Babylon. It emphasizes the importance of faith, repentance, and obedience to God's will, as well as the promise of a new covenant and a restored relationship with God.

Fun Fact: The Major Prophets are so named not because they are more important than the Minor Prophets, but because their books are longer.

Minor Prophets: Hosea Through Malachi

The Minor Prophets of the Old Testament are so called not because of the importance of their message, but because of the length of their books. They contain messages of judgment and hope for the people of Israel and Judah, as well as insights into the nature of God and the consequences of sin.

Hosea contains messages of judgment and hope for the people of Israel in their loyalty to God, as well as the consequences of idolatry and disobedience.

Joel speaks to the people of Judah. The book emphasizes the importance of repentance, prayer, and faith in God's mercy, along with the promise of a coming day of judgment and restoration.

Amos contains messages of judgment against the wealthy and powerful in Israel. It repeats the importance of justice, righteousness, and compassion, as well as the consequences of oppression and exploitation.

Obadiah contains a warning of judgment directed at the Edomite nation. It places a strong emphasis on the negative effects of cruelty, conceit, and pride as well as the hope of atonement.

Jonah is a story about a reluctant prophet who is sent to the city of Nineveh. It highlights the value of submission, penitence, and compassion as well as the unexpected kindness and mercy of God.

Micah contains messages for the people of Israel and Judah. It offers both warnings of judgment and the hope of a future Messiah and a healed connection with God, highlighting the value of justice, mercy, and humility.

Nahum explores a message of judgment against the city of Nineveh. It emphasizes the consequences of cruelty, violence, and oppression, as well as the justice and righteousness of God.

Habakkuk contains a dialogue between the prophet and God about the problem of evil. It emphasizes the importance of faith, trust, and patience, as well as the ultimate justice and sovereignty of God.

Zephaniah contains messages of judgment and hope for the people of Judah. The promise of a repaired connection with God is emphasized, as well as the significance of repentance, faith, and submission to God's plan.

Haggai offers exhortations for Jerusalem's temple's reconstruction. Together with the assurance of blessing and prosperity, it places emphasis on the significance of worshipping, obeying, and remaining devoted to God.

Zechariah conveys messages about the Messiah's impending arrival and the need to restore the temple in Jerusalem. It highlights the value of faith, repentance, and hope and makes the promise of a healed connection with God as well as a brand-new age of peace and prosperity.

Malachi conveys both warnings of judgment and words of encouragement to the Israelites. It focuses on the value of worship, submission, and fidelity to God as well as the proclamation of an impending day of judgment and restoration.

Fun Fact: The Old Testament was actually written on scrolls at first, rather than in book form.

Books of Poetry and Songs: Lamentations, Esther, Daniel, Ezra, and Nehemiah

The Books of Poetry and Songs of the Old Testament include a variety of genres, including laments, prayers, and songs of praise. They offer insights into the emotional and spiritual life of the Israelites, as well as the role of faith and prayer in their relationship with God.

Lamentations is a collection of poems that mourn the destruction of Jerusalem. It emphasizes the pain, sorrow, and despair of the Israelites, as well as the importance of lament and mourning in the process of healing and restoration.

Esther is a story about a Jewish woman who becomes queen of Persia and saves her people from genocide. Courage, faith, and trust in God are key, as well as the surprising ways in which God works in the world.

Daniel contains stories about Daniel and his three friends in Babylon and visions of the end times. It recounts the importance of faith, courage, and obedience to God's will, as well as the promise of a coming Messiah and a new era of justice and righteousness.

Ezra and Nehemiah recount the return of the exiles to Jerusalem and the rebuilding of the temple and the walls of Jerusalem. It emphasizes the essentials of worship, obedience, and faithfulness to God, as well as the challenges and opportunities of rebuilding a community and a nation.

Fun Fact: The Poetic Books include the Book of Psalms, which is the longest book in the Bible.

Other Writings in the Old Testament

Finally, there are several other writings in the Old Testament that do not fit neatly into any of the other categories. They offer insights into the literary, historical, and cultural context of the Old Testament, as well as the diversity and richness of ancient Jewish literature.

Job is categorized as a Wisdom book, but it also has poetic and narrative passages.It emphasizes the value of having faith, enduring hardship, and having confidence in God.

Psalm 151 , an additional psalm, appears in some editions of the Septuagint, the Greek translation of the Old Bible. It highlights the value of praise, thanksgiving, and worship as well as the Psalms' influence on Israelites' spiritual development.

1 and 2 Maccabees are historical works that describe the Jewish uprising against the Seleucid Empire in the second century BCE. They place a strong emphasis on the value of hope for freedom and independence as well as the virtues of courage, faith, and resistance to injustice.

Tobit is a story about a man who is helped by an angel. It emphasizes the importance of faith, trust, and obedience to God, as well as the role of angels in the spiritual life of the Israelites.

Judith tells the tale of a woman who saves her people from an invading army. It focuses on the importance of faith, courage, and resourcefulness, as well as the role of women in the history and destiny of the Israelites.

Baruch contains prayers and teachings attributed to the prophet Baruch. It emphasizes the importance of repentance, faith, and obedience to God's law, as well as the hope of restoration and redemption.

The Wisdom of Solomon is a philosophical reflection on the nature of wisdom and the relationship between wisdom and God. It highlights the importance of wisdom, virtue, and righteousness, as well as the role of wisdom in shaping the moral and spiritual life of the Israelites.

Fun Fact: The Book of Job is considered one of the most challenging books of the Bible to interpret due to its complex poetry and philosophical themes.

Summing Up the Old Testament Books

The books of the Old Testament are a rich and diverse collection of literature that reflect the history, culture, and faith of the Jewish people. And while they can be read in any manner, the books of the Bible in order can be a great experience.

They offer insights into the nature of God, the meaning of life, and the human condition. Whether we read them for spiritual guidance, academic study, or personal inspiration, the books of the Old Testament continue to speak to us today, inviting us to explore the depths of our own faith and the mysteries of God's love and grace.

Are you interested in the rest of the Bible books? Take our Books of the Bible Quiz  to test your knowledge! And if you want to explore the New Testament in order, from Matthew to Galatians, Luke to Philippians, check out the Books of the Bible: New Testament Books in Order .

See also: The King James Bible, Old Testament Names, and Kings of Judah & Israel

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27 Snapshots of New Testament Books of the Bible

last 5 books of the bible

Here is a list that offers a snapshot of all 27 New Testament books of the Bible. I hope you see Jesus Christ is at the center of each book . And, I hope you grow in worship of our Lord and Savior.

The first of all the new testament books of the Bible. The first of four gospels. It begins with a genealogy proving Jesus is the promised Messiah, and contains the beatitudes and the Sermon on the Mount 

The second of four gospels—and the shortest read stretching only 16 chapters. Mark describes many of Jesus’s miracles and healings. 

The third of the four gospels. Luke was a doctor and so his account of Jesus’s life, death, and resurrection is very precise, often using higher vocabulary words and sometimes giving more detailed depictions of events.

The final gospel. John’s gospel offers an intimate portrait of Jesus’s life, and how much he loves us, something also seen in all New Testament books of the Bible. Here you will find Jesus’s 7 “I Am” statements.

Written by Luke, Acts is a detailed history of believers and the early church after Christ’s ascension into heaven. Not only does this book include the story of the Pentecost, it also tells of Paul’s conversion, and the effort to spread the Gospel of Jesus to the gentiles as well as the Jews.

Of all the New Testament books of the Bible Paul wrote, Romans letter to believers in Rome is perhaps his most comprehensive. Paul says all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God (Romans 3:23). As a result of this truth, salvation comes by grace alone through faith alone in Jesus Christ.

1 Corinthians 

A letter from Paul to the church in Corinth which experienced some spiritual immaturity. Having a heart for the church, Paul wrote this letter to address church conduct and other topics to spur them on to a greater faithfulness in Jesus Christ. 

2 Corinthians 

A second letter from Paul to the Corinthian church, in which Paul speaks of his communication with them, his changing itinerary, and his plans to come visit them. 

A letter from Paul to the church in Galatia rebuking them for “quickly deserting him who called you in the grace of Christ and… turning to a different gospel” (1:6). They had been listening to false teachers claiming their salvation in Christ was dependent on their fulfillment of certain rituals and law. Paul uses this letter to remind everyone that:  

“A person is not justified by works of the law but through faith in Jesus Christ.” (2:16) 

This letter from Paul is a loving encouragement “to the saints who are in Ephesus, and are faithful in Christ Jesus” (1:1). Paul explains how we are unified in Christ, discusses the “mystery of the Gospel” (3:1-13), and talks about how we live in light of putting on the “new self” (4:24).  

Philippians 

All of Paul’s letters proclaim the gospel of Jesus and this one is no different. Paul discusses his own suffering in detail, and he does this to show how Christ’s name has been proclaimed through it. Paul says his famous line:

“For me to live is Christ, and to die is gain” (1:21).

Colossians 

A response to heretical teaching threatening the church at Colossae, Paul’s letter warns the Colossians against several things such as the worship of angels and asceticism. Paul encourages believers again to put away all sinfulness and instead put on the new self that comes as a result of faith in Jesus (3:1-17).   

1 Thessalonians 

Back in Acts we read how Paul needed to leave Thessalonica before he would have liked (see Acts 17:5-10), and new believers now needed his further instruction and support amid incoming persecution. This letter instructs them on how to live a godly life.  

2 Thessalonians 

This second letter came as further encouragement to the church of the Thessalonians, writing to encourage those who were afflicted with persecution due to their faith in Jesus (1:5-12) and to remind believers about the importance of work (3:6-15).

A letter from Paul to Timothy, saying that he should stay at the church of Ephesus to guard the church against false teaching. Paul wanted the church to know that Christ came to saves sinners, not righteous people. 

Paul’s letter to Timothy displays his close friendship with Timothy, hoping to encourage him in the Gospel work he had been doing. This letter contains one of the most famous lines about the nature of Scripture:  

“All Scripture is breathed out by God and profitable for teaching, for reproof, for correction, and for training in righteousness.” (3:16) 

A letter from Paul to Titus, who Paul placed in Crete for the Gospel of Jesus to spread there. This letter provides instructions for him on how to fulfill his duty in the Lord Jesus. 

Paul writes to Philemon to thank him for the love he showed him. He also writes that he is sending Onesimus to them, who though was once “was useless” is now “indeed useful” (v. 11) to all including Christ Jesus.

Like many other New Testament books of the Bible, Hebrews deals directly with Old Testament passages, showing the unity of Scripture. One of the main goals of the book is to depict Christ Jesus as our Great High Priest. Jesus is greater than Moses (Ch. 3) and greater than Melchizedek (Ch. 7).  

Hebrews 11 is called the “ Hall of Faith ” because it shows how Old Testament figures gained righteousness through faith, not by works.  

Like Paul’s repeated encouragement to put on the new self that comes with faith in Jesus, James reminds his readers that faith in Jesus Christ produces great usefulness and fruitfulness!  

Peter writes to the “elect exiles” (1:1), the believers in Christ who are spread throughout the region. He seeks to encourage them as they face trials of various kinds. He says that these trials will bring glory to Jesus as they produce a “tested genuineness of [their] faith” (1:7). Peter urges believers to strive after holiness. 

Peter writes in this letter to encourage believers to “make every effort to supplement your faith with virtue” (1:5). And he writes for them to be cautious of false teachers (Ch. 2), and to remind them about the teaching concerning Christ’s coming (Ch. 3).

John writes here to encourage believers to walk in the light. He speaks to how Christ is our Advocate (Ch. 2), and that we demonstrate God’s love through our love for others. 

John, in what may be the shortest of all the New Testament books of the Bible, wonderfully connects following Christ’s commandments with loving another: “And this is love, that we walk according to his commandments” (v. 6). 

John writes: “Beloved, do not imitate evil but imitate good. Whoever does good is from God; whoever does evil has not seen God” (v. 11)  

Jude writes in response to false teachers spreading an enticing lie. This lie said Jesus’s grace provides greater opportunity to live a sinful life. Jude writes that these are teachers “for whom the gloom of utter darkness has been reserved forever” (v. 13).

Revelation 

Compared to other New Testament books of the Bible, Revelation apocalyptic nature relies more heavily on symbolic language. John’s vision may not give us every fact we could want. But, it does gives us the full truth we need : Jesus is Lord forever and ever!

Davis Wetherell

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Introduction to the Pentateuch

The First Five Books of the Bible

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The Bible begins with the Pentateuch. The five books of the Pentateuch are the first five books of the Christian Old Testament and the entire Jewish written Torah. These texts introduce most if not all of the most important themes that will recur throughout the Bible as well as characters and stories that continue to be relevant. Thus understanding the Bible requires understanding the Pentateuch.

What is the Pentateuch?

The word Pentateuch is a Greek term meaning "five scrolls" and refers to the five scrolls which comprise the Torah and which also comprise the first five books of the Christian Bible. These five books contain a variety of genres and were constructed from source material created over the course of millennia.

It is unlikely that these fives books were originally intended to be five books at all; instead, they were probably considered all one work. The division into five separate volumes is believed to have been imposed by Greek translators. Jews today divide the text into 54 sections called parshiot . One of these sections is read each week of the year (with a couple of weeks doubled up).

What are the Books in the Pentateuch?

The five books of the Pentateuch are:

  • Genesis ("creation")
  • Exodus ("departure")
  • Leviticus ("concerning the Levites")
  • Deuteronomy ("second law")

The original Hebrew titles for these five books are:

  • Bereshit ("In the beginning")
  • Shemot ("Names")
  • Vayikra ("He called")
  • Bamidbar ("In the wilderness")
  • Devarim ("Things" or "Words")

Important Characters in the Pentateuch

  • Adam & Eve : The first humans and the source of Original Sin
  • Noah : Had enough faith to be spared by God from a worldwide flood
  • Abraham : Chosen by God to be the "father" of Israel, God's "chosen people"
  • Isaac : Abraham's son, inherited God's blessing
  • Jacob : Abraham's grandson whose name God changed to "Israel"
  • Joseph : Son of Jacob, sold into slavery in Egypt
  • Moses : Leads the Hebrews out of Egypt and towards Canaan.
  • Aaron : Moses' older brother
  • Pharaoh : Unnamed ruler of Egypt, responsible for keeping the Hebrews enslaved
  • Joshua : Moses' successor as leader of the Israelites

Who Wrote the Pentateuch?

The tradition among believers has always been that Moses personally wrote the five books of the Pentateuch. In fact, the Pentateuch has in the past been referred to as the Biography of Moses (with Genesis as a prolog).

Nowhere in the Pentateuch, however, does any text ever claim that Moses is the author of the entire work. There is a single verse where Moses is described as having written down this "Torah," but that most likely refers only to the laws being presented at that particular point.

Modern scholarship has concluded that the Pentateuch was produced by multiple authors working at different times and then edited together. This line of research is known as the Documentary Hypothesis .

This research began in the 19th century and dominated biblical scholarship through most of the 20th century. Although details have come under criticism in recent decades, the broader idea that the Pentateuch is the work of multiple authors continues to be widely accepted.

When Was the Pentateuch Written?

The texts that comprise the Pentateuch were written and edited by many different people over a long span of time. Most scholars tend to agree, however, that the Pentateuch as a combined, whole work probably existed in some form by the 7th or 6th century BCE, which puts it during the early Babylonian Exile or shortly before. Some editing and adding were still to come, but not long after the Babylonian Exile the Pentateuch was largely in its current form and other texts were being written.

The Pentateuch as the Source of Law

The Hebrew word for the Pentateuch is Torah, which simply means "the law." This refers to the fact that the Pentateuch is the primary source for Jewish law, believed to have been handed down by God to Moses. In fact, almost all biblical law can be found in the collections of laws in the Pentateuch; the rest of the Bible is arguably a commentary on the law and lessons from myth or history about what happens when people do or do not follow the laws handed down by God.

Modern research has revealed that there are strong connections between the laws in the Pentateuch and the laws found in other ancient Near-East civilizations. There was a common legal culture in the Near East long before Moses would have lived, assuming that such a person even existed. The Pentateuchal laws didn't come out of nowhere, fully-formed from some imaginative Israelite or even a deity. Instead, they developed through cultural evolution and cultural borrowing, like all other laws in human history.

That said, though, there are ways in which the laws in the Pentateuch are distinct from other legal codes in the region. For example, the Pentateuch mixes together religious and civil laws as if there were no fundamental difference. In other civilizations, the laws regulating priests and those for crimes like murder were handled with more separation. Also, the laws in the Pentateuch exhibit more concern with a person's actions in their private lives and less concern with things like property than other regional codes.

The Pentateuch as History

The Pentateuch has traditionally been treated as a source of history as well as of law, especially among Christians who no longer followed the ancient legal code. The historicity of the stories in the first five books of the Bible has long been cast into doubt, however. Genesis, because it focuses on primeval history, has the least amount of independent evidence for anything in it.

Exodus and Numbers would have occurred more recently in history, but it also would have occurred in the context of Egypt — a nation which has left us a wealth of records, both written and archaeological. Nothing, however, has been found in or around Egypt to verify the Exodus story as it appears in the Pentateuch. Some have even been contradicted, like the idea that the Egyptians used armies of slaves for their building projects.

It is possible that a long-term migration of Semitic peoples out of Egypt was compressed into a shorter, more dramatic story. Leviticus and Deuteronomy are primarily books of laws.

Major Themes in the Pentateuch

Covenant : The idea of covenants is woven throughout the stories and laws in the five books of the Pentateuch. It's an idea that also continues to play a major role throughout the rest of the Bible as well. A covenant is a contract or treaty between God and humans, either all humans or one specific group.

Early on God is depicted as making promises to Adam, Eve, Cain, and others about their own personal futures. Later God makes promises to Abraham about the future of all his descendants. Later still God makes a highly detailed covenant with the people of Israel — a covenant with extensive provisions that the people are supposed to obey in exchange for promises of blessings from God.

Monotheism : Judaism today is treated as the origin of monotheistic religion, but ancient Judaism wasn't always monotheistic. We can see in the earliest texts — and that includes almost all of the Pentateuch — that the religion was originally monolatrous rather than monotheistic. Monolatry is the belief that multiple gods exist, but only one should be worshipped. It isn't until the later portions of Deuteronomy that real monotheism as we know it today starts to be expressed.

However, because all five books of the Pentateuch were created from a variety of prior source material, it's possible to find tension between monotheism and monolatry in the texts. Sometimes it's possible to read the texts as the evolution of ancient Judaism away from monolatry and towards monotheism.

  • An Overview of Genesis in the Bible
  • Biography of Moses, Leader of the Abrahamic Religions
  • What Is the Bible?
  • The Bible Timeline
  • What Is the Pentateuch?
  • Scripture Readings for the Third Week of Lent
  • Introduction to the Book of Deuteronomy
  • Introduction to the Catholic Religion: Beliefs, Practices and History
  • Introduction to the Book of Genesis
  • Introduction to the Book of Leviticus
  • Why Are There Problems Choosing Bible Translations?
  • What Were the 12 Tribes of Israel?
  • The 66 Books of the Bible
  • Moses in the Bible, Giver of the Law
  • Meet King Pharaoh: Arrogant Egyptian Ruler
  • The Importance of Repetition in the Bible

A Complete List of Old Testament Books in Order: Bible Summary Guide

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The editors at Lord’s Library compiled this resource to guide you through the Bible’s Old Testament books in order with a summary of each.

There are many reasons to learn about the Old Testament books in order, especially if you are serious about learning the Bible. Although it’s not important to know the Old Testament books word-for-word in the beginning of your spiritual journey, it does help to gain a summary introduction to each. In this resource, our editors provide a fill list of the Old Testament books in order to help you expand your basic knowledge of the Christian Bible, and ultimately grow your faith in Jesus Christ.

The Old Testament consists of 39 different books originally written in the Hebrew and Aramaic languages and can be divided into four categories, including The Torah (or Pentateuch), the historical books, the prophetic writings, and the poetic or wisdom literature. The central theme of the Bible’s Old Testament is God’s law and His original promise to the people of Israel prior to the coming of Jesus Christ. While the historical books are narratives from the time of Judges to the monarchical era, the prophetic writings are revelations, oracles and prophecies that address the sins of humankind and how God will be provide their redemption. Several Old Testament books were written by Prophets who scribed directly the Word of God.

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A Complete List of New Testament Books in Order: Bible Summary Guide

Note: We recommend pairing this resource with our Complete List of New Testament Books in Order Bible summary guide.

A Complete List of Old Testament Books in Order

The book of genesis (the first book of moses).

Summary: The Book of Genesis is the first book of the Bible. It details the origins of the universe, Creation, Sin, the Kingdom of God, and The Covenant.

More Detail:  Genesis recalls how God created the world in the order of seven days, and it was very good, but the beauty and goodness were lost because of man’s disobedience. The first promise of a king who will restore blessing and defeat sin is found in chapter 3. The hope continues during the life of the Patriarchs, starting with the call of Abraham to follow God. God promised Abraham that through his lineage of Jewish descendants, He would restore blessing to the nations. The covenant continues with Isaac and Jacob, who would be renamed to Israel later in the story.

The Book of Exodus (The Second Book of Moses)

Summary: The Book of Exodus is the second book of the Bible and details how God saved His people through Moses leading the Israelites out of Egypt.

More Detail: Exodus continues the narrative story from Genesis, starting with the names of the sons of Israel who came to Egypt, thus the meaning “the Names” in Hebrew. The book’s central theme is the fulfillment of God’s promises to the Patriarchs that He would make their descendants a great nation and how He redeemed Israel from slavery from one ancient superpower Egypt. In this book, you’ll also read about God’s new covenant with the people of Israel; that is, God will lead them to the promised land and that they are now guided to by holy before God as a kingdom of priests to the nations. Exodus also describes God’s revelation on Mount Sinai which explains how He should be worshipped via the Ten Commandments.

The Book of Leviticus (The Third Book of Moses)

Summary: The Book of Leviticus is a continuation of Exodus and the third book of the Bible. It offers the rules and instruction on how God commands His people in holiness.

More Detail: The Book of Leviticus introduces the concepts of temple and sacrifices, as well as how God commanded the Israelites to worship Him in a holy manner and atone for their sins. Most of the verses in Leviticus consist of Jesus’ speeches to Moses and emphasize legal, ritual and moral practices as opposed to beliefs. The book also describes sin and guilt rituals that provide the means to gain forgiveness of sin.

The Book of Numbers (The Fourth Book of Moses)

Summary: The Book of Numbers or “in the wilderness” in the Hebrew Bible is the fourth book of the Bible. It describes the rebellion of Israel and how God’s people prepared to enter the promised land.

More Details: Numbers continues the gradual fulfillment of God’s promises to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. It also details the journey of the Israelites from Mount Sinai to the borders of Canaan, the promised land. The book narrates how God continued to stay faithful to His promises as He journeyed with the Israelites despite their constant rebellion. Because of this, the people of Israel delayed their departure to the promised land for 40 years. By the end of this book, God led Israel to the borders of the promised land as they prepared to enter.

The Book of Deuteronomy (The Fifth Book of Moses)

Summary: The Book of Deuteronomy is broken down into four sermons that Moses gives to the Israelites before entering the promised land. The sermons were God’s reminder to His people about his expectations for them.

More Detail: The fifth book of the Bible and meaning “second law” in Greek, the Book of Deuteronomy’s primary theme are the laws already given by God to the Israelites at Mount Sinai. Moses once more reminds the Israelites to keep the law when they enter the promised land. He urges them to stay faithful in their covenant with God to gain life and blessing, and that if they rebel, consequences will ensue. The book ends with the death of Moses and the rise of Joshua as Israel’s new leader.

The Book of Joshua

Summary: The Book of Joshua is the sixth book of the Bible and tells the account of Israel’s journey and conquest as they finally entered the promised land after four decades in the desert.

More Detail: Joshua is the sixth book of the Bible, and it continues the narrative story of the Torah. This book explores how God led Israel as a Warrior through the leadership of Joshua. It also includes their battles with the armies of Canaanites and how Joshua divides the land for the 12 tribes of Israel. The book concludes with Joshua’s final words and reminders for the people of Israel to be faithful to the commands of the Torah that they may experience life and blessings and show the other nation what it looks like to be a nation under Yahweh’s rule. Still, if they break the covenant and disobey the Torah, they will be exiled from the land.

The Book of Judges

The Book of Judges is Judges continue the story of Israel and how they lived in the Promised Land. In this book, the Israelites turned away from the commands of the Torah and, ultimately, from God. They faced the consequences of their rebellion, but God will raise judges to save them, and then they will rebel again. The downward cycle of rebellion, repent, and deliverance continued. The famous line in this book is, “In those days, Israel had no king and everyone did what was right in their own eyes.” The book tells the tragedy of the human heart and the need for a king who will restore blessings to Israel and the world and finally defeat sin and rebellion.

Book Summary: The Book of Judges covers the time between the conquest of the Israelites to the establishment of a kingdom in the Books of Samuel. The book contains accounts of how people were continuously unfaithful to God despite his attempt to show them mercy and deliver them from oppression.

The Book of Ruth

The Book of Ruth is Ruth was set in the era of the judges. This love story begins surrounded by adversity but ends with redemption and victory. Ruth loved Naomi and was able to flee from idolatry. Boaz loved Ruth, and the fruit of their union would have David as a descendant, fulfilling the covenant promises to the Patriarch.

Book Summary: Ruth is a book about a woman from Moab who showed truth faith and mercy in a time of judgement and trials.

1st and 2nd Samuel were originally one scroll. The Septuagint translators divided the long scroll into two. Samuel was the last judge who ushered in the monarchical era by anointing Saul and David as king of Israel. The key theme of 1st and 2nd Samuel is how God exercised His authority and kingship by appointing the line of David as king in Israel.

Book Summary: 1: Considered one of the first major prophets in the Old Testament, Samuel discussed how God created a new political system in Israel . This book discusses the rise and fall of new earthly monarchies led by kings, such as the first king Saul. 2: David was the first honorable King to rule after the failure of King Saul. Although imperfect, under his rule God fulfilled His promises to the nation as he helped them prosper and fight off their enemies.

1st Kings and 2nd Kings were also originally compiled into one scroll. The 1st half tells us the story of King Solomon, who ruled the entire kingdom after his father David, and how he led the completion of God’s Temple in Jerusalem. It also records how the kingdom was divided because Solomon’s son rejected the people’s plea. The second half focuses on the relationship of the people of Israel and Judah with the one true God. Sadly, it is a narrative of the people’s lack of regard for their God.

Book Summary: 1: 1 Kings continues to chronical the rule of various kings of Israel and their relationships with God. The book describes rulers who obey or disobey His will through their rulings. After David, Solomon takes reign as the last king of Israel before the kingdoms are divided. 2: 2 Kings carries the historical account of Judah and Israel forward. The kings of each nation are judged in light of their obedience to the covenant with God. Ultimately, the people of both nations are exiled for disobedience. The second part of the Book of Kings, 2 Kings continues the narrative of the split kingdoms, Israel and Judah. The people of these nations disobey God and are exiled until he sends a prophet to deliver his message.

1-2 CHRONICLES

The book of Chronicles was initially been compiled into one scroll. Same with the book of Samuel and Kings. The central theme is the significance of God’s covenant with David and how it perfectly coexists and continues God’s covenant with Moses, Jacob, Isaac, and Abraham.

Book Summary: 1: While Kings accounts for the history of disobedience under God’s kingdoms, Chronicles encourages the Israelites and help them turn back to worshiping the Lord as the one true God. 2: As a continuation of 1 Chronicles, 2 Chronicles further discusses Israel’s history as it relates to their restoration to God.

The Book of Ezra

The Book of Ezra is In the Hebrew Bible, Ezra and Nehemiah were also combined into one scroll. The book of Ezra was written between 458 to 444 BC, but the story it narrates covers almost a century. It tells the story of the Jews’ return to the Promised Land after 70 years of exile in Babylon and the rebuilding of the Temple.

Book Summary: The book of Ezra emphasizes rebuilding God’s template through a restored covenant with the people.

The Book of Nehemiah

The Book of Nehemiah is The book of Nehemiah continues the retelling of the return of the Jewish exiles from Babylon. Nehemiah was the leader of the third wave of returnees in 445 BC. While the book of Ezra was about the rebuilding of the Temple and the community, Nehemiah was concerned with the rebuilding of the walls.

Book Summary: Nehemiah describes his work in rebuilding Jerusalem during the Second Temple period, when he and the other Israelites faced challenges in their restored homeland.

The Book of Esther

The Book of Esther is The book of Esther is the story of a Jewish girl who became the queen of Persia during the reign of King Ahasuerus from 486 to 465 BC. Esther and her cousin Mordecai chose to stay in the Persian capital of Susa even after Cyrus decreed that they could return to Palestine. Their story gives a peek into the lives of the Jews who chose not to return to the Promised Land.

Book Summary: The book of Esther describes the story of a Jewish girl who saves her people from destruction after she was chose to rule as queen of Persia.

The Book of Job

The Book of Job is This book explores the case of one who is an exceptionally righteous man but still suffers greatly. The words of Job’s friends depict the different ways that people make sense of suffering.

Book Summary: This book describes Jobs interaction with God through various monologues. Despite losing everything and being approached by Satan, Job remains faithful to God. The book highlights how God’s power and authority during times of hardship.

The Book of Psalms

The Book of Psalms is Psalms is a collection of 150 poems put into music that addresses a wide variety of human situations in which one can worship God. The collection of 150 poems expressed various emotions of the Psalter such as love and awe towards God, lamentations over evil and sin in the world, faith and trust in God and songs of praises.

Book Summary: The Psalms are a culmination of praise and prayers written in the form of songs and poetry. The Psalms explore themes and topics of praise, thankfulness, power, forgiveness, and trust.

The Book of Proverbs

The Book of Proverbs is Proverbs, a collection of short sayings and sermons from various authors. This book commends honorable living to enjoy God’s blessings. It conveys the idea that God favors those whose lives are marked by integrity rather than by falsehood, thus inculcating consistent, godly behavior.

Book Summary: Written as an informational book of wisdom, Proverbs explores concepts centered around values, morality, the meaning of life, and what it means to be righteous in God’s eyes.

The Book of Ecclesiastes

The Book of Ecclesiastes is This book is, primarily, an autobiographical monologue that addresses the foolishness and meaninglessness of life. The writer reminds the reader of the disenchantment we feel when we perceive the lack of moral order in the world: the wicked seem to prosper, and the righteous seem to suffer.

Book Summary: Ecclesiastes helps readers reflect on human experience and provides wisdom to theological ideas.

The Book of Song of Solomon (Song of Songs)

The Book of Song of Solomon , or Song of Songs, This book is a collection of poems celebrating love, passion, and marriage. Using sensual imagery and beautiful sensory scenes provides us with God’s wisdom sexual (physical and emotional) intimacy within a loving marriage that is acceptable to His standards.

Book Summary: The book Song of Songs is a collection of poetry that describe love and gratitude, as well as what beauty and commitment means.

The Book of Isaiah

The Book of Isaiah is Isaiah is a prophetic book that gives us rich themes like the holiness of God, the sovereignty of God over the nations, the one true God as the Redeemer, among others. In addition, this prophetic material gives us a good picture of the “suffering Servant,” which many believe in Messianic. Because of these contributions to the overall message of the Old Testament, the book of Isaiah became one of the most quoted in the New Testament.

Book Summary: Another famous writing prophet, Isaiah’s book discusses what it means to be saved and that salvation ultimately comes from God, not man.

The Book of Jeremiah

The Book of Jeremiah is Jeremiah was also known as the apocalyptic prophet, whose ministry extended from the beginning of the downfall of the Southern kingdom, Judah, all the way to captivity (626-585 BC). Jeremiah’s main message to Judah was to submit to Babylon and be prosperous there.

Book Summary: This book documents Jeremiah’s journey with God, highlighting his personal accounts of challenges and trials he faces and his interactions with God along the way.

The Book of Lamentations

The Book of Lamentations is The entire book is poetic. The laments vividly describe how terrible the destruction of Jerusalem was. But the author also understood clearly that the Babylonians were merely human agents of divine judgment; it was God Himself who had destroyed the city and the Temple.

Book Summary: The book of Lamentations discusses accounts of the suffering and turmoil faced by the people of Jerusalem after the fall of Babylon.

The Book of Ezekiel

The Book of Ezekiel is Like Jeremiah, the Lord asked the Book of Ezekiel to act out many of the things that he prophesied. But the people’s hearts were so hardened that they refused to listen to the words of the true prophet. Ezekiel ministered in the fifth year of the exile.

Book Summary: This book describes God’s control over all creation, particularly his people even when they are exiled. The book expresses how if the Israelites remain faithful to God he will protect them and restore them to the promised land.

The Book of Daniel

The Book of Daniel is This book was an encouragement to those in exile and those left behind in Jerusalem because Daniel showed that kingdoms come and go, but God’s Kingdom is everlasting. The book of Daniel covered the period from King Nebuchadnezzar’s reign (Babylon) to the time of Darius (Persia).

Book Summary: The book of Daniel chronicles the hero acts of the prophet Daniel during his lifetime. Despite being taken into captivity, he remains true to God.

The Book of Hosea

The Book of Hosea is This book depicts the rebellion and unfaithfulness to God. Yet Israel’s infidelity and stubbornness are not enough to exhaust the redemptive love of God which surpasses human ability to understand. God asked Hosea to marry a promiscuous woman and used this to illustrate the unfaithfulness of Israel to Himself graphically.

Book Summary: Hosea describes the end of the northern kingdom. Hosea’s message is one of destruction but hope in salvation and the promise of restoration.

The Book of Joel

The Book of Joel is The book of Joel uses some of the more familiar word pictures for God’s judgment, such as a locust attack. The Day of the Lord theme is also used in this book. The prophetic book isn’t just writing filled with gloom and doom; there are doors left open for repentance and blessing.

Book Summary: Joel is a narrative warning people of God’s imminent judgement, but also that they will see redemption if they repent.

The Book of Amos

The Book of Amos is Amos was the prophet ministering in the Northern Kingdom of Israel when Jeroboam II was the king. This was a time of prosperity brought by the able leadership of Jeroboam. The land, however, was not without problems. While the rich were becoming more affluent, they were also oppressing the poor. Furthermore, idolatry was still very much the sin of the nation.

Book Summary: The book of Amos discusses God’s just nature but absolute sovereignty over man. He predicted how a day of judgment will lead to the destruction of Israel and Judah.

The Book of Obadiah

The Book of Obadiah is This prophetic book was addressed towards the nation of Edom and all the other nations surrounding Israel. They will experience retributive judgment because they’ve been oppressing God’s people. This book signifies that God is also concerned on how other nations operate and still God over all the world. In the same way, God promised that there will come a time when His kingdom comes and all the nation will one day worship the one true God.

Book Summary: Similar to Amos, the prophet Obadiah warned the people of Edom of their day of judgement for their actions.

The Book of Jonah

The Book of Jonah is The book of Jonah is one of the well-known prophets in the Bible. However, the undeniable message in this book is that God is a God of both justice and compassion.

Book Summary: This book discusses how Jonah is sent by God to fulfill a mission to the city of Nineveh but he tries to escape the journey.

The Book of Micah

The Book of Micah was a contemporary of the Prophets Hosea and Isaiah. During his prophetic ministry, Israel’s political condition was worsening in the Northern Kingdom, which eventually led to their captivity. The threat of the superpower, Assyria, was also being felt in Judah.

Book Summary: The purpose of the book of Micah talks about the warning of judgment that is to come to the northern and southern kingdoms.

The Book of Nahum

The Book of Nahum is Nahum spoke about God’s judgment over Assyria. He spoke directly to the people of Nineveh and Judah, specifically with a message of doom to Nineveh and a message of hope and comfort to Judah. They were also experiencing the cruelty of the Assyrians and had seen how the Assyrians had plundered and exiled the Northern Kingdom.

Book Summary: A continuation of the story that began in Jonah, the book of Nahum describes the important of repentance and hope. It highlights God’s endless justice and mercy.

The Book of Habakkuk

The Book of Habakkuk is Habakkuk is unusual as a prophetic book in that he never speaks directly to the people of Judah, but is instead a dialogue between the prophet and God. Habakkuk questioned God’s justice methods upon Judah but ended his book with praising and trusting God despite the coming judgment because he understood that God is sovereign and faithful.

Book Summary: This book is a dialogue between the prophet Habakkuk and God discussing injustice and sufferings.

The Book of Zephaniah

The Book of Zephaniah is Zephaniah was written during the time of King Josiah of the Southern Kingdom, Judah. Amidst the nation’s revival under Josiah, a warning was given about the Day of the Lord. Zephaniah also spoke about the judgment of other nations, which served as an encouragement to the remnant that all wicked nations would indeed be judged.

Book Summary: Similar to many other previous books of its kind, the book of Zephaniah is about a prophet who is warning people of God’s approaching judgment based on their actions.

The Book of Haggai

The Book of Haggai is This book was written in the second year of King Darius in 520 BC. The goal was to motivate the post-exilic community and the leaders such as Zerubbabel and Joshua in their efforts to rebuild the Temple. He also urged them to consider their current economic and spiritual circumstances and go back to God.

Book Summary: A prophet of his time, Haggai preached about the consequences for disobedient actions and ways those in exile could rebuild God’s template and find blessing.

The Book of Zechariah

The Book of Zechariah is Zechariah was written between 520-518 BC, with another section written near 480-470 BC. It has the same historical background and setting as Haggai. Zechariah is known for three things: (1) bizarre vision, (2) rich references of the coming Messiah, and (3) being the longest book among the minor prophets.

Book Summary: Written after the return from exile, the book of Zechariah encourages the people of Judah to repent and conform to God’s law again.

The Book of Malachi

The Book of Malachi is The book of Malachi is the last of the twelve minor prophets and is the final book of the Old Testament in our English Bible. This book was written as a series of disputations that explore the covenant relationship between God and His people.

Book Summary: The book of Malachi discusses how God will not endure man’s sins forever, and a day of judgment is coming.

NOW READ: A Complete List of New Testament Books in Order

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Timothy Andrew

Timothy Andrew

Tim is the Founder of Lord's Library. He believes the Bible commands us to minister "as of the ability which God giveth" (1 Peter 4:11). Tim aspires to be as The Lord's mouth by "taking forth the precious from the vile" (Jeremiah 15:19) and witnessing The Gospel of Jesus Christ (1 Corinthians 15: 1-4) to the whole world.

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Celtic Texts of the Coelbook: The Last Five Books of the Kolbrin Bible

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Marshall Masters

Celtic Texts of the Coelbook: The Last Five Books of the Kolbrin Bible Paperback – May 31, 2006

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Authored by Celtic priests when the first Gospels of the New Testament were being created, the Celtic Texts of the Coelbook (the last five books of The Kolbrin Bible ) documents the fusion of Celtic and Druid mysticism, Judaism and Egyptian anthropology. Some regard it as a key Celtic wisdom text because it includes a revealing biography of Jesus with several never-before published first-person quotes.

This work is rooted in a 3600-year-old Egyptian text (the first six books of The Kolbrin Bible ) written following the Exodus. It describes how Noah's Flood and the Ten Plagues of Exodus were caused by a planet (also known as Nibiru or Planet X) that orbits our sun every 3600 years. The Egyptians called it the "Destroyer" and the Celtic priests called it the "Frightener."

Inspired by the Hebrew Exodus from Egypt

This story begins with Moses and the Hebrew Exodus. Convinced their gods had failed them, the Egyptians conducted the first regional anthropological study of the Middle East, in search of clues that would lead them to the one true G-d of Abraham. They published their findings in a 21-volume work titled The Great Book .

During the last millennium BCE, Phoenician traders translated The Great Book from Egyptian Hieratic into their own 22-letter alphabet and entrusted a copy to the Celtic priests in Britain. Inspired by the Egyptian texts, the Celtic priests wrote their own wisdom text in ancient Celtic and called it the Coelbook. Work began on the earliest parts of The Coelbook in approximately 20 CE and finished in approximately 500 CE.

Viewed as a religious work by many, the Celtic texts offer a timeless insight into Druid folklore, mysticism and philosophy. It is now published as The Celtic Texts of the Coelbook (the last five books of the The Kolbrin Bible ) in honor of it’s Celtic authors.

Related Title - The Egyptian Texts of the Bronzebook: The First Six books of The Kolbrin Bible

Following Pharaoh's defeat at the hand of Moses, the Egyptians searched the Middle East for clues to the one true G-d of Abraham. What now survives of that noble effort comprises the first six books of The Kolbrin Bible .

Related Title - The Kolbrin Bible: 21st Century Master Edition

The Kolbrin Bible dates back 3600 years and offers unique and enlightened insights from the past to both challenge and affirm our present day beliefs. This 11-book secular anthology is nearly as large as the King James Bible .

  • Print length 196 pages
  • Language English
  • Publication date May 31, 2006
  • Dimensions 7.44 x 0.45 x 9.69 inches
  • ISBN-10 150278419X
  • ISBN-13 978-1502784193
  • See all details

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Product details

  • Publisher ‏ : ‎ CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform (May 31, 2006)
  • Language ‏ : ‎ English
  • Paperback ‏ : ‎ 196 pages
  • ISBN-10 ‏ : ‎ 150278419X
  • ISBN-13 ‏ : ‎ 978-1502784193
  • Item Weight ‏ : ‎ 12.8 ounces
  • Dimensions ‏ : ‎ 7.44 x 0.45 x 9.69 inches
  • #160 in History of New Age & Mythology
  • #982 in Historical Study Reference (Books)
  • #3,037 in Folklore & Mythology Studies

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About the author

last 5 books of the bible

Marshall Masters

Marshall Masters is a former CNN Science Features news producer, freelance writer, television analyst and the publisher of YOWUSA.COM. Since 1999, he has been researching earth changes and Nibiru flyby-related topics including: sustainable survival communities, catastrophic crop circles, impact events and future technologies. Like many others, Marshall sees a dark cloud coming. What makes him different is that he also sees a silver lining – a noble and inspiring Star Trek future.

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Everyday Chirp

Everyday Chirp

The 10 Most Influential Books of All Time

Posted: July 10, 2023 | Last updated: July 10, 2023

<p>Reading is an adventure through time, space, and the human experience. It lets us explore new worlds, concepts, and perspectives that often deeply impact our thoughts, actions, and, ultimately, the course of our lives. In this spirit, we’ve put together a list of the 10 most influential books of all time – the books that have truly transformed the way we see and engage with the world. Let’s dive in.</p>

Reading is an adventure through time, space, and the human experience. It lets us explore new worlds, concepts, and perspectives that often deeply impact our thoughts, actions, and, ultimately, the course of our lives. In this spirit, we’ve put together a list of the 10 most influential books of all time – the books that have truly transformed the way we see and engage with the world. Let’s dive in.

<p>Known as the most widely read book in human history, the Bible has played a profound role in shaping cultures, governments, philosophies, and personal beliefs across the globe. Comprising both the Old and New Testaments, it is the foundational text of Christianity, influencing countless lives over thousands of years. Its parables, commandments, and teachings have inspired legal systems, social norms, and moral codes that are still prevalent today.</p>

1. The Bible

Known as the most widely read book in human history, the Bible has played a profound role in shaping cultures, governments, philosophies, and personal beliefs across the globe. Comprising both the Old and New Testaments, it is the foundational text of Christianity, influencing countless lives over thousands of years. Its parables, commandments, and teachings have inspired legal systems, social norms, and moral codes that are still prevalent today.

<p>With its dystopian narrative and exploration of totalitarian regimes, George Orwell’s “1984” has dramatically influenced our understanding of state surveillance, personal freedom, and societal control. Written in 1949, it envisioned a future where privacy is nonexistent, thought is controlled, and reality is manipulated. The concepts introduced in this novel, such as “Big Brother” and “Newspeak”, have found their way into our everyday vernacular, symbolizing overreaching authority and manipulative language.</p>

2. 1984 by George Orwell

With its dystopian narrative and exploration of totalitarian regimes, George Orwell’s “1984” has dramatically influenced our understanding of state surveillance, personal freedom, and societal control. Written in 1949, it envisioned a future where privacy is nonexistent, thought is controlled, and reality is manipulated. The concepts introduced in this novel, such as “Big Brother” and “Newspeak”, have found their way into our everyday vernacular, symbolizing overreaching authority and manipulative language.

<p>Harper Lee’s Pulitzer Prize-winning novel, “To Kill a Mockingbird”, broke barriers in its exploration of racism, injustice, and the loss of innocence in the American South. Its characters, such as Atticus Finch and Scout, have become symbols of moral integrity and innocence, respectively. The novel’s profound commentary on racial and social inequalities continues to resonate with readers worldwide, making it a staple in literature and educational curricula.</p>

3. To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee

Harper Lee’s Pulitzer Prize-winning novel, “To Kill a Mockingbird”, broke barriers in its exploration of racism, injustice, and the loss of innocence in the American South. Its characters, such as Atticus Finch and Scout, have become symbols of moral integrity and innocence, respectively. The novel’s profound commentary on racial and social inequalities continues to resonate with readers worldwide, making it a staple in literature and educational curricula.

<p>As the defining work of Marxist theory, “The Communist Manifesto” radically changed political thought and global history. Its analysis of class struggle and its revolutionary propositions sparked the rise of communist movements worldwide. While the ideologies proposed have been both lauded and criticized, there’s no denying the substantial impact this book has had on the socio-political landscape.</p>

4. The Communist Manifesto by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels

As the defining work of Marxist theory, “The Communist Manifesto” radically changed political thought and global history. Its analysis of class struggle and its revolutionary propositions sparked the rise of communist movements worldwide. While the ideologies proposed have been both lauded and criticized, there’s no denying the substantial impact this book has had on the socio-political landscape.

<p>“On the Origin of Species” introduced the world to the theory of evolution by natural selection, forever altering our understanding of life’s diversity. Charles Darwin’s groundbreaking work provided a scientific explanation for the adaptation and survival of species, revolutionizing biology and sparking endless debates on religion, science, and ethics. The ideas proposed in this book continue to be fundamental to our understanding of life on Earth.</p>

5. On the Origin of Species by Charles Darwin

“On the Origin of Species” introduced the world to the theory of evolution by natural selection, forever altering our understanding of life’s diversity. Charles Darwin’s groundbreaking work provided a scientific explanation for the adaptation and survival of species, revolutionizing biology and sparking endless debates on religion, science, and ethics. The ideas proposed in this book continue to be fundamental to our understanding of life on Earth.

<p>A testament to the human spirit in the face of the most appalling circumstances, Anne Frank’s “The Diary of a Young Girl” offers a deeply personal account of life during the Holocaust. Through her words, readers gain an intimate understanding of the horrors of war and the indomitable human will. This diary remains one of the most influential books in the world, reminding us of the importance of empathy, understanding, and remembrance.</p>

6. The Diary of a Young Girl by Anne Frank

A testament to the human spirit in the face of the most appalling circumstances, Anne Frank’s “The Diary of a Young Girl” offers a deeply personal account of life during the Holocaust. Through her words, readers gain an intimate understanding of the horrors of war and the indomitable human will. This diary remains one of the most influential books in the world, reminding us of the importance of empathy, understanding, and remembrance.

<p>An ancient Chinese military treatise, “The Art of War” has transcended its original context to influence numerous fields, including business, politics, and sports. Its strategic principles, exploring concepts like deception, flexibility, and strength, have been adopted and adapted in countless ways. Sun Tzu’s wisdom extends far beyond the battlefield, offering timeless insights on competition and conflict resolution.</p>

7. The Art of War by Sun Tzu

An ancient Chinese military treatise, “The Art of War” has transcended its original context to influence numerous fields, including business, politics, and sports. Its strategic principles, exploring concepts like deception, flexibility, and strength, have been adopted and adapted in countless ways. Sun Tzu’s wisdom extends far beyond the battlefield, offering timeless insights on competition and conflict resolution.

<p>“A Brief History of Time” brought the mysteries of the universe to the general public, inspiring a renewed interest in cosmology and physics. Stephen Hawking’s eloquent explanations of space, time, and black holes brought high-level scientific theories into everyday conversation. His genius and accessibility have inspired countless individuals to look up at the stars and question the nature of the universe.</p>

8. A Brief History of Time by Stephen Hawking

“A Brief History of Time” brought the mysteries of the universe to the general public, inspiring a renewed interest in cosmology and physics. Stephen Hawking’s eloquent explanations of space, time, and black holes brought high-level scientific theories into everyday conversation. His genius and accessibility have inspired countless individuals to look up at the stars and question the nature of the universe.

<p>As the central religious text of Islam, the Qur’an has had an immeasurable impact on the world, guiding the lives of over a billion Muslims worldwide. It’s a deeply spiritual book, filled with moral teachings, laws, and stories that have shaped cultural, social, and political landscapes across continents. Its influence extends far beyond the realm of religion, shaping aspects of art, culture, and law.</p>

9. The Qur’an

As the central religious text of Islam, the Qur’an has had an immeasurable impact on the world, guiding the lives of over a billion Muslims worldwide. It’s a deeply spiritual book, filled with moral teachings, laws, and stories that have shaped cultural, social, and political landscapes across continents. Its influence extends far beyond the realm of religion, shaping aspects of art, culture, and law.

<p>Tolstoy’s “War and Peace” isn’t just a novel—it’s an immersive exploration of human life against the backdrop of the Napoleonic wars. From the inner workings of society to the depths of the human soul, Tolstoy masterfully explores universal themes in extraordinary detail. This epic piece of literature has influenced countless authors and continues to be revered as one of the greatest novels of all time.</p>

10. “War and Peace” by Leo Tolstoy

Tolstoy’s “War and Peace” isn’t just a novel—it’s an immersive exploration of human life against the backdrop of the Napoleonic wars. From the inner workings of society to the depths of the human soul, Tolstoy masterfully explores universal themes in extraordinary detail. This epic piece of literature has influenced countless authors and continues to be revered as one of the greatest novels of all time.

Final Thoughts

In a way, we are all shaped by the stories we read and the knowledge we gain from them. These ten books have left indelible marks on societies and individuals alike, challenging our perceptions, shaping our values, and guiding our actions. Whether we agree or disagree with the ideas presented, it’s undeniable that these influential books have played an enormous role in shaping the world as we know it. Keep exploring, keep reading, and perhaps one day, you might find your own book on such a list.

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IMAGES

  1. Books of The Bible In Order New Testament

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  2. All 66 Books of the Bible in Easy, One-Sentence Summaries

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  3. Catholic: Books of Bible

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  4. 66 books of the Bible list (plus free printables pdf)

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  5. Chart of the Books of the Bible

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  6. ABC: Books of the Bible Poster (Poster)

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VIDEO

  1. 00 Bible Summary

  2. Did We Discover a New Chapter of the Bible?

COMMENTS

  1. Books of the Bible in Order: The New and Old Testament

    1 Kings. 1 Kings continues the account of the monarchy in Israel and God's involvement through the prophets. After David, his son Solomon ascends the throne of a united kingdom, but this unity only lasts during his reign. The book explores how each subsequent king in Israel and Judah answers God's call—or, as often happens, fails to listen.

  2. 66 Books of the Bible List (In Order With Summaries)

    There are 66 books of the Bible that are divided into two sections: the Old Testament and the New Testament. This guide includes a list of the 66 Bible books in order as they appear in the Holy Scriptures we read today in modern Bible translations followed by short summaries of each book of the Bible for historical context.

  3. 66 Books of the Bible: Every Book in Order (With Summaries!)

    #1 - Genesis #2 - Exodus #3 - Leviticus #4 - Numbers #5 - Deuteronomy #6 - Joshua #7 - Judges. #8 - Ruth #9 - 1 Samuel #10 - 2 Samuel #11 - 1 Kings #12 - 2 Kings #13 - 1 Chronicles #14 - 2 Chronicles #15 - Ezra #16 - Nehemiah #17 - Esther #18 - Job #19 - Psalms #20 - Proverbs #21 - Ecclesiastes #22 - Song of Solomon #23 - Isaiah #24 - Jeremiah

  4. What Is the Chronological Order of the 66 Books of the Bible?

    - Books of history: Joshua, Judges, Ruth, 1 Samuel, 2 Samuel, 1 Kings, 2 Kings, 1 Chronicles, 2 Chronicles, Ezra, Nehemiah, Esther - Books of poetry: Job, Psalms, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Song of Solomon - Major prophets: Isaiah, Jeremiah, Lamentations, Ezekiel, Daniel

  5. List of books of the King James Version

    There are 80 books in the King James Bible; 39 in the Old Testament, 14 in the apocrypha, and 27 in the New Testament . When citing the Latin Vulgate, chapter and verse are separated with a comma, for example "Ioannem 3,16"; in English Bibles chapter and verse are separated with a colon, for example "John 3:16".

  6. Books of the Bible

    Home New American Bible Books of the Bible SORT ORDER: Canonical | Alphabetical Books of the Bible in Canonical Order Old Testament Genesis Exodus Leviticus Numbers Deuteronomy Joshua Judges Ruth 1 Sa...

  7. Books of The Bible: Complete List With Authors

    Hebrews, written by Paul, Luke, Barnabas, Apollos. James, written by James: there are several men named James who could have been the author. Most scholars say this is James the brother of Jesus and Jude (not the Apostle, brother of John). 1 Peter, written by Peter. 2 Peter, written by Peter.

  8. Revelation, THE BOOK OF REVELATION

    THE BOOK OF REVELATION The Apocalypse, or Revelation to John, the last book of the Bible, is one of the most difficult to understand because it abounds in unfamiliar and extravagant symbolism, which at best appears unusual to the modern reader.

  9. All 66 Books of the Bible in Easy, One-Sentence Summaries

    Leviticus God gives Israel instructions for how to worship Him. Author: traditionally Moses 4. Numbers Israel fails to trust and obey God, and wanders in the wilderness for 40 years. Author: Traditionally Moses 5. Deuteronomy

  10. Books of the Bible

    Books of the Bible: New and Old Testament readings.

  11. The 66 Books of the Bible in Chronological Order (When ...

    #1 Book: Genesis Author: Genesis is the first book in the list of the books of the Bible in chronological sequence. It is also the first one in the first major division of the Hebrew Bible, called the "Torah." There is no information about the author in the book itself.

  12. When was each book of the Bible written?

    Below are approximate dates of when each book of the Bible was written, listed in chronological order with links to each book and its video introduction on Bible Gateway. Books marked with an asterisk are apocryphal/deuterocanonical; those marked with two asterisks are pseudepigrapha books.

  13. Books of The King James Bible (Kjv)

    2 Peter 3:10 KJV Answer: God said this can be sowed. "For the grace of God that bringeth salvation hath appeared to all men," Titus 2:11 KJV" View & Reply. Books of the King James Bible (KJV) including the New Testament and Old Testament from the King James Bible Online.

  14. What Is the Pentateuch? The Five Books of Moses

    Leviticus Leviticus is God's guidebook for teaching his people about holy living and worship. Everything from sexual conduct, to the handling of food, to instructions for worship and religious celebrations are covered in detail in the book of Leviticus.

  15. Books of the Bible: Old Testament Books in Order

    The Five Books of the Law: Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy The first five books of the Old Testament, also known as the Pentateuch or the Five Books of the Law, were written by Moses and are considered the foundation of the Jewish faith and the Hebrew bible.

  16. The Books of the Bible (book)

    The Books of the Bible is the first presentation of an unabridged committee translation of the Bible to remove chapter and verse numbers entirely and instead present the biblical books according to their natural literary structures. This edition of the Bible is also noteworthy for the way it recombines books that have traditionally been divided ...

  17. New Testament Books

    This is a list of the 27 books of the New Testament, ordered canonically according to most Christian traditions. See also Bible and biblical literature. Gospel According to Matthew Gospel According to Mark Gospel According to Luke Gospel According to John Acts of the Apostles Letter of Paul to the Romans Letters of Paul to the Corinthians

  18. 27 Snapshots of New Testament Books of the Bible

    2 Peter. Peter writes in this letter to encourage believers to "make every effort to supplement your faith with virtue" (1:5). And he writes for them to be cautious of false teachers (Ch. 2), and to remind them about the teaching concerning Christ's coming (Ch. 3). John writes here to encourage believers to walk in the light.

  19. What are the historical books of the Bible?

    As mentioned, the twelve historical books of the Bible focus on five major events affecting the nation of Israel: The conquest and settling of Canaan — Joshua and Judges tell of God's people as they cross the Jordan River and settle into the Promised Land. When the Israelites demonstrated godly obedience, the Lord faithfully fought His people's battles, but when the Israelites' hearts ...

  20. The Pentateuch or the First Five Books of the Bible

    The word Pentateuch is a Greek term meaning "five scrolls" and refers to the five scrolls which comprise the Torah and which also comprise the first five books of the Christian Bible. These five books contain a variety of genres and were constructed from source material created over the course of millennia. It is unlikely that these fives books ...

  21. A Complete List of Old Testament Books in Order: Bible Summary

    The Old Testament consists of 39 different books originally written in the Hebrew and Aramaic languages and can be divided into four categories, including The Torah (or Pentateuch), the historical books, the prophetic writings, and the poetic or wisdom literature.

  22. 3. The Law: The First Five Books

    1450-1410 B.C. Name of the Book: The name Genesis is taken from the Septuagint (LXX), the Greek translation of the Old Testament. Theme and Purpose: Even a casual reading of the Book of Genesis reveals the prominence of the theme of blessing and cursing.

  23. Celtic Texts of the Coelbook: The Last Five Books of the Kolbrin Bible

    Authored by Celtic priests when the first Gospels of the New Testament were being created, the Celtic Texts of the Coelbook (the last five books of The Kolbrin Bible) documents the fusion of Celtic and Druid mysticism, Judaism and Egyptian anthropology.Some regard it as a key Celtic wisdom text because it includes a revealing biography of Jesus with several never-before published first-person ...

  24. The 10 Most Influential Books of All Time

    It lets us explore new worlds, concepts, and perspectives that often deeply impact our thoughts, actions, and, ultimately, the course of our lives. In this spirit, we've put together a list of ...