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Chapter 8 Multiple-Choice Questions Hypothesis Testing, Validity, and Threats to Validity

Test yourself on these multiple-choice questions. Clicking on the letter of your choice will give you immediate feedback on whether you are correct. Even when you are incorrect, you will receive feedback that will help you learn the material better so that you do well on the exam.

A good statement of the problem (a) is concerned only with inductive prediction. (b) specifies the number of participants needed. (c) includes the statistical procedures. (d) should imply the possibility of empirical testing.

In the research on autistic children discussed at several points in the text, (a) the independent variable was disruption. (b) the research was carried out at an experimental level. (c) the study clearly showed a causal relationship. (d) relaxation was the independent variable and the dependent variable was disruption.

Which hypothesis is directly tested in an experiment? (a) One specific confounding variable hypothesis. (b) All of the confounding variables hypotheses. (c) The research hypothesis. (d) both b and c

The statement of the problem (a) is never complete until all the data are collected. (b) is a refinement of the initial ideas. (c) is produced by adding the operational definitions. (d) specifies the experimental manipulation.

A research hypothesis (a) is a tentative statement. (b) must include at least three variables. (c) is used only at the experimental level. (d) cannot be directly tested.

In what order are hypotheses tested or addressed in experimental research? (a) The order varies, depending on the specifics of the experiment. (b) The confounding variable, the statistical, and then the causal. (c) The statistical, the confounding variable, and then the causal. (d) The causal, the statistical, and then the confounding variable.

Which of the following characterizes experimental research? (a) Seeking the strength and direction of relationships. (b) Hypothesis generating as the major aim. (c) High control and causal inferences. (d) The goal of observing contingent relationships.

The research hypothesis includes (a) only the null hypothesis. (b) the null and causal hypotheses. (c) only the causal hypothesis. (d) none of the above.

Conclusions based on experimental research depend heavily on (a) nonparametric statistical procedures. (b) random selection of participants from a general population. (c) ruling out alternative hypotheses. (d) large numbers of participants.

In experimental research, a good statement of the problem will include (a) statistical analyses. (b) identification of at least two variables. (c) data collection. (d) specification of the number of participants.

Which of the following is characteristic of a good statement of the problem? (a) It should state clearly the expected relationships between variables. (b) It identifies the statistical procedures. (c) It need not, at this stage, suggest the possibility of empirical testing. (d) It is not particularly important at lower levels of research.

Experiments are conducted not only to find evidence for a position, but also to (a) avoid tentative conclusions. (b) prove one's theory. (c) rule out rival hypotheses. (d) determine the absolute truth.

A good statement of the problem (a) is not needed only at the correlational level of research. (b) is presented in the form of a question. (c) depends entirely on the operational definitions. (d) is primarily focused on the independent variable(s).

The concept that a procedure really does test what it is supposed to test is (a) determination. (b) replication. (c) reliability. (d) validity.

What concept is at the very heart of experimentation? (a) external validity (b) internal validity (c) replication (d) participant selection

When we can conclude that it was the independent variable and not some other variable that caused the change in the dependent variable, then the study has good (a) external validity. (b) conceptual validity. (c) internal validity. (d) none of the above

Which confounding variable is most likely to occur when participants are selected because their pretest measures were abnormally high? (a) regression to the mean (b) testing (c) attrition (d) selection

Initial research ideas are (a) stated as questions. (b) almost always discarded. (c) the research hypothesis. (d) put into declarative form.

Theory is (a) important only when facts are absent. (b) critical in developing the research hypothesis. (c) a proof of ideas being "right" or "wrong." (d) generally of little use in factual-oriented, hard science.

What confounding variable occurs when the researchers gradually change their observation criteria over the course of the study? (a) regression toward the mean (b) instrumentation (c) maturation (d) history

Which confounding variable can only occur in within-subjects studies? (a) regression to the mean (b) diffusion of treatment (c) sequence effects (d) testing

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Answer: Level of Significance
Answer: Two tailed
Answer: Test statistic
Answer: Left tailed
Answer: We reject H0 if it is True
Answer: Research Hypothesis
Answer: Reject A True Null Hypothesis
Answer: May Or May Not Be Rejected At The 0.01 Level
Answer: A Type Ii Error Is Committed
Answer: there is not enough statistical evidence to infer that the alternative hypothesis is true
Answer: determine whether a statistical result is significant
Answer: 0.005
Answer: Be greater than 5
Answer: That the underlying population follows an approximately Normal distribution
Answer: the probability of observing the data or more extreme values if the null hypothesis is true
Answer: If the p-value is greater than the significance level, we fail to reject Ho
Answer: 0.025

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Research Questions & Hypotheses

Generally, in quantitative studies, reviewers expect hypotheses rather than research questions. However, both research questions and hypotheses serve different purposes and can be beneficial when used together.

Research Questions

Clarify the research’s aim (farrugia et al., 2010).

  • Research often begins with an interest in a topic, but a deep understanding of the subject is crucial to formulate an appropriate research question.
  • Descriptive: “What factors most influence the academic achievement of senior high school students?”
  • Comparative: “What is the performance difference between teaching methods A and B?”
  • Relationship-based: “What is the relationship between self-efficacy and academic achievement?”
  • Increasing knowledge about a subject can be achieved through systematic literature reviews, in-depth interviews with patients (and proxies), focus groups, and consultations with field experts.
  • Some funding bodies, like the Canadian Institute for Health Research, recommend conducting a systematic review or a pilot study before seeking grants for full trials.
  • The presence of multiple research questions in a study can complicate the design, statistical analysis, and feasibility.
  • It’s advisable to focus on a single primary research question for the study.
  • The primary question, clearly stated at the end of a grant proposal’s introduction, usually specifies the study population, intervention, and other relevant factors.
  • The FINER criteria underscore aspects that can enhance the chances of a successful research project, including specifying the population of interest, aligning with scientific and public interest, clinical relevance, and contribution to the field, while complying with ethical and national research standards.
  • The P ICOT approach is crucial in developing the study’s framework and protocol, influencing inclusion and exclusion criteria and identifying patient groups for inclusion.
  • Defining the specific population, intervention, comparator, and outcome helps in selecting the right outcome measurement tool.
  • The more precise the population definition and stricter the inclusion and exclusion criteria, the more significant the impact on the interpretation, applicability, and generalizability of the research findings.
  • A restricted study population enhances internal validity but may limit the study’s external validity and generalizability to clinical practice.
  • A broadly defined study population may better reflect clinical practice but could increase bias and reduce internal validity.
  • An inadequately formulated research question can negatively impact study design, potentially leading to ineffective outcomes and affecting publication prospects.

Checklist: Good research questions for social science projects (Panke, 2018)

multiple choice questions on research hypothesis

Research Hypotheses

Present the researcher’s predictions based on specific statements.

  • These statements define the research problem or issue and indicate the direction of the researcher’s predictions.
  • Formulating the research question and hypothesis from existing data (e.g., a database) can lead to multiple statistical comparisons and potentially spurious findings due to chance.
  • The research or clinical hypothesis, derived from the research question, shapes the study’s key elements: sampling strategy, intervention, comparison, and outcome variables.
  • Hypotheses can express a single outcome or multiple outcomes.
  • After statistical testing, the null hypothesis is either rejected or not rejected based on whether the study’s findings are statistically significant.
  • Hypothesis testing helps determine if observed findings are due to true differences and not chance.
  • Hypotheses can be 1-sided (specific direction of difference) or 2-sided (presence of a difference without specifying direction).
  • 2-sided hypotheses are generally preferred unless there’s a strong justification for a 1-sided hypothesis.
  • A solid research hypothesis, informed by a good research question, influences the research design and paves the way for defining clear research objectives.

Types of Research Hypothesis

  • In a Y-centered research design, the focus is on the dependent variable (DV) which is specified in the research question. Theories are then used to identify independent variables (IV) and explain their causal relationship with the DV.
  • Example: “An increase in teacher-led instructional time (IV) is likely to improve student reading comprehension scores (DV), because extensive guided practice under expert supervision enhances learning retention and skill mastery.”
  • Hypothesis Explanation: The dependent variable (student reading comprehension scores) is the focus, and the hypothesis explores how changes in the independent variable (teacher-led instructional time) affect it.
  • In X-centered research designs, the independent variable is specified in the research question. Theories are used to determine potential dependent variables and the causal mechanisms at play.
  • Example: “Implementing technology-based learning tools (IV) is likely to enhance student engagement in the classroom (DV), because interactive and multimedia content increases student interest and participation.”
  • Hypothesis Explanation: The independent variable (technology-based learning tools) is the focus, with the hypothesis exploring its impact on a potential dependent variable (student engagement).
  • Probabilistic hypotheses suggest that changes in the independent variable are likely to lead to changes in the dependent variable in a predictable manner, but not with absolute certainty.
  • Example: “The more teachers engage in professional development programs (IV), the more their teaching effectiveness (DV) is likely to improve, because continuous training updates pedagogical skills and knowledge.”
  • Hypothesis Explanation: This hypothesis implies a probable relationship between the extent of professional development (IV) and teaching effectiveness (DV).
  • Deterministic hypotheses state that a specific change in the independent variable will lead to a specific change in the dependent variable, implying a more direct and certain relationship.
  • Example: “If the school curriculum changes from traditional lecture-based methods to project-based learning (IV), then student collaboration skills (DV) are expected to improve because project-based learning inherently requires teamwork and peer interaction.”
  • Hypothesis Explanation: This hypothesis presumes a direct and definite outcome (improvement in collaboration skills) resulting from a specific change in the teaching method.
  • Example : “Students who identify as visual learners will score higher on tests that are presented in a visually rich format compared to tests presented in a text-only format.”
  • Explanation : This hypothesis aims to describe the potential difference in test scores between visual learners taking visually rich tests and text-only tests, without implying a direct cause-and-effect relationship.
  • Example : “Teaching method A will improve student performance more than method B.”
  • Explanation : This hypothesis compares the effectiveness of two different teaching methods, suggesting that one will lead to better student performance than the other. It implies a direct comparison but does not necessarily establish a causal mechanism.
  • Example : “Students with higher self-efficacy will show higher levels of academic achievement.”
  • Explanation : This hypothesis predicts a relationship between the variable of self-efficacy and academic achievement. Unlike a causal hypothesis, it does not necessarily suggest that one variable causes changes in the other, but rather that they are related in some way.

Tips for developing research questions and hypotheses for research studies

  • Perform a systematic literature review (if one has not been done) to increase knowledge and familiarity with the topic and to assist with research development.
  • Learn about current trends and technological advances on the topic.
  • Seek careful input from experts, mentors, colleagues, and collaborators to refine your research question as this will aid in developing the research question and guide the research study.
  • Use the FINER criteria in the development of the research question.
  • Ensure that the research question follows PICOT format.
  • Develop a research hypothesis from the research question.
  • Ensure that the research question and objectives are answerable, feasible, and clinically relevant.

If your research hypotheses are derived from your research questions, particularly when multiple hypotheses address a single question, it’s recommended to use both research questions and hypotheses. However, if this isn’t the case, using hypotheses over research questions is advised. It’s important to note these are general guidelines, not strict rules. If you opt not to use hypotheses, consult with your supervisor for the best approach.

Farrugia, P., Petrisor, B. A., Farrokhyar, F., & Bhandari, M. (2010). Practical tips for surgical research: Research questions, hypotheses and objectives.  Canadian journal of surgery. Journal canadien de chirurgie ,  53 (4), 278–281.

Hulley, S. B., Cummings, S. R., Browner, W. S., Grady, D., & Newman, T. B. (2007). Designing clinical research. Philadelphia.

Panke, D. (2018). Research design & method selection: Making good choices in the social sciences.  Research Design & Method Selection , 1-368.

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Research questions, hypotheses and objectives

Patricia farrugia.

* Michael G. DeGroote School of Medicine, the

Bradley A. Petrisor

† Division of Orthopaedic Surgery and the

Forough Farrokhyar

‡ Departments of Surgery and

§ Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ont

Mohit Bhandari

There is an increasing familiarity with the principles of evidence-based medicine in the surgical community. As surgeons become more aware of the hierarchy of evidence, grades of recommendations and the principles of critical appraisal, they develop an increasing familiarity with research design. Surgeons and clinicians are looking more and more to the literature and clinical trials to guide their practice; as such, it is becoming a responsibility of the clinical research community to attempt to answer questions that are not only well thought out but also clinically relevant. The development of the research question, including a supportive hypothesis and objectives, is a necessary key step in producing clinically relevant results to be used in evidence-based practice. A well-defined and specific research question is more likely to help guide us in making decisions about study design and population and subsequently what data will be collected and analyzed. 1

Objectives of this article

In this article, we discuss important considerations in the development of a research question and hypothesis and in defining objectives for research. By the end of this article, the reader will be able to appreciate the significance of constructing a good research question and developing hypotheses and research objectives for the successful design of a research study. The following article is divided into 3 sections: research question, research hypothesis and research objectives.

Research question

Interest in a particular topic usually begins the research process, but it is the familiarity with the subject that helps define an appropriate research question for a study. 1 Questions then arise out of a perceived knowledge deficit within a subject area or field of study. 2 Indeed, Haynes suggests that it is important to know “where the boundary between current knowledge and ignorance lies.” 1 The challenge in developing an appropriate research question is in determining which clinical uncertainties could or should be studied and also rationalizing the need for their investigation.

Increasing one’s knowledge about the subject of interest can be accomplished in many ways. Appropriate methods include systematically searching the literature, in-depth interviews and focus groups with patients (and proxies) and interviews with experts in the field. In addition, awareness of current trends and technological advances can assist with the development of research questions. 2 It is imperative to understand what has been studied about a topic to date in order to further the knowledge that has been previously gathered on a topic. Indeed, some granting institutions (e.g., Canadian Institute for Health Research) encourage applicants to conduct a systematic review of the available evidence if a recent review does not already exist and preferably a pilot or feasibility study before applying for a grant for a full trial.

In-depth knowledge about a subject may generate a number of questions. It then becomes necessary to ask whether these questions can be answered through one study or if more than one study needed. 1 Additional research questions can be developed, but several basic principles should be taken into consideration. 1 All questions, primary and secondary, should be developed at the beginning and planning stages of a study. Any additional questions should never compromise the primary question because it is the primary research question that forms the basis of the hypothesis and study objectives. It must be kept in mind that within the scope of one study, the presence of a number of research questions will affect and potentially increase the complexity of both the study design and subsequent statistical analyses, not to mention the actual feasibility of answering every question. 1 A sensible strategy is to establish a single primary research question around which to focus the study plan. 3 In a study, the primary research question should be clearly stated at the end of the introduction of the grant proposal, and it usually specifies the population to be studied, the intervention to be implemented and other circumstantial factors. 4

Hulley and colleagues 2 have suggested the use of the FINER criteria in the development of a good research question ( Box 1 ). The FINER criteria highlight useful points that may increase the chances of developing a successful research project. A good research question should specify the population of interest, be of interest to the scientific community and potentially to the public, have clinical relevance and further current knowledge in the field (and of course be compliant with the standards of ethical boards and national research standards).

FINER criteria for a good research question

Adapted with permission from Wolters Kluwer Health. 2

Whereas the FINER criteria outline the important aspects of the question in general, a useful format to use in the development of a specific research question is the PICO format — consider the population (P) of interest, the intervention (I) being studied, the comparison (C) group (or to what is the intervention being compared) and the outcome of interest (O). 3 , 5 , 6 Often timing (T) is added to PICO ( Box 2 ) — that is, “Over what time frame will the study take place?” 1 The PICOT approach helps generate a question that aids in constructing the framework of the study and subsequently in protocol development by alluding to the inclusion and exclusion criteria and identifying the groups of patients to be included. Knowing the specific population of interest, intervention (and comparator) and outcome of interest may also help the researcher identify an appropriate outcome measurement tool. 7 The more defined the population of interest, and thus the more stringent the inclusion and exclusion criteria, the greater the effect on the interpretation and subsequent applicability and generalizability of the research findings. 1 , 2 A restricted study population (and exclusion criteria) may limit bias and increase the internal validity of the study; however, this approach will limit external validity of the study and, thus, the generalizability of the findings to the practical clinical setting. Conversely, a broadly defined study population and inclusion criteria may be representative of practical clinical practice but may increase bias and reduce the internal validity of the study.

PICOT criteria 1

A poorly devised research question may affect the choice of study design, potentially lead to futile situations and, thus, hamper the chance of determining anything of clinical significance, which will then affect the potential for publication. Without devoting appropriate resources to developing the research question, the quality of the study and subsequent results may be compromised. During the initial stages of any research study, it is therefore imperative to formulate a research question that is both clinically relevant and answerable.

Research hypothesis

The primary research question should be driven by the hypothesis rather than the data. 1 , 2 That is, the research question and hypothesis should be developed before the start of the study. This sounds intuitive; however, if we take, for example, a database of information, it is potentially possible to perform multiple statistical comparisons of groups within the database to find a statistically significant association. This could then lead one to work backward from the data and develop the “question.” This is counterintuitive to the process because the question is asked specifically to then find the answer, thus collecting data along the way (i.e., in a prospective manner). Multiple statistical testing of associations from data previously collected could potentially lead to spuriously positive findings of association through chance alone. 2 Therefore, a good hypothesis must be based on a good research question at the start of a trial and, indeed, drive data collection for the study.

The research or clinical hypothesis is developed from the research question and then the main elements of the study — sampling strategy, intervention (if applicable), comparison and outcome variables — are summarized in a form that establishes the basis for testing, statistical and ultimately clinical significance. 3 For example, in a research study comparing computer-assisted acetabular component insertion versus freehand acetabular component placement in patients in need of total hip arthroplasty, the experimental group would be computer-assisted insertion and the control/conventional group would be free-hand placement. The investigative team would first state a research hypothesis. This could be expressed as a single outcome (e.g., computer-assisted acetabular component placement leads to improved functional outcome) or potentially as a complex/composite outcome; that is, more than one outcome (e.g., computer-assisted acetabular component placement leads to both improved radiographic cup placement and improved functional outcome).

However, when formally testing statistical significance, the hypothesis should be stated as a “null” hypothesis. 2 The purpose of hypothesis testing is to make an inference about the population of interest on the basis of a random sample taken from that population. The null hypothesis for the preceding research hypothesis then would be that there is no difference in mean functional outcome between the computer-assisted insertion and free-hand placement techniques. After forming the null hypothesis, the researchers would form an alternate hypothesis stating the nature of the difference, if it should appear. The alternate hypothesis would be that there is a difference in mean functional outcome between these techniques. At the end of the study, the null hypothesis is then tested statistically. If the findings of the study are not statistically significant (i.e., there is no difference in functional outcome between the groups in a statistical sense), we cannot reject the null hypothesis, whereas if the findings were significant, we can reject the null hypothesis and accept the alternate hypothesis (i.e., there is a difference in mean functional outcome between the study groups), errors in testing notwithstanding. In other words, hypothesis testing confirms or refutes the statement that the observed findings did not occur by chance alone but rather occurred because there was a true difference in outcomes between these surgical procedures. The concept of statistical hypothesis testing is complex, and the details are beyond the scope of this article.

Another important concept inherent in hypothesis testing is whether the hypotheses will be 1-sided or 2-sided. A 2-sided hypothesis states that there is a difference between the experimental group and the control group, but it does not specify in advance the expected direction of the difference. For example, we asked whether there is there an improvement in outcomes with computer-assisted surgery or whether the outcomes worse with computer-assisted surgery. We presented a 2-sided test in the above example because we did not specify the direction of the difference. A 1-sided hypothesis states a specific direction (e.g., there is an improvement in outcomes with computer-assisted surgery). A 2-sided hypothesis should be used unless there is a good justification for using a 1-sided hypothesis. As Bland and Atlman 8 stated, “One-sided hypothesis testing should never be used as a device to make a conventionally nonsignificant difference significant.”

The research hypothesis should be stated at the beginning of the study to guide the objectives for research. Whereas the investigators may state the hypothesis as being 1-sided (there is an improvement with treatment), the study and investigators must adhere to the concept of clinical equipoise. According to this principle, a clinical (or surgical) trial is ethical only if the expert community is uncertain about the relative therapeutic merits of the experimental and control groups being evaluated. 9 It means there must exist an honest and professional disagreement among expert clinicians about the preferred treatment. 9

Designing a research hypothesis is supported by a good research question and will influence the type of research design for the study. Acting on the principles of appropriate hypothesis development, the study can then confidently proceed to the development of the research objective.

Research objective

The primary objective should be coupled with the hypothesis of the study. Study objectives define the specific aims of the study and should be clearly stated in the introduction of the research protocol. 7 From our previous example and using the investigative hypothesis that there is a difference in functional outcomes between computer-assisted acetabular component placement and free-hand placement, the primary objective can be stated as follows: this study will compare the functional outcomes of computer-assisted acetabular component insertion versus free-hand placement in patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty. Note that the study objective is an active statement about how the study is going to answer the specific research question. Objectives can (and often do) state exactly which outcome measures are going to be used within their statements. They are important because they not only help guide the development of the protocol and design of study but also play a role in sample size calculations and determining the power of the study. 7 These concepts will be discussed in other articles in this series.

From the surgeon’s point of view, it is important for the study objectives to be focused on outcomes that are important to patients and clinically relevant. For example, the most methodologically sound randomized controlled trial comparing 2 techniques of distal radial fixation would have little or no clinical impact if the primary objective was to determine the effect of treatment A as compared to treatment B on intraoperative fluoroscopy time. However, if the objective was to determine the effect of treatment A as compared to treatment B on patient functional outcome at 1 year, this would have a much more significant impact on clinical decision-making. Second, more meaningful surgeon–patient discussions could ensue, incorporating patient values and preferences with the results from this study. 6 , 7 It is the precise objective and what the investigator is trying to measure that is of clinical relevance in the practical setting.

The following is an example from the literature about the relation between the research question, hypothesis and study objectives:

Study: Warden SJ, Metcalf BR, Kiss ZS, et al. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound for chronic patellar tendinopathy: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Rheumatology 2008;47:467–71.

Research question: How does low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) compare with a placebo device in managing the symptoms of skeletally mature patients with patellar tendinopathy?

Research hypothesis: Pain levels are reduced in patients who receive daily active-LIPUS (treatment) for 12 weeks compared with individuals who receive inactive-LIPUS (placebo).

Objective: To investigate the clinical efficacy of LIPUS in the management of patellar tendinopathy symptoms.

The development of the research question is the most important aspect of a research project. A research project can fail if the objectives and hypothesis are poorly focused and underdeveloped. Useful tips for surgical researchers are provided in Box 3 . Designing and developing an appropriate and relevant research question, hypothesis and objectives can be a difficult task. The critical appraisal of the research question used in a study is vital to the application of the findings to clinical practice. Focusing resources, time and dedication to these 3 very important tasks will help to guide a successful research project, influence interpretation of the results and affect future publication efforts.

Tips for developing research questions, hypotheses and objectives for research studies

  • Perform a systematic literature review (if one has not been done) to increase knowledge and familiarity with the topic and to assist with research development.
  • Learn about current trends and technological advances on the topic.
  • Seek careful input from experts, mentors, colleagues and collaborators to refine your research question as this will aid in developing the research question and guide the research study.
  • Use the FINER criteria in the development of the research question.
  • Ensure that the research question follows PICOT format.
  • Develop a research hypothesis from the research question.
  • Develop clear and well-defined primary and secondary (if needed) objectives.
  • Ensure that the research question and objectives are answerable, feasible and clinically relevant.

FINER = feasible, interesting, novel, ethical, relevant; PICOT = population (patients), intervention (for intervention studies only), comparison group, outcome of interest, time.

Competing interests: No funding was received in preparation of this paper. Dr. Bhandari was funded, in part, by a Canada Research Chair, McMaster University.

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Research Methodology Quiz | MCQ (Multiple Choice Questions)

multiple choice questions on research hypothesis

In order to enhance your understanding of research methodology, we have made thought-provoking quiz featuring multiple-choice questions.

This quiz served as a tool to assess your knowledge and comprehension of various research techniques and methodologies. Each question presented unique scenarios, challenging you to analyze and select the most appropriate methodological approach.

The quiz aimed to sharpen your critical thinking skills and reinforce our grasp on essential concepts in the realm of research. By actively participating in this exercise, we deepened your appreciation for the significance of selecting the right research methods to achieve reliable and meaningful results.

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Please read through some of our other articles with examples and explanations if you’d like to learn more about research methodology.

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  • Operationalization of Variables
  • Literature Review
  • Research Hypothesis
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  • Measurement of Scale
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  • Acknowledgements

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Research Methods and Statistics in Psychology

Student resources, chapter 3: research methods.

1. Which of the following statements is not true? [TY3.1]

  • Psychological measurement can involve the measurement of phenomena believed to be related to a given psychological state or process.
  • Psychological measurement can involve the measurement of behaviour believed to result from a given psychological state or process.
  • Psychological measurement can involve self-reports of behaviour believed to be related to a given psychological state or process.
  • Psychological measurement can involve the self-reports of a sample drawn from a particular sub-population.
  • Psychological measurement can involve direct examination of psychological states and processes.

2. A researcher conducts an experiment that tests the hypothesis that ‘anxiety has an adverse effect on students’ exam performance’. Which of the following statements is true? [TY3.2]

  • Anxiety is the dependent variable, exam performance is the independent variable.
  • Anxiety is the dependent variable, students are the independent variable.
  • Anxiety is the independent variable, students are the dependent variable.
  • Anxiety is the independent variable, exam performance is the dependent variable.
  • Students are the dependent variable, exam performance is the independent variable.

3. An experimenter conducts a study in which she wants to look at the effects of altitude on psychological well-being. To do this she randomly allocates people to two groups and takes one group up in a plane to a height of 1000 metres and leaves the other group in the airport terminal as a control group. When the plane is in the air she seeks to establish the psychological well-being of both groups. Which of the following is a potential confound, threatening the internal validity of the study? [TY3.3]

  • The reliability of the questionnaire that she uses to establish psychological health.
  • The size of the space in which the participants are confined.
  • The susceptibility of the experimental group to altitude sickness.
  • The susceptibility of the control group to altitude sickness.
  • The age of people in experimental and control groups.

4. What distinguishes the experimental method from the quasi-experimental method? [TY3.4]

  • The scientific status of the research.
  • The existence of an independent variable.
  • The existence of different levels of an independent variable.
  • The sensitivity of the dependent variable.
  • The random assignment of participants to conditions.

5. Which of the following is not an advantage of the survey/correlational method? [TY3.5]

  • It allows researchers to examine a number of different variables at the same time.
  • It allows researchers to examine the relationship between variables in natural settings.
  • It allows researchers to make predictions based on observed relationships between variables.
  • It allows researchers to explain observed relationships between variables.
  • It is often more convenient than experimental methods.

6. Which of the following statements is true? [TY3.6]

  • Case studies have played no role in the development of psychological theory.
  • Case studies have all of the weaknesses and none of the strengths of larger studies.
  • Case studies have none of the weaknesses and all of the strengths of larger studies.
  • Case studies should only be conducted if every other option has been ruled out.
  • None of the above.

7. An experimenter, Tom, conducts an experiment to see whether accuracy of responding and reaction time are affected by consumption of alcohol. To do this, Tom conducts a study in which students at university A react to pairs of symbols by saying ‘same’ or ‘different’ after consuming two glasses of water and students at university B react to pairs of symbols by saying ‘same’ or ‘different’ after consuming two glasses of wine. Tom predicts that reaction times will be slower and that there will be more errors in the responses of students who have consumed alcohol. Which of the following statements is not true? [TY3.7]

  • The university attended by participants is a confound.
  • The experiment has two dependent variables.
  • Reaction time is the independent variable.
  • Tom’s ability to draw firm conclusions about the impact of alcohol on reaction time would be improved by assigning participants randomly to experimental conditions.
  • This study is actually a quasi-experiment.

8. What is an extraneous variable? [TY3.8]

  • A variable that can never be manipulated.
  • A variable that can never be controlled.
  • A variable that can never be measured.
  • A variable that clouds the interpretation of results.

9. Which of the following statements is true? [TY3.9]

  • The appropriateness of any research method is always determined by the research question and the research environment.
  • Good experiments all involve a large number of participants.
  • Experiments should be conducted in laboratories in order to improve experimental control.
  • Surveys have no place in good psychological research.
  • Case studies are usually carried out when researchers are too lazy to find enough participants.

10. A piece of research that is conducted in a natural (non-artificial) setting is called: [TY3.10]

  • A case study.
  • A field study.
  • A quasi-experiment.
  • An observational study.

11. “Measures designed to gain insight into particular psychological states or processes that involve recording performance on particular activities or tasks.” What type of measures does this glossary entry describe?

  • State measures.
  • Behavioural measures.
  • Physiological measures.
  • Activity measures.
  • Performance measures.

12. “An approach to psychology that asserts that human behaviour can be understood in terms of directly observable relationships (in particular, between a stimulus and a response) without having to refer to underlying mental states.” Which approach to psychology is this a glossary definition of?

  • Behaviourism.
  • Freudianism.
  • Cognitivism.
  • Radical observationism.

13. “The complete set of events, people or things that a researcher is interested in and from which any sample is taken.” What does this glossary entry define?

  • Total sample.
  • Complete sample.
  • Reference sample.
  • Reference group.
  • Population.

14. “Either the process of reaching conclusions about the effect of one variable on another, or the outcome of such a process.” What does this glossary entry define?

  • Causal inference.
  • Inductive reasoning.
  • Inferential accounting.

15. “The extent to which the effect of an independent variable on a dependent variable has been correctly interpreted.” Which construct is this a glossary definition of?

  • Internal inference.
  • External inference.
  • External validity.
  • Holistic deduction.
  • Internal validity.

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    Psychological measurement can involve the self-reports of a sample drawn from a particular sub-population. Psychological measurement can involve direct examination of psychological states and processes. 2. A researcher conducts an experiment that tests the hypothesis that 'anxiety has an adverse effect on students' exam performance'.