APA Title Page (Cover Page) Format, Example, & Templates

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In APA Style (7th edition), the cover page, or title page, should include:
  • A running head (professional papers only) and page number
  • The title of the paper
  • The name of the author(s)
  • The institutional affiliation
  • An author note; optional (professional papers only)
  • A student paper should also include course information
Note : APA 7 provides slightly different directions for formatting the title pages of professional papers (e.g., those intended for scholarly publication) and student papers (e.g., those turned in for credit in a high school or college course).

Professional paper APA title page

An example of an APA format reference page

Student paper APA title page

An example of an APA format reference page

Formatting an APA title page

Note : All text on the title page should be double-spaced and typed in either 12-point, Times New Roman font. In the 7th edition, APA increaded the flexibility regarding font options: which now include Calibri 11, Arial 11, Lucida Sans Unicode 10, Times New Roman 12, or Georgia 11. All words should be centered, and capitalize the first letter of important words.

Running Head

In the 7th edition of the APA style manual, running heads are only required for professional papers that are being submitted for publication (student papers do not require a running head, but still need a page number).

Your title page should contain a running head that is flush left at the top of the page and a page number that is flush right at the top of the page.

Place the running head in the page’s header:

  • The running head is the abbreviated title of the paper (IN UPPERCASE LETTERS) aligned left on the page header of all pages, including the title page. APA (7th edition) guidelines require that running heads be a maximum of 50 characters (spaces count as characters).
  • The “Running head:” label used in the APA sixth edition is no longer used.
  • Place the page number in this same header, but align right, beginning with page number 1 on the title page.
  • This header should be 1 inch from the top. Some instructors allow for 1/2 inch, too, but the default is 1 inch.

Paper Title

Position the title of the paper in the upper half of the page. The title should be centered and written in boldface, and important words should be capitalized.

The APA recommends that your title should be a maximum of 12 words and should not contain abbreviations or words that serve no purpose.

Author Name(s)

Institutional affiliation.

Position the school or university’s name below the author(s) name, centered.

A student paper should also include the course number and name, instructor name, and assignment due date.

Further Information

  • APA Student Title Page Guide
  • APA Referencing
  • How to Write a Lab Report
  • Essay Writing Guide for Psychology Students
  • APA Style Citations & References
  • Example of an APA Formatted Paper

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  • The Complete Guide to APA Format in 2020

APA Title Page / Cover Page

  • Headings and Subheadings
  • Discussion Section
  • Websites and Online Sources
  • Journals and Periodicals
  • Other Print Sources
  • Other Non-Print Sources
  • In-text Citations
  • Footnotes and Endnotes
  • Using MyBib Responsibly
  • Miscellaneous Questions

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Details to include

The title page (also known as the cover page) is the front page of your paper. It should contain:

  • The running head , a header at the top of the page.
  • The first page number .
  • The title of the paper
  • The institution for which you writing.

Running head

The running head should be in the top-left corner of the page in uppercase. It should include a shortened title of your paper. On the front page only, it should also be prepended with "Running head:".

First page number

The first page number -- generally page 1 -- should be in the top-right corner of the page. Both the page number and the running head should be a half inch from the top of the page.

The title of the paper can contain upper and lowercase letters, and ideally should be no more than 12 words in length. It should be direct, and should not contain abbreviations or other unnecessary words. It should not span longer than 2 lines. The first letter of each word should be uppercase, except for articles (a, an, the), and conjunctions (and, but, for, or, yet).

Underneath the title should be your name (or the author's name if you're not the author). It should be displayed as the first name , middle initial , and last name . Do not add titles (such as Dr.) to the beginning, or qualifications (such as PhD) to the end of an author's name.

Your institution

Finally, underneath the author's name, state the full name of the institution or school you're writing the paper for.

The font for all text on the title page should be Times New Roman, size 12pt, with double line-spacing.

A correct title page will look like the below image:

APA format example title page

After completing your title page you will move on to writing an abstract of your paper.

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Research Method

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Research Paper Title Page – Example and Making Guide

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Research Paper Title

Research Paper Title Page

Research Paper Title Page is the cover page of a research paper that provides basic information about the paper. It typically includes the title of the research paper, the author’s name, the date of submission, and the name of the institution or department where the research was conducted.

The title page of a research paper typically includes the following information:

  • Title of the research paper
  • Author(s) of the paper (including their name(s), affiliation(s), and contact information)
  • Date of submission or publication
  • Name of the academic institution or organization where the research was conducted (if applicable)
  • Any acknowledgments or funding sources for the research
  • Abstract of the research paper (usually a brief summary of the paper’s main findings or arguments)

Research Paper Title Page Example

Research Paper Title Page

Notes on formatting:

  • The title of your research paper should be centered on the page, and should be written in title case (capitalizing the first letter of each major word).
  • Your name should be written underneath the title, centered on the page.
  • Your institutional affiliation (e.g. the name of your university or research institution) should be written underneath your name, centered on the page.
  • The date of submission should be written underneath your institutional affiliation, centered on the page.

Research Paper Title Page Writing Guide

Here are some guidelines for writing a research paper title page:

  • Title of the paper: The title should be concise and descriptive, reflecting the main idea or focus of the research paper. The title should be centered on the page and in title case (capitalize the first letter of each major word).
  • Author’s name : The author’s name should be written below the title, also centered on the page. Use first name, middle initial, and last name.
  • Institutional affiliation: The institutional affiliation is the name of the university, college, or organization where the research was conducted. It should be listed below the author’s name and centered on the page.
  • Date of submission: The date of submission is the date when the research paper is being submitted for review or publication. It should be written below the institutional affiliation and centered on the page.
  • Running head: A running head is a short version of the title that is used on subsequent pages of the paper. It should be written in all caps and flush left at the top of each page.
  • Page number: The page number should be flush right at the top of each page.
  • Font and spacing: Use a standard font such as Times New Roman or Arial in 12-point size. Double-space the entire title page.

Purpose of Research Paper Title Page

The purpose of the research paper title page is to:

  • Identify the title of the research paper: The title page provides the title of the paper in a clear and concise manner so that readers can quickly understand the topic of the research.
  • Indicate the author(s) of the paper: The title page should include the name(s) of the author(s) who conducted the research and wrote the paper. This information helps to establish credibility and accountability for the research.
  • Provide information about the institutional affiliation: The title page should also include the name of the institution where the research was conducted. This information helps readers understand the context of the research and can be useful for citations and further research.
  • Give the date of the research: The title page should include the date that the research was conducted or the paper was written. This information helps readers understand the currency of the research and can be useful for citing sources.
  • Include other relevant information: Depending on the requirements of the research paper, the title page may also include other relevant information such as the course title, instructor’s name, or a brief abstract of the research.
  • Establish a professional appearance : The title page provides an opportunity to present the research paper in a professional and organized manner. A well-designed title page with all necessary information can make a positive first impression on readers and demonstrate the author’s attention to detail.
  • Facilitate easy referencing: A properly formatted title page can help readers locate the research paper easily in a database, library, or other sources. This is particularly important for academic and scientific research papers that may be referenced frequently by others.
  • Comply with formatting guidelines : Many academic and scientific disciplines have specific formatting guidelines for research papers, including requirements for the title page. Adhering to these guidelines ensures that the research paper is presented in a consistent and standardized format that is familiar to readers in that field.
  • Demonstrate compliance with ethical standards: Some academic institutions require that the title page include a statement of compliance with ethical standards for research, such as human subjects’ protection, data privacy, or animal welfare. This information ensures that the research was conducted in an ethical and responsible manner.

Advantages of Research Paper Title Page

There are several advantages to including a title page in a research paper, including:

  • Professional Appearance: A title page provides a professional appearance to the research paper. It is the first thing that readers see, and it gives them an impression of the paper’s overall quality.
  • Credibility : Including a title page with all the necessary information, such as the author’s name, institutional affiliation, and the date of submission, enhances the credibility of the research paper.
  • Easy Identification: A title page makes it easier for readers to identify the research paper among other papers. It provides important information about the paper, such as the title, author’s name, and institutional affiliation.
  • Easy Access: A title page provides a quick reference for readers who need to cite the research paper in their own work. The necessary information is all in one place and easily accessible.
  • Compliance with Formatting Guidelines: Many academic institutions have specific formatting guidelines for research papers, including the use of a title page. Including a title page ensures compliance with these guidelines and helps avoid any confusion or penalties.

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  • Sample MLA Paper – normal paper
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  • MLA Format Cover Page

The Modern Language Association (MLA) does not require you to create a cover page when you complete your research paper, but some instructors may require it.

If your instructor requires your paper to have a cover page, here is how to make it (very easy). This cover page should include: your school name, your research paper title, your name, your class, your professor name and your paper due date.

How to Format Your MLA Cover Page:

  • This page is double spaced and the letters are centered.
  • Font: Times New Roman
  • Font size: 12
  • The first letter of each word should be capitalized with the exception of very short words such as: the, and, of, or, a, an, in, to, for. Note: the first letter of the first word should be capitalized, regardless of what kind of word it is.
  • Type the name of your university or college.
  • Skip to about one-third of the page and type your research paper title, include a subtitle if you have.
  • Skip several lines down and type your name, your course name and number, your instructor name and your paper’s due date.

Sample MLA Format Cover Page:

how to do a front page for a research paper

Sample MLA Format Cover Page

Alternate First Page:

If your instructor requires a cover page, you would omit the main heading on your first page. Here is an example of the first page if a cover page is used. You still need your last name and page number on the first page and every other page.

how to do a front page for a research paper

Sample MLA Format First Page with Cover Page

how to do a front page for a research paper

Sample MLA Paper:

Visit here for a sample paper with the cover page. The cover page can vary slightly. This paper also has the outline page for your sample.

If you find this website useful, please share with a friend:

How do I get the header on the second page on down? I tried editing it but then it takes the header away from all the pages.

In word select the header then go to: Header & Footer>Page Number>Format Page Numbers>Page Numbering>Start at page>Set to 0

How do I get the header on the second page on down? I tried editing it but then it takes the header away from all the pages. I am using windows. Also, the page numbers are not working for me either. Please help me.

How should I start the page after my cover page?

https://mlaformat.org/mla-format-heading/

Thank you so much Stephen !!! Helped a lot in my written assignments 🙂

Great site ! Thank you so much. Just returned to school to complete my bachelors and needed a little refreshing. Has all the information I needed !

Thanks so much for all of the great information! I have not used MLA before and was a little panic stricken. I have found all of my answers here. This is now saved to my favorites so I can use it regularly. Thanks again!

Should the lines on the cover page be double spaced?

Thanks so much for the picture of the cover page it has helped a lot. But, I was wondering do I still need to put my Title at the top of every page after the header?

Hello Lydia. You do not.

After your cover page, your next page’s heading should look like the “Alternate First Page” above.

After the “Alternate First Page” => your next pages should have “The Inner Pages” heading: https://mlaformat.org/mla-format-heading/

Sample paper: https://mlaformat.org/mla-format-sample-paper-with-cover-page-and-outline/

hey Lydia you don’t need to but if you want to you can

Thank you so so much. I love the simplicity of the website, very easy to understand. I finally have a cover page for my paper!!

I love this website!! It helped so many times with all my essays. I’m working on a college one and this was very useful. Thank you soo much. And thanks for the examples im a visual person I needed that 🙂

Hi Kaylin, I am glad you find this site useful. Take care!

By the way (sorry i forgot!) for the coverpage, would the text font be 12 times new roman???

You can set everything 12, Times New Roman. Or you can set the Title a little larger than 12, that should work too.

In the example above, I have the title larger than 12.

Here is an example with everything set at 12.

Thank you so much for your help on this useful website! I found it very organized and I’m very glad that I came across this particular article. Thanks!!!!!!!:)

I have a question regarding the cover page and the following pages. If I have a cover page as the example provided, do I still need the heading on the next page? And should the pages after that contain my last name on the top left as the header does on the on the previous pages? or do I not need the header at all if I have the cover page and just my name?

Excellence question, Stella! I have updated this article with information on the first page if a cover page is used. Please see “Alternate First Page” above.

You can omit the main heading but you still need your last name and page number on the first page and all subsequent pages. Take care!

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Home / Guides / Citation Guides / APA Format / Formatting an APA title page

Formatting an APA title page

The title page is a requirement for all APA papers. The primary role of the title page is to present just that: the title. But that’s only the beginning of what is actually required for a properly formatted APA title page. This is the first chance a writer has to truly engage with the reader.

For students, the title page also lets people know which class, professor, and institution the text was written for. For professional authors, the title page is an opportunity to share any affiliations or conflicts of interest that might be present.

APA Style recognizes two different ways to format a title page. One is for student papers and the other is for professional papers. This guide will examine the difference and provide real-life examples of both.

The information provided below comes from the 7 th edition of the APA’s Publication Manual . You can read more about title page elements in Sections 2.1 – 2.8.

Here’s a run-through of everything this page includes:

The difference between a professional title page and a student title page in APA

Elements of an apa style title page, apa formatting title page example, conclusion: formatting a title page in apa 7.

Both student and professional title pages require a title, author, and an affiliation. Both types of title page also require the same basic formatting, including 1-inch indentations on all sides and a page number in the top right corner.

The primary difference is that professional title pages also require an author note and a running head. However, some professors do ask that you provide some of these elements in student papers. It’s a good idea to know how to format them just in case.

Student title page APA

An APA title page for any paper being submitted for a class, degree, or thesis is all about the basics. Here are the elements that should be included in a student title page :

  • Title of your paper
  • Byline (author or authors)
  • Affiliation (department and university)
  • Course name and course number
  • Instructor name

Page number

Your professor or institution might have their own formatting requirements. When writing a paper for a class, the first rule is to always pay attention to the instructions.

Professional title page APA

A professional title page skips the class info and due date, but it includes:

  • Affiliation (division and/or organization)
  • Author note
  • Running head

The author note and running head are generally only required for professional papers. However, some professors might ask that you include one or both of them. Be sure to check the assignment instructions before submitting.

The title of your paper is really important. This is where the author needs to simultaneously inform and engage the reader without being overly wordy.

An effective title will:

  • Engage the reader
  • Concisely explain the main topic of research
  • Concisely explain any relevant variables or theoretical issues

The paper title should be placed three or four lines down from the top margin of the page. It should be presented in bold, title case, and centered on the page.

Author/Byline

The correct way to display the author’s name is first name, middle initial, and last name. The most important thing is to prevent the possibility of mistaken identity. After all, there are a lot of papers published every year, and it’s possible that someone else has the same name as you do.

For all author bylines in APA, all licenses and degrees are omitted (e.g., Dr., Professor, PhD, RN, etc.).

If your paper has multiple authors, then they should all be listed in the same way, in order of their contributions. All authors should be on the same line, unless more lines are required.

Here’s an example of a properly formatted byline for a paper with two authors:

Cassandra M. Berkman and Wilhelm K. Jackson

Affiliation

The affiliation element is where you identify the place where the work was conducted or who it was conducted for. This is almost always a university or institution. In some cases, there are multiple affiliations for one author, or multiple authors with different affiliations.

Academic affiliations

Academic affiliations include schools, universities, and teaching hospitals. The affiliation line should include the specific department followed by the name of the institution. There is no need to include a location for academic affiliations.

Here is an example of what a basic academic affiliation line should look like:

Department of Psychology, Colorado State University

Non-academic affiliations

Non-academic affiliations are anything that isn’t a school or university, which could be a hospital, laboratory, or just about any type of organization. The affiliation line for a non-academic organization should include the department or division, followed by the name and location of the organization. All elements should be separated by commas.

Here’s how it looks when put to use:

Vidant Health, Greenville, NC, United States

Course number and name (Student only)

Use the course number and course name as they appear on official university materials. Examples:

  • ENG 204: Modern English Literature
  • PSYC 2301: Research Methodology

Instructor name (Student papers only)

It’s important that you display your instructor’s name in their preferred way. With academics who have multiple degrees and positions, this isn’t something that you should guess at.

It is generally safe to use the course syllabus to see how they prefer to be listed. For example, some use the word “Professor” as their prefix, and many will have PhD, RN, or other type of professional designation.

Due date (Student papers only)

The due date should be presented in the day, month, and year format that is standard to your country.

The page number goes at the top right-hand side of the paper. This is one of the only elements that appears on every single page.

You can add running page numbers to your paper by double-clicking the header portion of the document or clicking the “Insert” tab. It will automatically insert page numbers into the rest of the document.

Author note (Professional papers only)

The author note is usually only required for professional papers. This is where additional data, disclaimers, conflicts of interest, and statements about funding are placed. In some cases, the author statement can be several pages long.

The author note is generally split into four paragraphs, including:

  • ORCID iD (a scientific/academic author ID)
  • Changes of Affiliation
  • Disclosures and Acknowledgments
  • Contact Information

Section 2.7 of the Publication Manual has even more information on how to structure these elements for a professional paper.

Running Head (Professional papers only)

While some student papers might require a running head, this is something that is typically only for papers being submitted for publication. This is an abbreviated version of your title that appears at the top of every page to help readers identify it. The running title is particularly useful especially in print versions of journals and publications.

The running head does not have to use the same words as they appear in your title. Instead, try to re-work your paper’s main idea into a shortened form.

For example, if your paper’s title is:

“A Mystery of Style: Exploring the Formatting Mechanics of the Running Head According  to APA Style 7th Edition”

Then your abbreviated title can be something like:

“RUNNING HEAD IN APA 7”

“FORMATTING THE RUNNING HEAD”

The idea is to convey only the most important aspects of your title. The running head should be entered in the page header, flush left against the margin, and presented in all-capital letters.

The APA suggests a maximum length of 50 characters (including spaces and punctuation) for a running head. If your title is already 50 characters and under, then you can use the whole thing as the running head.

Next, let’s have a look at an example of what a real APA title page looks like when it’s all put together.

Student title page formatting example

APA style student title page example

Professional title page formatting example

APA-format-professional-title-page

All papers written according to APA Style should have a properly formatted title page. Making sure that the title page elements are accurate and informative will help people access your work. It is also the first opportunity that you have as the author to establish credibility and engage the reader.

For more information on the basic elements of an APA paper, check out Chapter 2 of the Publication Manual or our guide on APA format .

Published October 28, 2020.

APA Formatting Guide

APA Formatting

  • Annotated Bibliography
  • Block Quotes
  • et al Usage
  • In-text Citations
  • Multiple Authors
  • Paraphrasing
  • Page Numbers
  • Parenthetical Citations
  • Reference Page
  • Sample Paper
  • APA 7 Updates
  • View APA Guide

Citation Examples

  • Book Chapter
  • Journal Article
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  • Website (no author)
  • View all APA Examples

An APA title page provides the details of the paper, such as the title of the paper, author name, and author affiliation. APA title pages have two formats—one for professional papers and one for student papers.

The elements to be added on the title page of a professional paper (in order of appearance) are:

  • Page number and running head: These elements appear in the header section. The page number appears at the top-right corner, whereas the running head appears at the top-left corner. If the title is too long, the running head is shortened to less than 50 characters.
  • Title of the paper: It provides information about the paper. It is aligned center and set in bold.
  • Names of the authors: It gives the names of the contributors to the paper and is aligned center.
  • Affiliations of the authors: It gives the department and university details of the authors.
  • Author note: It gives extra information about the authors.

In a student paper, the following details are included on the title page:

  • Page number: This appears in the top-right corner of the header section.
  • Title of the paper: It gives the reader an idea of the information in the paper. It appears in title case and bold. It is center-aligned.
  • Names of the authors: The names of the contributors are added here. This field is also called the by-line.
  • Affiliations of the authors: It includes the names of the authors’ departments and universities.
  • Name of the course: The name of the course for which the paper is written is included in this field.
  • Name of the instructor: Unlike the professional paper, the instructor’s name is included in a student paper.
  • Due date of the assignment: The due date of the assignment is added here. The format is “Month Day, Year” (e.g., August 22, 2017).

The title page information for APA is different for a professional paper and a student paper. As a student, you need to include the following details in the same order on the title page of your student paper.

  • Page number: This appears in the header section. Set the page number in the top-right corner of the header.
  • Title of the paper: Set it in title case and bold. Align it to the center.
  • Names of the authors: Provide the names of the contributors. This field is also called the by-line.
  • Affiliations of the authors: Include your department and university name.
  • Name of the course: Provide the name of the course and course number for which the paper is written.
  • Name of the instructor: Add the instructor’s name. There is no rigid rule on how to set the instructor’s name. You can set it according to the instructor’s preference.
  • Due date of the assignment: Add the due date of the assignment. The format should be “Month Day, Year” (e.g., August 23, 2021).

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A step-by-step guide for creating and formatting APA Style student papers

The start of the semester is the perfect time to learn how to create and format APA Style student papers. This article walks through the formatting steps needed to create an APA Style student paper, starting with a basic setup that applies to the entire paper (margins, font, line spacing, paragraph alignment and indentation, and page headers). It then covers formatting for the major sections of a student paper: the title page, the text, tables and figures, and the reference list. Finally, it concludes by describing how to organize student papers and ways to improve their quality and presentation.

The guidelines for student paper setup are described and shown using annotated diagrams in the Student Paper Setup Guide (PDF, 3.40MB) and the A Step-by-Step Guide to APA Style Student Papers webinar . Chapter 1 of the Concise Guide to APA Style and Chapter 2 of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association describe the elements, format, and organization for student papers. Tables and figures are covered in Chapter 7 of both books. Information on paper format and tables and figures and a full sample student paper are also available on the APA Style website.

Basic setup

The guidelines for basic setup apply to the entire paper. Perform these steps when you first open your document, and then you do not have to worry about them again while writing your paper. Because these are general aspects of paper formatting, they apply to all APA Style papers, student or professional. Students should always check with their assigning instructor or institution for specific guidelines for their papers, which may be different than or in addition to APA Style guidelines.

Seventh edition APA Style was designed with modern word-processing programs in mind. Most default settings in programs such as Academic Writer, Microsoft Word, and Google Docs already comply with APA Style. This means that, for most paper elements, you do not have to make any changes to the default settings of your word-processing program. However, you may need to make a few adjustments before you begin writing.

Use 1-in. margins on all sides of the page (top, bottom, left, and right). This is usually how papers are automatically set.

Use a legible font. The default font of your word-processing program is acceptable. Many sans serif and serif fonts can be used in APA Style, including 11-point Calibri, 11-point Arial, 12-point Times New Roman, and 11-point Georgia. You can also use other fonts described on the font page of the website.

Line spacing

Double-space the entire paper including the title page, block quotations, and the reference list. This is something you usually must set using the paragraph function of your word-processing program. But once you do, you will not have to change the spacing for the entirety of your paper–just double-space everything. Do not add blank lines before or after headings. Do not add extra spacing between paragraphs. For paper sections with different line spacing, see the line spacing page.

Paragraph alignment and indentation

Align all paragraphs of text in the body of your paper to the left margin. Leave the right margin ragged. Do not use full justification. Indent the first line of every paragraph of text 0.5-in. using the tab key or the paragraph-formatting function of your word-processing program. For paper sections with different alignment and indentation, see the paragraph alignment and indentation page.

Page numbers

Put a page number in the top right of every page header , including the title page, starting with page number 1. Use the automatic page-numbering function of your word-processing program to insert the page number in the top right corner; do not type the page numbers manually. The page number is the same font and font size as the text of your paper. Student papers do not require a running head on any page, unless specifically requested by the instructor.

Title page setup

Title page elements.

APA Style has two title page formats: student and professional (for details, see title page setup ). Unless instructed otherwise, students should use the student title page format and include the following elements, in the order listed, on the title page:

  • Paper title.
  • Name of each author (also known as the byline).
  • Affiliation for each author.
  • Course number and name.
  • Instructor name.
  • Assignment due date.
  • Page number 1 in the top right corner of the page header.

The format for the byline depends on whether the paper has one author, two authors, or three or more authors.

  • When the paper has one author, write the name on its own line (e.g., Jasmine C. Hernandez).
  • When the paper has two authors, write the names on the same line and separate them with the word “and” (e.g., Upton J. Wang and Natalia Dominguez).
  • When the paper has three or more authors, separate the names with commas and include “and” before the final author’s name (e.g., Malia Mohamed, Jaylen T. Brown, and Nia L. Ball).

Students have an academic affiliation, which identities where they studied when the paper was written. Because students working together on a paper are usually in the same class, they will have one shared affiliation. The affiliation consists of the name of the department and the name of the college or university, separated by a comma (e.g., Department of Psychology, George Mason University). The department is that of the course to which the paper is being submitted, which may be different than the department of the student’s major. Do not include the location unless it is part of the institution’s name.

Write the course number and name and the instructor name as shown on institutional materials (e.g., the syllabus). The course number and name are often separated by a colon (e.g., PST-4510: History and Systems Psychology). Write the assignment due date in the month, date, and year format used in your country (e.g., Sept. 10, 2020).

Title page line spacing

Double-space the whole title page. Place the paper title three or four lines down from the top of the page. Add an extra double-spaced blank like between the paper title and the byline. Then, list the other title page elements on separate lines, without extra lines in between.

Title page alignment

Center all title page elements (except the right-aligned page number in the header).

Title page font

Write the title page using the same font and font size as the rest of your paper. Bold the paper title. Use standard font (i.e., no bold, no italics) for all other title page elements.

Text elements

Repeat the paper title at the top of the first page of text. Begin the paper with an introduction to provide background on the topic, cite related studies, and contextualize the paper. Use descriptive headings to identify other sections as needed (e.g., Method, Results, Discussion for quantitative research papers). Sections and headings vary depending on the paper type and its complexity. Text can include tables and figures, block quotations, headings, and footnotes.

Text line spacing

Double-space all text, including headings and section labels, paragraphs of text, and block quotations.

Text alignment

Center the paper title on the first line of the text. Indent the first line of all paragraphs 0.5-in.

Left-align the text. Leave the right margin ragged.

Block quotation alignment

Indent the whole block quotation 0.5-in. from the left margin. Double-space the block quotation, the same as other body text. Find more information on the quotations page.

Use the same font throughout the entire paper. Write body text in standard (nonbold, nonitalic) font. Bold only headings and section labels. Use italics sparingly, for instance, to highlight a key term on first use (for more information, see the italics page).

Headings format

For detailed guidance on formatting headings, including headings in the introduction of a paper, see the headings page and the headings in sample papers .

  • Alignment: Center Level 1 headings. Left-align Level 2 and Level 3 headings. Indent Level 4 and Level 5 headings like a regular paragraph.
  • Font: Boldface all headings. Also italicize Level 3 and Level 5 headings. Create heading styles using your word-processing program (built into AcademicWriter, available for Word via the sample papers on the APA Style website).

Tables and figures setup

Tables and figures are only included in student papers if needed for the assignment. Tables and figures share the same elements and layout. See the website for sample tables and sample figures .

Table elements

Tables include the following four elements: 

  • Body (rows and columns)
  • Note (optional if needed to explain elements in the table)

Figure elements

Figures include the following four elements: 

  • Image (chart, graph, etc.)
  • Note (optional if needed to explain elements in the figure)

Table line spacing

Double-space the table number and title. Single-, 1.5-, or double-space the table body (adjust as needed for readability). Double-space the table note.

Figure line spacing

Double-space the figure number and title. The default settings for spacing in figure images is usually acceptable (but adjust the spacing as needed for readability). Double-space the figure note.

Table alignment

Left-align the table number and title. Center column headings. Left-align the table itself and left-align the leftmost (stub) column. Center data in the table body if it is short or left-align the data if it is long. Left-align the table note.

Figure alignment

Left-align the figure number and title. Left-align the whole figure image. The default alignment of the program in which you created your figure is usually acceptable for axis titles and data labels. Left-align the figure note.

Bold the table number. Italicize the table title. Use the same font and font size in the table body as the text of your paper. Italicize the word “Note” at the start of the table note. Write the note in the same font and font size as the text of your paper.

Figure font

Bold the figure number. Italicize the figure title. Use a sans serif font (e.g., Calibri, Arial) in the figure image in a size between 8 to 14 points. Italicize the word “Note” at the start of the figure note. Write the note in the same font and font size as the text of your paper.

Placement of tables and figures

There are two options for the placement of tables and figures in an APA Style paper. The first option is to place all tables and figures on separate pages after the reference list. The second option is to embed each table and figure within the text after its first callout. This guide describes options for the placement of tables and figures embedded in the text. If your instructor requires tables and figures to be placed at the end of the paper, see the table and figure guidelines and the sample professional paper .

Call out (mention) the table or figure in the text before embedding it (e.g., write “see Figure 1” or “Table 1 presents”). You can place the table or figure after the callout either at the bottom of the page, at the top of the next page, or by itself on the next page. Avoid placing tables and figures in the middle of the page.

Embedding at the bottom of the page

Include a callout to the table or figure in the text before that table or figure. Add a blank double-spaced line between the text and the table or figure at the bottom of the page.

Embedding at the top of the page

Include a callout to the table in the text on the previous page before that table or figure. The table or figure then appears at the top of the next page. Add a blank double-spaced line between the end of the table or figure and the text that follows.

Embedding on its own page

Embed long tables or large figures on their own page if needed. The text continues on the next page.

Reference list setup

Reference list elements.

The reference list consists of the “References” section label and the alphabetical list of references. View reference examples on the APA Style website. Consult Chapter 10 in both the Concise Guide and Publication Manual for even more examples.

Reference list line spacing

Start the reference list at the top of a new page after the text. Double-space the entire reference list (both within and between entries).

Reference list alignment

Center the “References” label. Apply a hanging indent of 0.5-in. to all reference list entries. Create the hanging indent using your word-processing program; do not manually hit the enter and tab keys.

Reference list font

Bold the “References” label at the top of the first page of references. Use italics within reference list entries on either the title (e.g., webpages, books, reports) or on the source (e.g., journal articles, edited book chapters).

Final checks

Check page order.

  • Start each section on a new page.
  • Arrange pages in the following order:
  • Title page (page 1).
  • Text (starts on page 2).
  • Reference list (starts on a new page after the text).

Check headings

  • Check that headings accurately reflect the content in each section.
  • Start each main section with a Level 1 heading.
  • Use Level 2 headings for subsections of the introduction.
  • Use the same level of heading for sections of equal importance.
  • Avoid having only one subsection within a section (have two or more, or none).

Check assignment instructions

  • Remember that instructors’ guidelines supersede APA Style.
  • Students should check their assignment guidelines or rubric for specific content to include in their papers and to make sure they are meeting assignment requirements.

Tips for better writing

  • Ask for feedback on your paper from a classmate, writing center tutor, or instructor.
  • Budget time to implement suggestions.
  • Use spell-check and grammar-check to identify potential errors, and then manually check those flagged.
  • Proofread the paper by reading it slowly and carefully aloud to yourself.
  • Consult your university writing center if you need extra help.

About the author

how to do a front page for a research paper

Undergraduate student resources

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13.1 Formatting a Research Paper

Learning objectives.

  • Identify the major components of a research paper written using American Psychological Association (APA) style.
  • Apply general APA style and formatting conventions in a research paper.

In this chapter, you will learn how to use APA style , the documentation and formatting style followed by the American Psychological Association, as well as MLA style , from the Modern Language Association. There are a few major formatting styles used in academic texts, including AMA, Chicago, and Turabian:

  • AMA (American Medical Association) for medicine, health, and biological sciences
  • APA (American Psychological Association) for education, psychology, and the social sciences
  • Chicago—a common style used in everyday publications like magazines, newspapers, and books
  • MLA (Modern Language Association) for English, literature, arts, and humanities
  • Turabian—another common style designed for its universal application across all subjects and disciplines

While all the formatting and citation styles have their own use and applications, in this chapter we focus our attention on the two styles you are most likely to use in your academic studies: APA and MLA.

If you find that the rules of proper source documentation are difficult to keep straight, you are not alone. Writing a good research paper is, in and of itself, a major intellectual challenge. Having to follow detailed citation and formatting guidelines as well may seem like just one more task to add to an already-too-long list of requirements.

Following these guidelines, however, serves several important purposes. First, it signals to your readers that your paper should be taken seriously as a student’s contribution to a given academic or professional field; it is the literary equivalent of wearing a tailored suit to a job interview. Second, it shows that you respect other people’s work enough to give them proper credit for it. Finally, it helps your reader find additional materials if he or she wishes to learn more about your topic.

Furthermore, producing a letter-perfect APA-style paper need not be burdensome. Yes, it requires careful attention to detail. However, you can simplify the process if you keep these broad guidelines in mind:

  • Work ahead whenever you can. Chapter 11 “Writing from Research: What Will I Learn?” includes tips for keeping track of your sources early in the research process, which will save time later on.
  • Get it right the first time. Apply APA guidelines as you write, so you will not have much to correct during the editing stage. Again, putting in a little extra time early on can save time later.
  • Use the resources available to you. In addition to the guidelines provided in this chapter, you may wish to consult the APA website at http://www.apa.org or the Purdue University Online Writing lab at http://owl.english.purdue.edu , which regularly updates its online style guidelines.

General Formatting Guidelines

This chapter provides detailed guidelines for using the citation and formatting conventions developed by the American Psychological Association, or APA. Writers in disciplines as diverse as astrophysics, biology, psychology, and education follow APA style. The major components of a paper written in APA style are listed in the following box.

These are the major components of an APA-style paper:

Body, which includes the following:

  • Headings and, if necessary, subheadings to organize the content
  • In-text citations of research sources
  • References page

All these components must be saved in one document, not as separate documents.

The title page of your paper includes the following information:

  • Title of the paper
  • Author’s name
  • Name of the institution with which the author is affiliated
  • Header at the top of the page with the paper title (in capital letters) and the page number (If the title is lengthy, you may use a shortened form of it in the header.)

List the first three elements in the order given in the previous list, centered about one third of the way down from the top of the page. Use the headers and footers tool of your word-processing program to add the header, with the title text at the left and the page number in the upper-right corner. Your title page should look like the following example.

Beyond the Hype: Evaluating Low-Carb Diets cover page

The next page of your paper provides an abstract , or brief summary of your findings. An abstract does not need to be provided in every paper, but an abstract should be used in papers that include a hypothesis. A good abstract is concise—about one hundred fifty to two hundred fifty words—and is written in an objective, impersonal style. Your writing voice will not be as apparent here as in the body of your paper. When writing the abstract, take a just-the-facts approach, and summarize your research question and your findings in a few sentences.

In Chapter 12 “Writing a Research Paper” , you read a paper written by a student named Jorge, who researched the effectiveness of low-carbohydrate diets. Read Jorge’s abstract. Note how it sums up the major ideas in his paper without going into excessive detail.

Beyond the Hype: Abstract

Write an abstract summarizing your paper. Briefly introduce the topic, state your findings, and sum up what conclusions you can draw from your research. Use the word count feature of your word-processing program to make sure your abstract does not exceed one hundred fifty words.

Depending on your field of study, you may sometimes write research papers that present extensive primary research, such as your own experiment or survey. In your abstract, summarize your research question and your findings, and briefly indicate how your study relates to prior research in the field.

Margins, Pagination, and Headings

APA style requirements also address specific formatting concerns, such as margins, pagination, and heading styles, within the body of the paper. Review the following APA guidelines.

Use these general guidelines to format the paper:

  • Set the top, bottom, and side margins of your paper at 1 inch.
  • Use double-spaced text throughout your paper.
  • Use a standard font, such as Times New Roman or Arial, in a legible size (10- to 12-point).
  • Use continuous pagination throughout the paper, including the title page and the references section. Page numbers appear flush right within your header.
  • Section headings and subsection headings within the body of your paper use different types of formatting depending on the level of information you are presenting. Additional details from Jorge’s paper are provided.

Cover Page

Begin formatting the final draft of your paper according to APA guidelines. You may work with an existing document or set up a new document if you choose. Include the following:

  • Your title page
  • The abstract you created in Note 13.8 “Exercise 1”
  • Correct headers and page numbers for your title page and abstract

APA style uses section headings to organize information, making it easy for the reader to follow the writer’s train of thought and to know immediately what major topics are covered. Depending on the length and complexity of the paper, its major sections may also be divided into subsections, sub-subsections, and so on. These smaller sections, in turn, use different heading styles to indicate different levels of information. In essence, you are using headings to create a hierarchy of information.

The following heading styles used in APA formatting are listed in order of greatest to least importance:

  • Section headings use centered, boldface type. Headings use title case, with important words in the heading capitalized.
  • Subsection headings use left-aligned, boldface type. Headings use title case.
  • The third level uses left-aligned, indented, boldface type. Headings use a capital letter only for the first word, and they end in a period.
  • The fourth level follows the same style used for the previous level, but the headings are boldfaced and italicized.
  • The fifth level follows the same style used for the previous level, but the headings are italicized and not boldfaced.

Visually, the hierarchy of information is organized as indicated in Table 13.1 “Section Headings” .

Table 13.1 Section Headings

Level of Information Text Example
Level 1
Level 2
Level 3     
Level 4         
Level 5             

A college research paper may not use all the heading levels shown in Table 13.1 “Section Headings” , but you are likely to encounter them in academic journal articles that use APA style. For a brief paper, you may find that level 1 headings suffice. Longer or more complex papers may need level 2 headings or other lower-level headings to organize information clearly. Use your outline to craft your major section headings and determine whether any subtopics are substantial enough to require additional levels of headings.

Working with the document you developed in Note 13.11 “Exercise 2” , begin setting up the heading structure of the final draft of your research paper according to APA guidelines. Include your title and at least two to three major section headings, and follow the formatting guidelines provided above. If your major sections should be broken into subsections, add those headings as well. Use your outline to help you.

Because Jorge used only level 1 headings, his Exercise 3 would look like the following:

Level of Information Text Example
Level 1
Level 1
Level 1
Level 1

Citation Guidelines

In-text citations.

Throughout the body of your paper, include a citation whenever you quote or paraphrase material from your research sources. As you learned in Chapter 11 “Writing from Research: What Will I Learn?” , the purpose of citations is twofold: to give credit to others for their ideas and to allow your reader to follow up and learn more about the topic if desired. Your in-text citations provide basic information about your source; each source you cite will have a longer entry in the references section that provides more detailed information.

In-text citations must provide the name of the author or authors and the year the source was published. (When a given source does not list an individual author, you may provide the source title or the name of the organization that published the material instead.) When directly quoting a source, it is also required that you include the page number where the quote appears in your citation.

This information may be included within the sentence or in a parenthetical reference at the end of the sentence, as in these examples.

Epstein (2010) points out that “junk food cannot be considered addictive in the same way that we think of psychoactive drugs as addictive” (p. 137).

Here, the writer names the source author when introducing the quote and provides the publication date in parentheses after the author’s name. The page number appears in parentheses after the closing quotation marks and before the period that ends the sentence.

Addiction researchers caution that “junk food cannot be considered addictive in the same way that we think of psychoactive drugs as addictive” (Epstein, 2010, p. 137).

Here, the writer provides a parenthetical citation at the end of the sentence that includes the author’s name, the year of publication, and the page number separated by commas. Again, the parenthetical citation is placed after the closing quotation marks and before the period at the end of the sentence.

As noted in the book Junk Food, Junk Science (Epstein, 2010, p. 137), “junk food cannot be considered addictive in the same way that we think of psychoactive drugs as addictive.”

Here, the writer chose to mention the source title in the sentence (an optional piece of information to include) and followed the title with a parenthetical citation. Note that the parenthetical citation is placed before the comma that signals the end of the introductory phrase.

David Epstein’s book Junk Food, Junk Science (2010) pointed out that “junk food cannot be considered addictive in the same way that we think of psychoactive drugs as addictive” (p. 137).

Another variation is to introduce the author and the source title in your sentence and include the publication date and page number in parentheses within the sentence or at the end of the sentence. As long as you have included the essential information, you can choose the option that works best for that particular sentence and source.

Citing a book with a single author is usually a straightforward task. Of course, your research may require that you cite many other types of sources, such as books or articles with more than one author or sources with no individual author listed. You may also need to cite sources available in both print and online and nonprint sources, such as websites and personal interviews. Chapter 13 “APA and MLA Documentation and Formatting” , Section 13.2 “Citing and Referencing Techniques” and Section 13.3 “Creating a References Section” provide extensive guidelines for citing a variety of source types.

Writing at Work

APA is just one of several different styles with its own guidelines for documentation, formatting, and language usage. Depending on your field of interest, you may be exposed to additional styles, such as the following:

  • MLA style. Determined by the Modern Languages Association and used for papers in literature, languages, and other disciplines in the humanities.
  • Chicago style. Outlined in the Chicago Manual of Style and sometimes used for papers in the humanities and the sciences; many professional organizations use this style for publications as well.
  • Associated Press (AP) style. Used by professional journalists.

References List

The brief citations included in the body of your paper correspond to the more detailed citations provided at the end of the paper in the references section. In-text citations provide basic information—the author’s name, the publication date, and the page number if necessary—while the references section provides more extensive bibliographical information. Again, this information allows your reader to follow up on the sources you cited and do additional reading about the topic if desired.

The specific format of entries in the list of references varies slightly for different source types, but the entries generally include the following information:

  • The name(s) of the author(s) or institution that wrote the source
  • The year of publication and, where applicable, the exact date of publication
  • The full title of the source
  • For books, the city of publication
  • For articles or essays, the name of the periodical or book in which the article or essay appears
  • For magazine and journal articles, the volume number, issue number, and pages where the article appears
  • For sources on the web, the URL where the source is located

The references page is double spaced and lists entries in alphabetical order by the author’s last name. If an entry continues for more than one line, the second line and each subsequent line are indented five spaces. Review the following example. ( Chapter 13 “APA and MLA Documentation and Formatting” , Section 13.3 “Creating a References Section” provides extensive guidelines for formatting reference entries for different types of sources.)

References Section

In APA style, book and article titles are formatted in sentence case, not title case. Sentence case means that only the first word is capitalized, along with any proper nouns.

Key Takeaways

  • Following proper citation and formatting guidelines helps writers ensure that their work will be taken seriously, give proper credit to other authors for their work, and provide valuable information to readers.
  • Working ahead and taking care to cite sources correctly the first time are ways writers can save time during the editing stage of writing a research paper.
  • APA papers usually include an abstract that concisely summarizes the paper.
  • APA papers use a specific headings structure to provide a clear hierarchy of information.
  • In APA papers, in-text citations usually include the name(s) of the author(s) and the year of publication.
  • In-text citations correspond to entries in the references section, which provide detailed bibliographical information about a source.

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Creating a captivating research paper title page – ultimate guide with examples.

August 29, 2019

A reader can become engaged or irritated after seeing your research paper title page. Th at is why you need to put in the effort to make sure that it is done properly, and it compels the reader to continue reading the content. Creating the title page for research paper is sometimes more difficult for students than writing a research paper.

research-paper

How To Make A Title Page For Research Paper

The first thing you need to know is that there are primarily three formats for your title page – APA, Chicago style, and MLA. Your instructor will most likely tell you which format is ideal for the paper. The title page has to contain some precise information about the research in a few words. So, what should be contained in a research paper title page?

The front page of your research paper should contain your full name as it is stated on all your educational certificates. That should be on the same page where you put the topic.

Title Of The Research Paper

Make sure you come up with a good title for research paper and put it on the cover page along with your name. Make sure that the title is interesting. Also, it should not be misleading in any way but should provide a glimpse into the entire content. Typically, the title of the research paper title is expected to be written in capital letters and bold fonts.

Supervisor’s Name

Another important detail to add is the full name of the research supervisor. If you go through the research paper title page examples, you’ll see that adding the supervisor’s name is a must.

Course Information

You need to provide some information about the course, including the course code, academic year, and semester.

Now you know what your research paper title page is expected to contain, it’s time to dive into how to make a title page like a professional. Below are some useful tips for creating the perfect paper title page:

Use The Right Format

As stated earlier, there are three main research paper formats. The one you use will depend on what you’ve been instructed to use. However, you need to make sure you stick to one format from the title to the conclusion.

Chicago-format

If you’ve been instructed to use the Chicago format, you have to make sure all the content on the cover page is aligned to the center. Your paper title should be halfway into the page. After the page title, write your full name followed by the name of your instructor and then the course title. There is no need to number the cover page when you’re using the Chicago style.

APA-format

When you’re instructed to use the APA style, you have to number the title page at the top right corner. Use Times New Roman as your page font and keep one-inch margins on every side of the cover page. You may not need to write everything in capital letters.

MLA-format

For the MLA format, you need to start a third way into the paper, but it should not be as low as the Chicago style. You can add a subtitle to your original title. Just after that, add your name, the name of your school, the course title, your instructor’s name.

Writing A Research Paper – Quick Overview

After you’ve determined what you want your title page to look like, you need to find out how to start a research paper. It is important to note that each institution may have specific guidelines on how to write a research paper. So, make sure you read these guidelines thoroughly before you start. However, some general rules are as follows:

Don’t Joke With The Research

The research part of the research paper writing is crucial. Before you start writing anything, research the topic thoroughly, and get updated information about every fact you’re going to list. As soon as you understand the topic, you need to gather resources, formulate the idea, develop your thesis statement. Your research should be backed by empirical data. If possible, conduct first-hand research on the subject. Otherwise, look for reliable research on Google Scholar, government publications, encyclopedias, newspapers, and almanacs.

About Your Thesis Statement

Your thesis statement tells your reader what the main point of your essay is and what your supporting points are. It can be one or two sentences that prepare the minds of the readers for what is to come. Make sure that everything in the body of your paper is in line with the thesis statement, not opposite. Your thesis statement should appear at the end of your introduction and or should match the topic.

Work With An Outline

Your work would flow better if you use an outline from the beginning to the end. Your outline should be made up of all the points you intend to cover in the content. It can also include the research paper format. Make sure that you put down all the subheadings you intend to cover in the content as well as the details of the materials you want to use in each subheading.

Write A Draft First

To increase your chances of creating high-quality work, try writing a draft first. When you’ve completed the draft, you can start writing the content you will submit. Writing a draft first allows you to brainstorm ideas and find the perfect voice for the content.

Progress From Weakest To Strongest Point

For your content to have a logical flow, start with the weakest point, and slowly progress to the strongest. That doesn’t mean you need to start with a point that isn’t backed empirically. It just means the point you start with should not be your strongest. Each point should have a supporting argument as a backup. It makes your content better.

Restate Your Thesis Statement In Your Conclusion

When it’s time to conclude your paper after listing all the relevant points, you can restate your thesis statement as is common in research paper writing examples. That doesn’t mean you should copy and paste your thesis. Just find new words to say it and link all your points to it. Draw the reader’s attention to why all the points you’ve made support your thesis. That applies when you’re research is conclusive. If it is not, make sure you state that in the research is inconclusive.

Review Before Submission

So, you’ve completed your research paper successfully. That’s cool. However, you should not rush into submitting. Revise the work, make edits, and ask someone else to help you read it. Make sure that your work is as flawless as possible. There should be no inaccurate information, grammatical, or typographical errors. The last thing you want to do is submit a compelling research paper with bad grammar or typographical errors.

Let Our Writers Create Best Title Page For You

Writing a research paper, especially its title page, is like writing any other paper. However, it requires more precision and use of facts. Depending on the topic, make sure that everything you state is factual. These tips above will help when you’re creating a title page for your research paper and when you’re creating the paper. Also, should you feel stuck with crafting a research paper – feel free to hire our experts to help you get exciting results!

how to do a front page for a research paper

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  • MLA Format Cover Page

The Modern Language Association (MLA) does not require you to create a cover page when you complete your research paper, but some instructors may require it.

If your instructor requires your paper to have a cover page, here is how to make it (very easy). This cover page should include: your school name, your research paper title, your name, your class, your professor name and your paper due date.

How to Format Your MLA Cover Page:

  • This page is double spaced and the letters are centered.
  • Font: Times New Roman
  • Font size: 12
  • The first letter of each word should be capitalized with the exception of very short words such as: the, and, of, or, a, an, in, to, for. Note: the first letter of the first word should be capitalized, regardless of what kind of word it is.
  • Type the name of your university, college or high school.
  • Skip to about one-third of the page and type your research paper title, include a subtitle if you have.
  • Skip several lines down and type your name, your course name and number, your instructor name and your paper due date.

Sample MLA Format Cover Page:

how to do a front page for a research paper

Sample MLA Format Cover Page

Alternate First Page (Important):

If your instructor requires a cover page, you would omit the main heading on your first page.

Here is an example of the first page if a cover page is used. You still need your last name and page number on the first page and every other page.

how to do a front page for a research paper

Sample MLA Format First Page with Cover Page

how to do a front page for a research paper

Sample MLA Paper:

Visit here for a sample paper with the cover page. The cover page can vary slightly. This paper also has the outline page for your sample.

For some reason, it warms my heart to see people saying “thanks” in this era — despite how old this guide is. OP is here saving lives in the year 2024 o7

HA! An example of: an oldie but a goodie. Some of these things never go out of use, and I extend another thank you to OP. 🙂

ty ty ty ty

thank you sir

thank you so much for this amazing guide

thanks a lot!

this was very helpful thank you mrs. silvey

yeah thanks mrs. story

Thank you for the example of the cover page.

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how to do a front page for a research paper

Get science-backed answers as you write with Paperpal's Research feature

How to Write an Abstract in Research Papers (with Examples)

How to write an abstract

An abstract in research papers is a keyword-rich summary usually not exceeding 200-350 words. It can be considered the “face” of research papers because it creates an initial impression on the readers. While searching databases (such as PubMed) for research papers, a title is usually the first selection criterion for readers. If the title matches their search criteria, then the readers read the abstract, which sets the tone of the paper. Titles and abstracts are often the only freely available parts of research papers on journal websites. The pdf versions of full articles need to be purchased. Journal reviewers are often provided with only the title and abstract before they agree to review the complete paper. [ 1]  

Abstracts in research papers provide readers with a quick insight into what the paper is about to help them decide whether they want to read it further or not. Abstracts are the main selling points of articles and therefore should be carefully drafted, accurately highlighting the important aspects. [ 2]  

This article will help you identify the important components and provide tips on how to write an abstract in research papers effectively

What is an Abstract?  

An abstract in research papers can be defined as a synopsis of the paper. It should be clear, direct, self-contained, specific, unbiased, and concise. These summaries are published along with the complete research paper and are also submitted to conferences for consideration for presentation.  

Abstracts are of four types and journals can follow any of these formats: [ 2]  

  • Structured  
  • Unstructured  
  • Descriptive  
  • Informative  

Structured abstracts are used by most journals because they are more organized and have clear sections, usually including introduction/background; objective; design, settings, and participants (or materials and methods); outcomes and measures; results; and conclusion. These headings may differ based on the journal or the type of paper. Clinical trial abstracts should include the essential items mentioned in the CONSORT (Consolidated Standards Of Reporting Trials) guidelines.  

how to do a front page for a research paper

Figure 1. Structured abstract example [3] 

Unstructured abstracts are common in social science, humanities, and physical science journals. They usually have one paragraph and no specific structure or subheadings. These abstracts are commonly used for research papers that don’t report original work and therefore have a more flexible and narrative style.  

how to do a front page for a research paper

Figure 2. Unstructured abstract example [3] 

Descriptive abstracts are short (75–150 words) and provide an outline with only the most important points of research papers. They are used for shorter articles such as case reports, reviews, and opinions where space is at a premium, and rarely for original investigations. These abstracts don’t present the results but mainly list the topics covered.  

Here’s a sample abstract . [ 4]  

“Design of a Radio-Based System for Distribution Automation”  

A new survey by the Maryland Public Utilities Commission suggests that utilities have not effectively explained to consumers the benefits of smart meters. The two-year study of 86,000 consumers concludes that the long-term benefits of smart meters will not be realized until consumers understand the benefits of shifting some of their power usage to off-peak hours in response to the data they receive from their meters. The study presents recommendations for utilities and municipal governments to improve customer understanding of how to use the smart meters effectively.  

Keywords: smart meters, distribution systems, load, customer attitudes, power consumption, utilities  

Informative abstracts (structured or unstructured) give a complete detailed summary, including the main results, of the research paper and may or may not have subsections.   

how to do a front page for a research paper

Figure 3. Informative abstract example [5] 

Purpose of Abstracts in Research    

Abstracts in research have two main purposes—selection and indexing. [ 6,7]  

  • Selection : Abstracts allow interested readers to quickly decide the relevance of a paper to gauge if they should read it completely.   
  • Indexing : Most academic journal databases accessed through libraries enable you to search abstracts, allowing for quick retrieval of relevant articles and avoiding unnecessary search results. Therefore, abstracts must necessarily include the keywords that researchers may use to search for articles.  

Thus, a well-written, keyword-rich abstract can p ique readers’ interest and curiosity and help them decide whether they want to read the complete paper. It can also direct readers to articles of potential clinical and research interest during an online search.  

how to do a front page for a research paper

Contents of Abstracts in Research  

Abstracts in research papers summarize the main points of an article and are broadly categorized into four or five sections. Here are some details on how to write an abstract .   

Introduction/Background and/or Objectives  

This section should provide the following information:  

  • What is already known about the subject?  
  • What is not known about the subject or what does the study aim to investigate?  

The hypothesis or research question and objectives should be mentioned here. The Background sets the context for the rest of the paper and its length should be short so that the word count could be saved for the Results or other information directly pertaining to the study. The objective should be written in present or past simple tense.  

Examples:  

The antidepressant efficacy of desvenlafaxine (DV) has been established in 8-week, randomized controlled trials. The present study examined the continued efficacy of DV across 6 months of maintenance treatment . [ 1]  

Objective: To describe gastric and breast cancer risk estimates for individuals with CDH1 variants.  

Design, Setting, and Participants (or Materials and Methods)  

This section should provide information on the processes used and should be written in past simple tense because the process is already completed.  

A few important questions to be answered include:  

  • What was the research design and setting?  
  • What was the sample size and how were the participants sampled?  
  • What treatments did the participants receive?  
  • What were the data collection and data analysis dates?  
  • What was the primary outcome measure?  

Hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated for each cancer type and used to calculate cumulative risks and risks per decade of life up to age 80 years.  

how to do a front page for a research paper

This section, written in either present or past simple tense, should be the longest and should describe the main findings of the study. Here’s an example of how descriptive the sentences should be:  

Avoid: Response rates differed significantly between diabetic and nondiabetic patients.  

Better: The response rate was higher in nondiabetic than in diabetic patients (49% vs 30%, respectively; P<0.01).  

This section should include the following information:  

  • Total number of patients (included, excluded [exclusion criteria])  
  • Primary and secondary outcomes, expressed in words, and supported by numerical data  
  • Data on adverse outcomes  

Example: [ 8]  

In total, 10.9% of students were reported to have favorable study skills. The minimum score was found for preparation for examination domain. Also, a significantly positive correlation was observed between students’ study skills and their Grade Point Average (GPA) of previous term (P=0.001, r=0.269) and satisfaction with study skills (P=0.001, r=0.493).  

Conclusions  

Here, authors should mention the importance of their findings and also the practical and theoretical implications, which would benefit readers referring to this paper for their own research. Present simple tense should be used here.  

Examples: [ 1,8]  

The 9.3% prevalence of bipolar spectrum disorders in students at an arts university is substantially higher than general population estimates. These findings strengthen the oft-expressed hypothesis linking creativity with affective psychopathology.  

The findings indicated that students’ study skills need to be improved. Given the significant relationship between study skills and GPA, as an index of academic achievement, and satisfaction, it is necessary to promote the students’ study skills. These skills are suggested to be reinforced, with more emphasis on weaker domains.  

how to do a front page for a research paper

When to Write an Abstract  

In addition to knowing how to write an abstract , you should also know when to write an abstract . It’s best to write abstracts once the paper is completed because this would make it easier for authors to extract relevant parts from every section.  

Abstracts are usually required for: [ 7]    

  • submitting articles to journals  
  • applying for research grants   
  • writing book proposals  
  • completing and submitting dissertations  
  • submitting proposals for conference papers  

Mostly, the author of the entire work writes the abstract (the first author, in works with multiple authors). However, there are professional abstracting services that hire writers to draft abstracts of other people’s work.   

How to Write an Abstract (Step-by-Step Process)  

Here are some key steps on how to write an abstract in research papers: [ 9]  

  • Write the abstract after you’ve finished writing your paper.  
  • Select the major objectives/hypotheses and conclusions from your Introduction and Conclusion sections.  
  • Select key sentences from your Methods section.  
  • Identify the major results from the Results section.  
  • Paraphrase or re-write the sentences selected in steps 2, 3, and 4 in your own words into one or two paragraphs in the following sequence: Introduction/Objective, Methods, Results, and Conclusions. The headings may differ among journals, but the content remains the same.  
  • Ensure that this draft does not contain: a.   new information that is not present in the paper b.   undefined abbreviations c.   a discussion of previous literature or reference citations d.   unnecessary details about the methods used  
  • Remove all extra information and connect your sentences to ensure that the information flows well, preferably in the following order: purpose; basic study design, methodology and techniques used; major findings; summary of your interpretations, conclusions, and implications. Use section headings for structured abstracts.  
  • Ensure consistency between the information presented in the abstract and the paper.  
  • Check to see if the final abstract meets the guidelines of the target journal (word limit, type of abstract, recommended subheadings, etc.) and if all the required information has been included.  

Choosing Keywords for Abstracts  

Keywords [ 2] are the important and repeatedly used words and phrases in research papers and can help indexers and search engines find papers relevant to your requirements. Easy retrieval would help in reaching a wider audience and eventually gain more citations. In the fields of medicine and health, keywords should preferably be chosen from the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) list of the US National Library of Medicine because they are used for indexing. These keywords need to be different from the words in the main title (automatically used for indexing) but can be variants of the terms/phrases used in the title, abstract, and the main text. Keywords should represent the content of your manuscript and be specific to your subject area.  

Basic tips for authors [ 10,11]  

  • Read through your paper and highlight key terms or phrases that are most relevant and frequently used in your field, to ensure familiarity.  
  • Several journals provide instructions about the length (eg, 3 words in a keyword) and maximum number of keywords allowed and other related rules. Create a list of keywords based on these instructions and include specific phrases containing 2 to 4 words. A longer string of words would yield generic results irrelevant to your field.  
  • Use abbreviations, acronyms, and initializations if these would be more familiar.  
  • Search with your keywords to ensure the results fit with your article and assess how helpful they would be to readers.  
  • Narrow down your keywords to about five to ten, to ensure accuracy.  
  • Finalize your list based on the maximum number allowed.  

  Few examples: [ 12]  

     
Direct observation of nonlinear optics in an isolated carbon nanotube  molecule, optics, lasers, energy lifetime  single-molecule interaction, Kerr effect, carbon nanotube, energy level 
Region-specific neuronal degeneration after okadaic acid administration  neuron, brain, regional-specific neuronal degeneration, signaling  neurodegenerative diseases; CA1 region, hippocampal; okadaic acid; neurotoxins; MAP kinase signaling system; cell death 
Increases in levels of sediment transport at former glacial-interglacial transitions  climate change, erosion, plant effects  quaternary climate change, soil erosion, bioturbation 

Important Tips for Writing an Abstract  

Here are a few tips on how to write an abstract to ensure that your abstract is complete, concise, and accurate. [ 1,2]  

  • Write the abstract last.  
  • Follow journal-specific formatting guidelines or Instructions to Authors strictly to ensure acceptance for publication.  
  • Proofread the final draft meticulously to avoid grammatical or typographical errors.  
  • Ensure that the terms or data mentioned in the abstract are consistent with the main text.  
  • Include appropriate keywords at the end.

Do not include:  

  • New information  
  • Text citations to references  
  • Citations to tables and figures  
  • Generic statements  
  • Abbreviations unless necessary, like a trial or study name  

how to do a front page for a research paper

Key Takeaways    

Here’s a quick snapshot of all the important aspects of how to write an abstract . [2]

  • An abstract in research is a summary of the paper and describes only the main aspects. Typically, abstracts are about 200-350 words long.  
  • Abstracts are of four types—structured, unstructured, descriptive, and informative.  
  • Abstracts should be simple, clear, concise, independent, and unbiased (present both favorable and adverse outcomes).  
  • They should adhere to the prescribed journal format, including word limits, section headings, number of keywords, fonts used, etc.  
  • The terminology should be consistent with the main text.   
  • Although the section heading names may differ for journals, every abstract should include a background and objective, analysis methods, primary results, and conclusions.  
  • Nonstandard abbreviations, references, and URLs shouldn’t be included.  
  • Only relevant and specific keywords should be used to ensure focused searches and higher citation frequency.  
  • Abstracts should be written last after completing the main paper.  

Frequently Asked Questions   

Q1. Do all journals have different guidelines for abstracts?  

A1. Yes, all journals have their own specific guidelines for writing abstracts; a few examples are given in the following table. [ 6,13,14,15]  

   
American Psychological Association           
American Society for Microbiology     
The Lancet     
Journal of the American Medical Association               

Q2. What are the common mistakes to avoid when writing an abstract?  

A2. Listed below are a few mistakes that authors may make inadvertently while writing abstracts.  

  • Copying sentences from the paper verbatim  

An abstract is a summary, which should be created by paraphrasing your own work or writing in your own words. Extracting sentences from every section and combining them into one paragraph cannot be considered summarizing.  

  • Not adhering to the formatting guidelines  

Journals have special instructions for writing abstracts, such as word limits and section headings. These should be followed strictly to avoid rejections.  

  • Not including the right amount of details in every section  

Both too little and too much information could discourage readers. For instance, if the Background has very little information, the readers may not get sufficient context to appreciate your research. Similarly, incomplete information in the Methods and a text-heavy Results section without supporting numerical data may affect the credibility of your research.  

  • Including citations, standard abbreviations, and detailed measurements  

Typically, abstracts shouldn’t include these elements—citations, URLs, and abbreviations. Only nonstandard abbreviations are allowed or those that would be more familiar to readers than the expansions.  

  • Including new information  

Abstracts should strictly include only the same information mentioned in the main text. Any new information should first be added to the text and then to the abstract only if necessary or if permitted by the word limit.  

  • Not including keywords  

Keywords are essential for indexing and searching and should be included to increase the frequency of retrieval and citation.  

Q3. What is the difference between abstracts in research papers and conference abstracts? [16]  

A3. The table summarizes the main differences between research and conference abstracts.  

     
Context  Concise summary of ongoing or completed research presented at conferences  Summary of full research paper published in a journal 
Length  Shorter (150-250 words)   Longer (150-350 words) 
Audience  Diverse conference attendees (both experts & people with general interest)  People or other researchers specifically interested in the subject 
Focus  Intended to quickly attract interest; provides just enough information to highlight the significance, objectives, and impact; may briefly state methods and results  Deeper insight into the study; more detailed sections on methodology, results, and broader implications 
Publication venue  Not published independently but included in conference schedules, booklets, etc.  Published with the full research paper in academic journals, conference proceedings, research databases, etc. 
Citations  Allowed  Not allowed 

  Thus, abstracts are essential “trailers” that can market your research to a wide audience. The better and more complete the abstract the more are the chances of your paper being read and cited. By following our checklist and ensuring that all key elements are included, you can create a well-structured abstract that summarizes your paper accurately.  

References  

  • Andrade C. How to write a good abstract for a scientific paper or conference presentation. Indian J Psychiatry . 2011; 53(2):172-175. Accessed June 14, 2024. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3136027/  
  • Tullu MS. Writing the title and abstract for a research paper: Being concise, precise, and meticulous is the key. 2019; 13(Suppl 1): S12-S17. Accessed June 14, 2024. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6398294/  
  • Zawia J. Writing an Academic Paper? Get to know Abstracts vs. Structured Abstracts. Medium. Published October 16, 2023. Accessed June 16, 2024. https://medium.com/@jamala.zawia/writing-an-academic-paper-get-to-know-abstracts-vs-structured-abstracts-11ed86888367  
  • Markel M and Selber S. Technical Communication, 12 th edition. 2018; pp. 482. Bedford/St Martin’s.  
  • Abstracts. Arkansas State University. Accessed June 17, 2024. https://www.astate.edu/a/global-initiatives/online/a-state-online-services/online-writing-center/resources/How%20to%20Write%20an%20Abstract1.pdf  
  • AMA Manual of Style. 11 th edition. Oxford University Press.  
  • Writing an Abstract. The University of Melbourne. Accessed June 16, 2024. https://services.unimelb.edu.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0007/471274/Writing_an_Abstract_Update_051112.pdf  
  • 10 Good Abstract Examples that will Kickstart Your Brain. Kibin Essay Writing Blog. Published April 5, 2017. Accessed June 17, 2024. https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/10-good-abstract-examples/  
  • A 10-step guide to make your research paper abstract more effective. Editage Insights. Published October 16, 2013. Accessed June 17, 2024. https://www.editage.com/insights/a-10-step-guide-to-make-your-research-paper-abstract-more-effective  
  • Using keywords to write your title and abstract. Taylor & Francis Author Services. Accessed June 15, 2024. https://authorservices.taylorandfrancis.com/publishing-your-research/writing-your-paper/using-keywords-to-write-title-and-abstract/  
  • How to choose and use keywords in research papers. Paperpal by Editage blog. Published March 10, 2023. Accessed June 17, 2024. https://paperpal.com/blog/researcher-resources/phd-pointers/how-to-choose-and-use-keywords-in-research-papers  
  • Title, abstract and keywords. Springer. Accessed June 16, 2024. https://www.springer.com/it/authors-editors/authorandreviewertutorials/writing-a-journal-manuscript/title-abstract-and-keywords/10285522  
  • Abstract and keywords guide. APA Style, 7 th edition. Accessed June 18, 2024. https://apastyle.apa.org/instructional-aids/abstract-keywords-guide.pdf  
  • Abstract guidelines. American Society for Microbiology. Accessed June 18, 2024. https://asm.org/events/asm-microbe/present/abstract-guidelines  
  • Guidelines for conference abstracts. The Lancet. Accessed June 16, 2024. https://www.thelancet.com/pb/assets/raw/Lancet/pdfs/Abstract_Guidelines_2013.pdf  
  • Is a conference abstract the same as a paper abstract? Global Conference Alliance, Inc. Accessed June 18, 2024. https://globalconference.ca/is-a-conference-abstract-the-same-as-a-paper-abstract/  

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Writing a Research Paper

The information search process, some definitions.

  • Choosing a Topic and Identifying Keywords
  • Finding Library Materials: Using LibGuides
  • Using HillSearch (Library Catalog) to Find Books, Ebooks, And Streaming Media
  • Search Databases for Scholarly Journal Articles
  • Synthesizing Sources
  • Citing Your Research/Creating a Bibliography
  • Where to Get Help with Research and Writing

Your Librarian

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Have you been assigned a research paper or presentation and are uncertain where to begin? Librarians are here to help you at each step of the research process, from initial topic selection to preparing your bibliography. In her work, Rutgers Information Science Professor Carol Kuhthau defines the steps of  the  Information Search Process  and the feelings researchers experience during each part of it -including occasional feelings of frustration and discouragement. Recognizing that frustration can be part of the research process can help you in the long run. Grappling with initial discomfort can ultimately help you develop your thesis statement, craft arguments and find the resources that best meet your research needs..

The chart below describes The Information Search Process, the tasks related to each step of the process, and the related feelings you may experience.

                                            Receive Assignment Uncertainty
Choose a Topic to Explore Motivation/Optimism
Begin Initial Research Confusion/Frustration/Doubt
Narrow Topic Focus/Develop Thesis Clarity
Find Research Research Related to Thesis Focus/Confidence
Turn in Research Paper/Give Presentation Accomplishment

We're happy to meet with you one-on-one to help you with your research and compiling your citations. Click on the "Book an Appointment" link in our profile boxes to set up a meeting. If you don't see a time that meets your needs, email us.

Your professor might require a specific type or number of sources for your assignment. The following definitions might be of help understanding the assignment. These definitions have been adapted from the Online Dictionary of Library and Information Science .

Abstract -  A brief, objective representation of the essential content of a book, article, speech, report, dissertation, patent, standard, or other work, presenting the main points in the same order as the original but having no independent literary value. A well-prepared abstract enables the reader to 1) quickly identify the basic content of the document, 2) determine its relevance to their interests, and 3) decide whether it is worth their time to read the entire document

Annotated Bibliography -  A bibliography in which a brief explanatory or evaluative note is added to each reference/citation and abstract. An annotation can be helpful to the researcher in evaluating whether the source is relevant to a given topic or line of inquiry. For more information, watch our video tutorial on creating an annotated bibliography .

Primary Source (non/science topics)  -  A  document or record containing firsthand information or original data on a topic, used in preparing a new (derivative) work. Primary sources include original manuscripts, periodical articles reporting original research or thought, diaries, memoirs, letters, journals, photographs, drawings, posters, film footage, sheet music, songs, interviews, government documents, public records, eyewitness accounts, newspaper clippings, etc.

Primary Source/Primary Study (science topics) -  Also called empirical research studies, primary research studies in the sciences report on an experiment that was performed by the author(s) of the study.  These articles are formatted similarly to a lab report, and will contain the following sections: Abstract, Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion, and References.  Primary research studies will often contain data tables, graphs, and statistical analyses.

Scholarly Journal - A journal  publishing original research and commentary on current developments in a specific discipline, subdiscipline, or field of study (example: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology ). Scholarly journals are usually published in quarterly, bimonthly, or monthly issues sold by subscription (click here to see an example). Articles in scholarly journals are usually written by the person (or persons) who conducted the research. Longer than most magazine articles, they almost always include a bibliography or list of works cited at the end. In journals in the sciences and social sciences, an abstract usually precedes the text of the article, summarizing its content. Most scholarly journals are peer-reviewed, meaning article drafts are reviewed by a panel of experts prior to publication and any needed edits are made by the author. Not all periodicals are scholarly. Some are popular magazines - such as Time or People . Other periodicals are produced for a particular discipline - such as Inc. or Education Week - but articles are written by journalists, not disciplinary experts.

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  • Last Updated: Jul 15, 2024 10:53 AM
  • URL: https://libguides.stonehill.edu/writing_a_research_paper

Identifying the General Equilibrium Effects of Narcotics Enforcement

BAFFI CAREFIN Centre Research Paper Forthcoming

88 Pages Posted: 11 Jul 2024

Zachary Porreca

Bocconi University

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Date Written: July 10, 2024

I analyze the demand side impacts of a supply side intervention into the market for illegal drugs in what has been described as America's largest open air drug market. Beginning in 2018, the Pennsylvania Attorney General's office and the Philadelphia Police Department engaged in an ambitious effort to shut down the drug market in Philadelphia's Kensington neighborhood. The intervention involved increased police presence in the targeted area alongside a series of targeted "kingpin" sweeps which were intended to remove the most pervasive operators from the market. I employ highly granular Safegraph cell phone location data to track changes in traffic flows between census block groups, observing that the initiative led to sizable and persistent reductions in traffic flows to the target area. Additionally, in contrast to substitution effects observed in other work, I observe that the initiative led to reductions in traffic flows to other regional drug markets and large declines in overdose mortality in the Philadelphia metropolitan area as a whole, suggesting a genuine reduction in the demand for illegal narcotics. With a combination of theory and empirics, I argue that this reduction in regional demand is able to be achieved due to the initiative disrupting a supply-chain that data indicates flows from the target area outwards to smaller satellite markets. Together this all suggests that, despite the inelastic demand for narcotics, regionally linked markets can be impacted broadly by location specific interventions.

Suggested Citation: Suggested Citation

Zachary Porreca (Contact Author)

Bocconi university ( email ).

Via Sarfatti, 25 Milan, MI 20136 Italy

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Global academic research is skewed toward rich countries. How do World Bank policy research papers fit in?

Brian stacy, quy-toan do, deon filmer.

Global academic research is skewed toward rich countries. How do World Bank policy research papers fit in?

Academic research is a major source of insights from data. These insights can be critical in helping policymakers manage public resources, formulate policies, and help the public understand the world around them. However, academic research is not evenly distributed across countries. As previous research has shown, wealthier countries are more likely to be studied by academics.  The World Bank is a major source of academic research. Policy Research Working Papers (PRWPs) are a key output of the World Bank. These papers aim to provide insights to policymakers in World Bank client countries, which are mostly low- and middle-income countries. How do these World Bank publications fare in terms of filling gaps in empirical academic research for World Bank clients? To examine this, we build on the approach of Stacy, Kitzmüller, Wang, Mahler, & Serajuddin (2024) to classify empirical academic articles based on data use. We compare the number of empirical academic articles and World Bank policy research working papers by country. What did we find? Scroll below to learn more.  

Do PRWPs fill gaps in empirical research for World Bank clients? To some extent yes! By focusing more on low- and middle-income countries, PRWPs help fill critical gaps left by other empirical studies. However, while they contribute to a more equitable distribution of research, the challenge of fully correcting the skew towards wealthier countries remains. A lack of high quality, timely, and open data sources is major issue in several low- and middle-income countries. The continued production and dissemination of PRWPs are vital steps toward a more inclusive and comprehensive understanding of global development issues.

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Brian Stacy

Data Scientist, Development Data Group, World Bank

Quy-Toan Do

Co-Director, World Development Report 2023

Deon Filmer

Director, Development Research Group, World Bank

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What Is Project 2025, and Why Is Trump Disavowing It?

The Biden campaign has attacked Donald J. Trump’s ties to the conservative policy plan that would amass power in the executive branch, though it is not his official platform.

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Kevin Roberts, wearing a dark suit and blue tie and speaking into a microphone at a lectern. The lectern says, “National Religious Broadcasters, nrb.org.”

By Simon J. Levien

Donald J. Trump has gone to great lengths to distance himself from Project 2025, a set of conservative policy proposals for a future Republican administration that has outraged Democrats. He has claimed he knows nothing about it or the people involved in creating it.

Mr. Trump himself was not behind the project. But some of his allies were.

The document, its origins and the interplay between it and the Trump campaign have made for one of the most hotly debated questions of the 2024 race.

Here is what to know about Project 2025, and who is behind it.

What is Project 2025?

Project 2025 was spearheaded by the Heritage Foundation and like-minded conservative groups before Mr. Trump officially entered the 2024 race. The Heritage Foundation is a think tank that has shaped the personnel and policies of Republican administrations since the Reagan presidency.

The project was intended as a buffet of options for the Trump administration or any other Republican presidency. It’s the latest installment in the Heritage Foundation’s Mandate for Leadership series, which has compiled conservative policy proposals every few years since 1981. But no previous study has been as sweeping in its recommendations — or as widely discussed.

Kevin Roberts, the head of the Heritage Foundation, which began putting together the latest document in 2022, said he thought the American government would embrace a more conservative era, one that he hoped Republicans would usher in.

“We are in the process of the second American Revolution,” Mr. Roberts said on Real America’s Voice, a right-wing cable channel, in early July, adding pointedly that the revolt “will remain bloodless if the left allows it to be.”

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Volume 631 Issue 8020, 11 July 2024

The fungal disease chytridiomycosis has spread rapidly worldwide and has driven at least 90 species of amphibian to extinction. Although successful work has been done treating amphibians in captivity, managing the disease in the wild remains a challenge. In this week’s issue, Anthony Waddle and colleagues present a simple approach that could help amphibians overcome the disease in the wild. The key is temperature — the fungus that causes chytridiomycosis cannot tolerate environments above 28 °C. So, the researchers built a microhabitat using bricks piled inside a small greenhouse warmed by the sun. Testing it using Australian green and golden bell frogs ( Ranoidea aurea ), the team found that the amphibians preferred to sit in the hotspots (as seen on the cover). The warmth of these frog saunas lifted body temperatures high enough for the animals to reduce and clear fungal infections. Frogs cleared in this way subsequently showed resistance to chytridiomycosis, even in cool conditions optimal for fungal growth.

Cover image: Anthony Waddle

Vaccines save lives: how can uptake be increased?

Strategies for public engagement need to be rigorously tested around the world to maximize the potential of immunization.

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Canada just hiked PhD and postdoc pay — here’s how to get your country to do it, too

Walkouts, petitions and tweets: how a grass-roots movement led by students, postdocs and tenured academics radically changed government policy on science funding.

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Research Highlights

The surprising driver of amazon deforestation.

Demand from Brazil itself accounts for more than half of the demand for crops and livestock from the Amazon and the savannah that surrounds it.

Fake jewellery from the Stone Age looks like the real deal

‘Amber’ beads dating to the Neolithic period, lasting from the fifth to the third millennium BC, are actually mollusc shells coated with resin and natural pigments.

Killer immune cells pile on the pressure to slay their foes

Immune-system assassins called killer T cells compress target cells, forming a destructive crater.

Ants amputate their nest-mates’ legs to save lives

The location of an injury determines whether ants bite off or preserve a damaged limb.

News in Focus

Lab-grown embryo models: uk unveils first ever rules to guide research.

Countries are grappling with how to regulate research that uses stem-cell-based embryo models. They will be watching the United Kingdom’s voluntary approach.

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COVID tsar Patrick Vallance appointed UK science minister

Labour Prime Minister Keir Starmer has placed several experts who aren’t politicians into government posts.

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Why cancer risk declines sharply in old age

New research identifies some of the genes that could help to explain why lung cancer incidence rises with age but declines after the age of 75.

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How Denisovans thrived on top of the world: mysterious ancient humans’ survival secrets revealed

The cave-dwelling group hunted animals such as hyenas and hares to sustain themselves in harsh environments.

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Ultra-detailed brain map shows neurons that encode words’ meaning

For the first time, scientists identify individual brain cells linked to the linguistic essence of a word.

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How do you make salty water drinkable? The hunt for fresh solutions to a briny problem

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Books & Arts

Book review, how conspiracies took root in our culture.

UFO hunters and anti-vaxxers might seem like modern phenomena, but they both take inspiration from a little-known anti-science movement.

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Blooming plants and sunken cities, Books in brief

Andrew Robinson reviews five of the best science picks.

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Give UK science the overhaul it urgently needs

Five scholars share their science-policy priorities for the incoming government as it faces urgent challenges in tackling climate change, health, inequality and more.

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Correspondence

Regulate to protect fragile antarctic ecosystems from growing tourism.

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More studies needed on how climate change affects exercise health benefits

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To explain biological sex, look to evolution

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Harrowing trends: how endangered-species researchers find hope in the dark

When data collection can be damaging, conservation scientists must balance ethical trade-offs between interference and inaction.

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Technology Feature

No crispr: oddball ‘jumping gene’ enzyme edits genomes without breaking dna.

A programmable RNA that bridges a genetic donor and a target could herald a safer and more flexible approach to large-scale chromosome changes.

Collection:

Where I Work

Why i work to revive the tasmanian tiger.

Andrew Pask develops genetic sequencing techniques for marsupials — including an apex predator that was hunted to death in the twentieth century.

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News & Views

Mini saunas save endangered frogs from fungal disease.

Amphibian species around the world are threatened with extinction by the deadly fungal disease chytridiomycosis. A simple, low-cost solution to provide warm conditions enables frogs to clear the infection and remain disease free.

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Blueprints for ATP machinery will aid tuberculosis drug design

Structural insights into how anti-tuberculosis drugs interact with the enzyme that makes ATP in bacteria and humans pave the way for improved drug design to treat the disease and combat antimicrobial resistance.

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Speedy stars blow the cover of hidden black hole

Fast-moving stars have been discovered in the middle of the nearby star cluster ω Centauri using two decades of Hubble Space Telescope imaging. The stars offer evidence of a long-sought intermediate-mass black hole.

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Flies use blood cells to take a deep breath

Insect respiration is commonly thought to rely solely on direct gas exchange through air-filled tracheal tubes. The discovery of oxygen-transporting blood cells in fly larvae reveals a previously unknown way to oxygenate fly tissues.

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How mud brought France and England together — 150 years ago

Artificial daylight lacks commercial interest, and a geologist’s thirst for knowledge kickstarts the bid for the Channel Tunnel, in our weekly dip into Nature ’s archive.

Ultracold molecules that interact from afar form elusive quantum state

A gas of molecules that interact over long distances has been cooled to mere nanokelvins, resulting in the emergence of a state known as a Bose–Einstein condensate — the first of its kind in this type of molecular system.

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Fast-moving stars around an intermediate-mass black hole in ω Centauri

Observations of seven fast-moving stars in the central 3 arcsec (0.08  pc) of ω Centauri indicate an intermediate-mass black hole in ω Centauri.

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Observation of Bose–Einstein condensation of dipolar molecules

Bose–Einstein condensate of sodium–caesium molecules is observed by means of evaporative cooling and collisional shielding.

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Tunable entangled photon-pair generation in a liquid crystal

Electric-field tunable generation of entangled photon pairs is achieved by spontaneous parametric down-conversion in a ferroelectric nematic liquid crystal, with an efficiency comparable to that of the best nonlinear crystals.

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Tunable superconductivity in electron- and hole-doped Bernal bilayer graphene

Tunable superconductivity and a series of flavour-symmetry-breaking phases are observed in electron- and hole-doped Bernal bilayer graphene.

Room-temperature spin injection across a chiral perovskite/III–V interface

By using a chiral halide perovskite material, spin injection at room temperature into a conventional III–V semiconductor multiple quantum well light-emitting diode is demonstrated, resulting in a semiconductor platform that can also control spin.

  • Matthew P. Hautzinger
  • Matthew C. Beard

Glassy gels toughened by solvent

Solvating polar polymers with ionic liquids at appropriate concentrations can produce a unique class of materials called glassy gels with desirable properties of both glasses and gels.

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Direct radical functionalization of native sugars

A radical-based method for functionalizing native sugars shows a way to remove typical protecting-group manipulations.

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Stereospecific alkenylidene homologation of organoboronates by S N V reaction

We report an S N V reaction, a rare nucleophilic substitution that involves electronically unbiased vinyl electrophiles, which allows the synthesis of cross-conjugated polyenes and bioactive compounds with multi-substituted alkenes.

  • Christian D. Knox
  • Guangbin Dong

Onset of coupled atmosphere–ocean oxygenation 2.3 billion years ago

The Great Oxidation Event represents a tipping point in Earth’s O 2 mass balance—when more O 2 was being produced than destroyed—that forever changed the habitability of worldwide oceans.

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Inner core backtracking by seismic waveform change reversals

Matching seismic waveforms show that the inner core of Earth gradually super-rotated from 2003 to 2008, and then more slowly sub-rotated from 2008 to 2023 back through the same path.

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Hotspot shelters stimulate frog resistance to chytridiomycosis

Artificial thermal refugia—sites heated to temperatures higher than that of the surrounding environment—provide a way to protect an endangered Australian frog species from a fungal disease that has caused the extinction of many amphibians.

  • Anthony W. Waddle
  • Simon Clulow
  • Richard Shine

Drosophila immune cells transport oxygen through PPO2 protein phase transition

Drosophila haemocytes collaborate with the tracheal system to reserve and transport oxygen through the phase transition of PPO2 crystals, facilitating internal oxygen homeostasis in a process that is comparable to vertebrate respiration.

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Connectomic reconstruction of a female Drosophila ventral nerve cord

Automated reconstruction of dense neural networks in the ventral nerve cord of the fruit fly provides a resource for investigating the neural control of movement.

  • Anthony Azevedo
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Synaptic architecture of leg and wing premotor control networks in Drosophila

We use connectomics to compare the wiring logic of premotor circuits controlling the Drosophila leg and wing, finding that both premotor networks cluster into modules that link motor neurons innervating muscles with related functions.

  • Anthony W. Azevedo

Kinetic features dictate sensorimotor alignment in the superior colliculus

Motor units in the superior colliculus of mice exhibit poorly defined representation of static visual fields and instead rely largely on kinetic visual features to link visual inputs to behavioural outcomes.

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Geographical migration and fitness dynamics of Streptococcus pneumoniae

Mathematical modelling of 15 years of data from South Africa reveals the spread and vaccine-driven changes in fitness and antimicrobial resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae .

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Legionella effector LnaB is a phosphoryl AMPylase that impairs phosphosignalling

An effector protein called LnaB from Legionella pneumophila catalyses a unique type of AMPylation, and LnaB and its homologues represent a distinct family of AMPylases with specific structural features.

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Surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 at the Huanan Seafood Market

A study presents the results of surveillance for SARS-CoV-2 in animal and environmental samples from a market linked to early human cases of coronavirus disease 2019.

  • William J. Liu

Inhibition of M. tuberculosis and human ATP synthase by BDQ and TBAJ-587

Cryogenic electron microscopy structures of Mycobacterium tuberculosis ATP synthase and human ATP synthase bound to the anti-tuberculosis drug bedaquiline or its analogue TBAJ-587 shed light on drug binding and could lead to new treatments for tuberculosis.

  • Yuying Zhang
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Endoplasmic reticulum–plasma membrane contact gradients direct cell migration

The density and size of contact gradients between the endoplasmic reticulum and the plasma membrane control the speed and direction of cell migration by restricting receptor signalling to the front.

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An intermediate Rb–E2F activity state safeguards proliferation commitment

Cells actively sense external and internal signals to stay quiescent or proliferate, and this trigger relies on being in a reversible primed G1 state of partial retinoblastoma inactivation and E2F activation.

  • Yumi Konagaya
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dsRNA formation leads to preferential nuclear export and gene expression

Antisense RNAs boost gene expression by accelerating the export of mRNA from the nucleus to the cytoplasm through the Dbp2-mediated formation of double-stranded RNAs, which might explain the prevalence of antisense RNAs.

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TnpB homologues exapted from transposons are RNA-guided transcription factors

RNA-guided transcription factors arose repeatedly via the domestication of transposon-encoded tnpB genes, representing a parallel evolutionary path to CRISPR-Cas adaptive immunity.

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  • Florian T. Hoffmann
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Computational design of soluble and functional membrane protein analogues

A deep learning approach enables accurate computational design of soluble and functional analogues of membrane proteins, expanding the soluble protein fold space and facilitating new approaches to drug screening and design.

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Bitter taste TAS2R14 activation by intracellular tastants and cholesterol

A cryogenic electron microcopy study of structures of a human receptor for bitter taste finds that cholesterol can activate the receptor, while the tastant molecule acts allosterically on the receptor.

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Amendments & Corrections

Author correction: tdp-43 loss and als-risk snps drive mis-splicing and depletion of unc13a.

  • Anna-Leigh Brown
  • Oscar G. Wilkins
  • Pietro Fratta

Author Correction: Disease-associated astrocyte epigenetic memory promotes CNS pathology

  • Hong-Gyun Lee
  • Joseph M. Rone
  • Francisco J. Quintana

Author Correction: The economic commitment of climate change

  • Maximilian Kotz
  • Anders Levermann
  • Leonie Wenz

Publisher Correction: Fabrication of red-emitting perovskite LEDs by stabilizing their octahedral structure

  • Lingmei Kong
  • Xuyong Yang

Collections

Spinoff prize outlook 2024.

The pursuit of academic knowledge can be its own reward. But for many researchers, the ultimate payback from their ideas and insights comes from forming a company to commercialize them.

Focal Point on Building a Carbon-Neutral Society

Special photosynthetic bacteria that can fix both carbon and nitrogen from the air are promising for creating many useful nitrogen-containing organic compounds, including fertilizers, feedstock for fish farms, and artificial spider silk.

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FBR fails to achieve Rs9.4trn collection target

RECORDER REPORT ISLAMABAD: The Federal Board of Revenue (FBR) has collected Rs9.3 trillion during the whole fiscal year 2023-24, against the original target of Rs9.4 trillion, reflecting a shortfall of Rs100 billion. The FBR has announced to have collected Rs9,306 billion in 2023-24 against the revised target of Rs9,252 billion, thereby, exceeding the yearly target by a significant margin of Rs54 billion. Talking to Business Recorder on Friday, renowned tax expert Dr Ikramul Haq stated, “downward revision of FBR’s target to Rs9,252 billion against the original target of Rs9,415 billion without any explanation is shocking. There is no explanation how and when and by whom this decision was taken. There was 27 per cent nominal growth, thus, real growth by the FBR is just three per cent and not 30 per cent as claimed. The FBR has for the third consecutive year failed to meet the original target and broaden the tax base. It is thus, clear that FBR has failed to deliver.” Prime Minister had repeatedly said at different forums that, “the country had the potential to collect revenues of over Rs 24 trillion against the annual tax target of Rs 9.4 trillion. An amount of around three times the annual revenue target was ‘going down the drain’ due to corruption, inefficiency and negligence, he added. Dr Ikramul Haq further informed this correspondent that the FBR is publicizing achieving the revised target but the historical data confirms the FBR’s consistent failure to meet targets, resulting in increased tax burdens on the masses. He said that the fixation of unachievable tax targets for FBR and then tax expenditure of as high as Rs3.879 trillion in the current fiscal year (36.4 per cent of total collection and 73 per cent higher than the last year) confirms our real dilemma. The prime minister and the finance minister must look towards erratic taxation and unjustified tax concessions granted to elites. The majority of the measures announced in the Finance Act, 2024, as passed by the Parliament, amount to over-taxing an economy that is deep in recession, while huge tax benefits to vested interests continue. The incidence of taxation has also shifted to the salaried class that is already feeling the real brunt of hyperinflation. “This is a tragedy with no parallel in malevolence.” There is nothing in the Finance Act, 2024, to raise revenues by lowering tax rates and broadening the base to tap the actual tax potential of Rs32 trillion, Dr Haq added. Another tax expert said the shortfall in 2023-24 would automatically result in an upward adjustment of the target in 2024-25. However, the incidences of corruption in the field formations in refund payments have not been decreased reflecting a lack of enforcement and monitoring by the FBR IR Operations Wing. The government has enforced new taxation measures of Rs1.761 trillion, taken through Finance Act 2024, from July 1, 2024, including increased tax burden on the salaried class and heavy indirect taxation on the general public including the imposition of sales tax on stationery items, dairy products and poultry feed. At the same time, the FBR failed to prevent incidences of refunds like one that happened in Lahore. The FBR has been forced to suspend senior IR officials of Lahore due to issues in refunds. The matter is under investigation by the FIA, the tax expert added.

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Writing a Research Paper Introduction | Step-by-Step Guide

Published on September 24, 2022 by Jack Caulfield . Revised on March 27, 2023.

Writing a Research Paper Introduction

The introduction to a research paper is where you set up your topic and approach for the reader. It has several key goals:

  • Present your topic and get the reader interested
  • Provide background or summarize existing research
  • Position your own approach
  • Detail your specific research problem and problem statement
  • Give an overview of the paper’s structure

The introduction looks slightly different depending on whether your paper presents the results of original empirical research or constructs an argument by engaging with a variety of sources.

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Table of contents

Step 1: introduce your topic, step 2: describe the background, step 3: establish your research problem, step 4: specify your objective(s), step 5: map out your paper, research paper introduction examples, frequently asked questions about the research paper introduction.

The first job of the introduction is to tell the reader what your topic is and why it’s interesting or important. This is generally accomplished with a strong opening hook.

The hook is a striking opening sentence that clearly conveys the relevance of your topic. Think of an interesting fact or statistic, a strong statement, a question, or a brief anecdote that will get the reader wondering about your topic.

For example, the following could be an effective hook for an argumentative paper about the environmental impact of cattle farming:

A more empirical paper investigating the relationship of Instagram use with body image issues in adolescent girls might use the following hook:

Don’t feel that your hook necessarily has to be deeply impressive or creative. Clarity and relevance are still more important than catchiness. The key thing is to guide the reader into your topic and situate your ideas.

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This part of the introduction differs depending on what approach your paper is taking.

In a more argumentative paper, you’ll explore some general background here. In a more empirical paper, this is the place to review previous research and establish how yours fits in.

Argumentative paper: Background information

After you’ve caught your reader’s attention, specify a bit more, providing context and narrowing down your topic.

Provide only the most relevant background information. The introduction isn’t the place to get too in-depth; if more background is essential to your paper, it can appear in the body .

Empirical paper: Describing previous research

For a paper describing original research, you’ll instead provide an overview of the most relevant research that has already been conducted. This is a sort of miniature literature review —a sketch of the current state of research into your topic, boiled down to a few sentences.

This should be informed by genuine engagement with the literature. Your search can be less extensive than in a full literature review, but a clear sense of the relevant research is crucial to inform your own work.

Begin by establishing the kinds of research that have been done, and end with limitations or gaps in the research that you intend to respond to.

The next step is to clarify how your own research fits in and what problem it addresses.

Argumentative paper: Emphasize importance

In an argumentative research paper, you can simply state the problem you intend to discuss, and what is original or important about your argument.

Empirical paper: Relate to the literature

In an empirical research paper, try to lead into the problem on the basis of your discussion of the literature. Think in terms of these questions:

  • What research gap is your work intended to fill?
  • What limitations in previous work does it address?
  • What contribution to knowledge does it make?

You can make the connection between your problem and the existing research using phrases like the following.

Although has been studied in detail, insufficient attention has been paid to . You will address a previously overlooked aspect of your topic.
The implications of study deserve to be explored further. You will build on something suggested by a previous study, exploring it in greater depth.
It is generally assumed that . However, this paper suggests that … You will depart from the consensus on your topic, establishing a new position.

Now you’ll get into the specifics of what you intend to find out or express in your research paper.

The way you frame your research objectives varies. An argumentative paper presents a thesis statement, while an empirical paper generally poses a research question (sometimes with a hypothesis as to the answer).

Argumentative paper: Thesis statement

The thesis statement expresses the position that the rest of the paper will present evidence and arguments for. It can be presented in one or two sentences, and should state your position clearly and directly, without providing specific arguments for it at this point.

Empirical paper: Research question and hypothesis

The research question is the question you want to answer in an empirical research paper.

Present your research question clearly and directly, with a minimum of discussion at this point. The rest of the paper will be taken up with discussing and investigating this question; here you just need to express it.

A research question can be framed either directly or indirectly.

  • This study set out to answer the following question: What effects does daily use of Instagram have on the prevalence of body image issues among adolescent girls?
  • We investigated the effects of daily Instagram use on the prevalence of body image issues among adolescent girls.

If your research involved testing hypotheses , these should be stated along with your research question. They are usually presented in the past tense, since the hypothesis will already have been tested by the time you are writing up your paper.

For example, the following hypothesis might respond to the research question above:

Prevent plagiarism. Run a free check.

The final part of the introduction is often dedicated to a brief overview of the rest of the paper.

In a paper structured using the standard scientific “introduction, methods, results, discussion” format, this isn’t always necessary. But if your paper is structured in a less predictable way, it’s important to describe the shape of it for the reader.

If included, the overview should be concise, direct, and written in the present tense.

  • This paper will first discuss several examples of survey-based research into adolescent social media use, then will go on to …
  • This paper first discusses several examples of survey-based research into adolescent social media use, then goes on to …

Full examples of research paper introductions are shown in the tabs below: one for an argumentative paper, the other for an empirical paper.

  • Argumentative paper
  • Empirical paper

Are cows responsible for climate change? A recent study (RIVM, 2019) shows that cattle farmers account for two thirds of agricultural nitrogen emissions in the Netherlands. These emissions result from nitrogen in manure, which can degrade into ammonia and enter the atmosphere. The study’s calculations show that agriculture is the main source of nitrogen pollution, accounting for 46% of the country’s total emissions. By comparison, road traffic and households are responsible for 6.1% each, the industrial sector for 1%. While efforts are being made to mitigate these emissions, policymakers are reluctant to reckon with the scale of the problem. The approach presented here is a radical one, but commensurate with the issue. This paper argues that the Dutch government must stimulate and subsidize livestock farmers, especially cattle farmers, to transition to sustainable vegetable farming. It first establishes the inadequacy of current mitigation measures, then discusses the various advantages of the results proposed, and finally addresses potential objections to the plan on economic grounds.

The rise of social media has been accompanied by a sharp increase in the prevalence of body image issues among women and girls. This correlation has received significant academic attention: Various empirical studies have been conducted into Facebook usage among adolescent girls (Tiggermann & Slater, 2013; Meier & Gray, 2014). These studies have consistently found that the visual and interactive aspects of the platform have the greatest influence on body image issues. Despite this, highly visual social media (HVSM) such as Instagram have yet to be robustly researched. This paper sets out to address this research gap. We investigated the effects of daily Instagram use on the prevalence of body image issues among adolescent girls. It was hypothesized that daily Instagram use would be associated with an increase in body image concerns and a decrease in self-esteem ratings.

The introduction of a research paper includes several key elements:

  • A hook to catch the reader’s interest
  • Relevant background on the topic
  • Details of your research problem

and your problem statement

  • A thesis statement or research question
  • Sometimes an overview of the paper

Don’t feel that you have to write the introduction first. The introduction is often one of the last parts of the research paper you’ll write, along with the conclusion.

This is because it can be easier to introduce your paper once you’ve already written the body ; you may not have the clearest idea of your arguments until you’ve written them, and things can change during the writing process .

The way you present your research problem in your introduction varies depending on the nature of your research paper . A research paper that presents a sustained argument will usually encapsulate this argument in a thesis statement .

A research paper designed to present the results of empirical research tends to present a research question that it seeks to answer. It may also include a hypothesis —a prediction that will be confirmed or disproved by your research.

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IMAGES

  1. How to Start a Research Paper: Guide with Examples

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  2. Research paper first page. Comprehensive Guide on How to Write a Title

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  3. 10+ Printable Research Paper Cover Page Sample in MS Word

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  4. How to Write a Medical Research Paper: 12 Steps (with Pictures)

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  5. 004 Essay Titles Mla Cover Page Template For Titlepage Research Paper

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  6. APA Title Page

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  6. START PAGE NUMBERS FROM SPECIFIC PAGE: Research paper or Thesis (UPDATED TAGALOG GUIDE)

COMMENTS

  1. Title page setup

    Follow the guidelines described next to format each element of the student title page. Place the title three to four lines down from the top of the title page. Center it and type it in bold font. Capitalize major words of the title. Place the main title and any subtitle on separate double-spaced lines if desired.

  2. APA Title Page (7th edition)

    The student version of the APA title page should include the following information (double spaced and centered): Paper title. Author name. Department and university name. Course number and name. Instructor name. Due date of the assignment. The professional title page also includes an author note (flushed left), but not a course name, instructor ...

  3. APA Title Page (Cover Page) Format, Example, & Templates

    Formatting Rules. In APA Style (7th edition), the cover page, or title page, should include: A running head (professional papers only) and page number. The title of the paper. The name of the author (s) The institutional affiliation. An author note; optional (professional papers only) A student paper should also include course information.

  4. Thesis & Dissertation Title Page

    The title page (or cover page) of your thesis, dissertation, or research paper should contain all the key information about your document. It usually includes: Dissertation or thesis title. Your name. The type of document (e.g., dissertation, research paper) The department and institution. The degree program (e.g., Master of Arts)

  5. PDF Student Paper Setup Guide, APA Style 7th Edition

    Indent the first line of every paragraph of text 0.5 in. using the tab key or the paragraph-formatting function of your word-processing program. Page numbers: Put a page number in the top right corner of every page, including the title page or cover page, which is page 1. Student papers do not require a running head on any page.

  6. APA Title Page / Cover Page

    The title page (also known as the cover page) is the front page of your paper. It should contain: The running head, a header at the top of the page. The first page number. The title of the paper; Your name; The institution for which you writing. Running head. The running head should be in the top-left corner of the page in uppercase. It should ...

  7. MLA Title Page

    MLA title page format. To create an MLA format title page, list the following on separate lines, left-aligned at the top of the page: Then leave a few blank lines and list the title of the paper, centered and in title case, halfway down the page. All text should be double-spaced and in the same font as the rest of the paper.

  8. Research Paper Title Page

    Title of the paper: The title should be concise and descriptive, reflecting the main idea or focus of the research paper. The title should be centered on the page and in title case (capitalize the first letter of each major word). Author's name: The author's name should be written below the title, also centered on the page.

  9. PDF Student Title Page Guide, APA Style 7th Edition

    Title Page Content. student title page includes the following elements: title of the paper. author(s) ° include the full names of all authors of the paper; use the form first name, middle initial, last name (e.g., Betsy R. Klein) ° if two authors, separate with the word "and". (e.g., Ainsley E. Baum and Lucy K. Reid)

  10. How to Write an Essay Cover Page

    Cover pages are not as frequently used in MLA format, as the inclusion of headers is preferred. A header looks like this: Cover pages can include the name of your school, your paper title, your name, your course name, your teacher or professor's name, and the due date of the paper. If you are unsure of what to include, check with your instructor.

  11. MLA Format Cover Page

    The Modern Language Association (MLA) does not require you to create a cover page when you complete your research paper, but some instructors may require it. If your instructor requires your paper to have a cover page, here is how to make it (very easy). This cover page should include: your school name, your research paper title, your name ...

  12. Formatting an APA title page

    As a student, you need to include the following details in the same order on the title page of your student paper. Page number: This appears in the header section. Set the page number in the top-right corner of the header. Title of the paper: Set it in title case and bold. Align it to the center.

  13. A step-by-step guide for creating and formatting APA Style student papers

    Double-space the whole title page. Place the paper title three or four lines down from the top of the page. Add an extra double-spaced blank like between the paper title and the byline. Then, list the other title page elements on separate lines, without extra lines in between.

  14. 13.1 Formatting a Research Paper

    Set the top, bottom, and side margins of your paper at 1 inch. Use double-spaced text throughout your paper. Use a standard font, such as Times New Roman or Arial, in a legible size (10- to 12-point). Use continuous pagination throughout the paper, including the title page and the references section.

  15. PDF Formatting a Research Paper

    Do not use a period after your title or after any heading in the paper (e.g., Works Cited). Begin your text on a new, double-spaced line after the title, indenting the first line of the paragraph half an inch from the left margin. Fig. 1. The top of the first page of a research paper.

  16. Research Paper Cover Page

    The front page of your research paper should contain your full name as it is stated on all your educational certificates. That should be on the same page where you put the topic. Title Of The Research Paper. Make sure you come up with a good title for research paper and put it on the cover page along with your name.

  17. MLA Format Cover Page

    The Modern Language Association (MLA) does not require you to create a cover page when you complete your research paper, but some instructors may require it. If your instructor requires your paper to have a cover page, here is how to make it (very easy). This cover page should include: your school name, your research paper title, your name ...

  18. Create a Research Paper Cover Sheet for Free

    Open Adobe Express in your web browser or mobile app to create quickly, easily, and for free. Start from a template. Explore trending research paper cover templates created by professional designers to make a cover that stands out. Customize your cover. Select and add photos right from your device or image libraries.

  19. How to Write an Abstract in Research Papers (with Examples)

    While searching databases (such as PubMed) for research papers, a title is usually the first selection criterion for readers. If the title matches their search criteria, then the readers read the abstract, which sets the tone of the paper. Titles and abstracts are often the only freely available parts of research papers on journal websites.

  20. The Research Process: Getting Started

    Primary research studies will often contain data tables, graphs, and statistical analyses. Scholarly Journal - A journal publishing original research and commentary on current developments in a specific discipline, subdiscipline, or field of study (example: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology). Scholarly journals are usually published in quarterly ...

  21. Research Paper Format

    Formatting a Chicago paper. The main guidelines for writing a paper in Chicago style (also known as Turabian style) are: Use a standard font like 12 pt Times New Roman. Use 1 inch margins or larger. Apply double line spacing. Indent every new paragraph ½ inch. Place page numbers in the top right or bottom center.

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    Abstract. I analyze the demand side impacts of a supply side intervention into the market for illegal drugs in what has been described as America's largest open air drug market.

  24. Global academic research is skewed toward rich countries. How do World

    However, academic research is not evenly distributed across countries. As previous research has shown, wealthier countries are more likely to be studied by academics. The World Bank is a major source of academic research. Policy Research Working Papers (PRWPs) are a key output of the World Bank.

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  27. Paper format

    To format a paper in APA Style, writers can typically use the default settings and automatic formatting tools of their word-processing program or make only minor adjustments. The guidelines for paper format apply to both student assignments and manuscripts being submitted for publication to a journal. If you are using APA Style to create ...

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  30. Writing a Research Paper Introduction

    Table of contents. Step 1: Introduce your topic. Step 2: Describe the background. Step 3: Establish your research problem. Step 4: Specify your objective (s) Step 5: Map out your paper. Research paper introduction examples. Frequently asked questions about the research paper introduction.